Publisher: BMC (Biomed Central)   (Total: 308 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 308 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Neuropathologica Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.683, CiteScore: 5)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.655, CiteScore: 1)
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.224, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Simulation     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.575, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.08, CiteScore: 2)
Algorithms for Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.333, CiteScore: 2)
Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.732, CiteScore: 2)
Alzheimer's Research & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.449, CiteScore: 6)
Animal Biotelemetry     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.067, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Diseases     Open Access  
Animal Microbiome     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.104, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of General Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.784, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Innovation and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.328, CiteScore: 1)
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.573, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Physiotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Archives of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.244, CiteScore: 3)
Arthritis Research & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.154, CiteScore: 4)
Asthma Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Basic and Clinical Andrology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.564, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioral and Brain Functions     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 3)
Big Data Analytics     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
BioData Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.982, CiteScore: 2)
Bioelectronic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access   (SJR: 1.352, CiteScore: 4)
Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.654, CiteScore: 2)
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.694, CiteScore: 3)
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.902, CiteScore: 4)
Biomarker Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.735, CiteScore: 3)
Biomedical Dermatology     Open Access  
BioMedical Engineering OnLine     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 2)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.416, CiteScore: 1)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.899, CiteScore: 6)
BMC Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.708, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 216, SJR: 1.479, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 63, SJR: 3.842, CiteScore: 5)
BMC Biomedical Engineering     Open Access  
BMC Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.464, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
BMC Clinical Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.43, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.076, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 1)
BMC Endocrine Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.965, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Energy     Open Access  
BMC Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 1.656, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Family Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.137, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Gastroenterology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.231, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.16, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 92, SJR: 2.11, CiteScore: 4)
BMC Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.257, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Health Services Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.151, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.545, CiteScore: 1)
BMC Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.993, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.576, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Intl. Health and Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.765, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.016, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.688, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Medical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Medical Research Methodology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.221, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 4.219, CiteScore: 7)
BMC Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.242, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Molecular and Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.277, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 207, SJR: 1.216, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.098, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.12, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
BMC Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
BMC Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.921, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.105, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.785, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.936, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Plant Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.427, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.302, CiteScore: 1)
BMC Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.346, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.817, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 229, SJR: 1.337, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.373, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Research Notes     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.691, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.926, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Structural Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.024, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.693, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.853, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.934, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.931, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Breast Cancer Research     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.026, CiteScore: 6)
Burns & Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
CABI Agriculture and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cancer & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cancer Cell Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.13, CiteScore: 3)
Cancer Communications     Open Access  
Cancer Convergence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Cancer Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.168, CiteScore: 4)
Cancers of the Head & Neck     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.977, CiteScore: 2)
Cardio-Oncology     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Diabetology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.157, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
Cell Communication and Signaling     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.211, CiteScore: 4)
Cell Division     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.445, CiteScore: 4)
Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cerebellum & Ataxias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemistry Central J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 3)
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.901, CiteScore: 2)
Chinese Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.57, CiteScore: 2)
Chinese Neurosurgical J.     Open Access  
Chiropractic & Manual Therapies     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.599, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical and Molecular Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.933, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Clinical Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.435, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.851, CiteScore: 3)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
COPD Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.888, CiteScore: 2)
Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 82, SJR: 2.48, CiteScore: 5)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Prognostic Research     Open Access  
Diagnostic Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Disaster and Military Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Emerging Themes in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.003, CiteScore: 2)
Energy, Sustainability and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.662, CiteScore: 4)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.5, CiteScore: 1)
Environmental Microbiome     Open Access   (SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Epigenetics & Chromatin     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.767, CiteScore: 5)
European J. of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.55, CiteScore: 1)
European Review of Aging and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 4)
Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.98, CiteScore: 3)
Experimental Hematology & Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 2)
ExRNA     Open Access  
Eye and Vision     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fertility Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair     Open Access   (SJR: 1.531, CiteScore: 4)
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.199, CiteScore: 0)
Fluids and Barriers of the CNS     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.054, CiteScore: 5)
Frontiers in Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.597, CiteScore: 3)
Genes and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.516, CiteScore: 1)
Genetics Selection Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.745, CiteScore: 4)
Genome Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Genome Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 4.537, CiteScore: 7)
Global Health Research and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.262, CiteScore: 2)
Gut Pathogens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.066, CiteScore: 3)
Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Harm Reduction J.     Open Access   (SJR: 1.445, CiteScore: 3)
Head & Face Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.62, CiteScore: 2)
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.069, CiteScore: 3)
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 2)
Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.848, CiteScore: 2)
Hereditas     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.278, CiteScore: 1)
Human Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.501, CiteScore: 3)
Human Resources for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.301, CiteScore: 2)
Immunity & Ageing     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.218, CiteScore: 3)
Implementation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.443, CiteScore: 4)
Implementation Science Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Infectious Agents and Cancer     Open Access   (SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases of Poverty     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.212, CiteScore: 3)
Inflammation and Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. Breastfeeding J.     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.913, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.626, CiteScore: 6)
Intl. J. of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.385, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Mental Health Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.721, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Retina and Vitreous     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Investigative Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.809, CiteScore: 3)
Irish Veterinary J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.657, CiteScore: 1)
Israel J. of Health Policy Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Italian J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.685, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Angiogenesis Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Biomarker Research
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2050-7771
Published by BMC (Biomed Central) Homepage  [308 journals]
  • Novel strategies for immuno-oncology breakthroughs with cell therapy

