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ISSN (Print) 1134-3478 - ISSN (Online) 1988-3293
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  • Onlife identity: The question of gender and age in teenagers' online
           behaviour

    • Authors: sarasg@usal.es (Sara Serrate-González
      Abstract: The presence of cyberspace in the lives of young people is such that we can no longer distinguish between online and offline spheres. They live a process of onlife development that is not always equitable in terms of gender. This paper aims to account for the online behaviour of Spanish adolescents according to gender and age, the decisions they make when constructing their virtual identity, and the effects that this has on them. A quantitative study has been carried out at a national level (N=2,076, 12-18 years old) following a non-experimental ex post facto design by means of a survey study. The results show that there are gender differences in the preference for one or other social network. A high percentage of girls make different choices when it comes to their online presence. Unlike boys, girls state that their virtual self and their behaviour significantly influence the opinion that they have of themselves and their need to feel integrated. In conclusion, the decisions that adolescents make when creating their virtual selves do not only have negative consequences derived from poor management, but are also plagued by mandates and stereotypes that determine how they should be and what they should do online; something that is especially pressing for girls.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +000
      DOI: 10.3916/C75-2023-01
       
  • Even if they don't say it to you, it hurts too: Internalized
           homonegativity in LGBTQ+ cyberbullying among adolescents

    • Authors: eespino@us.es (Esperanza Espino
      Abstract: Cyberbullying is a problem that is more prevalent and serious among LGBTQ+ people. Previous research has mostly analysed sexual orientation and homophobic cyberaggression. Hence, becomes necessary to consider sex-gender diversity as a whole and aggressions of a general nature. Moreover, existing prejudices underline the need to consider homonegativity as a key variable in this type of cyberviolence. This sequential mixed study explores, in a first qualitative step with focus groups, perceptions on the characterisation of LGBTQ+ cyberbullying and, in a second quantitative step, cybervictimisation in terms of affective-sexual, bodily and gender diversity, and the possible moderating role of internalised homonegativity. The qualitative study involved 175 students and the quantitative study involved 1,971 students aged 12-18 from secondary schools in Andalusia (Spain). Qualitative results identified valuable dimensions of cyberbullying, such as collective LGBTQ+ cybervictimisation. Quantitative results revealed differences in collective LGBTQ+ cybervictimisation according to sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender expression. It also highlights the moderation of internalised homonegativity, with those at a low level being more sensitive to collective LGBTQ+ cyberaggression. LGBTQ+ cyberbullying is made visible as a construct that includes various types of aggressions aimed at the whole spectrum of affective-sexual diversity and emphasises the need to address internalised homonegativity in psychoeducational interventions involving all students.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +000
      DOI: 10.3916/C75-2023-02
       
  • Gendered perspectives on digital skills and digital activities: Comparing
           non-binary and binary youth

    • Authors: david.deconinck@kuleuven.be (David De Coninck
      Abstract: Previous research on gender differences in young people’s digital development has shown that boys and girls differ in frequency and type of internet use, but vital gaps in the literature remain. In recent years, gender is increasingly considered to be a multidimensional concept with a growing number of young people identifying as non-binary (i.e. genderfluid, an umbrella term for gender identities that are not conforming to the male/female dichotomy). Non-binary youth more frequently engage with a variety of digital risks such as misinformation, cyberbullying, and co-rumination than binary youth. Despite this, no research so far has investigated how digital development differs between non-binary and binary youth. In this online survey study among adolescents in six European countries (N=6,221), we focus on differences in digital skills and digital activities. Non-binary youth tend to make greater use of the internet for content creation and mental and physical health information than boys and girls. They also report greater content creation skills than boys and girls. Disparities in terms of entertainment and social relationship use are also found. Furthermore, findings on digital skills indicate that non-binary youth closely mirror boys in this regard. We conclude with recommendations for future research that should help bolster our understanding of how digital contexts may predict the development and well-being of non-binary youth.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +000
      DOI: 10.3916/C75-2023-03
       
