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Showing 1 - 200 of 355 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Arab Academy of Audio-Vestibulogy J.     Open Access  
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African J. for Infertility and Assisted Conception     Open Access  
African J. of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
African J. of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African J. of Paediatric Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.269, h-index: 10)
African J. of Trauma     Open Access  
Ain-Shams J. of Anaesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical J.     Open Access  
Al-Basar Intl. J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ancient Science of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anesthesia : Essays and Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 15)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.408, h-index: 15)
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.308, h-index: 14)
Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.441, h-index: 10)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.24, h-index: 29)
Annals of Thoracic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 19)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 5)
APOS Trends in Orthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arab J. of Interventional Radiology     Open Access  
Archives of Intl. Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Pharmacy Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific J. of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asia-Pacific J. of Oncology Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian J. of Andrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 49)
Asian J. of Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian J. of Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian J. of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.362, h-index: 10)
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Avicenna J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AYU : An international quarterly journal of research in Ayurveda     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Benha Medical J.     Open Access  
BLDE University J. of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Brain Circulation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Faculty of Physical Therapy     Open Access  
Cancer Translational Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CHRISMED J. of Health and Research     Open Access  
Clinical Dermatology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Trials in Degenerative Diseases     Open Access  
Clinical Trials in Orthopedic Disorders     Open Access  
Community Acquired Infection     Open Access  
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 12)
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Medical Issues     Open Access  
CytoJ.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.339, h-index: 19)
Delta J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access  
Dental Hypotheses     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.131, h-index: 4)
Dental Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Dentistry and Medical Research     Open Access  
Digital Medicine     Open Access  
Drug Development and Therapeutics     Open Access  
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 22)
Egyptian J. of Bronchology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cataract and Refractive Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Dermatology and Venerology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Haematology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Internal Medicine     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.121, h-index: 3)
Egyptian J. of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian J. of Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Orthopaedic J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Pharmaceutical J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Retina J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Rheumatology and Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Endodontology     Open Access  
Endoscopic Ultrasound     Open Access   (SJR: 0.473, h-index: 8)
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
European J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, h-index: 11)
European J. of General Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European J. of Prosthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European J. of Psychology and Educational Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Fertility Science and Research     Open Access  
Formosan J. of Surgery     Open Access   (SJR: 0.107, h-index: 5)
Genome Integrity     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.227, h-index: 12)
Global J. of Transfusion Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Heart India     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Heart Views     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hepatitis B Annual     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IJS Short Reports     Open Access  
Indian Anaesthetists Forum     Open Access  
Indian Dermatology Online J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian J. of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.302, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Burns     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Cancer     Open Access   (SJR: 0.318, h-index: 26)
Indian J. of Cerebral Palsy     Open Access  
Indian J. of Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.618, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 24)
Indian J. of Dental Sciences     Open Access  
Indian J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 29)
Indian J. of Dermatopathology and Diagnostic Dermatology     Open Access  
Indian J. of Drugs in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indian J. of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Medical and Paediatric Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.292, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 34)
Indian J. of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.716, h-index: 60)
Indian J. of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 31)
Indian J. of Multidisciplinary Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.233, h-index: 12)
Indian J. of Nuclear Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 5)
Indian J. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.536, h-index: 34)
Indian J. of Oral Health and Research     Open Access  
Indian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Orthopaedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.393, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Otology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.218, h-index: 5)
Indian J. of Paediatric Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 12)
Indian J. of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.285, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Pharmacology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.347, h-index: 44)
Indian J. of Plastic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.496, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Psychological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.444, h-index: 17)
Indian J. of Radiology and Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.253, h-index: 14)
Indian J. of Research in Homoeopathy     Open Access  
Indian J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.169, h-index: 7)
Indian J. of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Social Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Industrial Psychiatry J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Academic Medicine     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Advanced Medical and Health Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Applied and Basic Medical Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Clinical and Experimental Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Critical Illness and Injury Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Educational and Psychological Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Environmental Health Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Forensic Odontology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Green Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.229, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Heart Rhythm     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Mycobacteriology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.239, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Noncommunicable Diseases     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Oral Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Orthodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pedodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutical Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.523, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Shoulder Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.611, h-index: 9)
Intl. J. of Trichology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.37, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Yoga : Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Iranian J. of Nursing and Midwifery Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iraqi J. of Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Academy of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.427, h-index: 15)
J. of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.416, h-index: 14)
J. of Applied Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Association of Chest Physicians     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cancer Research and Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.359, h-index: 21)
J. of Carcinogenesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.152, h-index: 26)
J. of Cardiothoracic Trauma     Open Access  
J. of Cardiovascular Disease Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 13)
J. of Cardiovascular Echography     Open Access   (SJR: 0.134, h-index: 2)
J. of Cleft Lip Palate and Craniofacial Anomalies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Imaging Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.277, h-index: 8)
J. of Clinical Neonatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Ophthalmology and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Conservative Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.532, h-index: 10)
J. of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.199, h-index: 9)
J. of Current Medical Research and Practice     Open Access  
J. of Current Research in Scientific Medicine     Open Access  
J. of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cytology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 9)
J. of Dental and Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Dental Implants     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Dental Lasers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Dental Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Digestive Endoscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Dr. NTR University of Health Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Earth, Environment and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Education and Ethics in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Education and Health Promotion     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 14)
J. of Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Family and Community Medicine     Open Access  
J. of Family Medicine and Primary Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)