    • Abstract: Cell therapy has evolved rapidly in the past several years with more than 250 clinical trials ongoing around the world. While more indications of cellular therapy with chimeric antigen receptor – engineered T cells (CAR-T) are approved for hematologic malignancies, new concepts and strategies of cellular therapy for solid tumors are emerging and are discussed. These developments include better selections of targets by shifting from tumor-associated antigens to personalized tumor-specific neoantigens, an enhancement of T cell trafficking by breaking the stromal barriers, and a rejuvenation of exhausted T cells by targeting immunosuppressive mechanisms in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Despite significant remaining challenges, we believe that cell therapy will once again lead and revolutionize cancer immunotherapy before long because of the maturation of technologies in T cell engineering, target selection and T cell delivery. This review highlighted the recent progresses reported at the 2020 China Immuno-Oncology Workshop co-organized by the Chinese American Hematologist and Oncologist Network (CAHON), the China National Medical Product Administration (NMPA), and Tsinghua University.
      PubDate: 2021-07-31
       
  • Biomarkers and cell-based models to predict the outcome of neoadjuvant
           therapy for rectal cancer patients

    • Abstract: Rectal cancer constitutes approximately one-third of all colorectal cancers and contributes to considerable mortality globally. In contrast to colon cancer, the standard treatment for localized rectal cancer often involves neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Tumour response rates to treatment show substantial inter-patient heterogeneity, indicating a need for treatment stratification. Consequently researchers have attempted to establish new means for predicting tumour response in order to assist in treatment decisions. In this review we have summarized published findings regarding potential biomarkers to predict neoadjuvant treatment response for rectal cancer tumours. In addition, we describe cell-based models that can be utilized both for treatment prediction and for studying the complex mechanisms involved.
      PubDate: 2021-07-28
       
  • Targeting neoantigens for cancer immunotherapy

    • Abstract: Neoantigens, a type of tumor-specific antigens derived from non-synonymous mutations, have recently been characterized as attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy. Owing to the development of next-generation sequencing and utilization of machine-learning algorithms, it has become feasible to computationally predict neoantigens by depicting genetic alterations, aberrant post-transcriptional mRNA processing and abnormal mRNA translation events within tumor tissues. Consequently, neoantigen-based therapies such as cancer vaccines have been widely tested in clinical trials and have demonstrated promising safety and efficacy, opening a new era for cancer immunotherapy. We systematically summarize recent advances in the identification of both personalized and public neoantigens, neoantigen formulations and neoantigen-based clinical trials in this review. Moreover, we discuss future techniques and strategies for neoantigen-based cancer treatment either as a monotherapy or as a combination therapy with radiotherapy, chemotherapy or immune checkpoint inhibitors.
      PubDate: 2021-07-28
       
  • Antiangiogenic therapy reverses the immunosuppressive breast cancer
           microenvironment

    • Abstract: Tumor angiogenesis induces local hypoxia and recruits immunosuppressive cells, whereas hypoxia subsequently promotes tumor angiogenesis. Immunotherapy efficacy depends on the accumulation and activity of tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs). Antangiogenic therapy could improve local perfusion, relieve tumor microenvironment (TME) hypoxia, and reverse the immunosuppressive state. Combining antiangiogenic therapy with immunotherapy might represent a promising option for the treatment of breast cancer. This article discusses the immunosuppressive characteristics of the breast cancer TME and outlines the interaction between the tumor vasculature and the immune system. Combining antiangiogenic therapy with immunotherapy could interrupt abnormal tumor vasculature-immunosuppression crosstalk, increase effector immune cell infiltration, improve immunotherapy effectiveness, and reduce the risk of immune-related adverse events. In addition, we summarize the preclinical research and ongoing clinical research related to the combination of antiangiogenic therapy with immunotherapy, discuss the underlying mechanisms, and provide a view for future developments. The combination of antiangiogenic therapy and immunotherapy could be a potential therapeutic strategy for treatment of breast cancer to promote tumor vasculature normalization and increase the efficiency of immunotherapy.
      PubDate: 2021-07-22
       
