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Publisher: Medknow Publishers   (Total: 354 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 354 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Arab Academy of Audio-Vestibulogy J.     Open Access  
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African J. for Infertility and Assisted Conception     Open Access  
African J. of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African J. of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African J. of Paediatric Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.269, h-index: 10)
African J. of Trauma     Open Access  
Ain-Shams J. of Anaesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical J.     Open Access  
Al-Basar Intl. J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ancient Science of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anesthesia : Essays and Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 15)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.408, h-index: 15)
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.308, h-index: 14)
Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.441, h-index: 10)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.24, h-index: 29)
Annals of Thoracic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 19)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 5)
APOS Trends in Orthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arab J. of Interventional Radiology     Open Access  
Archives of Intl. Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Pharmacy Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asia Pacific J. of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asia-Pacific J. of Oncology Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian J. of Andrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 49)
Asian J. of Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian J. of Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian J. of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.362, h-index: 10)
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Avicenna J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AYU : An international quarterly journal of research in Ayurveda     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Benha Medical J.     Open Access  
BLDE University J. of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Brain Circulation     Open Access  
Bulletin of Faculty of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Translational Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CHRISMED J. of Health and Research     Open Access  
Clinical Dermatology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Trials in Degenerative Diseases     Open Access  
Clinical Trials in Orthopedic Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Community Acquired Infection     Open Access  
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 12)
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Medical Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CytoJ.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.339, h-index: 19)
Delta J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access  
Dental Hypotheses     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.131, h-index: 4)
Dental Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Dentistry and Medical Research     Open Access  
Digital Medicine     Open Access  
Drug Development and Therapeutics     Open Access  
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 22)
Egyptian J. of Bronchology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cataract and Refractive Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Dermatology and Venerology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Haematology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.121, h-index: 3)
Egyptian J. of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian J. of Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Orthopaedic J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Pharmaceutical J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Retina J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Rheumatology and Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Endodontology     Open Access  
Endoscopic Ultrasound     Open Access   (SJR: 0.473, h-index: 8)
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, h-index: 11)
European J. of General Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European J. of Prosthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European J. of Psychology and Educational Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Fertility Science and Research     Open Access  
Formosan J. of Surgery     Open Access   (SJR: 0.107, h-index: 5)
Genome Integrity     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.227, h-index: 12)
Global J. of Transfusion Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Heart India     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Heart Views     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hepatitis B Annual     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IJS Short Reports     Open Access  
Indian Anaesthetists Forum     Open Access  
Indian Dermatology Online J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian J. of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.302, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Burns     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Cancer     Open Access   (SJR: 0.318, h-index: 26)
Indian J. of Cerebral Palsy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.618, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 24)
Indian J. of Dental Sciences     Open Access  
Indian J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 29)
Indian J. of Dermatopathology and Diagnostic Dermatology     Open Access  
Indian J. of Drugs in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indian J. of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Medical and Paediatric Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.292, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 34)
Indian J. of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.716, h-index: 60)
Indian J. of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 31)
Indian J. of Multidisciplinary Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.233, h-index: 12)
Indian J. of Nuclear Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 5)
Indian J. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, h-index: 34)
Indian J. of Oral Health and Research     Open Access  
Indian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Orthopaedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.393, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Otology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.218, h-index: 5)
Indian J. of Paediatric Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 12)
Indian J. of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.285, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Pharmacology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.347, h-index: 44)
Indian J. of Plastic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.496, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Psychological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.444, h-index: 17)
Indian J. of Radiology and Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.253, h-index: 14)
Indian J. of Research in Homoeopathy     Open Access  
Indian J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.169, h-index: 7)
Indian J. of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Social Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Industrial Psychiatry J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Academic Medicine     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Advanced Medical and Health Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Applied and Basic Medical Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Clinical and Experimental Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Critical Illness and Injury Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Educational and Psychological Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Environmental Health Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Forensic Odontology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Green Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.229, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Heart Rhythm     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Mycobacteriology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.239, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Noncommunicable Diseases     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Oral Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Orthodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pedodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutical Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.523, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Shoulder Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.611, h-index: 9)
Intl. J. of Trichology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.37, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Yoga : Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Iranian J. of Nursing and Midwifery Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Iraqi J. of Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Academy of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.427, h-index: 15)
J. of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.416, h-index: 14)
J. of Applied Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Association of Chest Physicians     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cancer Research and Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.359, h-index: 21)
J. of Carcinogenesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.152, h-index: 26)
J. of Cardiothoracic Trauma     Open Access  
J. of Cardiovascular Disease Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 13)
J. of Cardiovascular Echography     Open Access   (SJR: 0.134, h-index: 2)
J. of Cleft Lip Palate and Craniofacial Anomalies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Imaging Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.277, h-index: 8)
J. of Clinical Neonatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Ophthalmology and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Clinical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Conservative Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.532, h-index: 10)
J. of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.199, h-index: 9)
J. of Current Medical Research and Practice     Open Access  
J. of Current Research in Scientific Medicine     Open Access  
J. of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cytology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 9)
J. of Dental and Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Dental Implants     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Dental Lasers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Dental Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Digestive Endoscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Dr. NTR University of Health Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Earth, Environment and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Education and Ethics in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Education and Health Promotion     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 14)
J. of Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Family and Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Family Medicine and Primary Care     Open Access   (Followers: 11)