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Drug Development and Therapeutics
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   ISSN (Print) 2229-5186 - ISSN (Online) 0975-9212
   Published by Medknow Publishers Homepage  [355 journals]
  • Is depression an independent risk factor for the onset of Type 2 diabetes
           mellitus?

    • Authors: Harish Singh Parihar, Harivansh Thakar, Hongjun Yin, Shari Allen
      Pages: 75 - 80
      Abstract: Harish Singh Parihar, Harivansh Thakar, Hongjun Yin, Shari Allen
      Drug Development and Therapeutics 2016 7(2):75-80
      Depression is one of the most common mental illnesses characterized by loss of pleasure, whereas diabetes is a metabolic disorder which leads to high serum glucose levels. Current literature supports the development of depressive symptoms in patients with chronic illnesses including diabetes. However, depression as a potential risk factor for diabetes has attracted a lot of attention for clinicians and researchers. It has been hypothesized that both diabetes and depression may be bidirectional in nature, and each may exacerbate the symptoms or play an important role in the development of the other. The most common association between them is the diagnosis of depression in Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes. As the matter of fact, diabetes has been reported to double the risk of depression. In this review article, we have summarized various scientific studies to evaluate the potential of depression as a risk factor for diabetes. MEDLINE search identified various articles assessing this hypothesis. Our review of literature indicate some support for depression as a risk factor for Type 2 diabetes however more clinical studies need to be performed to clarify the contribution of depression as an independent risk factor for diabetes and to check the diabetes epidemic from escalating at a higher rate.
      Citation: Drug Development and Therapeutics 2016 7(2):75-80
      PubDate: Tue,27 Sep 2016
      DOI: 10.4103/2394-6555.191148
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Comparative gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, Fourier transform
           infrared spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis
           of essential oils extracted using 4 methods from the leaves of Eucalyptus
           globulus L.

