Publisher: BMC (Biomed Central)   (Total: 308 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 308 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Neuropathologica Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.683, CiteScore: 5)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.655, CiteScore: 1)
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.224, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Simulation     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.575, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.08, CiteScore: 2)
Algorithms for Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.333, CiteScore: 2)
Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.732, CiteScore: 2)
Alzheimer's Research & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.449, CiteScore: 6)
Animal Biotelemetry     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.067, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Diseases     Open Access  
Animal Microbiome     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.104, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of General Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.784, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Innovation and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.328, CiteScore: 1)
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.573, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Physiotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Archives of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.244, CiteScore: 3)
Arthritis Research & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.154, CiteScore: 4)
Asthma Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Basic and Clinical Andrology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.564, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioral and Brain Functions     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 3)
Big Data Analytics     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
BioData Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.982, CiteScore: 2)
Bioelectronic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access   (SJR: 1.352, CiteScore: 4)
Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.654, CiteScore: 2)
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.694, CiteScore: 3)
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.902, CiteScore: 4)
Biomarker Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.735, CiteScore: 3)
Biomedical Dermatology     Open Access  
BioMedical Engineering OnLine     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 2)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.416, CiteScore: 1)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.899, CiteScore: 6)
BMC Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.708, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 216, SJR: 1.479, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 63, SJR: 3.842, CiteScore: 5)
BMC Biomedical Engineering     Open Access  
BMC Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.464, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
BMC Clinical Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.43, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.076, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 1)
BMC Endocrine Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.965, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Energy     Open Access  
BMC Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 1.656, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Family Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.137, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Gastroenterology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.231, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.16, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 92, SJR: 2.11, CiteScore: 4)
BMC Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.257, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Health Services Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.151, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.545, CiteScore: 1)
BMC Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.993, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.576, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Intl. Health and Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.765, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.016, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.688, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Medical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Medical Research Methodology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.221, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 4.219, CiteScore: 7)
BMC Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.242, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Molecular and Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.277, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 207, SJR: 1.216, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.098, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.12, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
BMC Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
BMC Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.921, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.105, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.785, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.936, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Plant Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.427, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.302, CiteScore: 1)
BMC Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.346, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.817, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 229, SJR: 1.337, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.373, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Research Notes     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.691, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.926, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Structural Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.024, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.693, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.853, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.934, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.931, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Breast Cancer Research     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.026, CiteScore: 6)
Burns & Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
CABI Agriculture and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cancer & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cancer Cell Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.13, CiteScore: 3)
Cancer Communications     Open Access  
Cancer Convergence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Cancer Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.168, CiteScore: 4)
Cancers of the Head & Neck     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.977, CiteScore: 2)
Cardio-Oncology     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Diabetology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.157, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
Cell Communication and Signaling     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.211, CiteScore: 4)
Cell Division     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.445, CiteScore: 4)
Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cerebellum & Ataxias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemistry Central J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 3)
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.901, CiteScore: 2)
Chinese Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.57, CiteScore: 2)
Chinese Neurosurgical J.     Open Access  
Chiropractic & Manual Therapies     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.599, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical and Molecular Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.933, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Clinical Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.435, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.851, CiteScore: 3)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
COPD Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.888, CiteScore: 2)
Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 82, SJR: 2.48, CiteScore: 5)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Prognostic Research     Open Access  
Diagnostic Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Disaster and Military Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Emerging Themes in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.003, CiteScore: 2)
Energy, Sustainability and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.662, CiteScore: 4)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.5, CiteScore: 1)
Environmental Microbiome     Open Access   (SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Epigenetics & Chromatin     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.767, CiteScore: 5)
European J. of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.55, CiteScore: 1)
European Review of Aging and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 4)
Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.98, CiteScore: 3)
Experimental Hematology & Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 2)
ExRNA     Open Access  
Eye and Vision     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fertility Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair     Open Access   (SJR: 1.531, CiteScore: 4)
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.199, CiteScore: 0)
Fluids and Barriers of the CNS     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.054, CiteScore: 5)
Frontiers in Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.597, CiteScore: 3)
Genes and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.516, CiteScore: 1)
Genetics Selection Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.745, CiteScore: 4)
Genome Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Genome Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 4.537, CiteScore: 7)
Global Health Research and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.262, CiteScore: 2)
Gut Pathogens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.066, CiteScore: 3)
Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Harm Reduction J.     Open Access   (SJR: 1.445, CiteScore: 3)
Head & Face Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.62, CiteScore: 2)
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.069, CiteScore: 3)
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 2)
Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.848, CiteScore: 2)
Hereditas     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.278, CiteScore: 1)
Human Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.501, CiteScore: 3)
Human Resources for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.301, CiteScore: 2)
Immunity & Ageing     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.218, CiteScore: 3)
Implementation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.443, CiteScore: 4)
Implementation Science Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Infectious Agents and Cancer     Open Access   (SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases of Poverty     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.212, CiteScore: 3)
Inflammation and Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. Breastfeeding J.     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.913, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.626, CiteScore: 6)
Intl. J. of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.385, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Mental Health Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.721, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Retina and Vitreous     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Investigative Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.809, CiteScore: 3)
Irish Veterinary J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.657, CiteScore: 1)
Israel J. of Health Policy Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Italian J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.685, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Angiogenesis Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Journal Cover
International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2056-9920
Published by BMC (Biomed Central) Homepage  [308 journals]
  • Choroidal thickness in relation to urinary albumin excretion rate in type
           2 diabetes mellitus without retinopathy

