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Publisher: Medknow Publishers   (Total: 355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 355 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Arab Academy of Audio-Vestibulogy J.     Open Access  
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African J. for Infertility and Assisted Conception     Open Access  
African J. of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African J. of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African J. of Paediatric Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.269, h-index: 10)
African J. of Trauma     Open Access  
Ain-Shams J. of Anaesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical J.     Open Access  
Al-Basar Intl. J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ancient Science of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anesthesia : Essays and Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 15)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.408, h-index: 15)
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.308, h-index: 14)
Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.441, h-index: 10)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.24, h-index: 29)
Annals of Thoracic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 19)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 5)
APOS Trends in Orthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arab J. of Interventional Radiology     Open Access  
Archives of Intl. Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Pharmacy Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific J. of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asia-Pacific J. of Oncology Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian J. of Andrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 49)
Asian J. of Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian J. of Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian J. of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.362, h-index: 10)
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Avicenna J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AYU : An international quarterly journal of research in Ayurveda     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Benha Medical J.     Open Access  
BLDE University J. of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Brain Circulation     Open Access  
Bulletin of Faculty of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Translational Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CHRISMED J. of Health and Research     Open Access  
Clinical Dermatology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Trials in Degenerative Diseases     Open Access  
Clinical Trials in Orthopedic Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Community Acquired Infection     Open Access  
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 12)
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Medical Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CytoJ.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.339, h-index: 19)
Delta J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access  
Dental Hypotheses     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.131, h-index: 4)
Dental Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Dentistry and Medical Research     Open Access  
Digital Medicine     Open Access  
Drug Development and Therapeutics     Open Access  
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 22)
Egyptian J. of Bronchology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cataract and Refractive Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Dermatology and Venerology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Haematology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.121, h-index: 3)
Egyptian J. of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian J. of Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Orthopaedic J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Pharmaceutical J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Retina J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Rheumatology and Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Endodontology     Open Access  
Endoscopic Ultrasound     Open Access   (SJR: 0.473, h-index: 8)
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
European J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, h-index: 11)
European J. of General Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European J. of Prosthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European J. of Psychology and Educational Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Fertility Science and Research     Open Access  
Formosan J. of Surgery     Open Access   (SJR: 0.107, h-index: 5)
Genome Integrity     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.227, h-index: 12)
Global J. of Transfusion Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Heart India     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Heart Views     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hepatitis B Annual     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IJS Short Reports     Open Access  
Indian Anaesthetists Forum     Open Access  
Indian Dermatology Online J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian J. of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.302, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Burns     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Cancer     Open Access   (SJR: 0.318, h-index: 26)
Indian J. of Cerebral Palsy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.618, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 24)
Indian J. of Dental Sciences     Open Access  
Indian J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 29)
Indian J. of Dermatopathology and Diagnostic Dermatology     Open Access  
Indian J. of Drugs in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indian J. of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Medical and Paediatric Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.292, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 34)
Indian J. of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.716, h-index: 60)
Indian J. of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 31)
Indian J. of Multidisciplinary Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.233, h-index: 12)
Indian J. of Nuclear Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 5)
Indian J. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, h-index: 34)
Indian J. of Oral Health and Research     Open Access  
Indian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Orthopaedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.393, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Otology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.218, h-index: 5)
Indian J. of Paediatric Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 12)
Indian J. of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.285, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Pharmacology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.347, h-index: 44)
Indian J. of Plastic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.496, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Psychological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.444, h-index: 17)
Indian J. of Radiology and Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.253, h-index: 14)
Indian J. of Research in Homoeopathy     Open Access  
Indian J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.169, h-index: 7)
Indian J. of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Social Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Industrial Psychiatry J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Academic Medicine     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Advanced Medical and Health Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Applied and Basic Medical Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Clinical and Experimental Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Critical Illness and Injury Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Educational and Psychological Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Environmental Health Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Forensic Odontology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Green Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.229, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Heart Rhythm     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Mycobacteriology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.239, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Noncommunicable Diseases     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Oral Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Orthodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pedodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutical Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.523, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Shoulder Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.611, h-index: 9)
Intl. J. of Trichology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.37, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Yoga : Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Iranian J. of Nursing and Midwifery Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iraqi J. of Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Academy of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.427, h-index: 15)
J. of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.416, h-index: 14)
J. of Applied Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Association of Chest Physicians     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cancer Research and Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.359, h-index: 21)
J. of Carcinogenesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.152, h-index: 26)
J. of Cardiothoracic Trauma     Open Access  
J. of Cardiovascular Disease Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 13)
J. of Cardiovascular Echography     Open Access   (SJR: 0.134, h-index: 2)
J. of Cleft Lip Palate and Craniofacial Anomalies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Imaging Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.277, h-index: 8)
J. of Clinical Neonatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Ophthalmology and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Clinical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Conservative Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.532, h-index: 10)
J. of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.199, h-index: 9)
J. of Current Medical Research and Practice     Open Access  
J. of Current Research in Scientific Medicine     Open Access  
J. of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cytology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 9)
J. of Dental and Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Dental Implants     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Dental Lasers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Dental Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Digestive Endoscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Dr. NTR University of Health Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Earth, Environment and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Education and Ethics in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Education and Health Promotion     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 14)
J. of Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Family and Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Family Medicine and Primary Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)

