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J. of Language Teaching and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
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Journal of Language Teaching and Research
Number of Followers: 24  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1798-4769 - ISSN (Online) 2053-0684
Published by Academy Publisher Homepage  [1 journal]
  • French Teachers of English: Are They Trained to Teach English
           Pronunciation and Oral Comprehension Properly'

    • Authors: Pesty Marion
      Pages: 221 - 228
      Abstract: Many researchers agree to say that English teachers generally lack adequate skills to teach pronunciation properly (Macdonald, 2002; Chen & Goh, 2010), and that "there is a definite need for more courses for ESL teachers" (Derwing, 2010, p.27). We propose to present a survey that was conducted with 60 French primary school teachers and 71 secondary school teachers of English. The study was conducted in several private and public primary schools and high schools. Through a questionnaire, it focused on teachers’ self-efficacy (i.e their "individual beliefs about their own abilities to perform [the teaching of English pronunciation] (…) and achieve specific results" (Chen & Goh, 2010, p.333), on how the teachers working in these schools were trained (or not) to teach English pronunciation, and how they are used to working on pronunciation and oral comprehension in their classes. An analysis of the responses will make it possible to answer the following questions: what is the profile of primary school teachers and secondary school teachers in France' What are their needs and objectives' Are they capable of teaching English pronunciation efficiently and what can we objectively expect from them'
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.1302.01
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
  • Investigating the Correlation Between Students’ Reading Fluency and

    • Authors: Tadiwos Hambamo Makebo, Mebratu Mulatu Bachore, Zeleke Arficho Ayele
      Pages: 229 - 242
      Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between students' reading fluency and comprehension. It is a correlational design. A purposive sampling technique was employed to select the district, school, students, and grade level. Accordingly, 100 students participated in the study. As the research was quantitative, reading comprehension tests and comprehension-based silent reading fluency tests were applied to collect data. The data was analyzed using statistical techniques like Pearson product-moment correlation and linear regression. The findings revealed that reading accuracy level and reading rate, which are the parameters of reading fluency, were strongly correlated (r =. 885, P < 0.01) with each other. However, silent reading fluency (SRF) had a moderate correlation with reading comprehension. Moreover, the reading rate had a strong positive correlation with reading accuracy (r =.885, p < 0.01, and reading comprehension (r =.410, p<0.01). In addition, the linear regression outputs confirmed that the higher the students' reading rate and accuracy level, the higher their reading comprehension (Beta = 0.42, t = 4.53, p < 0.05).  It means that when reading rate and accuracy increase, so do their reading comprehension.  The results suggest that reading rate and accuracy levels are valid measures of reading ability when students read silently with comprehension
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.1302.02
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
  • An Investigation of the Consequences and Imperatives for the Development
           of the Problem-Solving Skill of Saudi English Major Students in Online

    • Authors: Nasser Alasmari, Fahad Alkhamees
      Pages: 243 - 252
      Abstract: Based on the claim that problem-solving is one among other indispensable skills that 21st-century learners have to acquire and develop as it helps them face the increasingly intricate academic issues, especially at the tertiary level and due to the widespread pandemic that led to the resort to online learning as the only alternative available to guarantee the continuation of the learning process, the current work investigates the imperatives and consequences of problem-solving development in an online environment among Saudi English majors. It also examines the impact of online classrooms on Saudi academic learners and the difficulties they face. Whether online learning has provided the environment for students to thrive and develop their various skills or whether it has hindered their progress and negatively increased their reliance on technology with their skills and abilities, it also looks into the academic factor and the various impacts it has on students' language learning and skill development. 30 Saudi English majors in Jeddah University, Khulais faculty, contributed to the conduct of this research, which uses a mixed-method approach to get both the breadth and depth of the research. In addition to the study's theoretical work, it also shed light on the numerous challenges and obstacles that stand in the way of problem-solving skill development among learners.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.1302.03
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
  • Communicative Skills Through Corporate Storytelling Video: Students’