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Journal Cover Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
  [SJR: 0.445]   [H-I: 11]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1735-5362 - ISSN (Online) 1735-9414
   Published by Medknow Publishers Homepage  [354 journals]
  • Design, synthesis, cytotoxicity evaluation and docking studies of
           1,2,4-triazine derivatives bearing different arylidene-hydrazinyl moieties
           as potential mTOR inhibitors

    • Authors: Sara Ranjbar, Najmeh Edraki, Mahsima Khoshneviszadeh, Alireza Foroumadi, Ramin Miri, Mehdi Khoshneviszadeh
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-related protein kinase which controls cell growth and is frequently deregulated in many cancers. Therefore, mTOR inhibitors are used as antineoplastic agents for cancer treatment. In this study, 1,2,4-triazine derivatives containing different arylidene-hydrazinyl moieties were designed and synthesized. Cytotoxicity of the compounds was evaluated on HL-60 and MCF-7 cell lines by MTT assay. S1, S2 and S3 exhibited good cytotoxic activity on both cell lines with an IC50 range of 6.42 - 20.20 μM. In general, substitution of a five-membered heterocyclic ring containing NO2, such as 5-nitrofuran-2-yl, resulted in the best potency. Molecular docking analysis was performed to study the possible interactions and binding modes of all the triazine derivatives with mTOR receptor. The most promising compound, S1, was well accommodated within the active site and had the least estimated free energy of binding (even less than the inherent ligand of the protein, PDB ID: 4JT6). It is concluded from both MTT assay and docking studies that the arylidene moiety linked to the hydrazinyl part of the structure had a prominent role in cytotoxicity and mTOR inhibitory activity.
      PubDate: 2017-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Mitochondrial and caspase pathways are involved in the induction of
           apoptosis by nardosinen in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line

    • Authors: Amirhosein Shahali, Mustafa Ghanadian, Seyyed Mehdi Jafari, Mahmoud Aghaei
      Pages: 12 - 21
      Abstract: Natural products isolated from plants provide a valuable source for expansion of new anticancer drugs. Nardosinen (4,9-dihydroxy-nardosin-6-en) is a natural sesquiterpene extracted from Juniperus foetidissima. Recently, we have reported the cytotoxic effects of nardosinen in various cancer cells. The aim of the current study was to investigate the anticancer features of nardosinen as well as its possible molecular mechanisms of the nardosinen cytotoxic effect on breast tumor cells. MTT assay showed that nardosinen notably inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The growth inhibitory effect of nardosinen was associated with the induction of cell apoptosis, activation of caspase-6, increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and loss of mitochondrial membrane potentials (ΔΨm). Western blot assay following treatment with nardosinen showed that the expression levels of the Bax were significantly up-regulated and the expression levels of the Bcl-2 were significantly down-regulated. Our results finally exhibited that nardosinen induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells via the mitochondrial and caspase pathways.
      PubDate: 2017-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Allium elburzense Wendelbo bulb
           on dexamethasone-induced dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and oxidative stress
           in rats