  • Advances in chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy for B-cell
           non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    • Abstract: B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) is a group of heterogeneous disease which remains incurable despite developments of standard chemotherapy regimens and new therapeutic agents in decades. Some individuals could have promising response to standard therapy while others are unresponsive to standard chemotherapy or relapse after autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (ASCT), which indicates the necessity to develop novel therapies for refractory or relapsed B-NHLs. In recent years, a novel cell therapy, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy (CAR-T), was invented to overcome the limitation of traditional treatments. Patients with aggressive B-NHL are considered for CAR-T cell therapy when they have progressive lymphoma after second-line chemotherapy, relapse after ASCT, or require a third-line therapy. Clinical trials of anti-CD19 CAR-T cell therapy have manifested encouraging efficacy in refractory or relapsed B-NHL. However, adverse effects of this cellular therapy including cytokine release syndrome, neurotoxicity, tumor lysis syndrome and on-target, off-tumor toxicities should attract our enough attention despite the great anti-tumor effects of CAR-T cell therapy. Although CAR-T cell therapy has shown remarkable results in patients with B-NHL, the outcomes of patients with B-NHL were inferior to patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The inferior response rate may be associated with physical barrier of lymphoma, tumor microenvironment and low quality of CAR-T cells manufactured from B-NHL patients. Besides, some patients relapsed after anti-CD19 CAR-T cell therapy, which possibly were due to limited CAR-T cells persistence, CD19 antigen escape or antigen down-regulation. Quite a few new antigen-targeted CAR-T products and new-generation CAR-T, for example, CD20-targeted CAR-T, CD79b-targeted CAR-T, CD37-targeted CAR-T, multi-antigen-targeted CAR-T, armored CAR-T and four-generation CAR-T are developing rapidly to figure out these deficiencies.
      PubDate: 2021-07-13
       
  • MicroRNA-based signatures impacting clinical course and biology of ovarian
           cancer: a miRNOmics study

    • Abstract: Background In Western countries, ovarian cancer (OC) still represents the leading cause of gynecological cancer-related deaths, despite the remarkable gains in therapeutical options. Novel biomarkers of early diagnosis, prognosis definition and prediction of treatment outcomes are of pivotal importance. Prior studies have shown the potentials of micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) as biomarkers for OC and other cancers. Methods We focused on the prognostic and/or predictive potential of miRNAs in OC by conducting a comprehensive array profiling of miRNA expression levels in ovarian tissue samples from 17 non-neoplastic controls, and 60 tumor samples from OC patients treated at the Regina Elena National Cancer Institute (IRE). A set of 54 miRNAs with differential expression in tumor versus normal samples (T/N-deregulated) was identified in the IRE cohort and validated against data from the Cancer Genoma Atlas (TCGA) related to 563 OC patients and 8 non-neoplastic controls. The prognostic/predictive role of the selected 54 biomarkers was tested in reference to survival endpoints and platinum resistance (P-res). Results In the IRE cohort, downregulation of the 2 miRNA-signature including miR-99a-5p and miR-320a held a negative prognostic relevance, while upregulation of miR-224-5p was predictive of less favorable event free survival (EFS) and P-res. Data from the TCGA showed that downregulation of 5 miRNAs, i.e., miR-150, miR-30d, miR-342, miR-424, and miR-502, was associated with more favorable EFS and overall survival outcomes, while miR-200a upregulation was predictive of P-res. The 9 miRNAs globally identified were all included into a single biologic signature, which was tested in enrichment analysis using predicted/validated miRNA target genes, followed by network representation of the miRNA-mRNA interactions. Conclusions Specific dysregulated microRNA sets in tumor tissue showed predictive/prognostic value in OC, and resulted in a promising biological signature for this disease.
      PubDate: 2021-07-13
       
  • The lncRNA TEX41 is upregulated in pediatric B-Cells Acute Lymphoblastic
           Leukemia and it is necessary for leukemic cell growth