  • Feminism, gender identity and polarization in TikTok and Twitter

    • Authors: ainara.larrondo@ehu.eus (Ainara Larrondo-Ureta
      Abstract: The potential of social media to create open, collaborative and participatory spaces allows young women to engage and empower themselves in political and social activism. In this context, the objective of this research is to analyze the polarization in the debate at the intersection between the defense of feminism and transsexuality, preferably among the young public, symbolized in the use of the term “TERF”. To do this, the existing communities on Twitter and TikTok on this subject have been analyzed with Social Network Analysis techniques, and the presence of young people in them. The results indicate that the debates between both networks are not very cohesive, with a highly modularized structure that suggests isolation of each community in itself. For this reason, it can be considered that the debate on sexual identity has resulted in a strong polarization of feminist activism in social media. Likewise, the positions of transinclusive feminism are very majority among young people, which reinforces the idea of an ideological debate that can also be understood in a generational perspective. Finally, a differential use between both social networks has been identified, where TikTok is a less partisan and more dialogical network than Twitter, which leads to discussions and participation in a more neutral tone.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +000
      DOI: 10.3916/C75-2023-04
       
  • Selfies and videos of teenagers: The role of gender, territory, and
           sociocultural level

    • Authors: uxiafernandez.regueira@usc.es (Uxía Regueira
      Abstract: Social networks integrate adolescent daily life by configuring modes of socialisation, negotiation and self-representation through different practices that operate as subjectivation resources and condition the gender experience. The objective of this study is to explore the production of selfies and videos among adolescents from Puebla (Mexico) and Galicia (Spain) from a gender, territorial, and sociocultural perspective. A survey study was carried out using an online questionnaire designed ad hoc and applied to 6,654 adolescents (14-17 years), with different gender identities, from public secondary schools in Puebla and Galicia. The results show that the selfie is a more widespread practice among adolescents than video, with revealing differences in its production. Similarities are evident in the level of preparation and the motivations that lead to these practices. Gender differences are found in their production in terms of intentions, materialities, and body expression. The family’s sociocultural level and the territory are visualised as realities that affect the production of these practices. The conclusions point to a transition of knowledge and meanings between the selfie and video and the relevance of analysing gender experience on social networks in light of the forms of power they exercise there.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +000
      DOI: 10.3916/C75-2023-05
       
  • Let’s talk series: Binge-watching vs. marathon. The duality in the
           consumption of episodes from the Grounded Theory

    • Authors: evamarma@ucm.es (Eva Martínez-Serrano
      Abstract: Binge-watching refers to the consecutive viewing of episodes of a fictional series, usually of the drama genre, in a single session. The approaches to its background, practice, and effects are diverse and controversial. Using a qualitative-exploratory approach analysed with Grounded Theory, this paper studies the experience of binge-watching users from data collected from a sample of 20 individuals combined with techniques such as group meetings, in-depth interviews and projective techniques. Results lead to the identification of two underlying patterns of behaviour associated with the consumption of dramatic content: planned binge-watching and unplanned binge-watching. Planned binge-watching is the intentional consumption of more than two consecutive episodes of a fictional series whose psychological effects are mainly gratification based on evasion. Planned series consumption has a socializing effect, especially among young people. Unplanned binge-watching is the unintentional and spontaneous chained viewing of more than two episodes of a fiction series. The viewing unit is each individual episode, linked to the next by the curiosity aroused by the plot. The psychological effects are gratification derived from evasion, followed by a feeling of guilt derived from the loss of control. The study concludes with the formulation of seven hypotheses for empirical verification, academic and professional implications, and future lines of research.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +000
      DOI: 10.3916/C75-2023-06
       