    • Authors: Leila Safaeian, Behzad Zolfaghari, Sajad Karimi, Ardeshir Talebi, Mohammadreza Aghaye Ghazvini
      Pages: 22 - 29
      Abstract: Recent evidences have suggested the beneficial cardiovascular effects of some plants belonging to the genus Allium. The present study is an attempt to investigate the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of                         Allium elburzense bulb on dexamethasone-induced dyslipidemia in rats. Total phenolic content of                      A. elburzense bulb hydroalcoholic extract was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method. Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats in 6 groups were studied. Group 1 (dyslipidemic control) received dexamethasone                   (10 mg/kg/day, s.c.) for 7 days, groups 2-4 (treated) received dexamethasone and simultaneously treated orally with 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of A. elburzense extract, group 5 (normal control) received a single daily injection of normal saline (1 mL/kg, s.c.) and the vehicle orally, and group 6 (reference) received dexamethasone and atorvastatin (40 mg/kg) orally. At the end of experiment, blood glucose, lipid profile, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were assessed in serum samples. Livers were processed for histopathological examination. Total phenolic content of A. elburzense extract was estimated to be                 33.52 ± 1.3% mg gallic acid equivalent/g of the dried plant extract. The plant extract significantly reduced serum blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and MDA levels and increased the high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level and also improved liver steatosis compared to the dyslipidemic control group. These results suggest the hydroalcoholic extract of A. elburzense bulb has anti-dyslipidemic, anti-hyperglycemic, and antioxidant effects on rats receiving high doses of dexamethasone.
      PubDate: 2017-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Anti-tuberculosis and cytotoxic evaluation of the seaweed Sargassum
           boveanum

    • Authors: Vajihe Akbari, Saeed Zafari, Afsaneh Yegdaneh
      Pages: 30 - 37
      Abstract: Marine seaweeds produce a variety of compounds with different biological activities, including anti-tuberculosis and anticancer effects. The aim of this study was to investigate anti-tuberculosis activity of Sargassum boveanum (S. boveanum) and cytotoxicity of different fractions of this seaweed. S. boveanum was collected from Persian Gulf. The plant was extracted by maceration with methanol-ethyl acetate solvent. The extract was evaporated and partitioned by Kupchan method to yield hexane, tricholoroethane, chloroform, and butanol partitions. The anti-tuberculosis activity of the crude extract and toxicity of the fractions were investigated using green fluorescent protein reporter microplate assay and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay methods, respectively. The cell survivals of HeLa cell were decreased by increasing the concentration of the extracts. The IC50 values of hexane, tricholoroethane, chloroform, and butanol partitions were 150.3 ± 23.10, 437.0 ± 147.3, 110.4 ± 33.67, and 1025.0 ± 15.20 μg/mL, respectively. The crude extract was not active against tuberculosis. This study reveals that different partitions of S. boveanum have cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell lines.
      PubDate: 2017-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • The effect of two different crosslinkers on in vitro characteristics of
           ciprofloxacin-loaded chitosan implants

    • Authors: Esti Hendradi, Dewi Melani Hariyadi, Muhammad Faris Adrianto
      Pages: 38 - 46
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine and evaluate a controlled release implant of ciprofloxacin using bovine hydroxyapatite (BHA)-chitosan composite and glutaraldehyde or genipin as crosslinking agents. Ciprofloxacin implants were prepared using BHA, chitosan, ciprofloxacin at 30:60:10 and using three different concentrations of glutaraldehyde or genipin (0.3, 0.5, or 0.7%) as crosslinkers. Implants were formed as mini-tablet with 4.0 mm diameter weighing 100 mg using compression method. Further, the prepared ciprofloxacin implants were characterized for porosity, density, water absorption capacity, swelling, degradation, compressive strength, compatibility (Fourier transforms-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR)), morphology (scanning electron microscope (SEM)), X-ray diffraction (X-RD), and in vitro drug release. The addition of glutaraldehyde or genipin as crosslinkers in ciprofloxacin implant showed controlled release profile of ciprofloxacin over a time period of 30 days. SEM photomicrograph revealed low porosity of the implant after crosslinking with glutaraldehyde or genipin. The FTIR study confirmed the formation of covalent imine bonds between chitosan and glutaraldehyde. Moreover, the addition of glutaraldehyde or genipin as crosslinkers caused a decrease in the mechanical strength of the implant. Increased concentration of glutaraldehyde or genipin reduced the crystallinity of BHA and chitosan, which were confirmed by X-RD studies. The results obtained from this study indicated that glutaraldehyde or genipin had the potential effect to retard ciprofloxacin release from BHA-chitosan-ciprofloxacin implant for 30 days.
      PubDate: 2017-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Chronic exposure to arsenic and high fat diet additively induced
           cardiotoxicity in male mice