    • Abstract: Background Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent a diverse class of RNAs involved in the regulation of various physiological and pathological cellular processes, including transcription, intracellular trafficking, and chromosome remodeling. LncRNAs deregulation was linked to the development and progression of various cancer types, such as acute leukemias. In this context, lncRNAs were also evaluated as a novel class of biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Here, we analyzed TEX41 in childhood B cell acute lymphoid leukemia (B-ALL). Methods Total RNA was extracted from pediatric B-ALL patients (at diagnosis and after induction of therapy) and from healthy subjects. Total RNA was also extracted from different leukemia cell line models. The expression level of TEX41 was evaluated by q-RT-PCR. Also, the dataset deposited by St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital was consulted. Furthermore, the silencing of TEX41 in RS4;11 cell line was obtained by 2′-Deoxy, 2′Fluroarabino Nucleic Acids (2′F-ANAs) Oligonucleotides, and the effect on cell proliferation was evaluated. Cell cycle progression and its regulators were analyzed by flow cytometry and immunoblotting. Results We exploited the St Jude Cloud database and found that TEX41 is a lncRNA primarily expressed in the case of B-ALL (n = 79) while its expression levels are low/absent for T-cell ALL (n = 25) and acute myeloid leukemia (n = 38). The association of TEX41 with B-ALL was confirmed by real-time PCR assays. TEX41 disclosed increased expression levels in bone marrow from patients with B-ALL at diagnosis, while its expression levels became low or absent when retested in Bone Marrow cells of the same patient after 1 month of induction therapy. Also, silencing experiments performed on RS4;11 cells showed that TEX41 downregulation impaired in vitro leukemic cell growth determining their arrest in the G2-M phase and the deregulation of cell cycle proteins. Conclusions Our findings highlight that TEX41 is an upregulated lncRNA in the case of B-ALL and this feature makes it a novel potential biomarker for the diagnosis of this leukemia subtype in pediatric patients. Finally, TEX41 expression seems to be critical for leukemic proliferation, indeed, silencing experiments targeting TEX41 mRNA in the RS4;11 cell line hampered in vitro cell growth and cell cycle progression, by inducing G2-M arrest as confirmed propidium iodide staining and by the upregulation of p53 and p21 proteins.
      PubDate: 2021-07-07
       
  • Integration of tumor inflammation, cell proliferation, and traditional
           biomarkers improves prediction of immunotherapy resistance and response

    • Abstract: Background Contemporary to the rapidly evolving landscape of cancer immunotherapy is the equally changing understanding of immune tumor microenvironments (TMEs) which is crucial to the success of these therapies. Their reliance on a robust host immune response necessitates clinical grade measurements of immune TMEs at diagnosis. In this study, we describe a stable tumor immunogenic profile describing immune TMEs in multiple tumor types with ability to predict clinical benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Methods A tumor immunogenic signature (TIGS) was derived from targeted RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and gene expression analysis of 1323 clinical solid tumor cases spanning 35 histologies using unsupervised analysis. TIGS correlation with ICI response and survival was assessed in a retrospective cohort of NSCLC, melanoma and RCC tumor blocks, alone and combined with TMB, PD-L1 IHC and cell proliferation biomarkers. Results Unsupervised clustering of RNA-seq profiles uncovered a 161 gene signature where T cell and B cell activation, IFNg, chemokine, cytokine and interleukin pathways are over-represented. Mean expression of these genes produced three distinct TIGS score categories: strong (n = 384/1323; 29.02%), moderate (n = 354/1323; 26.76%), and weak (n = 585/1323; 44.22%). Strong TIGS tumors presented an improved ICI response rate of 37% (30/81); with highest response rate advantage occurring in NSCLC (ORR = 36.6%; 16/44; p = 0.051). Similarly, overall survival for strong TIGS tumors trended upward (median = 25 months; p = 0.19). Integrating the TIGS score categories with neoplastic influence quantified via cell proliferation showed highly proliferative and strong TIGS tumors correlate with significantly higher ICI ORR than poorly proliferative and weak TIGS tumors [14.28%; p = 0.0006]. Importantly, we noted that strong TIGS and highly [median = not achieved; p = 0.025] or moderately [median = 16.2 months; p = 0.025] proliferative tumors had significantly better survival compared to weak TIGS, highly proliferative tumors [median = 7.03 months]. Importantly, TIGS discriminates subpopulations of potential ICI responders that were considered negative for response by TMB and PD-L1. Conclusions TIGS is a comprehensive and informative measurement of immune TME that effectively characterizes host immune response to ICIs in multiple tumors. The results indicate that when combined with PD-L1, TMB and cell proliferation, TIGS provides greater context of both immune and neoplastic influences on the TME for implementation into clinical practice.
      PubDate: 2021-07-07
       
  • Epidemiological trends of women’s cancers from 1990 to 2019 at the
           global, regional, and national levels: a population-based study