  • Digital media use on school civic engagement: A parallel mediation model

    • Authors: cgcontreras@uc.cl (Camila Contreras
      Abstract: Despite the democratised access to digital media, there are still gaps in uses and opportunities according to age, sex, socioeconomic level, and location. In addition, the study about the use of digital media by children and adolescents has focused more on the risks than on the opportunities. This study analyses the relationship between different uses of digital media (socialisation, socio-political, and learning purposes), with school civic engagement. A sample of 524 students (Mage=12; 43.7% girls) from Santiago de Chile participated. Structural equation modelling with latent variables was used to test a parallel mediation model in which the use of socialisation in digital media is related to school civic engagement, through digital media use for socio political purposes and the digital media use for learning purposes. In addition, multigroup analysis by sex was tested. The main results showed that digital media use for socialisation has a positive effect on school civic engagement through the parallel mediation of digital media use for socio-political purposes and the digital media use for learning purposes. The multigroup analysis showed that mediation is significant in both boys and girls. The results have contributed to the expansion of knowledge about the opportunities of digital media on civic engagement in formal school contexts.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +000
      DOI: 10.3916/C75-2023-07
       
  • Psychosocial factors and low-risk behaviour in ICT use among adolescents

    • Authors: sara.malo@udg.edu (Sara Malo-Cerrato
      Abstract: Many current investigations have analysed adolescents' risky ICT behaviours (such as excessive or addictive use), but few have explored the characteristics of low-risk behaviour in this regard. This study aimed to explore the psychosocial profile of a sample of 593 Spanish adolescents aged 13 to 18 who have been categorized as low-risk ICT users. To this end, the low-risk ICT use group was calculated using the “multitasking while doing homework index” and a set of items on risky ICT behaviour. Chi-squared and t-tests were performed and a forward stepwise binary logistic regression was carried out to determine the explanatory variables for low-risk ICT use. The results showed that some 7.1% were classified as low-risk ICT users, with a higher percentage of girls. These users’ profile was characterised by: lower digital self-efficacy with social networking applications; less generalized ICT use and a less dependent attitude; less extroversion and more agreeableness and conscientiousness; higher academic self-concept; having rules for ICT use at home; and less insecure and anxious attachment to parental figures. The variables that predicted the likelihood of low-risk ICT behaviour were: high academic self-concept; low perceived separation anxiety from loved ones; and high agreeableness scores. These results are useful for proposing psycho-socio-educational interventions to promote healthy ICT use.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +000
      DOI: 10.3916/C75-2023-08
       
  • The student self-assessment paradigm in MOOC: An example in Chinese higher
           education

    • Authors: duantt417@126.com (Tingting Duan
      Abstract: Although scholars have proposed many types of self-assessment methods. There are still many teachers in China who consider that student self-assessment is “difficult to implement”. This paper aims to optimize the assessment of MOOC learning, and to establish an integrated student self-assessment paradigm with “student-centered, teacher, and peer auxiliary”. We started by selecting nine key factors that influence the implementation of self-assessment in MOOCs. Then, we clarified the relationship between the nine factors by using the interpretative structure model (ISM) and the MICMAC analysis, and a six-level paradigm of integrated student self-assessment was established. Moreover, we put forward the following suggestions to optimize student self-assessment in MOOC learning. First, it’s necessary to consider student self-assessment in MOOCs as a formative assessment method. Second, universities should enhance student awareness of self-assessment through publicity. Third, institutions of higher education could set up assessment courses to enhance the quality of assessment of students. Fourth, schools should optimize the environment of student self-assessment with the help of technology. This study is of great significance for students to make self-assessment become the basis of online learning and thus perfect the research on MOOC learning.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +000
      DOI: 10.3916/C75-2023-09
       
  • Female political leadership styles as shown on Instagram during COVID-19

    • Authors: dagar02@gmail.com (Virginia García-Beaudoux
      Abstract: This paper explores the leadership styles of fourteen elected female politicians in executive government positions, as communicated through the official Instagram accounts that were in use during the COVID-19 pandemic. Seven of them are, or were, heads of government, six are or were mayors, and one is the president of an autonomous region in Spain. These women are Angela Merkel (Germany), Jacinda Ardern (New Zealand), Sanna Marin (Finland), Mette Frederiksen (Denmark), Erna Solberg (Norway), Katrin Jakobsdottir (Iceland), Tsai Ing-Wen (Taiwan), Anne Hidalgo (Paris), Virginia Raggi (Rome), Ada Colau (Barcelona), Claudia López (Bogotá), Claudia Sheinbaum (Mexico City), London Breed (San Francisco) and Isabel Díaz Ayuso (Madrid Region). A comparative content analysis of 2,330 units was conducted over a 6-month period. The study analyses the hard or soft leadership style conveyed by the women politicians selected in relation to four variables: political ideology, generational affiliation, level of government and techniques used in communication. The results show that the values of the variables affect leadership styles; therefore, the assumption that all female politicians have a single leadership style is erroneous and related to gender stereotyping.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +000
      DOI: 10.3916/C75-2023-10
       
