Publisher: BMC (Biomed Central)   (Total: 308 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 308 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Neuropathologica Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.683, CiteScore: 5)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.655, CiteScore: 1)
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.224, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Simulation     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.575, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.08, CiteScore: 2)
Algorithms for Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.333, CiteScore: 2)
Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.732, CiteScore: 2)
Alzheimer's Research & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.449, CiteScore: 6)
Animal Biotelemetry     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.067, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Diseases     Open Access  
Animal Microbiome     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.104, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of General Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.784, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Innovation and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.328, CiteScore: 1)
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.573, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Physiotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Archives of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.244, CiteScore: 3)
Arthritis Research & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.154, CiteScore: 4)
Asthma Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Basic and Clinical Andrology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.564, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioral and Brain Functions     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 3)
Big Data Analytics     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
BioData Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.982, CiteScore: 2)
Bioelectronic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access   (SJR: 1.352, CiteScore: 4)
Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.654, CiteScore: 2)
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.694, CiteScore: 3)
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.902, CiteScore: 4)
Biomarker Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.735, CiteScore: 3)
Biomedical Dermatology     Open Access  
BioMedical Engineering OnLine     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 2)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.416, CiteScore: 1)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.899, CiteScore: 6)
BMC Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.708, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 217, SJR: 1.479, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 63, SJR: 3.842, CiteScore: 5)
BMC Biomedical Engineering     Open Access  
BMC Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.464, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
BMC Clinical Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.43, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.076, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 1)
BMC Endocrine Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.965, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Energy     Open Access  
BMC Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 1.656, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Family Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.137, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Gastroenterology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.231, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.16, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 92, SJR: 2.11, CiteScore: 4)
BMC Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.257, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Health Services Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.151, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.545, CiteScore: 1)
BMC Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.993, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.576, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Intl. Health and Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.765, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.016, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.688, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Medical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Medical Research Methodology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.221, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 4.219, CiteScore: 7)
BMC Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.242, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Molecular and Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.277, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 206, SJR: 1.216, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.098, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.12, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
BMC Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
BMC Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.921, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.105, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.785, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.936, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Plant Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.427, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.302, CiteScore: 1)
BMC Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.346, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.817, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 229, SJR: 1.337, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.373, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Research Notes     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.691, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.926, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Structural Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.024, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.693, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.853, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.934, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.931, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Breast Cancer Research     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.026, CiteScore: 6)
Burns & Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
CABI Agriculture and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cancer & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cancer Cell Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.13, CiteScore: 3)
Cancer Communications     Open Access  
Cancer Convergence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Cancer Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.168, CiteScore: 4)
Cancers of the Head & Neck     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.977, CiteScore: 2)
Cardio-Oncology     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Diabetology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.157, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
Cell Communication and Signaling     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.211, CiteScore: 4)
Cell Division     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.445, CiteScore: 4)
Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cerebellum & Ataxias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemistry Central J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 3)
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.901, CiteScore: 2)
Chinese Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.57, CiteScore: 2)
Chinese Neurosurgical J.     Open Access  
Chiropractic & Manual Therapies     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.599, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical and Molecular Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.933, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Clinical Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.435, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.851, CiteScore: 3)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
COPD Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.888, CiteScore: 2)
Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 82, SJR: 2.48, CiteScore: 5)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Prognostic Research     Open Access  
Diagnostic Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Disaster and Military Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Emerging Themes in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.003, CiteScore: 2)
Energy, Sustainability and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.662, CiteScore: 4)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.5, CiteScore: 1)
Environmental Microbiome     Open Access   (SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Epigenetics & Chromatin     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.767, CiteScore: 5)
European J. of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.55, CiteScore: 1)
European Review of Aging and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 4)
Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.98, CiteScore: 3)
Experimental Hematology & Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 2)
ExRNA     Open Access  
Eye and Vision     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fertility Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair     Open Access   (SJR: 1.531, CiteScore: 4)
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.199, CiteScore: 0)
Fluids and Barriers of the CNS     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.054, CiteScore: 5)
Frontiers in Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.597, CiteScore: 3)
Genes and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.516, CiteScore: 1)
Genetics Selection Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.745, CiteScore: 4)
Genome Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Genome Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 4.537, CiteScore: 7)
Global Health Research and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.262, CiteScore: 2)
Gut Pathogens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.066, CiteScore: 3)
Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Harm Reduction J.     Open Access   (SJR: 1.445, CiteScore: 3)
Head & Face Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.62, CiteScore: 2)
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.069, CiteScore: 3)
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 2)
Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.848, CiteScore: 2)
Hereditas     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.278, CiteScore: 1)
Human Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.501, CiteScore: 3)
Human Resources for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.301, CiteScore: 2)
Immunity & Ageing     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.218, CiteScore: 3)
Implementation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.443, CiteScore: 4)
Implementation Science Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Infectious Agents and Cancer     Open Access   (SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases of Poverty     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.212, CiteScore: 3)
Inflammation and Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. Breastfeeding J.     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.913, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.626, CiteScore: 6)
Intl. J. of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.385, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Mental Health Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.721, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Retina and Vitreous     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Investigative Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.809, CiteScore: 3)
Irish Veterinary J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.657, CiteScore: 1)
Israel J. of Health Policy Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Italian J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.685, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Angiogenesis Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.888
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1478-7547
Published by BMC (Biomed Central) Homepage  [308 journals]
  • Medical expenditure for lung cancer in China: a multicenter,
           hospital-based retrospective survey