    • Abstract: Background To evaluate choroidal thickness (CT) in diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy (DR) in relation to the urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER). Methods This is a prospective case-control study that included a consecutive sample of 120 patients with type 2 diabetes without clinically evident DR and a group of 60 matched healthy controls. Diabetic patients were included in two groups according to their UAER (normoalbuminuria and microalbuminuria). Complete ophthalmological examination was performed followed by optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) for retinal and choroidal assessment. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected for UAER and blood samples for HbA1c and serum creatinine were obtained. Results The study included 180 eyes from 180 subjects in three groups. Patients with higher levels of albuminuria had a thinner choroid than normal controls, with decremental thinning as albuminuria progressed. Diabetics with normoalbuminuria showed no significant differences from controls. Choroidal thickness showed a significant moderate negative correlation with UAER (r  =  − 0.58, p  <  0.001). Multiple regression analyses for diabetic patients with microalbuminuria demonstrated that UAER is the most important determinant of subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) (p  <  0.001). Conclusions Decreased CT was significantly correlated with UAER in diabetic patients without retinopathy and otherwise normal kidney functions. This decrease in thickness might be a predictor of DR.
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
  • Safety of various parameter sets with navigated microsecond pulsing laser
           in central serous chorioretinopathy

    • Abstract: Background Subthreshold microsecond pulsing laser is an increasingly common treatment approach for central serous chorioretinopathy. However, there is no literature available on the safety of microsecond laser using different fluence settings in this disease. While many publications can be obtained from conventional microsecond pulsing lasers, few parameter sets are published with the navigated microsecond pulsing laser. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the safety of different parameter sets in subthreshold microsecond pulsing laser treatments. Methods In this retrospective chart review, consecutive patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (> 3 months duration of symptoms) treated with navigated subthreshold microsecond pulsing laser and a follow up of at least five months after microsecond laser application were included. For each patient, the treatment parameters, plan layout, and adverse events related to laser were evaluated. Secondary outcomes included best-corrected visual acuity and anatomical improvements (central retinal thickness). Results One hundred and one eyes were included in the observation and followed for a mean of 10 months (range 5–36). Although a larger range of parameter sets and fluence settings have been used, no patient demonstrated adverse events from navigated microsecond pulsing laser. While 88% of the cases demonstrated stability, 13 cases lost five or more letters due to the persistence of the subretinal fluid. In mean, a best-corrected visual acuity improvement of 0.07logMar (± 0.2) was seen (p = 0.02). In 51% of the patients, a statistically significant improvement of the central retinal thickness was noted at the last follow-up with a mean thickness reduction of 70 µm (± 143) (p < 0.01). Conclusion In conclusion, none of the used parameter sets lead to tissue damage (when using a cautious titration) and, in summary, lead to an improvement in subretinal fluid and improvement in visual acuity. However, further prospective studies are needed to correctly identify the dependency of the treatment strategy on the outcome criteria.
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
  • Intraocular osseous metaplasia presenting as a solid mass in chronic
           retinal detachment: a case report