    • Authors: Yasmeen Khan, Hafizur R Ansari, Rinki, Rishika Chauhan, Ennus T Tamboli, Sayeed Ahmad
      Pages: 81 - 86
      Abstract: Yasmeen Khan, Hafizur R Ansari, Rinki , Rishika Chauhan, Ennus T Tamboli, Sayeed Ahmad
      Drug Development and Therapeutics 2016 7(2):81-86
      Background: Eucalyptus globulus L. (family, Myrtaceae) is one of the world's most widely planted genera. E. globulus L., commonly referred to as Tasmanian blue gum, is a fast growing, evergreen tree, native to Tasmania and South-East Australia. Apart from its extensive use in pulp industry, it is also produces Oleum Eucalypti (eucalyptus oil) that is extracted on commercial scale in many countries such as China, India, South Africa, Portugal, Brazil, and Tasmania, as a raw material in perfumery, cosmetics, food beverage, aromatherapy, and phytotherapy. Materials and Methods: Traditional hydrodistillation (HD), solvent extraction (SE), ultrasonication (US), and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) were conducted for the extraction of essential oil from the leaves of E. globulus. Each oil was evaluated in terms of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPTLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) fingerprinting with qualitative and semi-quantitative composition of the isolated essential oil by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GCMS), the extract yield of essential oil was 2.60%, 2.2%, 2.0%, and 3.6% v/w, respectively, for HD, SE, US, and SFE. Results: A total of 53 compounds were identified by GCMS. Comparative analysis indicated that SFE was favorable for extraction of monoterpene hydrocarbon, sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, and oxygenated sesquiterpene hydrocarbon. HD, SE, and US had certain advantages in the extraction of aliphatic saturated hydrocarbons organic acid and esters. Overlay, FTIR spectra of oil samples obtained by four extraction methods were superimposed with each other showing similar components. The maximum separation of compound seen at 254 nm and lesser at 366 nm by HPTLC fingerprinting which again showed superimposed chromatograms. Conclusion: It is concluded that different extraction method may lead to different yields of essential oils where the choice of appropriate method is very important to obtained more desired component with higher physiological activities.
      Citation: Drug Development and Therapeutics 2016 7(2):81-86
      PubDate: Tue,27 Sep 2016
      DOI: 10.4103/2394-6555.191149
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Characterization of Arachis hypogaea L. oil obtained from different
           extraction techniques and in vitro antioxidant potential of supercritical
           fluid extraction extract

    • Authors: Rishika Chauhan, Iftekhar Ahmad, Yasmeen Khan, Ennus Tajuddin Tamboli, Sayeed Ahmad
      Pages: 87 - 91
      Abstract: Rishika Chauhan, Iftekhar Ahmad, Yasmeen Khan, Ennus Tajuddin Tamboli, Sayeed Ahmad
      Drug Development and Therapeutics 2016 7(2):87-91
      Aim: The present investigation was aimed to characterize the fixed oil of Arachis hypogaea L. using five different extraction methods: Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), ultrasound assistance extraction, soxhlet extraction, solvent extraction, and three phase partitioning method. Materials and Methods: The SFE conditions (temperature, pressure, and volume of CO 2) were optimized prior for better yield. The extracted oils were analyzed and compared for their physiochemical parameters, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) fingerprinting. Anti-oxidant activity was also determined using DPPH and superoxide scavenging method. Results: The main fatty acids were oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acids as obtained by GC-MS. HPTLC analysis revealed the presence of similar major components in chromatograms. Similarly, the pattern of peaks as obtained in FT-IR and GC-MS spectra of same oils by different extraction methods was superimposable. Conclusion: Analysis reported that the fixed oil of A. hypogaea L. is a good source of unsaturated fatty acid, mainly n-6 and n-9 fatty acid with a significant antioxidant activity of oil obtained from SFE extraction method.
      Citation: Drug Development and Therapeutics 2016 7(2):87-91
      PubDate: Tue,27 Sep 2016
      DOI: 10.4103/2394-6555.191150
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Randomized single-blind clinical evaluation of Safoof-e-Pathar phori in
           urolithiasis patients