    • Abstract: Background Every year around the world, more than 2 million women are diagnosed with breast cancer and genital tract cancers. However, there are rare studies comprehensively describing the global and regional trends of incidence and mortality of women’s cancers. Methods To study the burden and trend of women’s cancers, we conducted this cross-sectional study based on the epidemiologic data of Global Burden of Disease 2019. In this study, female patients with breast cancer, cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, and uterine cancer worldwide from 1990 to 2019 were involved. The incidence, death, and disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) were used to measure the outcomes of women’s cancers. The estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) was calculated to assess the changing trend of cancer burden. Results Among the four women’s cancers, the burden of female breast cancer was highest. During the past 30 years, the incidence, death, and DALY of female breast cancer kept increasing worldwide. In most regions especially developing countries, cervical cancer was the second most common women’s cancer. At the same time, ovarian cancer and uterine cancer occurred less frequently. Generally, the age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and uterine cancer were positively correlated to sociodemographic index (SDI) value. In contrast, the ASIR of cervical cancer was negatively correlated to SDI value. Conclusions Our study indicates that the incidence and mortality of women’s cancers have geographical variations and change along with SDI value. The results might be helpful to policy-makers to allocate healthy resources to control women’s cancers.
      PubDate: 2021-07-07
       
  • Inflammation-related genes S100s, RNASE3, and CYBB and risk of leukemic
           transformation in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome with
           myelofibrosis

    • Abstract: Myelodysplastic syndrome with myelofibrosis (MDS-MF) has been associated with an inferior prognosis compared with MDS without MF. However, MDS-MF is not listed independently as a subtype of MDS, and its clinical and genetic characteristics remain poorly understood. We retrospectively compared 53 patients with MDS-MF (44 MF grade 1/MF1; 9 MF grade 2–3/MF2 − 3) and 31 with de novo MDS without MF (MDS). The leukemic transformation risks of both MDS-MF2 − 3 and MDS-MF1 were increased compared with the MDS group. To identify the potential mechanisms responsible for the leukemic transformation of MDS-MF, we performed single-cell sequencing for one MDS-MF2 − 3 patient before and after leukemic transformation to explore the variations in gene expression levels. In addition to upgraded expression levels of acute myeloid leukemia-related genes during leukemic transformation, expression levels of some inflammation-related genes (such as S100s, RNASE3, and CYBB) were also increased, and inflammation-related pathways were up-regulated. These results suggest that inflammation-related genes and pathways may play an important role in the leukemic transformation of MDS-MF.
      PubDate: 2021-07-02
       
  • Imaging biomarkers for evaluating tumor response: RECIST and beyond

    • Abstract: Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) is the gold standard for assessment of treatment response in solid tumors. Morphologic change of tumor size evaluated by RECIST is often correlated with survival length and has been considered as a surrogate endpoint of therapeutic efficacy. However, the detection of morphologic change alone may not be sufficient for assessing response to new anti-cancer medication in all solid tumors. During the past fifteen years, several molecular-targeted therapies and immunotherapies have emerged in cancer treatment which work by disrupting signaling pathways and inhibited cell growth. Tumor necrosis or lack of tumor progression is associated with a good therapeutic response even in the absence of tumor shrinkage. Therefore, the use of unmodified RECIST criteria to estimate morphological changes of tumor alone may not be sufficient to estimate tumor response for these new anti-cancer drugs. Several studies have reported the low reliability of RECIST in evaluating treatment response in different tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, brain glioma, bone metastasis, and lymphoma. There is an increased need for new medical imaging biomarkers, considering the changes in tumor viability, metabolic activity, and attenuation, which are related to early tumor response. Promising imaging techniques, beyond RECIST, include dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion-weight imaging (DWI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). This review outlines the current RECIST with their limitations and the new emerging concepts of imaging biomarkers in oncology.
      PubDate: 2021-07-02
       
  • The roles of ribosomal proteins in nasopharyngeal cancer: culprits,
           sentinels or both

    • Abstract: Ribosomal protein genes encode products that are essential for cellular protein biosynthesis and are major components of ribosomes. Canonically, they are involved in the complex system of ribosome biogenesis pivotal to the catalysis of protein translation. Amid this tightly organised process, some ribosomal proteins have unique spatial and temporal physiological activity giving rise to their extra-ribosomal functions. Many of these extra-ribosomal roles pertain to cellular growth and differentiation, thus implicating the involvement of some ribosomal proteins in organogenesis. Consequently, dysregulated functions of these ribosomal proteins could be linked to oncogenesis or neoplastic transformation of human cells. Their suspected roles in carcinogenesis have been reported but not specifically explained for malignancy of the nasopharynx. This is despite the fact that literature since one and half decade ago have documented the association of ribosomal proteins to nasopharyngeal cancer. In this review, we explain the association and contribution of dysregulated expression among a subset of ribosomal proteins to nasopharyngeal oncogenesis. The relationship of these ribosomal proteins with the cancer are explained. We provide information to indicate that the dysfunctional extra-ribosomal activities of specific ribosomal proteins are tightly involved with the molecular pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal cancer albeit mechanisms yet to be precisely defined. The complete knowledge of this will impact future applications in the effective management of nasopharyngeal cancer.
      PubDate: 2021-06-30
       