    • Authors: Akram Ahangarpour, Leila Zeidooni, Azin Samimi, Soheila Alboghobeish, Laya Sadat Khorsandi, Mitra Moradi
      Pages: 47 - 56
      Abstract: Diet is one of the important risk factors that could potentially affect arsenic-induced cardiotoxicity. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of high fat diet on arsenic-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. Mice were divided into six different groups (n = 12), two control groups received either low fat diet (LFD) or high fat diet (HFD) along with deionized drinking water and four test groups given LFD + 25 ppm arsenic, LFD + 50 ppm arsenic, HFD + 25 ppm arsenic, and HFD + 50 ppm arsenic in drinking water for              5 months. The body weight, heart weight to body weight ratio, cardiac biochemical markers, lipid profile, and histological examination of heart were evaluated. The results demonstrated that arsenic exposure led to a significant decrease in heart glutathione level, catalase enzyme activity, and a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde levels, and biochemical enzymes. The administration of HFD resulted in above-mentioned changes as well as an alteration in lipid profile; however, arsenic exposure alone or along with HFD caused a reduction in lipid profile factors, except HDL level. Our results revealed that HFD increased arsenic-induced heart injury in the mice. This effect may be because of reduction in antioxidant activities and/or increase in oxidative stress and ROS in mice heart tissues. These findings could be important for clinical intervention to protect against or prevent arsenic-induced cardiotoxicity in humans.
      PubDate: 2017-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Estrogen stimulates adenosine receptor expression subtypes in human breast
           cancer MCF-7 cell line

    • Authors: Azam Mohamadi, Mahmoud Aghaei, Mojtaba Panjehpour
      Pages: 57 - 64
      Abstract: Estrogen is a steroid hormone that plays a key role in the development and regulation of reproductive system. It has been shown that estrogen is related to breast cancer development through binding to its receptors. In order to uncover the estrogen effects on adenosine receptor expression, estrogen-positive    MCF-7 cells were used to treat with agonist and antagonist of estrogen and then the mRNA expression of adenosine receptor subtypes were evaluated. Estrogen-positive MCF-7 cells were treated with various concentrations of 17β estradiol (E2) as an estrogen agonist, and ICI 182,780 as an estrogen antagonist. The gene expression of adenosine receptor subtypes were detected by real time RT-PCR. The results of MTT assay showed that E2 increased cell viability in a dose dependent manner. The expression pattern of all adenosine receptor subtypes are as follow; A2b > A1 > A2a > A3 in untreated MCF-7 cells. Obtained results showed that E2 incubation at 0.001-0.01 µM led to up-regulation of A1ARs, A2aARs and A3ARs dose dependently. E2 at 0.001 µM also had no significant effect on A2bARs expression but, at higher doses induced a considerable decrease in mRNA A2bARs expression. Treatment with antagonist confirmed that up-regulation of these receptors is mediated by estrogen receptor. Taken together, our results indicate that treatment of MCF-7 cells with E2 led to up-regulation of adenosine receptors. However, these effects were partially restored by treatment with antagonist suggesting that such effects are mediated by estrogen receptors.
      PubDate: 2017-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Magnesium sulfate protects the heart against carbon monoxide-induced
           cardiotoxicity in rats

    • Authors: Kaveh Tabrizian, Hamideh Khodayari, Ramin Rezaee, Hosseinali Jahantigh4, Gholamreza Bagheri, Konstantinos Tsarouhas, Mahmoud Hashemzaei
      Pages: 65 - 72
      Abstract: Carbon monoxide (CO), a toxic gas produced via incomplete fossil fuel combustion, has several poisonous effects in the heart including induction of necrosis, apoptosis, and electrocardiogram (ECG) changes. Magnesium sulfate (MS) is a drug with cardioprotective effects especially when used after ischemia/reperfusion. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate MS cardioprotective effects following CO poisoning. Animals were exposed to CO 3000 ppm for 1 h and immediately after the exposure period and on the next 4 days (a total of 5 consecutive doses given on a daily basis), MS (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) and ECG was recorded focusing on ST-segment, T-wave, and Q-pathologic wave changes. On day 5, animals were sacrificed and their heart was excised for determination of BAX, BCL2 and Akt expression level using western blot analysis and necrosis investigations. The results showed that MS significantly decreased necrosis and BAX/BCL2 ratio (P < 0.001) while pro-survival protein Akt was significantly increased (P < 0.001). Moreover, CO-induced ST-segment depression, T-wave inversion, and atrioventricular block (AV-block) were decreased following treatment with MS. In conclusion, our results showed that MS could decrease cardiac deleterious effects of CO poisoning including necrosis and apoptosis while increased the expression of Akt, as a cell survival protein.
      PubDate: 2017-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Anti-inflammatory activity of Echium amoenum extract on macrophages
           