    • Authors: Nor Hasni Mokhtar, Zarina Othman
      Pages: 253 - 260
      Abstract: In this era of advanced technology, students must be equipped with essential skills for success in today’s world; critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration and communication. Having a successful communication does not only refer to success in delivering information, but also how it has engaged the audience. Corporate storytelling is a communication strategy in presenting a company’s brand and values to an audience using narrative techniques. Using corporate storytelling video as an English language competency course can offer activities that assist students to use their creativity in presenting ideas and expressing opinions confidently. This paper presents students’ perception on the effectiveness of these activities in enhancing their communicative skills through a survey questionnaire. The data were obtained from 227 students who took the Corporate Storytelling course through a questionnaire survey with the inclusion of open-ended comments distributed at the end of the semester. The findings show that the students perceive the activities to have improved their reading, writing, listening, speaking skills, presentation skills, critical thinking, and creativity. It is also found that the activities have helped the students to interpret the message in the video and to give their reaction to the video. The activities are also perceived to have boosted their motivation to use English to enhance their communicative skills.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.1302.04
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
  • Reflective Teaching in EFL Online Classrooms: Teachers’ Perspective

    • Authors: Abdelrahman Abdalla Salih, Lamis Ismail Omar
      Pages: 261 - 270
      Abstract: One of the noticeable changes in the tertiary education scene is the continuous quest for quality-driven teaching and learning that prepares students for the demanding employment market. At the heart of this increasingly transformative process is competitiveness. This shifting view has made teaching a multi-faceted and dynamic process that calls upon teachers to adjust their teaching and align their pedagogical practices and decisions to emerging circumstances and challenges. Online learning has become the ‘new normal’ formula in language classes across the Sultanate of Oman due to the COVID-19 Pandemic. This paper reports (N=49) teachers’ perceived reflection and adjustment in online classes and the various strategies they adopted in higher education institutions (HEIs) in Oman. Data were collected from the responses of the participants to a semi-structured online survey. Data analysis showed that most teachers practiced reflection on action and for action more frequently while demonstrating lower awareness of reflection in action. The paper also draws on the significance of the spaces created by online teaching for reflection-driven action research to inform effective teaching for better learning experiences.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.1302.05
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
  • E-Learning During the COVID-19 Outbreak: The Effect of the Grammar
           Translation Method and the Direct Method on Students’ English Competence

    • Authors: Kaharuddin
      Pages: 271 - 278
      Abstract: E-learning has been encouraged for usage during COVID-19, and this leaves problems with students’ learning activities, particularly in social and economic aspects. Applying appropriate teaching methods is expected, which motivates students to learn virtually. This paper studies the effect of the grammar translation method and the direct method on students’ English competence; the e-learning uses electronic tools with communication applications, such as Zoom and Google Classroom. The data were collected by questionnaires distributed to 100 students, of which 95 questionnaires were analyzable. The data were analyzed by path analysis via Microsoft SPSS version 21. The findings are as follows: 1) The grammar translation method has a significant direct effect on competence, contributing 27.7% to students’ English competence. The mediating role of Google Classroom has no contribution to the effect of the grammar translation method on students’ English competence. 2) The direct method has an indirect effect on students’ English competence, when utilized with the mediation of electronic tools that provide the Zoom application.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.1302.06
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
  • Affordances and Common Grounds in Buyer-Seller Interactions