    • Abstract: Background Lung cancer is the most prevalent cancer, and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in China. The aim of this study was to estimate the direct medical expenditure incurred for lung cancer care and analyze the trend therein for the period 2002–2011 using nationally representative data in China Methods This study was based on 10-year, multicenter retrospective expenditure data collected from hospital records, covering 15,437 lung cancer patients from 13 provinces diagnosed during the period 2002–2011. All expenditure data were adjusted to 2011 to eliminate the effects of inflation using China’s annual consumer price index. Results The direct medical expenditure for lung cancer care (in 2011) was 39,015 CNY (US$6,041) per case, with an annual growth rate of 7.55% from 2002 to 2011. Drug costs were the highest proportionally in the total medical expenditure (54.27%), followed by treatment expenditure (14.32%) and surgical expenditure (8.10%). Medical expenditures for the disease varied based on region, hospital level, type, and stage. Conclusion The medical expenditure for lung cancer care is substantial in China. Drug costs and laboratory test are the main factors increasing medical costs.
      PubDate: 2021-08-17
  • Cost-effectiveness of a care manager collaborative care programme for
           patients with depression in primary care: 12-month economic evaluation of
           a pragmatic randomised controlled trial

    • Abstract: Objectives To study the cost-effectiveness of a care manager organization for patients with mild to moderate depression in Swedish primary care in a 12-month perspective. Methods Cost-effectiveness analysis of the care manager organization compared to care as usual (CAU) in a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial including 192 individuals in the care manager group and 184 in the CAU group. Cost-effectiveness was assessed from a health care and societal perspectives. Costs were assessed in relation to two different health outcome measures: depression free days (DFDs) and quality adjusted life years (QALYs). Results At the 12-month follow-up, patients treated at the intervention Primary Care Centres (PCCs) with a care manager organization had larger health benefits than the group receiving usual care only at control PCCs. Mean QALY per patient was 0.73 (95% CI 0.7; 0.75) in the care manager group compared to 0.70 (95% CI 0.66; 0.73) in the CAU group. Mean DFDs was 203 (95% CI 178; 229) in the care manager group and 155 (95% CI 131; 179) in the CAU group. Further, from a societal perspective, care manager care was associated with a lower cost than care as usual, resulting in a dominant incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for both QALYs and DFDs. From a health care perspective care manager care was related to a low cost per QALY (36,500 SEK / €3,379) and DFD (31 SEK/€3). Limitations A limitation is the fact that QALY data was impaired by insufficient EQ-5D data for some patients. Conclusions A care manager organization at the PCC to increase quality of care for patients with mild-moderate depression shows high health benefits, with no decay over time, and high cost-effectiveness both from a health care and a societal perspective. Trial registration details: The trial was registered in ( in 02/02/2015 with the registration number NCT02378272. The first patient was enrolled in 11/20/2014.
      PubDate: 2021-08-17
  • The impact of media reports on energy and environmental efficiency in
           China: evidence from modified dynamic DEA with undesirable outputs

    • Abstract: Background Rapid economic growth in China has resulted in a commensurate increase in energy consumption, which in turn has seen an increase in environmental pollution problems. Past research has tended to focus on energy and environmental efficiency analyses and has rarely examined the media influence on environmental protection efforts. Further, most studies have used static models and ignored the dynamic changes over time. Methods To go some way to filling this research gap, this study developed a modified undesirable Dynamic DEA model that included air quality index (AQI) and CO2 indicators to explore the relationships between energy, the environment, and media report efficiencies in 31 Chinese cities from 2013 to 2016. Results It was found that: (1) Chongqing, Guangzhou, Nanjing and Shanghai had efficiencies of 1, but Lanzhou, Shijiazhuang, Taiyuan, Xining and Yinchuan needed significant improvements; (2) Chongqing, Guangzhou, Kunming, Nanning and Shanghai had relatively high media efficiencies, but the other cities had low efficiencies and required improvements; (3) the CO2 emissions efficiencies in most cities were better than the air quality index efficiencies; and 4. the media reports in most cities were found to have a more positive impact on the CO2 emissions efficiency than on the AQI efficiency. Conclusions Environmental awareness enhances civilian health and promotes economic growth. Therefore, as the news media should be responsible for promoting environmental protection, they need to increase their environmental pollution coverage. It was found that the environmental pollution media report quality and especially air pollution reports needed improvements, and greater media coverage on environmental pollution and awareness was needed.
      PubDate: 2021-08-16
  • Cost-effectiveness of using amyloid positron emission tomography in
           individuals with mild cognitive impairment