    • Abstract: Background Intraocular osseous metaplasia is a rare histological finding associated with benign cellular transformation. Its development requires inflammatory cytokines and the process takes many years. Previous case reports of intraocular ossification manifested as linear calcification or white plaques. In contrast, our case presented with a tumor-like solid mass, in which a long-standing chronic inflammatory stimulation may contribute to the stunning appearance. Case presentation This is a 48-year-old woman with past history of advanced Coat’s-like retinopathy and chronic retinal detachment in the left eye for 12 years. She underwent vitreoretinal surgery to prevent phthisis bulbi. During the operation, a 9 mm solid mass was found embedded within the proliferative tissue above the retina and was removed. Pathological findings revealed bone formation in the center of the mass surrounded by fibrous metaplasia and focal gliotic changes. Layers of cohesive cells were found lining on the external side of the mass, and further immuno-histochemical study suggested them retinal pigment epithelial cells. Postoperatively, the retina was attached with stable visual acuity and normal intraocular pressure. Conclusion To our knowledge, the appearance of a tumor-like mass representing intraocular osseous metaplasia in eyes with chronic inflammation or retinal detachment has not been reported in previous case reports. This case emphasizes the importance of considering osseous metaplasia as one of the differential diagnoses of an unknown intraocular mass, especially in eyes with great severity of chronic inflammation. Also, our immuno-histochemical study provided more evidence on the pathological role of retinal pigment epithelial cells in developing ossification.
      PubDate: 2021-10-13
  • Comparison of aflibercept and bevacizumab in the treatment of type 1
           retinopathy of prematurity

    • Abstract: Background To evaluate the outcome of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) and aflibercept (IVA) injection for patients with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Methods In this single-center retrospective cohort, the recorded medical data of the infants who had been undergone intravitreal injection with either bevacizumab or aflibercept for type 1 ROP were reviewed. The infants were allocated into two groups. IVB group included patients who were treated with bevacizumab as initial treatment and the IVA group included patients who were treated with aflibercept as initial treatment. The rate and time of complete regression, as well as the recurrence rates, were compared between the groups. Results A total of 889 eyes of 453 infants were enrolled in the study. There were 865 eyes of 441 infants in the IVB group and 24 eyes of 12 infants in the IVA group. Follow-up time was 289 ± 257 days in the IVB group and 143 ± 25 days in the IVA group (p < 0.001). The difference in the ROP zone was not statistically significant between the 2 treatment groups (p = 0.328). All eyes in the IVA group showed initial regression of ROP after the intravitreal injections. These regressions were achieved in 830 (96.0%) eyes that were injected with IVB (p = 0.023). The median observed regression time was 10 days and 16 days in eyes treated with bevacizumab and aflibercept respectively. Recurrence was noted in 3.9% of eyes (34/865) in the IVB group and 58.3% of eyes (14/24) in the IVA group (p < 0.001). Conclusion While the regression rate in the IVA group was significantly higher than in the IVB group, the recurrence rate was significantly more in the IVA group, which may be attributed to differences in the pharmacokinetics of these drugs in the vitreous body.
      PubDate: 2021-10-13
  • Diagnostic retinal biopsy in the management of secondary non-CNS
           vitreoretinal lymphoma masquerading as viral retinitis: a case report

    • Abstract: Background Intraocular lymphoma accounts for fewer than 1% of intraocular tumors. When the posterior segment is involved, it can be further classified as vitreoretinal or choroidal lymphoma. Vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL) can rarely masquerade as an infectious retinitis making diagnosis and management challenging. Results A 73-year-old woman with a history of non-central nervous system (CNS) involving diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was referred for worsening blurry vision—visual acuity of count figures at 2 ft—in her right eye for 8 months. Dilated fundus examination of the right eye was significant for retinal whitening and dot-blot hemorrhages, which was concerning for a viral retinitis and guided initial management. Secondary intraocular lymphoma was also considered. The retinal disease continued to progress despite intravitreal and systemic antiviral therapy, and a diagnostic vitrectomy was inconclusive. A retinal biopsy was then performed, which showed DLBCL, confirming a diagnosis of secondary VRL. Three subsequent treatments with intravitreal methotrexate led to regression of the VRL. Conclusions Our case highlights the utility of a retinal biopsy after an inconclusive diagnostic vitrectomy in a challenging scenario of VRL to establish a diagnosis and initiate successful treatment. A multidisciplinary team of providers was essential for diagnosis, comprehensive workup, medical and surgical management of the patient.
      PubDate: 2021-10-11
  • A 24 month follow-up of refractory macular holes treated with an
           autologous transplantation of internal limiting membrane versus retina
           expansion technique