    • Authors: Christiana Ngozi Ikegwuonu, Princess Ngozi Ndibe
      Pages: 279 - 288
      Abstract: This study examines the interactions between buyers and sellers in the market setting using the common ground theoretical framework. From the existing literature, it is observed that no research work has examined the above subject matter in the Igbo language using the above mentioned theoretical framework. This is the lacuna in the literature that this study intends to address. The specific objective is to explore the interactions between presuppositions, stages of understanding an utterance and reception strategies in buyer-seller interactions during haggling. Ten interactions were recorded and three of them were sampled in this study. The data were analyzed using the common ground theory. The findings of the study reveal that both the seller and buyer often have the generic structure of buyer-seller interactions in their subconscious, which they put into practice when they engage in market discourse. Also, the buyers and sellers update their personal or emergent common ground as they negotiate meaning during interactions. Furthermore, as the result of the common ground shared by the buyer and the seller, they interpret every utterance based on the affordances of a speech event in a market setting where a buyer is under no obligation to buy after haggling nor is the seller obligated to sell. It also discovers that presupposition is at the heart of grounding because at every interactive turn, a speaker believes that the addressee understands his/ her intentions.  The researcher recommends further research on the pragmatic implications for the use of multiple codes during buyer-seller interactions in Igbo land.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.1302.07
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
  • The Psychological and Cognitive Processes Underlying College Students’
           Demotivation to Learn English

    • Authors: Xiaobin Ren, M.L. Jirapa Abhakorn
      Pages: 289 - 298
      Abstract: This study aims to construct a model to explain Chinese college students’ psychological and cognitive processes underlying their demotivation to learn English. Grounded theory method and cognitive maps were creatively combined to analyze the interview data from 21 college students in China’s universities. This study found three paths underlying students’ demotivation to learn English: 1) the large discrepancy between students’ actual selves and their possible selves might firstly produce motivation for a short period but then could cause low self-efficacy and negative affects. The large discrepancies might also directly generate negative affects among college students; those different negative affects could lead to demotivation of English learning. 2) college students’ low ought-to selves could cause their low ideal selves and then demotivation of English learning; 3) demotivation to learn English might also associate with low value of English learning in college students’ minds. At the end of this research, some pedagogical implications are given based on those findings.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.1302.08
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
  • Contrastive Analysis of Arabic-English Translation of Legal Texts

    • Authors: Omar Osman Jabak
      Pages: 299 - 307
      Abstract: The present study aims to provide a contrastive analysis of Arabic-English translation of ten legal texts with an eye to evaluating the accuracy of the translation.  The researcher collected the data from El-Farahaty’s (2015) Arabic–English–Arabic Legal Translation. A contrastive analysis was developed to assess the accuracy of the translation of the legal texts selected. The examination of the source legal texts and the translations provided either by the authoress of the book herself or the sources from which she collected them revealed serious errors such as overtranslation, omission of translating important words in the source texts, wrong choice of equivalents in the target language, gloss translation, punctuation mistakes in the target texts and grammatical mistakes in the target texts. Further research on the assessment of Arabic-English translation of legal texts is required to encourage professional legal translators and scholars to approach legal translation more professionally and responsibly.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.1302.09
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
  • An Empirical Study of Translanguaging Practice in Interpreters'

    • Authors: Zhiliang Yue, Anchalee Jansem
      Pages: 308 - 314
      Abstract: This paper discusses potential application of translanguaging in an interpreting course, specifically for the note-taking part. A Likert scale questionnaire is used to collect information from the participants about their relevant experiences and knowledge as well as their attitude toward application of translanguaging in future note-taking activities. Furthermore, a small-scale experiment was carried out to discover how the participants’ choice of language in notes would change after gaining the awareness of potential translanguaging benefits. The findings are that most of the participants are quite agreeable to the concept of translanguaging and its application, and with a built awareness, their notes demonstrate a much more balanced usage of both their L1 and L2, although other languages in their linguistic repertoire still hardly showed any presence. This could shed light on how teachers of an interpreting course could integrate translanguaging into their pedagogy to help students fully utilize their linguistic repertoire for the optimum interpreting performance.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.1302.10
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
  • The Research Competence, Critical Thinking Skills and Digital Literacy of
           Indonesian EFL Students