    • Abstract: Background Amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) makes it possible to diagnose Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in its prodromal phase including mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of including amyloid-PET for assessing individuals with MCI. Methods The target population was 60-year-old patients who were diagnosed with MCI. We constructed a Markov model for the natural history of AD with the amyloid positivity (AP). Because amyloid-PET can detect the AP MCI state, AD detection can be made faster by reducing the follow-up interval for a high-risk group. The health outcomes were evaluated in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and the final results of cost-effectiveness analysis were presented in the form of the Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (ICER). To handle parameter uncertainties, one-way sensitivity analyses for various variables were performed. Results Our model showed that amyloid-PET increased QALYs by 0.003 in individuals with MCI. The estimated additional costs for adopting amyloid-PET amounted to a total of 1250 USD per patient when compared with the cost when amyloid-PET is not adopted. The ICER was 3,71,545 USD per QALY. According to the sensitivity analyses, treatment effect of Donepezil and virtual intervention effect in MCI state were the most influential factors. Conclusions In our model, using amyloid-PET at the MCI stage was not cost-effective. Future advances in management of cognitive impairment would enhance QALYs, and consequently improve cost-effectiveness.
      PubDate: 2021-08-14
  • Examination on level of scale efficiency in public hospitals in Tanzania

    • Abstract: Purpose Tanzania has implemented policies that aim at improving health sector performance as well as the general health status of citizens. Establishment of community insurance fund, increase government budget allocation in health sector, establishment of institutions for critical and special diseases like Tanzania Ocean road cancer institute, Muhimbili Orthopaedic Institute and many other that aim at improving sector efficiency. These efforts and policies had a direct impact on improving the health sector and achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Despite these improvement efforts, the health sector continues to face enormous challenges. Among the major challenges identified is the level of inefficiencies in healthcare delivery. It is for this reason; this paper examines the scale efficiency level in Tanzania’s public hospitals. Methods Using data from the Ministry of Health, this paper employs the Input based Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to examine Tanzania’s public hospital efficiency levels. DEA has been applied because it can handle multiple inputs and output that can have different units simultaneously. Results Findings showed that the average scale efficiency was 78.6%.and 72.9%for regional and district hospitals respectively. Additionally, 43.8% of the regional referral hospitals attained the most productive scale size compared to 21.05% in district hospitals. Conclusion The study concludes that there is dire need for the ministry of health to consider resource reallocation across public hospitals. Periodic re-estimation of efficiency levels coupled with increased health care input injection is of urgent need.
      PubDate: 2021-08-11
  • Treating patients with opioid overdose at a primary care emergency
           outpatient clinic: a cost-minimization analysis

    • Abstract: Background Treating patients with acute poisoning by substances of abuse in a primary care emergency clinic has previously been shown to be a safe strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of this strategy compared to hospital treatment, which is the usual strategy. Methods Assuming equal health outcomes, we conducted a cost-minimization analysis. We constructed a representative opioid overdose patient based on a cohort of 359 patients treated for opioid overdose at the Oslo Accident and Emergency Outpatient Clinic (OAEOC) from 1.10.2011 to 30.9.2012. Using a health care system perspective, we estimated the expected resources used on the representative patient in primary care based on data from the observed OAEOC cohort and on information from key informants at the OAEOC. A likely course of treatment of the same patient in a hospital setting was established from information from key informants on provider procedures at Drammen Hospital, as were estimates of hospital use of resources. We calculated expected costs for both settings. Given that the treatments usually last for less than one day, we used undiscounted cost values. Results The estimated per patient cost in primary care was 121 EUR (2018 EUR 1.00 = NOK 9.5962), comprising 97 EUR on personnel costs and 24 EUR on treatment costs. In the hospital setting, the corresponding cost was 612 EUR, comprising 186 EUR on personnel costs, 183 EUR on treatment costs, and 243 EUR associated with intensive care unit admission. The point estimate of the cost difference per patient was 491 EUR, with a low-difference scenario estimated at 264 EUR and a high-difference scenario at 771 EUR. Conclusions Compared to hospital treatment, treating patients with opioid overdose in a primary care setting costs substantially less. Our findings are probably generalizable to poisoning with other substances of abuse. Implementing elements of the OAEOC procedure in primary care emergency clinics and in hospital emergency departments could improve the use of health care resources.
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
  • Cost-effectiveness of empagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes and
           established cardiovascular disease in China