    • Authors: Najmeh Naseri, Kurosh Kalantar, Zahra Amirghofran
      Pages: 73 - 81
      Abstract: Echium amoenum (Boraginaceae) is an important remedy used for various illnesses. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of E. amoenum in the J774.1A macrophage cell line. We prepared ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and hexane extracts from E. amoenum flowers and examined their possible cytotoxic effects using MTT assay. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages were treated with the extracts after which we measured nitric oxide (NO) production by Griess method. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 gene expressions were examined by real time-PCR. IL-1β and IL-6 cytokine levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The hexane extract with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 39.8 µg/mL most effectively reduced NO production. Real time-PCR analysis indicated reduced levels of iNOS ((0.05 ± 0.006 relative fold change (RFC)) and COX2 (0.06 ± 0.002 RFC) gene expressions with the 100 µg/mL hexane extract (P < 0.001). IL1-β, TNF-α, and IL-6 gene expression levels decreased at all concentrations of the extract (less than ≈ 0.28 RFC). Treatment of LPS-stimulated cells with 100 µg/mL of the extract reduced IL-1β secretion to 27.9 ± 0.21 pg/mL and IL-6 to 555 ± 166 pg/mL. In conclusion,     E. amoenum hexane extract showed the greatest reduction in macrophage NO secretion compared to other extracts. This extract could modulate the inflammatory mode of the macrophages by causing reductions in iNOS and COX2 enzymes as well as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α cytokine levels. The results of this study have shown the anti-inflammatory effects of this plant. Further studies regarding its therapeutic potential in inflammatory disorders are recommended.
      PubDate: 2017-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Synthesis and characterization of some novel diaryl urea derivatives
           bearing quinoxalindione moiety

    • Authors: Sedighe Sadeghian-Rizi, Ghadamali Khodarahmi, Amirhossein Sakhteman, Ali Jahanian-Najafabadi, Mahboubeh Rostami, Mahmoud Mirzaei, Farshid Hassanzadeh
      Pages: 82 - 92
      Abstract: Diaryl urea derivatives have exhibited a broad spectrum of biochemical effects and pharmaceutical applications. Several diaryl urea derivatives such as sorafenib, regorafenib, linifanib, and tivozanib and lenvatinib are in clinical trial or clinical use. Therefore, development of small molecules within the diaryl urea scaffold with the ability of binding to variety of enzymes and receptors in the biological system are an interesting topic for researchers. Sorafenib as a diaryl urea derivative is a well-known anticancer agent. Corresponding to available information about biological activities of quinoxaline moieties, based on sorafenib scaffold, several structures were designed by replacement of pyridyl carboxamide group                        of sorafenib with quinoxalindione moiety. A total of 14 novel compounds in 7 synthetic steps                          were synthesized. Briefly, the amino group of p-aminophenol was first protected followed by O-arylation of 4-acetamidophenol with 5-chloro-2-nitroaniline to provide 5-(4-acetamidophenoxy)-2-nitroaniline. Reduction of the nitro group of 5-(4-acetamidophenoxy)-2-nitroaniline and cyclization of diamine                    N-(4-(3,4-diaminophenoxy) phenyl) acetamides  with oxalic acid afforded compound N-(4-((2,3-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoxalin-6-yl)oxy)phenyl) acetamides which on deacetylation gave compounds                6-(4-aminophenoxy) quinoxaline-2,3 (1H, 4H)-diones. Then resultant compounds, 6-(4-aminophenoxy) quinoxaline-2,3 (1H, 4H)-diones were reacted by appropriate isocyanates/ carbamates to give the target compounds 1-(4-((2,3-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoxalin-6-yl)oxy)phenyl)-3-phenylureas. The structures of compounds confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), mass spectrum and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR).
      PubDate: 2017-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2017)
       
 
 
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