  • The contribution of single-cell analysis of acute leukemia in the
           therapeutic strategy

    • Abstract: After decades during which the treatment of acute myeloblastic leukemia was limited to variations around a skeleton of cytarabine/anthracycline, targeted therapies appeared. These therapies, first based on monoclonal antibodies, also rely on specific inhibitors of various molecular abnormalities. A significant but modest prognosis improvement has been observed thanks to these new treatments that are limited by a high rate of relapse, due to the intrinsic chemo and immune-resistance of leukemia stem cell, together with the acquisition of these resistances by clonal evolution. Relapses are also influenced by the equilibrium between the pro or anti-tumor signals from the bone marrow stromal microenvironment and immune effectors. What should be the place of the targeted therapeutic options in light of the tumor heterogeneity inherent to leukemia and the clonal drift of which this type of tumor is capable' Novel approaches by single cell analysis and next generation sequencing precisely define clonal heterogeneity and evolution, leading to a personalized and time variable adapted treatment. Indeed, the evolution of leukemia, either spontaneous or under therapy selection pressure, is a very complex phenomenon. The model of linear evolution is to be forgotten because single cell analysis of samples at diagnosis and at relapse show that tumor escape to therapy occurs from ancestral as well as terminal clones. The determination by the single cell technique of the trajectories of the different tumor sub-populations allows the identification of clones that accumulate factors of resistance to chemo/immunotherapy (“pan-resistant clones”), making possible to choose the combinatorial agents most likely to eradicate these cells. In addition, the single cell technique identifies the nature of each cell and can analyze, on the same sample, both the tumor cells and their environment. It is thus possible to evaluate the populations of immune effectors (T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells) for the leukemia stress-induced alteration of their functions. Finally, the single cells techniques are an invaluable tool for evaluation of the measurable residual disease since not only able to quantify but also to determine the most appropriate treatment according to the sensitivity profile to immuno-chemotherapy of remaining leukemic cells.
      PubDate: 2021-06-27
       
  • Immunotherapy in endometrial cancer: rationale, practice and perspectives

    • Abstract: Tumor immunotherapy has attracted more and more attention nowadays, and multiple clinical trials have confirmed its effect in a variety of solid tumors. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), cancer vaccines, adoptive cell transfer (ACT), and lymphocyte-promoting cytokines are the main immunotherapy methods. Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most frequent tumors in women and the prognosis of recurrent or metastatic EC is poor. Since molecular classification has been applied to EC, immunotherapy for different EC subtypes (especially POLE and MSI-H) has gradually attracted attention. In this review, we focus on the expression and molecular basis of the main biomarkers in the immunotherapy of EC firstly, as well as their clinical application significance and limitations. Blocking tumor immune checkpoints is one of the most effective strategies for cancer treatment in recent years, and has now become the focus in the field of tumor research and treatment. We summarized clinical date of planned and ongoing clinical trials and introduced other common immunotherapy methods in EC, such as cancer vaccine and ACT. Hormone aberrations, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and p53 mutant and that affect the immunotherapy of endometrial cancer will also be discussed in this review.
      PubDate: 2021-06-16
       
  • SMAD1 as a biomarker and potential therapeutic target in drug-resistant
           multiple myeloma

    • Abstract: Background SMAD1, a central mediator in TGF-β signaling, is involved in a broad range of biological activities including cell growth, apoptosis, development and immune response, and is implicated in diverse type of malignancies. Whether SMAD1 plays an important role in multiple myeloma (MM) pathogenesis and can serve as a therapeutic target are largely unknown. Methods Myeloma cell lines and primary MM samples were used. Cell culture, cytotoxicity and apoptosis assay, siRNA transfection, Western blot, RT-PCR, Soft-agar colony formation, and migration assay, Chromatin immunoprecipitation (Chip), animal xenograft model studies and statistical analysis were applied in this study. Results We demonstrate that SMAD1 is highly expressed in myeloma cells of MM patients with advanced stages or relapsed disease, and is associated with significantly shorter progression-free and overall survivals. Mechanistically, we show that SMAD1 is required for TGFβ-mediated proliferation in MM via an ID1/p21/p27 pathway. TGF-β also enhanced TNFα-Induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8) expression and inhibited apoptosis through SMAD1-mediated induction of NF-κB1. Accordingly, depletion of SMAD1 led to downregulation of NF-κB1 and TNFAIP8, resulting in caspase-8-induced apoptosis. In turn, inhibition of NF-κB1 suppressed SMAD1 and ID1 expression uncovering an autoregulatory loop. Dorsomorphin (DM), a SMAD1 inhibitor, exerted a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect on drug-resistant MM cells with minimal cytotoxicity to normal hematopoietic cells, and further synergized with the proteasomal-inhibitor bortezomib to effectively kill drug-resistant MM cells in vitro and in a myeloma xenograft model. Conclusions This study identifies SMAD1 regulation of NF-κB1/TNFAIP8 and ID1-p21/p27 as critical axes of MM drug resistance and provides a potentially new therapeutic strategy to treat drug resistance MM through targeted inhibition of SMAD1.
      PubDate: 2021-06-16
       