  • Algorithms and communication: A systematized literature review

    • Authors: berta.garcia@usc.es (Berta García-Orosa
      Abstract: The influence of algorithms on society is increasing due to their growing presence in all areas of daily life. Although we are not always aware of it, they sometimes usurp the identity of other social actors. The main purpose of this article is to address the meta-research on the field of artificial intelligence and communication from a holistic perspective that allows us to analyze the state of academic research, as well as the possible effects on these areas and on the democratic system. To this end, we carried out a systematized review of recent literature using quantitative and qualitative approaches. The subject analyzed is changing and novel: it includes the impact and interaction of algorithms, bots, automated processes, and artificial intelligence mechanisms in journalism and communication, as well as their effects on democracy. The results show expanding scientific production, mostly in English, based on theoretical discussion or focused on the perception of communication professionals. The object of study is centered mostly on journalism and democracy, and to a lesser degree on ethics or education. Studies indicate great interest in the effects of the use of algorithms on journalism and democracy, but the answers are still uncertain and the challenges for the coming years are significant.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +000
      DOI: 10.3916/C74-2023-01
       
  • How to automate the extraction and analysis of information for educational
           purposes

    • Authors: miriam.calvera@upf.edu (Miriam Calvera-Isabal
      Abstract: There is an increasing interest and growing practice in Citizen Science (CS) that goes along with the usage of websites for communication as well as for capturing and processing data and materials. From an educational perspective, it is expected that by integrating information about CS in a formal educational setting, it will inspire teachers to create learning activities. This is an interesting case for using bots to automate the process of data extraction from online CS platforms to better understand its use in educational contexts. Although this information is publicly available, it has to follow GDPR rules. This paper aims to explain (1) how CS communicates and is promoted on websites, (2) how web scraping methods and anonymization techniques have been designed, developed and applied to collect information from online sources and (3) how these data could be used for educational purposes. After the analysis of 72 websites, some of the results obtained show that only 24.8% includes detailed information about the CS project and 48.61% includes information about educational purposes or materials.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +000
      DOI: 10.3916/C74-2023-02
       
  • Reflections on the ethics, potential, and challenges of artificial
           intelligence in the framework of quality education (SDG4)

    • Authors: fgarcia@usal.es (Francisco-José García-Peñalvo
      Abstract: This article analyses and reflects on the ethical aspects of using artificial intelligence (AI) systems in educational contexts. On the one hand, the impact of AI in the field of education is addressed from the perspective of the Sustainable Development Goals (specifically, SDG4) of the UNESCO 2030 Agenda, describing the opportunities for its use by teachers and students. On the other hand, there is an emphasis on the uncertainties caused by the fears of some who think, for example, that AI robots will replace human teachers. The methodology used is based on a documentary review, supported by reports and studies conducted by researchers as well as institutions and organizations committed to the development of AI and its capacity for action in the educational field, and the ethical questions that experts and organizations around the world are raising. The results seek to influence and deepen the ethical implications that AI can have in the educational field. Finally, some critical questions about the ethics and challenges of AI in education are proposed, concluding with the need to add proposals with new research and political actions which could lead to the creation of an ethical observatory of AI for education.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +000
      DOI: 10.3916/C74-2023-03
       
  • Big Data and Business Intelligence on Twitter and Instagram for digital
           inclusion