    • Authors: SM Arif Zaidi, Wasim Ahmad
      Pages: 92 - 95
      Abstract: SM Arif Zaidi, Wasim Ahmad
      Drug Development and Therapeutics 2016 7(2):92-95
      Objective: Safoof-e-Pathar phori (SPP), a unani polyherbomineral formulation, used for antilithiatic activity since long time. This study was aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of SPP in adult human patients with urolithiasis. The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, and single-blind, clinical trial. Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients who have stone size below 15 mm in the age group of 15-55 years with diagnosis of calcium oxalate renal calculi were taken in the study. Out of which, only 30 patients fulfilled the criteria and completed the study. Twenty patients received SPP (Group I) and ten patients were given placebo (Group II) for 2 months. The patients were investigated for routine, hemogram, blood urea, serum creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, and uric acid levels at definite time intervals. Similarly, routine and microscopic urine examination was done with radio-imaging KUB and ultrasound KUB examination, etc., which were repeated on completion of the study. Results: All patients received the same dosage of SPP or placebo for a 2-month period. On starting SPP, symptomatic relief was reported by patients. The disappearance of stones was noted in patients as confirmed by X-ray KUB and Ultrasound KUB examination. Totally, 56.67% of patients showed reduction in size of stone and 49.31% showed litho expulsive effect. Conclusion: The use of SPP in the treatment of calcium oxalate stone as noninvasive remedy for the urolithiatic patients is validated and proved. Since the dose of formulation is too high, further study on dose reduction followed by preclinical evaluation may be attempted for development of scientific data.
      Citation: Drug Development and Therapeutics 2016 7(2):92-95
      PubDate: Tue,27 Sep 2016
      DOI: 10.4103/2394-6555.191151
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Significance of molecular markers in pharmacognosy: A modern tool for
           authentication of herbal drugs

    • Authors: Karishma Chester, Ennus T Tamboli, Sarvesh K Paliwal, Sayeed Ahmad
      Pages: 96 - 106
      Abstract: Karishma Chester, Ennus T Tamboli, Sarvesh K Paliwal, Sayeed Ahmad
      Drug Development and Therapeutics 2016 7(2):96-106
      Quality evaluation of herbal preparation is an elementary requirement of industry and other association dealing with Ayurvedic and herbal products. The growing use of botanical products now a days is forcing to assess these agents and to develop standards of quality and produce. An attempt has been made through this article to highlight the use of molecular markers for botanicals with special reference to Indian herbal medicine. As the desire for herbal-based products becomes ingrained in our society but standardization of botanicals offers many obstacles like the controversial identity of various plants, deliberated adulteration of plant material, ensuring quality is much more than discovery, specification, and process control. It also includes awareness of every aspect of a manufacturing process from research to shipping. Extensive research on DNA-based molecular markers is in progress for its great utility in the herbal drug analysis and widely used for the authentification of plant species of medicinal importance. DNA markers are reliable for information as the genetic composition is unique for each species and is not affected by age, physiological conditions, as well as environmental factors. DNA markers offer several advantages over conventional phenotypic markers, as they provide data that can be analyzed objectively.
      Citation: Drug Development and Therapeutics 2016 7(2):96-106
      PubDate: Tue,27 Sep 2016
      DOI: 10.4103/2394-6555.191164
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • A review on the status of quality control and standardization of herbal
           drugs in India

    • Authors: Anju Dhiman, Kavita Sharma, Asha Sharma, Pawan Sindhu
      Pages: 107 - 112
      Abstract: Anju Dhiman, Kavita Sharma, Asha Sharma, Pawan Sindhu
      Drug Development and Therapeutics 2016 7(2):107-112
      Background: Most of the herbal medicines in the world originate from the developing countries. There are ample opportunities for these countries to expand their global export. The world market for botanical medicines including drug products and raw materials has been estimated to have an annual growth rate between 5% and 15%. Total global botanical drug market is estimated at US$62 billion and is expected to grow to the tune of US$5 trillion by the year 2050. In the USA alone, the usage of botanicals has been increased by 380% between the years 1990 and 1997. Materials and Methods: Ayurveda, the Indian system of medicine, is one of the ancient, yet living traditions that face a typical Western bias. Widespread and growing use of botanicals has created public health challenges globally in terms of quality, safety, and efficacy. Results and Discussion: The development of parameters for standardization and quality control of botanicals is a challenging task. Various regulatory authorities, research organizations, and botanical drug manufacturers have contributed in developing guiding principles and addressing issues related to the quality, safety, and efficacy. Conclusions: The present review describes the regulatory aspects of herbal drugs in India and various other countries.
      Citation: Drug Development and Therapeutics 2016 7(2):107-112
      PubDate: Tue,27 Sep 2016
      DOI: 10.4103/2394-6555.191165
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Solubility and stability enhancement of curcumin: Improving drug
           properties of natural pigment