  • Lower BCL11B expression is associated with adverse clinical outcome for
           patients with myelodysplastic syndrome

    • Abstract: Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is an aggressive and genetically heterogeneous disease with poor prognosis. Cellular immune disorder is a common characteristic of this disease and is thought to be related to clinical outcome. Alterations in T cell clonal expansion and T cell dysfunction has been detected in MDS patients. Little is known about whether there are immune biomarkers to evaluate the T cell alterations with clinical outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated that B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 11B (BCL11B) plays an important role in regulating T cell development and proliferation. In this study, the prognostic value of BCL11B for MDS patients was explored by analyzing RNA-seq data from 270 patients in two datasets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and real-time quantitative PCR data (qRT-PCR) of 31 bone marrow (BM) samples of MDS and 6 BM samples of patients with MDS progress to secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML) from our clinical center. The results demonstrated that BCL11B is significantly down-regulated in MDS patients as compared with healthy individuals (HIs). Importantly, lower BCL11B expression was found in MDS patients who were of high/very high risk, older than 60 y, or male and patients with sAML. Furthermore, low BCL11B expression appeared to be associated with poor overall survival (OS) for MDS patients, though the data were not yet significant enough at this point. In addition, BCL11B low-expressing MDS patients had shorter restricted mean survival time (RMST) than those with high BCL11B expression. Interestingly, BCL11B positively correlated with naive and activated memory CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells, and the T cell receptor complex genes CD3E and CD3G, but it negatively correlated with regulatory T cells (Treg). Additionally, co-occurrence of low BCL11B expression and CD3E and CD3G was associated with poor OS and shorter RMST. In conclusion, lower BCL11B expression in BM samples of MDS patients was associated with adverse clinical outcome.
      PubDate: 2021-06-10
       
  • Metastasis-associated fibroblasts: an emerging target for metastatic
           cancer

    • Abstract: Metastasis suggests a poor prognosis for cancer patients, and treatment strategies for metastatic cancer are still very limited. Numerous studies have shown that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), a large component of the tumor microenvironment, contribute to tumor metastasis. Stromal fibroblasts at metastatic sites are different from CAFs within primary tumors and can be termed metastasis-associated fibroblasts (MAFs), and they also make great contributions to the establishment of metastatic lesions and the therapeutic resistance of metastatic tumors. MAFs are capable of remodeling the extracellular matrix of metastatic tumors, modulating immune cells in the tumor microenvironment, promoting angiogenesis and enhancing malignant tumor phenotypes. Thus, MAFs can help establish premetastatic niches and mediate resistance to therapeutic strategies, including immunotherapy and antiangiogenic therapy. The results of preclinical studies suggest that targeting MAFs can alleviate the progression of metastatic cancer and mitigate therapeutic resistance, indicating that MAFs are a promising target for metastatic cancer. Here, we comprehensively summarize the existing evidence on MAFs and discuss their origins, generation, functions and related therapeutic strategies in an effort to provide a better understanding of MAFs and offer treatment perspectives for metastatic cancer.
      PubDate: 2021-06-10
       
  • LncRNAs serve as novel biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of childhood
           ALL