    • Abstract: Background In several cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs), empagliflozin (SGLT-2 inhibitor), sitagliptin (DPP-4 inhibitor) and liraglutide (GLP-1 receptor agonist) + standard of care (SoC) were compared to SoC in patients with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study assessed the cost-effectiveness (CE) of empagliflozin + SoC in comparison to sitagliptin + SoC and liraglutide + SoC based on the respective CVOT. Methods The IQVIA Core Diabetes Model (CDM) was calibrated to reproduce the CVOT outcomes. EMPA-REG OUTCOME baseline characteristics and CVOT specific treatment effects on risk factors for cardiovascular disease (HbA1c, BMI, blood pressure, lipids) were applied. Three-year observed cardiovascular events of empagliflozin + SoC versus sitagliptin + SoC and liraglutide + SoC were derived from EMPA-REG OUTCOME and an indirect treatment comparison. Relative risk adjustments to calibrate the CDM were obtained after a trial and error process to match as closely the observed and CDM-predicted outcomes. The drug-specific treatment effects were considered up until HbA1c reached 8.5% and treatment switch occurred. After this switch, the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study 82 risk equations predicted events based on co-existing risk factors and treatment intensification to basal bolus insulin were applied. The analysis was conducted from the perspective of the Chinese healthcare system applying 3% discounting. The time horizon was lifelong. Results Empagliflozin + SoC provides additional Quality Adjusted Life years (QALY + 0.564) for an incremental cost of 42,497RMB (US$6053) compared to sitagliptin + SoC, resulting in an Incremental Cost Utility Ratio of 75,349RMB (US$10,732), thus below the willingness-to-pay threshold of 212,676RMB, corresponding to three times the Gross Domestic Product in China (2019). Compared to liraglutide + SoC, empagliflozin + SoC use leads to 0.211QALY gained and cost savings of 71,427RMB (US$10,173) and is as such dominant. Scenario and probabilistic sensitivity analyses demonstrated the robustness of the results. Conclusion Results suggest that empagliflozin + SoC is cost-effective compared to sitagliptin + SoC and liraglutide + SoC at a willingness-to-pay threshold of 212,676RMB ($30,292)/QALY.
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
  • Strategies for reducing out of pocket payments in the health system: a
           scoping review

    • Abstract: Background Direct out-of-pocket payments (OOP) are among the most important financing mechanisms in many health systems, especially in developing countries, adversely affecting equality and leading vulnerable groups to poverty. Therefore, this scoping review study was conducted to identify the strategies involving OOP reduction in health systems. Methods Articles published in English on strategies related to out-of-pocket payments were Searched and retrieved in the Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and Embase databases between January 2000 and November 2020, following PRISMA guidelines. As a result, 3710 papers were retrieved initially, and 40 were selected for full-text assessment. Results Out of 40 papers included, 22 (55%) and 18 (45%) of the study were conducted in developing and developed countries, respectively. The strategies were divided into four categories based on health system functions: health system stewardship, creating resources, health financing mechanisms, and delivering health services.As well, developing and developed countries applied different types of strategies to reduce OOP. Conclusion The present review identified some strategies that affect the OOP payments According to the health system functions framework. Considering the importance of stewardship, creating resources, the health financing mechanisms, and delivering health services in reducing OOP, this study could help policymakers make better decisions for reducing OOP expenditures.
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
  • Cost-effectiveness analysis of neoadjuvant versus adjuvant chemotherapy
           for cT2-4N0-1 non-small cell lung cancer patients during initial treatment

    • Abstract: Objective The choice between neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) remains controversial in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). There is no significant difference in NAC and AC’s effectiveness. We investigate the cost-effectiveness of NAC versus AC for NSCLC. Method A decision tree model was designed from a payer perspective to compare NAC and AC treatments for NSCLC patients. Parameters included overall survival (OS), surgical complications, chemotherapy adverse events (AEs), treatment initiation probability, treatment time frame, treatment cost, and quality of life (QOL). Sensitivity analyses were performed to characterize model uncertainty in the base cases. Result AC treatment strategy produced a cost saving of ¥3064.90 and incremental quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) of 0.10 years per patient with the same OS. NAC would be cost-effective at a ¥35,446/QALY threshold if the median OS of NAC were 2.3 months more than AC. The model was robust enough to handle variations to all input parameters except OS. In the probability sensitivity analysis, AC remained dominant in 54.4% of simulations. Conclusion The model cost-effectiveness analysis indicates that with operable NSCLC, AC treatment is more cost-effective to NAC. If NAC provides a longer survival advantage, this treatment strategy may be cost-effective. The OS is the main factor that influences cost-effectiveness and should be considered in therapeutic regimes.
      PubDate: 2021-07-19
  • Comparing the monetary value of a quality-adjusted life year from the
           payment card and the open-ended format