    • Authors: carbarro@ucm.es (Carlos Barroso-Moreno
      Abstract: Social media can contribute to an inclusive society, but they are also asymmetrical and polarised communication spaces. This requires competent teachers to build critical digital citizenship. The aim of this article is twofold: to present web scraping and text analytics as tools that define teachers' digital competences, and to investigate which posts on Twitter and Instagram are most viral in relation to education, disability and inclusion. A total of 48,991 publications in Spanish and English were analysed, corresponding to the period from 13 October 2021 to 1 May 2022. The 100 most viral posts were selected, and correlations were identified between the sentiment, gender and influence associated with the content, its temporal and geographic space. The results show that economic and political influence groups are the most viral, relegating non-profit organisations or individuals with altruistic outreach to second place; only on international days is this trend reversed. Bots do not interfere to impose messages; it is artificial intelligence algorithms that overshadow vindictive and humanistic content. The most influential people are predominantly male, associated with institutional accounts in the political sphere. It is concluded that Big Data and Business Intelligence tools help teachers to analyse relevant educational and social issues, and to acquire a collective ethic in the face of new educational challenges.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +000
      DOI: 10.3916/C74-2023-04
       
  • (Un)founded fear towards the algorithm: YouTube recommendations and
           polarisation

    • Authors: jgmarin@ugr.es (Javier García-Marín
      Abstract: Social media have established a new way of communicating and understanding social relationships. At the same time, there are downsides, especially, their use of algorithms that have been built and developed under their umbrella and their potential to alter public opinion. This paper tries to analyse the YouTube recommendation system from the perspectives of reverse engineering and semantic mining. The first result is that, contrary to expectations, the issues do not tend to be extreme from the point of view of polarisation in all cases. Next, and through the study of the selected themes, the results do not offer a clear answer to the proposed hypotheses, since, as has been shown in similar works, the factors that shape the recommendation system are very diverse. In fact, results show that polarising content does not behave in the same way for all the topics analysed, which may indicate the existence of moderators –or corporate actions– that alter the relationship between the variables. Another contribution is the confirmation that we are dealing with non-linear, but potentially systematic, processes. Nevertheless, the present work opens the door to further academic research on the topic to clarify the unknowns about the role of these algorithms in our societies.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +000
      DOI: 10.3916/C74-2023-05
       
  • News literacy and online news between Egyptian and Spanish youth: Fake
           news, hate speech and trust in the media

    • Authors: sallytayie@gmail.com (Sally Samy-Tayie
      Abstract: Exposure to harmful content, fake news, and hate speech, calls to question whether citizens are 'responsible' when it comes to their online news behavior. This exploratory study aims to positioning news literacy as a mediating factor toward fostering civic responsibility by investigating its role in enhancing youth's online news experience and preparing them against harmful content. News literacy is defined as a multi-structural construct with three main constituents: motivation, knowledge, and skills. The study's main goal is accomplished through delving into youth's online news experience, and assessing their level of news literacy through a mixed methods approach relying on focus group discussions as a qualitative method and survey as a quantitative method. The study is applied to a sample of youth from Egypt and a sample of youth from Spain, on whom comparative analysis is conducted. Findings reveal a positive correlation between news literacy and: the ability to identify fake news, the ability to identify hate speech, engagement with news, caring about the veracity of content before sharing, and motivation to seek news. Negative perceptions about professional news media's performance have been expressed by respondents from both countries, with the main justification being that news media are not fulfilling their role as should be.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +000
      DOI: 10.3916/C74-2023-06
       
  • Factors determining the use of e-learning and teaching satisfaction

    • Authors: ana.cazan@unitbv.ro (Ana-Maria Cazan
      Abstract: Even though in 2021 many universities have decided to resume teaching activities face to face, we believe that the use of online applications will remain a feature of the educational system due to the flexibility offered and the learning possibilities. We aim to analyze the predictive role of personal factors, such as self-efficacy, technostress creators, technostress inhibitors, and tolerance to uncertainty in the use of e-learning tools for teaching and in the use of these applications in the context of the uncertainty generated by the pandemic. The sample consisted of 1,517 academics. The results showed that technostress creators mediate the relationships between technostress inhibitors, technology self-efficacy, use of applications, and satisfaction with the use of e-learning platforms. Although the current context is dominated by uncertainty, the hypotheses regarding the direct and indirect effects of uncertainty in the use of online s in education were partially sustained. The most important finding of our study is that, although the current context is characterized by uncertainty, the negative impact of the resulting higher levels of stress can be counteracted by a high level of technology self-efficacy which, in turn, predicts a greater extent the use of platforms and the satisfaction of using these platforms.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +000
      DOI: 10.3916/C74-2023-07
       