    • Authors: Rohmani Nur Indah, Toyyibah, Ary Setya Budhiningrum, Nur Afifi
      Pages: 315 - 324
      Abstract: This project aims to investigate the relationship between English as Foreign Language (EFL) students’ research skills, critical thinking skills, and engagement with technology or their digital literacy. EFL students' research competence is expected to support their academic performance on writing papers and assignments. It also demands the development of their critical thinking skills. Their engagement in technology involves the use of social media, online networks, and the use of several applications. This study takes the sample of EFL students from two institutions, namely UIN Malang and IAIN Kediri, Indonesia, to see whether there is a similar performance in both Islamic higher education institutions in terms of students’ online research competence, critical thinking skills, and similar trend on the engagement with technology. The data collection method covers questionnaire and quiz. This result demonstrates a significant correlation between research competence and digital literacy. Concerning the insignificant relation between digital literacy and critical thinking, it proves that the digital literacy does not always automatically support the enhancement of critical thinking skills. Understanding the relationship between online research competence, critical thinking, and digital literacy is a crucial step in developing Indonesian EFL teaching syllabi and material supporting students' academic success in higher education context.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.1302.11
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
  • A Turn-Taking Analysis of the Characters’ Personalities and
           Relationships in Thelma & Louise

    • Authors: Haixia Yang, Yuetian Lu
      Pages: 325 - 330
      Abstract: Thelma & Louise, directed by Ridley Scott, is regarded as a masterpiece of American feminism films. The film involves gender inequality, morality and violence, and challenges people’s thoughts in a patriarchal society. It finds that using turn-taking framework can help us better understand the characterization and its relationship in the film, but also enable readers to make comments on the characters on a relatively objective basis. It brings a new angle to the analysis of movie text, which helps people to observe the characters’ characteristics and understand the relationship among the characters.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.1302.12
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
  • The Psychological Constraints of Using Japanese Among Indonesian Students

    • Authors: Suyanti Natalia, Muhammad Darwis, Kaharuddin, Asriani Abbas
      Pages: 331 - 337
      Abstract: This study discusses the psychological constraints for Indonesian students in using Japanese as one of the student learning processes in order to improve speaking skills. The main obstacle for students is the sentence structure which differs between the mother tongue and the target language. The difference between the Japanese sentence structure and the Indonesian sentence structure can be seen in the learners' speech. The discussion in this study presents the influence of the interference structure of the Indonesian language on Japanese speech. Mother tongue interference then becomes a psychological constraint in the use of Japanese among Indonesian students. Research data were obtained through interviews with elicitation. The results of this study indicate that a number of syntactic elements that affect Japanese speech are found in the fields of phrases, clauses and sentences. This is mostly influenced by structural elements in the different syntaxes of Indonesian and Japanese languages, which actually have different cultural aspects. From this, it is evident that foreign language learners, especially Indonesians, have psychological barriers in speaking Japanese because the language is influenced by linguistic environmental factors related to the way Japanese people express things through their language.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.1302.13
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
  • Language of Violence in Social Media: A Linguistic Cognitive Study

    • Authors: Jinan Al-Tamimi
      Pages: 338 - 349
      Abstract: Language is not a fixed structure, but a changeable group whose contents the violence. First, we do not choose our native language. Second, we do not choose the concepts prevailing in our culture. However, we have neither the capacity nor the choice to escape the power of language. This research presumes the existence of the phenomenon of language violence in dialogue with the other, in dialogue with oneself, as well as hidden violence in language. It also presumes that this phenomenon has cognitive dimensions through which violence structures are built into general concepts, which are feared to be physically realized in reality. What arises within the language may be processed within the language before it appears in reality. This study examines the cognitive dimensions of language violence and its recent manifestations of social networking by analyzing selected models of social media by taking advantage of cognitive linguistic data to figure out the cognitive images of language violence used by social media dialogists/interlocutors. In other words, it is an attempt to reveal how words and compositions are used as a weapon by which the speaker attacks the dialogist. This study does not abide by strict time limits but adheres to the study of the phenomenon in models of expressions currently used on social media. On the other hand, it discusses the roots of violence in models of expressions in the Arab heritage in the past. All these contexts are in peace, not war.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.1302.14
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
  • Racial Discrimination Experienced by Black People as Reflected in Langston
           Hughes's Poems