    • Abstract: Background To compare the functional and anatomic outcomes at 24 months of eyes with a primary macular hole that failed to close after a prior surgery and were treated with either an autologous transplantation of internal limiting membrane (AT-ILM) or the retina expansion (RE) technique. Methods Retrospective, single center, comparative study of 28 eyes with a macular hole that failed to close after a prior vitrectomy. All eyes had a size of ≥ 500 μm. Participants were divided into two groups according to the type of intervention performed: AT-ILM group (n = 14) and RE group (n = 14). Main outcomes measured were the MH closure rate assessed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 24 months after surgery. Results Patients in the AT-ILM group experienced a statistically significantly improved post-operative BCVA (median 49.50 letters, range 20–66 letters) over the pre-operative BCVA (median 39 letters, range 18–52 letters) (p-value = 0.006 Wilcoxon paired sample test). In contrast, patients in the RE group did not achieve a statistically significant improvement (p-value = 0.328, Wilcoxon paired sample test). The median pre-operative BCVA was 35 letters (range 18–52 letters), whereas the median post-operative BCVA was 39 letters (range 16–66 letters). At 24 months of follow-up, 85.7% of patients in the AT-ILM group achieved closure compared to 57.1% in the RE group (p-value = 0.209, Fisher’s exact test). Multivariate analysis showed that MH size and baseline BCVA were important determinants of post-operative BCVA. The baseline MH size was the only significant pre-operative factor that influenced MH closure. Conclusions This study demonstrates similar closure rates for both groups however better visual outcomes were obtained with the AT-ILM.
      PubDate: 2021-10-02
  • Quantification of macular perfusion in healthy children using optical
           coherence tomography angiography

    • Abstract: Background This study aimed at defining the variance of vessel density (VD) characteristics in the macula of children with normal eyes. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which subjects with normal eyes aged 3–18 years were enrolled. The macula was scanned by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Four age groups as under 7 years, 7–10 years, 11–14 years and more than 14 years of age were defined. The influences of age, gender, and body mass index on VD were analyzed. Results A total of 108 normal eyes from 54 participants with a mean age of 10.9 years were enrolled in the study. At the superficial and deep retina capillary plexus (SCP and DCP) and choriocapillaris (CC), respectively, the mean VD of the fovea was 20.10%, 36.99%, and 75.67%; at parafovea, these measurements were 53.12%, 55.81%, and 69.76%; and at perifovea, these measures were 51.38%, 52.46%, and 73.47%. The median foveal avascular zone (FAZ) was 0.30 mm2. No significant differences between superior-hemi VD and inferior-hemi VD were found in the studied plexuses. The VD at parafovea and perifovea CC differed significantly between groups. There was no variation in VD of macular retina and CC between eyes or sex. FAZ areas were different between genders. Conclusions No difference between eyes and genders in the retina and CC VD of macular area was noted. FAZ area was larger in male. Even though this is not a longitudinal study, it may provide us with hints about macular vascular development during puberty and clinical implications of OCTA in children.
      PubDate: 2021-10-02
  • Pipeline therapies for neovascular age related macular degeneration

    • Abstract: Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of vision loss in the elderly population. Neovascular AMD comprises 10% of all cases and can lead to devastating visual loss due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV). There are various cytokine pathways involved in the formation and leakage from CNV. Prior treatments have included focal laser therapy, verteporfin (Visudyne, Bausch and Lomb, Rochester, New York) ocular photodynamic therapy, transpupillary thermotherapy, intravitreal steroids and surgical excision of choroidal neovascular membranes. Currently, the major therapies in AMD focus on the VEGF-A pathway, of which the most common are bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech, San Francisco, California), ranibizumab (Lucentis; Genentech, South San Francisco, California), and aflibercept (Eylea; Regeneron, Tarrytown, New York). Anti-VEGF agents have revolutionized our treatment of wet AMD; however, real world studies have shown limited visual improvement in patients over time, largely due to the large treatment burden. Cheaper alternatives, including ranibizumab biosimilars, include razumab (Intas Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Ahmedabad, India), FYB 201 (Formycon AG, Munich, Germany and Bioeq Gmbh Holzkirchen, Germany), SB-11 (Samsung Bioepsis, Incheon, South Korea), xlucane (Xbrane Biopharma, Solna, Sweden), PF582 (Pfnex, San Diego, California), CHS3551 (Coherus BioSciences, Redwood City, California). Additionally, aflibercept biosimilars under development include FYB203 (Formycon AG, Munich, Germany and Bioeq Gmbh Holzkirchen, Germany), ALT-L9 (Alteogen, Deajeon, South Korea), MYL1710 (Momenta Pharamaceuticals, Cambridge, MA, and Mylan Pharmacueticals, Canonsburg, PA), CHS-2020 (Coherus BioSciences, Redwood City, California). Those in the pipeline of VEGF targets include abicipar pegol (Abicipar; Allergan, Coolock, Dublin), OPT-302 (Opthea; OPTHEA limited; Victoria, Melbourne), conbercept (Lumitin; Chengdu Kanghong Pharmaceutical Group, Chengdu, Sichuan), and KSI-301 (Kodiak Sciences, Palo Alto, CA). There are also combination medications, which target VEGF and PDGF, VEGF and tissue factor, VEGF and Tie-2, which this paper will also discuss in depth. Furthermore, long lasting depots, such as the ranibizumab port delivery system (PDS) (Genentech, San Francisco, CA), as well as others are under evaluation. Gene therapy present possible longer treatments options as well and are reviewed here. This paper will highlight the past approved medications as well as pipeline therapies for neovascular AMD.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
  • Visual and anatomical outcomes associated with treat-and-extend
           administration of intravitreal aflibercept for neovascular age-related
           macular degeneration