    • Abstract: Background Although some studies have demonstrated that lncRNAs are dysregulated in hematopoietic malignancies and may regulate the progression of leukemia, the detailed mechanism underlying tumorigenesis is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate lncRNAs that are differentially expressed in childhood B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and their potential roles in the progression of childhood ALL. Methods Microarrays were used to detect differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs. Several aberrantly expressed lncRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. Leukemia-free survival was analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method with a log-rank test. The co-expression correlations of lncRNAs and mRNAs were determined by Spearman’s correlation coefficient. CCK-8 assays and flow cytometry were performed to measure cell proliferation and apoptosis. Results We revealed that many lncRNAs were abnormally expressed in B-ALL and T-ALL. LncRNA/mRNA co-expression and the gene locus network showed that dysregulated lncRNAs are involved in diverse cellular processes. We also assessed the diagnostic value of the differentially expressed lncRNAs and confirmed the optimal combination of TCONS_00026679, uc002ubt.1, ENST00000411904, and ENST00000547644 with an area under the curve of 0.9686 [95 % CI: 0.9369–1.000, P < 0.001], with 90.7 % sensitivity and 92.19 % specificity, at a cut-off point of -0.5700 to distinguish childhood B-ALL patients from T-ALL patients, implying that these specific lncRNAs may have potential to detect subsets of childhood ALL. Notably, we found that the 8-year leukemia-free survival of patients with high TCONS_00026679 (p = 0.0081), ENST00000522339 (p = 0.0484), ENST00000499583 (p = 0.0381), ENST00000457217 (p = 0.0464), and ENST00000451368 (p = 0.0298) expression levels was significantly higher than that of patients with low expression levels of these lncRNAs, while patients with high uc002ubt.1 (p = 0.0499) and ENST00000547644 (p = 0.0451) expression levels exhibited markedly shorter 8-year leukemia-free survival. In addition, some lncRNAs were found to play different roles in cell proliferation and apoptosis in T-ALL and B-ALL. Conclusions Dysregulated lncRNAs involved in different regulatory mechanisms underlying the progression of childhood T-ALL and B-ALL might serve as novel biomarkers to distinguish ALL subsets and indicate poor outcomes.
      PubDate: 2021-06-10
       
  • The REASON score: an epigenetic and clinicopathologic score to predict
           risk of poor survival in patients with early stage oral squamous cell
           carcinoma

    • Abstract: Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a capricious cancer with poor survival rates, even for early-stage patients. There is a pressing need to develop more precise risk assessment methods to appropriately tailor clinical treatment. Genome-wide association studies have not produced a viable biomarker. However, these studies are limited by using heterogeneous cohorts, not focusing on methylation although OSCC is a heavily epigenetically-regulated cancer, and not combining molecular data with clinicopathologic data for risk prediction. In this study we focused on early-stage (I/II) OSCC and created a risk score called the REASON score, which combines clinicopathologic characteristics with a 12-gene methylation signature, to predict the risk of 5-year mortality. Methods We combined data from an internal cohort (n = 515) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort (n = 58). We collected clinicopathologic data from both cohorts to derive the non-molecular portion of the REASON score. We then analyzed the TCGA cohort DNA methylation data to derive the molecular portion of the risk score. Results 5-year disease specific survival was 63% for the internal cohort and 86% for the TCGA cohort. The clinicopathologic features with the highest predictive ability among the two the cohorts were age, race, sex, tobacco use, alcohol use, histologic grade, stage, perineural invasion (PNI), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and margin status. This panel of 10 non-molecular features predicted 5-year mortality risk with a concordance (c)-index = 0.67. Our molecular panel consisted of a 12-gene methylation signature (i.e., HORMAD2, MYLK, GPR133, SOX8, TRPA1, ABCA2, HGFAC, MCPH1, WDR86, CACNA1H, RNF216, CCNJL), which had the most significant differential methylation between patients who survived vs. died by 5 years. All 12 genes have already been linked to survival in other cancers. Of the genes, only SOX8 was previously associated with OSCC; our study was the first to link the remaining 11 genes to OSCC survival. The combined molecular and non-molecular panel formed the REASON score, which predicted risk of death with a c-index = 0.915. Conclusions The REASON score is a promising biomarker to predict risk of mortality in early-stage OSCC patients. Validation of the REASON score in a larger independent cohort is warranted.
      PubDate: 2021-06-05
       
  • Key regulators of sensitivity to immunomodulatory drugs in cancer
           treatment

    • Abstract: Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) include thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide, which have shown significant efficacy in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with deletion of chromosome 5q (del(5q)) and other hematological malignancies. IMiDs hijack the CRL4CRBN ubiquitin ligase to target cellular proteins for ubiquitination and degradation, which is responsible for their clinical activity in MM and MDS with del(5q). However, intrinsic and acquired resistance frequently limit the efficacy of IMiDs. Recently, many efforts have been made to explore key regulators of IMiD sensitivity, resulting in great advances in the understanding of the regulatory networks related to this class of drugs. In this review, we describe the mechanism of IMiDs in cancer treatment and summarize the key regulators of IMiD sensitivity. Furthermore, we introduce genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screenings, through which the regulatory networks of IMiD sensitivity could be identified.
      PubDate: 2021-06-05
       
 
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