    • Authors: Mutmainnah, Burhanuddin Arafah, Amir Pattu
      Pages: 350 - 356
      Abstract: This study aims to describe the racial discrimination from white people against black people that was formerly a slave by analyzing Langston Hughes' poems; I, Too, To the Black Beloved, The White Ones, and My Beloved. Presentation of racial discrimination can be seen from the act of prejudice, insulting, words used, and the act of suppression to the black people. These poems represent the poet's feeling of social phenomena that happened. The data were analyzed utilizing the new historicism theory, enriched by historical text, socio-cultural, and political information during slavery. This study is a qualitative descriptive method using the new historicism approach to explain the racial discrimination experienced in Langston Hughes' poems. The result showed that Langston Hughes reflects the phenomena of racial discrimination through his poems, such as slave, victim, nigger, torture, darker brother, and not beautiful in his poems. Langston Hughes in his poetry concludes that black discrimination is treated badly; they eat in the kitchen, they are not beautiful, children's happiness is tarnished, and racial discrimination is inhumane.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.1302.15
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
  • On the Awakening of Female Consciousness in It Happened One Night

    • Authors: Shuo Yao
      Pages: 357 - 360
      Abstract: In the 1930s, the United States was at the beginning of the Great Depression, while at the same time its film industry was booming. The screwball comedy as a new type of film became popular. One of the most representative and successful screwball comedies, It Happened One Night by Frank Capra in 1934, which not only won five awards of the Seventh Oscar, but also saved the Columbia Pictures from bankruptcy, can be called a miracle in the history of American film. As a pioneering work of the screwball comedy, the film's theme, narrative and other aspects have exerted profound influences on the subsequent films of this kind. Among the many advantages of this film, it is worth noting that the image of the heroine breaks people's traditional idea about women, which is ahead of its time. Besides, we can see her gradual awakening of female consciousness. Therefore, combining with the social and historical background at that time and the characteristics of the screwball comedy, this paper attempts to reveal the female image of the heroine Ellie and give a general view of the course of her consciousness awakening by analyzing lens language of the film, including shots, lighting and sound, together with the narrative.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.1302.16
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
  • A Model of Task-Based Blended Learning for the EFL Writing Classroom

    • Authors: Anak Agung Raka Sitawati, I Made Ardana Putra, Ni Ketut Sucani, I Made Rai Jaya Widanta, I Wayan Dana Ardika, Putu Dyah Hudiananingsih
      Pages: 361 - 370
      Abstract: Online learning is being implemented due to the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic. This is based on the reduction of cases and casualties to the danger and severity of the disease. Though several compliments were encountered in the implementation of this educational process, English instructors at secondary and tertiary levels continue to protest the change. To respond to this dilemma, the development of blended learning (a combination of online and offline learning) emerged. Therefore, this study was intended to develop task-based blended learning for English correspondence education and to identify and explain the learning aspects in the model development. Approximately 120 students from four classes of semester 6 were selected and divided into two groups (experiment and control groups) since a research and development model was used for analysis (Dick & Carey, 1990). The draft model was further validated and piloted for several meetings. The results show effective learning materials containing five sections, namely (1) activity lead, (2) mind mapping, (3) refocusing, (4) writing, and (5) reinforcement. The materials were designed through the provision of tasks in every section, therefore integrating the students’ use of four language skills. In addition, these materials were designed according to lesson plan, learning syntax, and assessment tools.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.1302.17
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
  • Cognitive Skills Reflection and Distribution in EFL Program Testing