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Journal Cover Brain Circulation
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2394-8108
   Published by Medknow Publishers Homepage  [355 journals]
  • The cerebral circulation: The centrality of its function, the catastrophe
           of its failure

    • Authors: Christopher R Stone, Yuchuan Ding
      Pages: 43 - 44
      Abstract: Christopher R Stone, Yuchuan Ding
      Brain Circulation 2017 3(2):43-44

      Citation: Brain Circulation 2017 3(2):43-44
      PubDate: Tue,18 Jul 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/bc.bc_14_17
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • The cerebral circulation and cerebrovascular disease I: Anatomy

    • Authors: Ankush Chandra, William A Li, Christopher R Stone, Xiaokun Geng, Yuchuan Ding
      Pages: 45 - 56
      Abstract: Ankush Chandra, William A Li, Christopher R Stone, Xiaokun Geng, Yuchuan Ding
      Brain Circulation 2017 3(2):45-56
      In this paper, which is the first in a three-part series that reviews cerebrovascular anatomy, pathogenesis, and stroke, we lay the anatomical foundation for the rest of the series. Beginning with its origin in the branches of the aorta, we start by describing the arterial system. This system is partitioned into two major divisions (anterior and posterior circulations) that differ significantly in features and pathogenic potential. The systems, and the major branches that comprise them, are described. Description of the arterial system proceeds to the point of the fulfillment of its function. This function, the exchange of gases and nutrients with the cerebral parenchyma, is the subject of a subsequent section on the microcirculation and blood–brain barrier. Finally, the cerebral venous system, which is composed of cerebral veins and dural venous sinuses, is described. Thus, an anatomical context is supplied for the discussion of cerebrovascular disease pathogenesis provided by our second paper.
      Citation: Brain Circulation 2017 3(2):45-56
      PubDate: Tue,18 Jul 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/bc.bc_10_17
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • The cerebral circulation and cerebrovascular disease II: Pathogenesis of
           cerebrovascular disease

    • Authors: Ankush Chandra, Christopher R Stone, William A Li, Xiaokun Geng, Yuchuan Ding
      Pages: 57 - 65
      Abstract: Ankush Chandra, Christopher R Stone, William A Li, Xiaokun Geng, Yuchuan Ding
      Brain Circulation 2017 3(2):57-65
      In this paper, we review the cerebral circulation and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) with an overview of the major types of CVD pathogenesis. These, as categorized here, are as follows: occlusive injury intrinsic to blood vessels, occlusive injury extrinsic to blood vessels, cerebral hypoperfusion, and cerebral hemorrhage. Following an overview of each of these categories, we conclude with a discussion of cerebral edema to illustrate how the pathological origins we covered can progress clinically. The content of this paper sets the stage for the detailed, clinically oriented discussion of stroke with which our series culminates in its subsequent Part III.
      Citation: Brain Circulation 2017 3(2):57-65
      PubDate: Tue,18 Jul 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/bc.bc_11_17
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • The cerebral circulation and cerebrovascular disease III: Stroke