    • Abstract: Background The payment card (PC) format and the open-ended (OE) format are common methods in eliciting willingness-to-pay (WTP) of one additional quality-adjusted life year (QALY). The aim of this research is to compare these two formats in eliciting the monetary value of a QALY. Methods A contingent valuation survey was carried out using a pre-designed questionnaire with various hypothetical scenarios. The difference between the PC and the OE formats was evaluated by a two-sample equality test. Furthermore, generalized linear models were carried out to control observed heterogeneity and to test theoretical validity. Results In total, 461 individuals were involved, among whom 235 (51%) answered the PC question, while 226 (49%) answered the OE question. Excluding zero response, the mean WTP values of these two formats for different scenarios varied dramatically, which was from 13,278 to 280,177 RMB for the PC, 18,119 to 620,913 RMB for the OE. The OE format tended to elicit lower values for less serious condition and higher values for more serious condition. However, equality test of mean and median demonstrated insignificant difference of these two formats for all scenarios. For both OE and PC format, most variables were found to have significant effect on the value of WTP/QALY. Moreover, joint estimation indicated a statistically significant positive effect on the OE results. Further analysis demonstrated that the imbalanced zero response distribution caused the main difference of these two formats. Conclusions This research indicated insignificantly different WTP/QALY estimates of the PC format and OE format with the grouped data whereas significantly higher estimates of the OE format from the pooled data. These two formats were found to be valid. More research about the difference and the validity of various WTP eliciting methods would be recommended for a robust estimation of WTP/QALY.
      PubDate: 2021-07-19
  • Cost transferability problems in economic evaluation as a framework for an
           European health care and social costs database

    • Abstract: Abstract This article presents part of the work within Work Package 3 (WP3) of Impact HTA (Improved methods and actionable tools for enhancing HTA), a H2020 EU-funded research project, intended to enhance and promote collaboration in HTA across EU MS. Amongst other objectives, and in close collaboration with WP4, WP3 addressed setting up a multi-country unit-cost database: the European health care and social costs database (EU HCSCD). The purpose of the database is to facilitate the transference of healthcare economic evaluation analyses across countries, jurisdictions and settings. WP3 concentrates on healthcare costs; WP4 on social costs. This paper discusses the state of the art on this topic, building an appropriate conceptual and theoretical framework for Database development. We conducted a broad, but not systematic, literature and gray-literature review (LR), identifying existing practices and problems, and their implications, described in the Results section. We discuss practical implications and draw important conclusions behind the construction, and future evolution, of this database.
      PubDate: 2021-07-18
  • Development of a core evaluation framework of value-added medicines:
           report 2 on pharmaceutical policy perspectives

    • Abstract: Background A core evaluation framework that captures the health care and societal benefits of value added medicines (VAMs, also often called repurposed medicines) was proposed in Report 1, aiming to reduce the heterogeneity in value assessment processes across countries and to create incentives for manufacturers to invest into incremental innovation. However, this can be impactful only if the framework can be adapted to heterogeneous health care financing systems in different jurisdictions, and the cost of evidence generation necessitated by the framework takes into account the anticipated benefits for the health care system and rewards for the developers. Areas covered The framework could potentially improve the pricing and reimbursement decisions of VAMs by adapting it to different country specific decision-contexts such as deliberative processes, augmented cost-effectiveness frameworks or formal multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA); alternatively, some of its domains may be added to current general evaluation frameworks of medicines. The proposed evaluation framework may provide a starting point for practices based on which VAMs can be exempted from generic pricing mechanisms or can be integrated into the reimbursement and procurement system, allowing for price differentiation according to their added value. Besides evidence from RCTs, pricing and reimbursement decision processes of VAMs should allow for ex-ante non-RCT evidence for certain domains. Alternatively, relying on ex-post evidence agreements—such as outcome guarantee or coverage with evidence development—can also reduce decision uncertainty. Conclusions The core evaluation framework for VAMs could trigger changes in the existing pricing, reimbursement and procurement practices by improving the appraisal of the added value created by incremental innovation.
      PubDate: 2021-07-15
  • The appearance and increase in the quantity and proportion of the clinical
           research coordinator’s service fee in drug clinical trial research fund
           and its impact on trial quality

