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ISSN (Print) 1212-9097
Published by Masaryk University Homepage  [11 journals]
  • Socratic pedagogy in Plato's dialogue Meno

    • Authors: Matúš Porubjak
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: The study focuses on the psychological and didactic methods employed in Plato’s dialogue Meno. Using the method of dramatic reading, the author analyses the two main parts of Socratic pedagogy: the negative one (aporetic), characterized by elenchus with a scope for identifying and eliminating misleading ideas, and the positive one (euporetic) aiming to help the student to find out her own new ideas and, by means of argumentation, lead her to better understanding. The author concludes that the main goal of the dialogue is to show the difference between “sophistic” and “Socratic” way of teaching. While the first one is based on memorizing the authoritative words and knowledge of the teacher, the Socratic one is based on a mutual search for better arguments. Such method leads to better understanding in both senses of the word – the social one (the capability of moderation and cooperation) as well as the epistemological one (the capability of contextual understanding opened for further investigation).
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.5817/pf22-1-20425
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Ideal Cynic in Orations of Dio Chrysostom

    • Authors: Vladislav Suvák
      Pages: 16 - 27
      Abstract: The paper deals with Dio's portrayal of Diogenes as a Cynic who challenges the conventional meaning of the good life. The author wonders whether Dio of Prusa mechanically takes over Diogenes' attitudes or adapts them to the social and political reality of his time. The first part of the paper describes the circumstances that led Dio to become a Cynic. The second part of the paper deals with the possible differences between early Diogenic and later Dionian forms of Cynicism. The third part of the paper analyses various ancient versions of the story of Diogenes' meeting with Alexander, which could lead us to a better understanding of Dio's version. The purpose of the article is to clarify the nature of Dionian Cynicism.
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.5817/pf22-1-20926
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • On Empirical Necessity. Categorical, Dispositional Properties and the Laws
           of Nature

    • Authors: Tomáš Károly
      Pages: 28 - 42
      Abstract: There are two possible views of empirical necessity: theories of weak necessity and theories of strong necessity. The first category contains conceptions that consider the world to be composed of passive, categorical properties. According to such theories, changes in the world are the result of the laws of nature. Not only are the laws of nature different from one possible world to another, but the necessitation of those properties differs as well. The second category contains those philosophers who assume the existence of power active properties, dispositions. According to these theories, changes in the world result from the effects of those properties only, and in every possible world they have the same necessary manifestations. The author argues in favour of the existence of dispositional properties and claims that this dispositional interpretation of the world has no problems with the modal absurdities that affect theories of weak necessity. It is conceded that dispositional theories have their own problems and mainly some mysteries which could lead to the metaphysics of dispositional monads.
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.5817/pf22-1-20946
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Artistically Man Dwells: Advenant as an Actor in the Philosophy of Claude
           Romano

    • Authors: Marcel Šedo
      Pages: 43 - 56
      Abstract: The study interprets the event hermeneutics of the French phenomenologist Claude Romano, which he postulated in the publications Event and World, Event and Time and There Is, through the prism of artistic experience. The study aims to interpret concepts such as event, advenant, ex-per-ience, reconfiguration and nothingness and point out their connection with art. The working thesis is: The advenant lives artistically. The aim of the study is not only to analyse and present Romano's work, but also to highlight the tendencies leading to the understanding of the event and the advenant in artistic contours. For this reason, the study tries to analyse the authors' context, which consists of phenomenological hermeneutics, especially the works of Martin Heidegger and Henri Maldiney. In connection with the reconfigurative aspect of the advenant's being, the central concept of the study becomes the concept of a figure, which follows the problem of acting.
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.5817/pf22-1-21308
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Philosophy of Information and the Problem of Its Understanding as
           Philosophia Prima

    • Authors: Dominik Sadloň
      Pages: 57 - 74
      Abstract: This article first presents the philosophy of information (PI) and the demarcation of its subject in a methodologically comprehensive form, following L. Floridi's conception of PI. In contrast to his proposal, the subject of the metaphilosophy of information is singled out, and the term ‘philosophia prima’ is clarified as well. Floridi claims that his conception of PI can be understood as prima in relation to other philosophical disciplines. However, even twenty years after its introduction, the problem of understanding PI as philosophia prima has not received any significant direct reflection. In this study, the question is answered whether this problem is still an open problem of PI, and if so, in what sense. The thesis that the problem of understanding PI as philosophia prima is an open problem of metaphilosophy of information is defended, while, given the results of work in PI, some areas are identified relative to which we currently can, cannot, and are unable to label PI as prima.
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.5817/pf22-1-20948
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Pár zlatých zrnek Christopha Martina Wielanda

    • Authors: Břetislav Horyna
      Pages: 75 - 83
      Abstract: Pár zlatých zrnek Christopha Martina Wielanda translation with commentary
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.5817/pf22-1-21265
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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