    • Authors: Ankush Chandra, Christopher R Stone, Xiangnan Du, William A Li, Mitchell Huber, Richard Bremer, Xiaokun Geng, Yuchuan Ding
      Pages: 66 - 77
      Abstract: Ankush Chandra, Christopher R Stone, Xiangnan Du, William A Li, Mitchell Huber, Richard Bremer, Xiaokun Geng, Yuchuan Ding
      Brain Circulation 2017 3(2):66-77
      In this paper, our review series on cerebrovascular disease anatomy, physiology, and pathology ends with a thorough discussion of the most significant cerebrovascular pathology: stroke. This discussion proceeds through two layers of organization. First, stroke is divided up into its main etiologic categories (ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack, hemorrhagic stroke, and ischemic to hemorrhagic transformation). Then, the epidemiological, pathophysiological, clinical, and therapeutic (employed currently as well as emerging) aspects of each etiology are explored; emphasis is placed upon the therapeutic aspects. Finally, once we have covered all aspects of each etiologic category, we end our review with a defense of the thesis that there is much hope for the future of stroke treatment to be derived from familiarity with the literature on emerging therapies.
      Citation: Brain Circulation 2017 3(2):66-77
      PubDate: Tue,18 Jul 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/bc.bc_12_17
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Tackling issues in the path toward clinical translation in brain
           conditioning: Potential offered by nutraceuticals

    • Authors: Joseph S Tauskela, Miled Bourourou, Nicolas Blondeau
      Pages: 78 - 86
      Abstract: Joseph S Tauskela, Miled Bourourou, Nicolas Blondeau
      Brain Circulation 2017 3(2):78-86
      Brief periods of ischemia have been shown in many experimental setups to provide tolerance against ischemia in multiple organs including the brain, when administered before (preconditioning) or even after (postconditioning) the normally lethal ischemia. In addition to these so-called ischemic conditionings, many pharmacological and natural agents (e.g., chemicals and nutraceuticals) can also act as potent pre- and post-conditioners. Deriving from the original concept of ischemic preconditioning, these various conditioning paradigms may be promising as clinical-stage therapies for prevention of ischemic-related injury, especially stroke. As no proven experimentally identified strategy has translated into clinical success, the experimental induction of neuroprotection using these various conditioning paradigms has raised several questions, even before considering translation to clinical studies in humans. The first aim of the review is to consider key questions on preclinical studies of pre- or post-conditioning modalities including those induced by chemical or nutraceuticals. Second, we make the argument that several key issues can be addressed by a novel concept, nutraceutical preconditioning. Specifically, α-linolenic acid (alpha-linolenic acid [ALA] an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid), contained in plant-derived edible products, is essential in the daily diet, and a body of work has identified ALA as a pre- and post-conditioner of the brain. Nutritional intervention and functional food development are an emerging direction for preventing stroke damage, offering the potential to improving clinical outcomes through activation of the endogenous protective mechanisms known collectively as conditioning.
      Citation: Brain Circulation 2017 3(2):78-86
      PubDate: Tue,18 Jul 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/bc.bc_8_17
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Prospective clinical biomarkers of caspase-mediated apoptosis associated
           with neuronal and neurovascular damage following stroke and other severe
           brain injuries: Implications for chronic neurodegeneration