    • Abstract: Purpose To investigate the visual and anatomical outcomes associated with treat-and-extend (TAE) regimen of intravitreal (IVT) aflibercept in eyes with treatment naïve neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD). Methods A retrospective chart review of eyes that underwent IVT aflibercept injections for nvAMD between May 2014 and March 2018 was performed. The primary outcome was the change in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 12 months. Secondary outcomes included the change in central retinal thickness (CRT), subretinal fluid (SRF) and intraretinal fluid (IRF). Results Data from 213 eyes of 213 patients (138 female, 65%) met the inclusion criteria. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 80.4 (±  9.2) years. The mean baseline BCVA (0.92  ±  0.50 logMAR, improved by 0.20 (±  0.40) logMAR units at 12 months (p  <  0.001). Seventy-two (34%) eyes gained  ≥  0.3 logMAR and 47 (22%) eyes achieved BCVA  ≤  0.3 logMAR at 12 months. Baseline BCVA, patient age, and the number of aflibercept injections received were predictors of the change in BCVA at 12 months. Mean CRT improved from 347 (±  117) µm at baseline to 246 (±  55) µm at 12 months (p  <  0.001). The percentage of eyes with SRF and IRF on SD-OCT declined from 63 to 21% and from 60 to 26% at 12 months, respectively. Conclusion A TAE regimen of IVT aflibercept in treatment naïve nvAMD is associated with good visual and anatomical outcomes in routine clinical practice. Resolution of exudation occurred in about half of nvAMD cases at 12 months. Individualized administration of IVT aflibercept may reduce injection burden.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
  • Aflibercept clearance through the drainage system in a rat model

    • Abstract: Background As intravitreal anti-VEGF injections became the mainstay of treatment for many retinal diseases, the cause of a secondary sustained elevated intraocular pressure is still unclear. The aim of our study was to study the clearance of Aflibercept from the anterior chamber angle, in a rat model, to test if an aggregation exists. Methods Choroidal neovascular lesions (CNV) were induced in the right eye of 12 brown Norway rats, using indirect laser ophthalmoscope. Intravitreal Aflibercept injection (0.12 mg/3 µl) was performed 3 days after CNV induction. Rats were euthanized at predetermine time intervals of 3, 6, 24 and 48 h post injection, with immediate enucleation for histological analysis with H&E and immunofluorescence staining. Aflibercept molecules were stained with red fluorescence thanks to the formation of the immune complex Aflibercept-Rabbit anti human IgG-Anti rabbit antibodies-Cy3. Results Immediately after the injection, a strong fluorescence signal was detected, indicating the presence of Aflibercept in the iridocorneal angle. At 3- and 6-h interval a strong signal of Aflibercept was still seen. Six hours post injection, the signal was highly concentrated in Schlemm’s canal. In the 2 eyes harvested 24 h post Aflibercept injection, red fluorescence signal intensity was decreased in one eye, occupying mainly intra scleral venous plexuses, and absent in the other eye. At 48 h there was no fluorescence signal, confirming complete clearance of Aflibercept. Conclusions In our rat model, a complete clearance of Aflibercept from the anterior chamber angle, was seen 48 h after the injection. This finding refutes the theory of possible connection between IOP elevation and mechanical obstruction. Evacuation time of Aflibercept through the angle is of the same magnitude as that of Bevacizumab in the same rat model.
      PubDate: 2021-09-08
  • Bee sting presumed endophthalmitis: a devastating ocular outcome