    • Abstract: Objective The changes of absolute value and relative value of clinical research coordinator service fee and its influence on the quality of drug clinical trial were analyzed. Methods This study compared the amount and structural changes of drug clinical trial costs in before 3 years and after 3 years of self-examination and inspection initiated by the China Food and Drug Administration, identified the increase number and composition of each individual cost of a clinical trial research funds which including clinical research coordinator service fee, investigator labor fee, subjects examination fee, subjects traffic subsidy, documents management fee, drug management fee, etc. Result The most significant appearance of increase in volume and proportion was the clinical research coordinator service fee. From the initial few to the global multicenter tumor drug clinical trials RMB31,624 or 34.92% of the proportion and domestic multicenter tumor drug clinical trials RMB16,500, accounted for 33.74%. Discussion It has become common for more money to be spent on clinical trials to be accompanied by improved quality, but the occurrence and continuous increase of clinical research coordinator service fee were divided into two aspects, On the one hand, the quality of clinical trials was promoted by the large amount of low-skill trivial work undertaken by clinical research coordinator; on the other hand, the quality of clinical trials was undermined by the fact that clinical research coordinator did too much treatment evaluation work that should have been done by the investigator. Conclusion The clinical research coordinators’ access standards, pre-employment training and examination, job and performance evaluation, in addition to the SMO specification management and avoiding malicious competition between the industry, are important factors in the quality assurance of drug clinical trials.
      PubDate: 2021-07-12
  • Improving the monitoring of chronic heart failure in Argentina: is the
           implantable pulmonary artery pressure with CardioMEMS Heart Failure System

    • Abstract: Background The CardioMEMS® sensor is a wireless pulmonary artery pressure device used for monitoring symptomatic heart failure (HF). The use of CardioMEMS was associated with a reduction of hospitalizations of HF patients, but the acquisition cost could be high in low-and-middle income countries. Evidence of cost-effectiveness is needed to help decision-makers to allocate resources according to “value for money”. This study is aimed at estimating the cost-effectiveness of CardioMEMS used in HF patients from the third-party payer perspective -Social Security (SS) and Private Sector (PS)- in Argentina. Methods A Markov model was developed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of CardioMEMS versus usual medical care over a lifetime horizon. The model was applied to a hypothetical population of patients with HF functional class III with at least one hospitalization in the previous 12 months. The main outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). To populate the model we retrieved clinical, epidemiological and utility parameters from the literature, whilst direct medical costs were estimated through a micro-costing approach (exchange rate USD 1 = ARS 76.95). Uncertainties in all parameters were assessed by deterministic, probabilistic and scenario sensitivity analysis. Results Compared with the usual medical care, CardioMEMS increased quality-adjusted life years (QALY) by 0.37 and increased costs per patient by ARS 1,081,703 for SS and ARS 919,051 for PS. The resultant ICER was ARS 2,937,756 per QALY and ARS 2,496,015 per QALY for SS and PS, respectively. ICER was most sensitive to the hazard ratio of HF hospital admission and the acquisition price of CardioMEMS. The probability that CardioMEMS is cost-effective at one (ARS 700,473), three (ARS 2,101,419,) and five (ARS 3,502,363) Gross Domestic Product per capita is 0.6, 17.9 and 64.1% for SS and 5.4, 33.3 and 73.2% for PS. Conclusions CardioMEMS was more effective and more costly than usual care in class III HF patients. Since in Argentina there is no current explicit threshold, the final decision to determine its cost-effectiveness will depend on the willingness-to-pay for QALYs in each health subsector.
      PubDate: 2021-07-09
  • Health technology assessment in sub-Saharan Africa: a descriptive analysis
           and narrative synthesis

    • Abstract: Background Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are moving towards universal health coverage. The process of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) can support decisions relating to benefit package design and service coverage. HTA involves institutional cooperation with agreed methods and procedural standards. We systematically reviewed the literature on policies and capacity building to support HTA institutionalisation in SSA. Methods We systematically reviewed the literature by searching major databases (PubMed, Embase, etc.) until June 2019 using terms considering three aspects: HTA; health policy, decision making; and SSA. We quantitatively extracted and descriptively analysed content and conducted a narrative synthesis eliciting themes from the selected literature, which varied in study type and apporach. Results Half of the 49 papers identified were primary research studies and mostly qualitative. Five countries were represented in six of ten studies; South Africa, Ghana, Uganda, Cameroon, and Ethiopia. Half of first authors were from SSA. Most informants were policy makers. Five themes emerged: (1) use of HTA; (2) decision-making in HTA; (3) values and criteria for setting priority areas in HTA; (4) involving stakeholders in HTA; and (5) specific examples of progress in HTA in SSA. The first one was the main theme where there was little use of evidence and research in making policy. The awareness of HTA and economic evaluation was low, with inadequate expertise and a lack of local data and tools. Conclusions Despite growing interest in HTA in SSA countries, awareness remains low and HTA-related activities are uncoordinated and often disconnected from policy. Further training and skills development are needed, firmly linked to a strategy focusing on strengthening within-country partnerships, particularly among researchers and policy makers. The international community has an important role here by supporting policy- relevant technical assistance, highlighting that sustainable financing demands evidence-based processes for effective resource allocation, and catalysing knowledge-sharing opportunities among countries facing similar challenges.
      PubDate: 2021-07-07
  • Assessing the performance of health technology assessment (HTA) agencies:
           developing a multi-country, multi-stakeholder, and multi-dimensional
           framework to explore mechanisms of impact