    • Authors: Olena Y Glushakova, Andriy A Glushakov, Dayanjan S Wijesinghe, Alex B Valadka, Ronald L Hayes, Alexander V Glushakov
      Pages: 87 - 108
      Abstract: Olena Y Glushakova, Andriy A Glushakov, Dayanjan S Wijesinghe, Alex B Valadka, Ronald L Hayes, Alexander V Glushakov
      Brain Circulation 2017 3(2):87-108
      Acute brain injuries, including ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, as well as traumatic brain injury (TBI), are major worldwide health concerns with very limited options for effective diagnosis and treatment. Stroke and TBI pose an increased risk for the development of chronic neurodegenerative diseases, notably chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. The existence of premorbid neurodegenerative diseases can exacerbate the severity and prognosis of acute brain injuries. Apoptosis involving caspase-3 is one of the most common mechanisms involved in the etiopathology of both acute and chronic neurological and neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting a relationship between these disorders. Over the past two decades, several clinical biomarkers of apoptosis have been identified in cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood following ischemic stroke, intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage, and TBI. These biomarkers include selected caspases, notably caspase-3 and its specific cleavage products such as caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18, caspase-cleaved tau, and a caspase-specific 120 kDa αII-spectrin breakdown product. The levels of these biomarkers might be a valuable tool for the identification of pathological pathways such as apoptosis and inflammation involved in injury progression, assessment of injury severity, and prediction of clinical outcomes. This review focuses on clinical studies involving biomarkers of caspase-3-mediated pathways, following stroke and TBI. The review further examines their prospective diagnostic utility, as well as clinical utility for improved personalized treatment of stroke and TBI patients and the development of prophylactic treatment chronic neurodegenerative disease.
      Citation: Brain Circulation 2017 3(2):87-108
      PubDate: Tue,18 Jul 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/bc.bc_27_16
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Targeting G protein-coupled receptor for pain management

    • Authors: Hongyan Li, Rong Wang, Yinying Lu, Xuehua Xu, Jiaxiang Ni
      Pages: 109 - 113
      Abstract: Hongyan Li, Rong Wang, Yinying Lu, Xuehua Xu, Jiaxiang Ni
      Brain Circulation 2017 3(2):109-113
      Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage. Great progress has been made in understanding the important roles of various G protein-coupled receptors in the regulation of pain transmission. However, many important questions remain uncertain about the precise signal transduction mechanisms. This review focuses opioid receptor and CXC receptor 4 on the effects and mechanisms of pain. Taken together, chemokines and their receptors are potential targets for the development of novel pain management and therapy.
      Citation: Brain Circulation 2017 3(2):109-113
      PubDate: Tue,18 Jul 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/bc.bc_3_17
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Doppler sonographic assessment of carotid arteries in Sudanese stroke
           patients

    • Authors: Sarah Tagelsir, Moawia Bushra Gameraddin, Mahmoud S Babiker, Awadia Gareeballah, Suzan Abdelmaboud, Suliman Salih
      Pages: 114 - 120
      Abstract: Sarah Tagelsir, Moawia Bushra Gameraddin, Mahmoud S Babiker, Awadia Gareeballah, Suzan Abdelmaboud, Suliman Salih
      Brain Circulation 2017 3(2):114-120
      BACKGROUND: Hypertension, diabetes, and smoking were considered to be associated with several public health problems.OBJECTIVE: the study aims to explore the hemodynamic of carotid arteries in association with hypertension, diabetes, and smoking in Sudanese stroke patients.MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a quantitative descriptive study, fifty patients with stroke were scanned by B-mode and Doppler sonography. Carotid arteries were investigated with a 7-MHz linear transducer by a standard carotid sonography protocol.RESULTS: The average Doppler resistive index (RI) was 0.71 ± 0.084 and intima-media thickness was 1.39 ± 0.78 mm. The end diastolic velocities (EDVs) and peak systolic velocities (PSVs) of common carotid arteries were significantly changed in smokers and hypertensive (P < 0.05). The elevation of RI in right and left CCAs were significantly correlated with smokers (P = 0.017 and 0.010 respectively). Hemorrhagic stroke was most prevalent in hypertensive rather than diabetic and smokers. The carotid hemodynamics changed significantly in hypertensive and smokers more than diabetics.CONCLUSION: EDV and PSV were significantly correlated with hypertension and tobacco smoking rather than diabetes. Hypertension, diabetes, and smoking have an association with stroke and hand significant effect on carotid artery hemodynamic and atherosclerotic disease. The Doppler RIs were significantly correlated with smokers. Patients with risk factors of stroke should be scanned with Doppler sonography as early as possible.
      Citation: Brain Circulation 2017 3(2):114-120
      PubDate: Tue,18 Jul 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/bc.bc_5_17
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
       
 
 
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