    • Authors: Elsaid. M. Sheguf, Abdulbasit A. Alhaj
      Pages: 371 - 376
      Abstract: The present study aims at figuring out the extent to which the low-order cognitive skills (LOCS) and high-order cognitive skills (HOCS) are reflected and systematically distributed in the first and eighth levels exam question papers. The study adopts the assumption that, critical thinking skills and creative thinking skills are adequately reflected and distributed in the exam question papers based on Bloom's Taxonomy of the Learning Behavior. The tool used for data collection is a check list containing cognitive domain order which is based on Bloom's Taxonomy. The goal is to ascertain whether questions at level 1 and level 8 offered in English language program in the College of Science and Arts in Mahayel Asir are adequately adjusted to the taxonomy. The descriptive and analytical method is applied to analyze the data. The researchers reviewed relevant literature and assessed similar results. The findings of the study revealed that lower-order cognitive skills for level 1 (88.23%) are used in the question papers more than higher-order cognitive skills (11.77%). On the other extreme, lower-order cognitive skills in level 8 (93.86%) are mostly used in the question papers more than higher- order cognitive skills (6.14%). There are adequate distribution and reflection of cognitive skills in level1 exam questions. This is not the case as in level 8 where the focus was wholly based on the lower-order at the cost of the higher-order cognitive skills.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.1302.18
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
  • Subtitle Translation of American Sitcom The Big Bang Theory From the
           Perspective of Eco-Translatology

    • Authors: Jing Cao, Nor Shahila Binti Mansor, Lay Hoon Ang, Diana Abu Ujum
      Pages: 377 - 385
      Abstract: Eco-translatology is a theory of translation put forward by Professor Hu Genshen, which regards translation as a process of “selective adaptation” and “adaptive selection”. The popularity of American TV dramas has aroused a huge demand for subtitle translation, resulting in the rapid growth of subtitle translation by fansub groups and increasing enthusiasm for subtitle translation studies in China. While there is no accordant idea about the understanding of subtitle translation of TV dramas on the internet translated by fansub groups. Based on the theoretical framework of Eco-translatology theory, this study examines the subtitle translation of The Big Bang Theory to analyze translators’ “selection” and “adaptation” on linguistic, cultural, and communicative dimensions. It also pays attention to the inappropriate selection of translation techniques made by the fansub groups. The analysis shows that in the translation process of The Big Bang Theory’s subtitles, the translators adopted various translation techniques which include the applications of buzzwords, Chinese idioms, annotations, and free translation to implement adaptive selection in linguistic, cultural, and communicative dimensions. And the fansub groups make some inappropriate selections as abusing the Chinese dialect in translation. These findings attempt to provide a reference for subtitle translation of American TV dramas available on the internet, as well as evidence of the explanatory power of Eco-translatology theory in subtitle translation studies, in order to supplement a new perspective on subtitle translation and more attention on this developing translation theory.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.1302.19
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
  • Scaffolding Instruction in Virtual Language Learning

    • Authors: Zhengxia Liu, Jie Hua, Zixu Zhang
      Pages: 386 - 391
      Abstract: In the digital age, language learning by way of Internet technology has been popular among learners and the traditional classroom teaching is being replaced by virtual learning due to the pandemic. The upcoming technologies presenting a number of challenges for language teachers are changing teaching and learning environment. The models of virtual language learning require learners to be more cooperative to construct their own learning pace. A new scaffolding instruction is booming in terms of language education to promote linguistic and academic development. Different from the traditional classroom education, it is necessary for instructors to provide scaffolds for the students to enter the situation, set up a support and explore the differences with independence. The effect of good scaffolding instruction can optimize the virtual language learning in such aspects as cooperative learning and quality control and facilitate the learners’ development on critical thinking with the ultimate purpose of independent learning.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.1302.20
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
  • Unveiling Indonesian Pre-Service Teachers’ Perceived Competencies and
           Readiness for Online English Language Teaching: A Mixed Methods Study