    • Abstract: Background To report a rare case of bee sting presumed endophthalmitis that resulted in a devastating ocular outcome. Case presentation A 43-year-old patient presented 24 h after bee sting ocular injury in his left eye. He had a mild inflammatory sign at presentation, and he underwent surgical exploration to rule out a scleral defect, which revealed a sealed defect. During his hospital course, he developed signs of endophthalmitis 48 h following trauma for which he received vitreous tap and intravitreal antibiotic. Microbial culture revealed gram-negative rods, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Aeromonas veronii. Condition escalated to reach the panophthalmitis stage and cellulitis like picture with visual acuity of no light perception. Visual evoked response (VER) demonstrated a flat response. Infection was controlled by evisceration of the globe at the end as salvage therapy against the spreading of infection Conclusions Bee sting ocular injury is an exceedingly rare type of ocular trauma. Concomitant infection can happen, and severity depends on the pathogen involved. It is crucial to have insight and start appropriate treatment based on to the patient presentation.
      PubDate: 2021-09-06
  • Retinoblastoma and mosaic 13q deletion: a case report

    • Abstract: Background Patients with 13q-syndrome are at risk of retinoblastoma when the RB1 gene, located in the chromosomal band 13q14.2, is deleted. This syndrome is frequently associated with congenital malformations and developmental delay, although these signs could be mild. Mosaic 13q-deletion patients have been previously reported in the literature; their phenotype is variable, and they may not be recognized. Case presentation Retinoblastoma diagnosed in a child with 13q-mosaicism confirmed in blood, oral mucosa, healthy retina and retinoblastoma. A second RB1 hit is present exclusively in the retinoblastoma sample (RB1 c.958C>T p.Arg320Ter). Other detected molecular events in retinoblastoma are 6p12.3pter gain and 6q25.3qter loss. Clinical examination is unremarkable except for clinodactyly of the right fifth finger. Discussion and conclusions We describe a case of mosaic 13q deletion syndrome affected by retinoblastoma. Molecular data obtained from the tumor analysis are similar to previous data available about this malignancy. High clinical suspicion is essential for an adequate diagnosis of mosaic cases.
      PubDate: 2021-09-03
  • Internal limiting membrane detachment in acute central retinal artery
           occlusion: a novel prognostic sign seen on OCT

    • Abstract: Background To present a series of acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) cases showing internal limiting membrane detachment (ILMD) on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to describe the possible etiopathogenesis and outcomes associated with it. Methods Demographic and OCT features of patients with acute CRAO were analysed retrospectively. OCT parameters noted were posterior vitreous opacities, ILMD, inner retinal layer stratification, hyperreflectivity and thickening, cystoid macular edema, neurosensory detachment. Eyes were grouped into Group (1) CRAO with ILMD; Group (2) CRAO with no ILMD. Results A total of 28 eyes of acute CRAO who had undergone OCT scans at the time of the acute episode were identified. Out of these, ILMD was noted in 5 eyes. The study findings suggested that cases of acute CRAO with ILMD are associated with poor presenting visual acuity and have more severe signs of retinal hypoperfusion on OCT, like inner retinal thickening, inner retinal hyperreflectivity and loss of inner retinal layer stratification. Patients with ILMD have poor final visual acuity and thinning and atrophy or necrosis of the inner retinal layers. Conclusion ILMD can occur in acute CRAO due to total retinal artery occlusion and severe retinal hypoperfusion. The presence of ILMD on OCT can be considered a sign of poor prognosis in cases of acute CRAO. Trial registration: Not applicable.
      PubDate: 2021-09-03
  • Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Syndrome following COVID-19 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19
           (AZD1222) vaccine

    • Abstract: The challenge of COVID-19 has rapidly changed medical management worldwide. The relatively small time from pandemic to vaccines regulatory approval triggered a race toward vaccines development. However, important questions regarding SARS-CoV-2 vaccines remain. A case of complete Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) Syndrome that occurred 4 days following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and another patient that developed VKH 14 days post COVID-19 clinical onset are presented. A causal relationship between COVID-19 and uveitis may exist.
      PubDate: 2021-08-30
  • Fluorescein angiographic findings and Behcet's disease ocular attack score
           24 (BOS24) as prognostic factors for visual outcome in patients with
           ocular Behcet's disease