    • Abstract: Background Health technology assessment (HTA) agencies have an important role to play in managing the rising demands on health systems. However, creating and running such agencies potentially diverts resources from frontline services. A large number of studies address the question of ‘what is the impact of HTA'’. Several points of heterogeneity in this literature include: purpose of the study, definition of HTA, definition of impact, and scope and rigour of evaluations. Our study seeks to address several limitations in this literature. This study aims to explore the mechanisms of impact of an HTA agency. In doing so, we consider HTA as an institution rather than a knowledge product to build an impact evaluation framework from an international, multi-stakeholder and multi-dimensional perspective. Methods We conducted 9 key informant interviews with experts from the international HTA community. We addressed several questions, informed by existing frameworks of impact within the literature, to understand their perspectives on the mechanisms of impact of an HTA agency. We analyse data using logic modelling and impact mapping, as tools to understand and visualise mechanisms of change. Findings Our impact mapping highlights several distinct, but not necessarily mutually exclusive, mechanisms through which the overall impact of an HTA agency is achieved. These are: the effective conduct of HTA studies; effective use of HTA in agenda-setting and policy formulation processes; effective engagement and external communications; good institutional reputation and fit within the healthcare and policy-making system; effective use of HTA as a tool for the negotiation of health technology prices; and the effective implementation of policy change regarding health technologies. We also identify indicators of these effects. Conclusions Our findings and resulting evaluation framework complement and add to existing literature by offering a new perspective on the mechanisms by which HTA agencies generate impact. This new perspective considers HTA as an institution rather than a knowledge product, is international, multi-dimensional, and includes multi-stakeholder views. We hope the analysis will be useful to countries interested in managing HTA performance.
      PubDate: 2021-07-02
  • Predicting positive organizational behavior based on structural and
           psychological empowerment among nurses

    • Abstract: Background Positive Organizational Behavior (POB) as an application of positive psychology provides the opportunity to nurses to deliver an effective and high-quality service. This study aims to predict positive organizational behavior based on structural and psychological empowerment among Nurses. Method In this descriptive-analytical study, the selected population was the nurses working in university hospitals affiliated to Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, of which 152 people were selected using quota sampling strategy and according to the set entry criteria. The research data were collected using the standard questionnaires of Kanter’s Structural Empowerment, Spreitzer’s Psychological Empowerment, and Luthans’ Positive Organizational Behavior, and were then entered into SPSS16 software. Results There are significant and direct relationships between the elements of structural empowerment with positive organizational behavior (r = 1.496), and psychological empowerment with positive organizational behavior (r = 1.379). Overall structural and psychological empowerment criteria predict 29% of variance in positive organizational behavior among nurses. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of structural and psychological empowerment as strong predictors for positive organizational behavior.
      PubDate: 2021-07-02
  • Cost Utility of cognition-enhancing interventions for individuals with
           first-episode psychosis: a naturalistic evaluation

    • Abstract: Background Although effective treatments are available to address the cognitive deficits experienced by individuals with first-episode psychosis, provision of such treatments within Coordinated Specialty Care (CSC) programs is rare. One factor that may contribute to this is uncertainty about the cost implications of providing cognitive-enhancing treatments within the American mental healthcare system. The aim of this study is to complete a naturalistic evaluation of the cost utility of incorporating two different cognitive-enhancing interventions within an American CSC program. Methods Participants included 66, predominately white (75.38%), individuals with first-episode psychosis (19 women and 47 men) with a mean age of 22.71 years. Quality adjusted life years (QALYs) and cost of care were tracked among these individuals during their participation in a CSC program. These data were compared among three groups of participants during their first six months of care: (i) individuals who participated in metacognitive remediation therapy (MCR), (ii) individuals who participated in computerized cognitive remediation (CCR), and (iii) individuals who participated in no cognitive-enhancing intervention. Results Participation in MCR, but not CCR, was associated with larger gains in QALYs than participation in no cognitive-enhancing intervention within a CSC program. Moreover, data support the cost utility of MCR as compared to CCR or no-cognitive enhancing intervention within a CSC program. Conversely, CCR did not appear to be a cost-effective addition to CSC services. Conclusions Our results highlight the potential cost utility of incorporating MCR within CSC programs for individuals with first-episode psychosis. However, given study limitations, these results should be interpreted cautiously until replicated by large, randomized controlled trials. Trial Registration Identifier NCT01570972, registered April 4, 2012, Retrospectively registered,'term=breitborde&draw=2&rank=6.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
  • Cost-effectiveness analysis of oral nutritional supplements with
           nutritional counselling in head and neck cancer patients undergoing