    • Authors: Daflizar, Toni Indrayadi, Yoki Irawan
      Pages: 392 - 400
      Abstract: There has been a great deal of research into teacher readiness for online language teaching conducted in many parts of the world. However, scarce inquiry on this topic has been published in the Indonesian context. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to investigate Indonesian EFL pre-service teachers’ perceptions of their technological, pedagogical, and evaluation skills in online language teaching, and (2) to explore their perceptions of online English language teaching. The study employed a mixed methods research approach. The quantitative data were collected using a questionnaire from 92 pre-service teachers majoring in English Education at a state Islamic institute in Jambi province and the qualitative data were collected through WhatsApp messenger from six of the participants. The data obtained through the questionnaire were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis. The results showed that the participants had positive perceptions of their technological, pedagogical, and evaluation skills in online English language teaching. However, the qualitative data demonstrated that the participants had a strong inclination toward classroom face-to-face teaching rather than online teaching for a number of reasons, indicating that they were not ready for online English language teaching. Some practical suggestions for the EFL teacher training programs in Indonesian tertiary education institutions are given.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.1302.21
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
  • Letters of Childhood and Youth: Characteristics and Theory

    • Authors: Gassim H. Dohal
      Pages: 401 - 405
      Abstract: The letter is a cultural and social phenomenon that is used to defy space and time that separate friends. Today, we use telephone, e-mail, fax, and many other means in order to communicate with our friends. But before the electronic age, letters were the main medium of communication for friends who were separated for whatever reasons. While being used as a way of communication in the past, today we read letters as texts for their cultural, historical, literary, and social values. This way of communication requires some attention for it will give us as readers a picture of social and cultural life of the period in question. Also it will provide researchers a solid background to explore the beginning of those great writers.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.1302.22
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
  • Exploring Indonesian EFL Writing Students’ Differences in Motivation: A
           Language Learning Journey to Success

    • Authors: Listyani Listyani
      Pages: 406 - 416
      Abstract: Every language learner has various dreams and purposes in learning a language. Different motivations are also commonly found among EFL learners. This study reveals the motivations of 33 English language learners from Indonesia. They were all writing students of an English Language Education Program (ELEP) in a private university in Central Java, Indonesia. The classes they attended were Procedural Writing (14 students from the 2020 class year), Research Report Writing (10 students from the 2017 class year), and Research Proposal (9 students from the 2018 class year). Data were derived through questionnaires and interviews. The first finding was that 87.88% of the respondents were intrinsically motivated. However, both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation might be a big drive leading to students’ success. The second discovery was that 81.82% of the students were instrumentally rather than integratively motivated. Instrumental motivation could also be a big initiative for students to learn a language. Next, students’ ideals or dreams became the motivating factor that most students had. The last outcome was that students’ habit of delaying doing assignments, having too many assignments, and being lazy were the three major demotivating factors. This study will hopefully be useful for writing lecturers to give them more insights into and a better understanding of their students’ motivational backgrounds.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.1302.23
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
  • The Impact of Cooperative Learning on EFL Achievers’ and
           Underachievers’ Motivation Based on Marginal Utility

    • Authors: Xueqing Wu, Mingxing Tao
      Pages: 417 - 424
      Abstract: This study explores the change of EFL learners' motivation in learning English with the increase of CL time based on marginal utility. Thirty learners from an intact class in Grade 10 were selected through their performance on a piloted sample Preliminary English Test. Learners were assigned to achievers and underachievers groups. The questionnaire of motivation, based on the Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB), was given to both groups as a pretest. All participants underwent the same amount of teaching time and same material with the same teacher during seven-week CL, 35 sessions taking 45 minutes each. The same questionnaire was administered again at the end of one week, three-week, five-week and seven-week treatments respectively to both groups and their scores on the questionnaires were compared through an analysis of Paired Samples t-test and ANOVA. The findings showed that after one week CL, both the achievers’ and underachievers’ motivations were significantly improved compared with those in pretest; after three-week CL, the underachievers’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivations and achievers’ extrinsic motivation declined significantly compared with those of Week One, while the latter’s intrinsic motivation has no significant change; after five-week CL, underachievers’ motivation didn’t change significantly compared with their motivation in the pretest, which means that the marginal utility took place in underachievers’ motivation during three-week to five-week CL; after seven-week CL, the achievers’ motivation increased significantly compared with their motivation in the pretest, indicating there was no marginal utility for achievers’ motivation during seven-week CL.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.1302.24
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
  • The Application of Translation Procedures in Translating Five Public Signs
           in Ubud