  • Political empowerment among young voters: Social media, partisanship and
           the moderating role of political interest

    • Authors: rehantariq@student.usm.my (Rehan Tariq
      Abstract: Despite recent efforts to examine the political outcomes of social media use, little is known about the reinforcement of political empowerment and moderating effect of political interest. It is vital to understand the elements that influence the level of political empowerment. Therefore, this paper used a sample of Pakistani voters (n=410) aged 18-29 to offer insight into how social media use alongside other political behaviors, such as partisanship, political expression, and political interest, affect political empowerment. Social Identity Theory (SIT) and rational choice theory provided the theoretical underpinning for the variables of this study. The statistical analyses were performed using Partial Least Squares (PLS) to assess the effects of four variables i.e., social media use, political partisanship, political expression, and political interest, on political empowerment. This study made a significant contribution to the research literature by combining SIT and rational choice theory in one framework. This study also expands the literature on political interest by introducing political interest as a moderator between the inconsistent relationship of political expression and political empowerment. Our results demonstrated that partisanship and social media use positively influenced political expression among young voters. Moreover, political interest positively moderated the relationship between political expression and political empowerment.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +000
      DOI: 10.3916/C74-2023-08
       
  • Digital competence among young people in Spain: A gender divide analysis

    • Authors: eestanyol@uoc.edu (Elisenda Estanyol
      Abstract: Datafication in today’s communicative ecosystem poses a challenge to media and digital literacy, especially with regard to young people’s participation and civic and democratic engagement. We address this issue using the notion of digital citizenship, in order to study the gender digital divide as it relates to competence (i.e., skills and knowledge) and the possibility of leveraging said competence to promote civic education grounded in gender equality in the digital environment. For this study, we surveyed a representative sample of 600 young people between the ages of 16 and 18 in Spain to gauge their digital competence through three variables: technical skills, informational skills and critical knowledge. We then performed a descriptive analysis resulting in percentages, means and standard deviations and a bivariate analysis using significance testing (T-tests) between the above variables and the gender variable. Results show a relative balance between men and women in technical and informational digital skills, albeit tipped slightly in favour of women. By contrast, men claim to have more critical knowledge. Based on these results, we discuss the need to consider the contributions of feminist theories in the field of technology to develop proposals for teaching digital competence that encourage active digital citizenship based on gender equality.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +000
      DOI: 10.3916/C74-2023-09
       
  • Social media influence on young people and children: Analysis on
           Instagram, Twitter and YouTube

    • Authors: rlozano@unizar.es (Raquel Lozano-Blasco
      Abstract: Social networking sites are a new ecosystem of social relations in which adolescents follow public figures or influencers: instagrammers, tweeters and youtubers. Their behaviour in the posts they publish become a trend and a model for the new generations. In order to explore these behaviours and their consequences, it is useful to study the behaviour of the 10 instagramers, 10 tweeters and 10 youtubers with the largest number of followers in the world. A mixed method was employed, combining: social media analysis (SNA) methodology executed by monitoring Twitter, Instagram and YouTube accounts and their publications (300 posts with the highest number of likes). The FanapageKarma tool was used to capture data by applying data mining techniques. Subsequently, sentiment analysis was performed using Meaning Cloud software, determining sentiment polarity analysis quantitatively. Finally, a semantic analysis of the content was performed using Nvivo. The results of multi-regression and sentiment’s analysis show clear differences between social networking sites. Twitter is a space for critical analysis of information and social movements, especially climate change. In this space adolescents defend their values and ideology. Instagram is a showcase for fashion and beauty, where brands support an idealised and desirable lifestyle. YouTube is a space for entertainment and comedy. It concludes that despite their differences there is one univocal feature, the effort of influencers to capture audiences and establish parasocial relationships.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +000
      DOI: 10.3916/C74-2023-10
       
 
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