    • Abstract: Objective There is limited evidence regarding the economic effects of nutrition support in cancer patients. This study aims at investigating the cost-effectiveness profile of systematic oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) and receiving nutritional counseling. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis based on a RCT was performed to estimate direct medical costs, life years gained (LYG) and Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALY) for nutritional counseling with or without ONS at 5-month and 6-year follow up time. Value of information analysis was performed to value the expected gain from reducing uncertainty through further data collection. Results ONS with nutritional counseling produced higher QALY than nutritional counseling alone (0.291 ± 0.087 vs 0.288 ± 0.087), however the difference was not significant (0.0027, P = 0.84). Mean costs were €987.60 vs €996.09, respectively in the treatment and control group (-€8.96, P = 0.98). The Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) was -€3,277/QALY, with 55.4% probabilities of being cost-effective at a cost-effectiveness threshold of €30,000/QALY. The Expected Incremental Benefit was €95.16 and the Population Expected Value of Perfect Information was €8.6 million, implying that additional research is likely to be worthwhile. At a median 6-year follow up, the treatment group had a significantly better survival rate when adjusting for late effect (P = 0.039). Conclusion Our findings provide the first evidence to inform decisions about funding and reimbursement of ONS in combination with nutritional counseling in HNC patients undergoing RT. ONS may improve quality of cancer care at no additional costs, however further research on the cost-effectiveness of nutritional supplementation is recommended. Trial Registration: NCT02055833. Registered 5th February 2014
      PubDate: 2021-06-15
  • Cost-effectiveness analysis of nonoperative management versus open and
           laparoscopic surgery for uncomplicated acute appendicitis in Colombia

    • Abstract: Background Traditionally, uncomplicated acute appendicitis (AA) has been treated with appendectomy. However, the surgical alternatives might carry out significant complications, impaired quality of life, and higher costs than nonoperative treatment. Consequently, it is necessary to evaluate the different therapeutic alternatives' cost-effectiveness in patients diagnosed with uncomplicated appendicitis. Methods We performed a model-based cost-effectiveness analysis comparing nonoperative management (NOM) with open appendectomy (OA) and laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) in patients otherwise healthy adults aged 18–60 years with a diagnosis of uncomplicated AA from the payer´s perspective at the secondary and tertiary health care level. The time horizon was 5 years. A discount rate of 5% was applied to both costs and outcomes. The health outcomes were quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Costs were identified, quantified, and valorized from a payer perspective; therefore, only direct health costs were included. An incremental analysis was estimated to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). In addition, the net monetary benefit (NMB) was calculated for each alternative using a willingness to pay lower than one gross domestic product. A deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed. Methods We performed a model-based cost-effectiveness analysis comparing nonoperative management (NOM) with open appendectomy (OA) and laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) in patients otherwise healthy adults aged 18–60 years with a diagnosis of uncomplicated AA from the payer’s perspective at the secondary and tertiary health care level. The time horizon was five years. A discount rate of 5% was applied to both costs and outcomes. The health outcomes were quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Costs were identified, quantified, and valorized from a payer perspective; therefore, only direct health costs were included. An incremental analysis was estimated to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). In addition, the net monetary benefit (NMB) was calculated for each alternative using a willingness to pay lower than one gross domestic product. A deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed. Results LA presents a lower cost ($363 ± 35) than OA ($384 ± 41) and NOM ($392 ± 44). NOM exhibited higher QALYs (3.3332 ± 0.0276) in contrast with LA (3.3310 ± 0.057) and OA (3.3261 ± 0.0707). LA dominated the OA. The ICER between LA and NOM was $24,000/QALY. LA has a 52% probability of generating the highest NMB versus its counterparts, followed by NOM (30%) and OA (18%). There is a probability of 0.69 that laparoscopy generates more significant benefit than medical management. The mean value of that incremental NMB would be $93.7 per patient. Conclusions LA is a cost-effectiveness alternative in the management of patients with uncomplicated AA. Besides, LA has a high probability of producing more significant monetary benefits than NOM and OA from the payer’s perspective in the Colombian health system.
      PubDate: 2021-06-10
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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