    • Authors: Ni Made Ariani, Ketut Artawa
      Pages: 425 - 434
      Abstract: This study analyzes five public signs in English found in the area of Ubud, Bali, Indonesia. The purposes of this research are to identify the grammatical errors in the process of translating the information conveyed on these five public signs and to understand the translation procedures applied in the translation process. The first finding of this study is that grammatical errors are found on the first, second and fifth public signs. Meanwhile, the second finding of this study is four translation procedures are applied, which are Modulation, Transposition, Literal Translation and Calque. Another interesting finding, which can be found in this research, is the fact that the application of these translation procedures plays a very crucial role in determining the quality of the translation product as well as in contributing the occurrence of the grammatical errors.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.1302.25
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
  • Death—An Invincible Fact of Life: A Comparative Study Between Emily
           Dickinson and Louise Gluck

    • Authors: Tanzina Halim, Rizwana Wahid, Shanjida Halim
      Pages: 435 - 440
      Abstract: The theme of death or mortality has been a recurrent theme in the works of many writers in literature. From time to time, various authors have discussed death in their works in different ways presenting it from different perspectives. It is a universal theme not confined to any specific group of people, country, or religion. This study focuses on the presentation of death in the poems of two female American poets Emily Dickinson (1830–1886) and Louise Gluck (1943 till today). Though both these female poets belong to two different centuries, the presentation of death in their works plays a dominant role. The presentation of death in the poems of Emily Dickinson makes the readers ponder over the concept of death from various angles. Similarly, the end of human life is one of the central themes of the poems of Louise Gluck. The discussion of death takes different shapes in the poetry of Louise Gluck. For this study, two pieces have been selected from the collection of Emily Dickinson and two pieces have been chosen from the collection of Louise Gluck. Hence, this present study aims to show the similarities and the differences between the concept and presentation of death in the works of these two leading female poets in the selected pieces.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.1302.26
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
  • Needs Analysis of Literacy Assessment Using Blended Learning for Beginner
           EFL Learners

    • Authors: Ni Nyoman Padmadewi, Luh Putu Artini, Ni Made Ratminingsih, IGA Lokita Purnamika Utami, Ni Putu Era Marsakawati
      Pages: 441 - 452
      Abstract: Needs analysis is vital in assessment instrument development because assessment is of paramount importance in teaching and learning. The phenomena of technology developments influence how assessment instruments must be developed to achieve the learning objectives and outcomes. The present study aimed at conducting a needs analysis of literacy assessment using blended learning for beginner EFL learners in Bali, Indonesia. The survey-style research was carried out involving 17 English teachers from 12 public junior high schools. A questionnaire, in-depth interviews, and a focused group discussion were used to collect the data. The data were descriptively analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The study results revealed that the needs identified in assessment developments consist of the target needs that cover the necessities of assessments, including the assessment of learning, as learning, assessment for learning, wants and lacks. In addition, the learner needs in the form of authentic materials, technology-based materials, skills-based, and language inputs are all needed in developing instrument assessments. The activities and procedures for conducting assessments in the form of pedagogical and real-life tasks and procedures are required, in addition to the roles of the students as knowledge seekers, problem solvers, collaborators, critical thinkers, and creators. The identified needs were then used as the basis for the framework design. The needs analysis results conducted in this study are expected to inspire teachers in developing research-based assessment instruments in EFL instructions.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.1302.27
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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