    • Abstract: Purpose To determine the application of fluorescein angiographic (FA) findings and Behcet’s disease ocular attack score 24 (BOS24) scoring system in predicting poor visual outcome in patients with ocular Behcet’s disease. Study design Retrospective cohort study. Methods We included 73 eyes of 38 patients with ocular Behcet’s disease who underwent FA and reviewed FA images, anterior chamber cells, vitreous opacity, retinal and optic disc lesions, which are parameters in BOS24. The correlation between FA findings, BOS24, and visual acuity was assessed. Results Optic disc hyperfluoresence (74%), diffuse posterior pole leakage (52%) and diffuse peripheral leakage (52%) were the three most common findings. Common complications were peripheral capillary nonperfusion (29%), arterial narrowing (22%), and macular ischemia (19%). BOS24 scores of ≥ 6 (p < 0.0001), arterial narrowing (p < 0.0001), and severe posterior pole leakage (p = 0.004) were significantly associated with poor visual outcome. Combining significant FA findings: arterial narrowing and severe posterior pole leakage, to BOS24 ≥ 6 results in an increased relative risk of developing poor visual acuity from 7.30 to 10.43 and 1.89 to 2.02 respectively. Conclusion Fluorescein angiography is an important investigation for predicting poor visual outcome. BOS24 may be a useful alternative when fluorescein angiographic is unavailable.
      PubDate: 2021-08-28
  • Intraocular lens power calculation formulas accuracy in combined
           phacovitrectomy: an 8-formulas comparison study

    • Abstract: Background Our study aimed to assess and compare the accuracy of 8 intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation formulas (Barrett Universal II, EVO 2.0, Haigis, Hoffer Q, Holladay 1, Kane and PEARL-DGS) in patients submitted to combined phacovitrectomy for vitreomacular (VM) interface disorders. Methods Retrospective chart review study including axial-length matched patients submitted to phacoemulsification alone (Group 1) and combined phacovitrectomy (Group 2). Using optimized constants in both groups, refraction prediction error of each formula was calculated for each eye. The optimised constants from Group 1 were also applied to patients of Group 2 – Group 3. Outcome measures included the mean prediction error (ME) and its standard deviation (SD), mean (MAE) and median (MedAE) absolute errors, in diopters (D), and the percentage of eyes within ± 0.25D, ± 0.50D and ± 1.00D. Results A total of 220 eyes were included (Group 1: 100; Group 2: 120). In Group 1, the difference in formulas absolute error was significative (p = 0.005). The Kane Formula had the lowest MAE (0.306) and MedAE (0.264). In Group 2, Kane had the overall best performance, followed by PEARL-DGS, EVO 2.0 and Barrett Universal II. The ME of all formulas in both Groups 1 and 2 were 0.000 (p = 0.934; p = 0.971, respectively). In Group 3, a statistically significant myopic shift was observed for each formula (p < 0.001). Conclusion Surgeons must be careful regarding IOL power selection in phacovitrectomy considering the systematic myopic shift evidenced—constant optimization may help eliminating such error. Moreover, newly introduced formulas and calculation methods may help us achieving increasingly better refractive outcomes both in cataract surgery alone and phacovitrectomy.
      PubDate: 2021-08-18
  • Novel OCT findings in choroidal osteoma: brief report

    • Abstract: The aim of this article is to report the presence of choroidal loculation of fluid and choroidal cavern in a case of choroidal osteoma, previously undescribed in this disease.
      PubDate: 2021-08-17
  • Lasting effects of prenatal exposure to Cannabis in the retina of the
           offspring: an experimental study in mice

    • Abstract: Background Prenatal exposure to Cannabis is a worldwide growing problem. Although retina is part of the central nervous system, the impact of maternal Cannabis use on the retinal development and its postnatal consequences remains unknown. As the prenatal period is potentially sensitive in the normal development of the retina, we hypothesized that recreational use of Cannabis during pregnancy may alter retina structure in the offspring. To test this, we developed a murine model that mimics human exposure in terms of dose and use. Methods Pregnant BalbC mice were exposed daily for 5 min to Cannabis smoke (0.2 g of Cannabis) or filtered air, from gestational day 5 to 18 (N = 10/group). After weaning period, pups were separated and examined weekly. On days 60, 120, 200, and 360 after birth, 10 pups from each group were randomly selected for Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) analysis of the retina. All retina layers were measured and inner, outer, and total retina thickness were calculated. Other 37 mice from both groups were sacrificed on days 20, 60, and 360 for retinal stereology (total volume of the retina and volume fraction of each retinal layer) and light microscopy. Means and standard deviations were calculated and MANOVA was performed. Results The retina of animals which mother was exposed to Cannabis during gestation was 17% thinner on day 120 (young adult) than controls (P = 0.003) due to 21% thinning of the outer retina (P = 0.001). The offspring of mice from the exposed group presented thickening of the IS/OS in comparison to controls on day 200 (P < 0.001). In the volumetric analyzes by retinal stereology, the exposed mice presented transitory increase of the IS/OS total volume and volume fraction on day 60 (young adult) compared to controls (P = 0.008 and P = 0.035, respectively). On light microscopy, exposed mice presented thickening of the IS/OS on day 360 (adult) compared to controls (P = 0.03). Conclusion Gestational exposure to Cannabis smoke may cause structural changes in the retina of the offspring that return to normal on mice adulthood. These experimental evidences suggest that children and young adults whose mothers smoked Cannabis during pregnancy may require earlier and more frequent clinical care than the non-exposed population.
      PubDate: 2021-06-30
  • Smartphone fundus photography: a narrative review

    • Abstract: Background The idea to use smartphone for fundus photography was put forward in 2010. Over the last decade, there has been a dramatic development in this field. This narrative review focuses on the principle of smartphone fundus photography, how to master this technique, problems encountered by the beginners, camera applications/devices designed for this purpose and the safety profile of smartphone flashlights for retinal photoreceptors. Discussion Smartphone fundus photography using a condensing lens is based on the same principle as indirect ophthalmoscopy. Smartphone flashlight serves the purpose of light source or illuminating system. Real and inverted image of the retina is focused by the smartphone camera after adjustment of the filming distance. Beginners can face difficulties like adjustment of the filming distance, glare from condensing lens and reflection from the ceiling lights. Mobile camera applications and holding devices designed for this purpose can help the beginners to address these difficulties. There have been safety concerns about photo-biological risk for retinal photoreceptors by flashlight. Although the spectral irradiance on the retina, while using smartphone for fundus imaging is within the safety limits set by ISO 15004-2.2. The safety profile of latest model flashlights which deliver more power compared to older flashlights, need to be assessed. Conclusion Smartphone fundus photography is a cheap, cost effective, portable and a convenient method for retinal imaging. With practice and use of smartphone camera applications designed for this purpose, the beginners can master this technique. By training young ophthalmology residents and ophthalmic primary caretakers, this retinal imaging technique can be utilized for artificial intelligence, patient diagnostic and educational purposes.
      PubDate: 2021-06-08
  • Questionnaire for the assessment of adherence barriers of intravitreal
           therapy: the ABQ-IVT

    • Abstract: Objective To develop and validate a questionnaire for the investigation of non-adherence (NA) barriers in patients receiving intravitreal injection (IVT). Design Questionnaire development and cross-sectional patient survey combined with a retrospective medical chart review. Participants German patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) or diabetic macular edema (DME) receiving anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment via IVT. Methods The previously validated (indications: atrial fibrillation, human immunodeficiency virus, chronic inflammatory lung disease) Adherence Barriers Questionnaire (ABQ) was revised according to specifications of IVT, within the framework of an expert panel. The ABQ-IVT, which initially consisted of 24 items formulated as statements (4-point-Likert-scale ranging from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree”), was applied in a cross-sectional survey. Evaluation of the questionnaire included an assessment of internal consistency and factor analysis. The occurrence of potential barriers in the patient sample was evaluated using descriptive statistics. To identify patient subpopulations, hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using ABQ-IVT answers as predictors. Due to difficulties in capturing NA as an external criterion, the evaluation of the questionnaire was limited to its internal validity and reliability. Main outcome measures Patients’ answers to the ABQ-IVT questionnaire and interviews. Results Of 253 patients, 234 (92%) were able to complete the ABQ-IVT questionnaire. Within the reliability analysis, the ABQ-IVT was reduced to 17 items. The condensed questionnaire demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.78), and factor analysis showed no evidence for subscales of the questionnaire. Nearly half of the patients (49%) reported being affected by at least three different barriers. On average, a patient was affected by 3.1 barriers. The most frequently reported barriers were “Challenge due to time commitment of physician visits” (45% of the patients), “Depression” (29%) and “Travel and opportunity costs” (27%). Cluster analysis identified six patient subpopulations, each affected by different sets of barriers and differed regarding their patient characteristics. Conclusions The ABQ-IVT is a practical and reliable instrument for identifying patient-specific barriers to IVT treatment adherence. In practice, the questionnaire may be useful in assessing whether individual patients are at higher risk of NA due to specific adherence barriers. Aside from better awareness, this allows earlier interventions, though these still need to be validated. Patient subpopulations face different barriers and may, therefore, need distinct preventative care.
      PubDate: 2021-06-02
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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