    • Authors: MJ Ansari, Rabea Parveen
      Pages: 113 - 116
      Abstract: MJ Ansari, Rabea Parveen
      Drug Development and Therapeutics 2016 7(2):113-116
      Aim: Water insolubility, low potency, and instability are inherent problems of several herbal medicines. Identity, strength, quality, and purity of herbal products are further compromised during manufacturing and storage. The aim of present work was to evaluate solubility and stability of curcumin, a pigment obtained from dried rhizomes of plant Cucrcuma longa. Materials and Methods: The stoichiometric ratios for inclusion complexation of curcumin with various cyclodextrins (CDs) were determined by phase solubility analysis. Grinding, kneading, and freeze-drying were employed to determine optimum complexation. Complexes were evaluated for drug inclusion, solubility, and stability. Results: Stability constants were 11200 M−1 , 1557 M−1 , 2858 M−1 , and 2206 M−1 for α-, β-, γ-CD, and dimethyl β-CD (DIMEB), respectively, thus indicating good complex formation. Theoretical amounts of curcumin in binary products were between 80% and 97% with a maximum of 96.8% in curcumin-β-CD freeze-dried product. The complexation resulted in a marked improvement in the solubility of curcumin up to 60, 55, 56, and 1500 folds by α-, β-, γ-CD, and DIMEB, respectively. Inclusion complexation protected the drug from hydrolytic degradations as only 20-40% degradation was observed at the end of 8 h as opposed to >70% for pure curcumin. Conclusion: A significant improvement in the solubility and stability was observed with curcumin-CD complex as compared to pure curcumin.
      Citation: Drug Development and Therapeutics 2016 7(2):113-116
      PubDate: Tue,27 Sep 2016
      DOI: 10.4103/2394-6555.191166
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Development and detection efficiency of sequence characterized amplified
           region markers for authentication of medicinal plant Ruta graveolens and
           its adulterant Euphorbia dracunculoides

    • Authors: Irum Gul, Athar Ali, Khanda Jabeen Mirza, Malik Zainul Abdin
      Pages: 117 - 121
      Abstract: Irum Gul, Athar Ali, Khanda Jabeen Mirza, Malik Zainul Abdin
      Drug Development and Therapeutics 2016 7(2):117-121
      Background: With the increase in demand of herbal medicines, adulteration in these drugs is also gaining momentum and remains an indispensable problem in domestic and export markets. Correct identification is the first step toward assuring quality, safety, and efficacy of indigenous herbal medicines. Materials and Methods: In this study, sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers were developed to discriminate Ruta graveolens from its adulterant Euphorbia dracunculoides. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was performed and subsequently converted into SCAR markers. Results: After performing RAPD, SCAR primers were designed from the selected unique RAPD amplicons of the genuine drug as well as its adulterant. These primers produced 670 bp and 750 bp SCAR markers with genomic DNA sample of R. graveolens and E. dracunculoides, respectively. Conclusion: Development of these markers will help in the quality control of herbal drugs and monitoring widespread adulteration of these drugs by pharmaceutical industries and government agencies.
      Citation: Drug Development and Therapeutics 2016 7(2):117-121
      PubDate: Tue,27 Sep 2016
      DOI: 10.4103/2394-6555.191172
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Indian herbal pharmacovigilance: The untamed saga

    • Authors: Swati Madan, Sumeet Gullaiya
      Pages: 122 - 124
      Abstract: Swati Madan, Sumeet Gullaiya
      Drug Development and Therapeutics 2016 7(2):122-124
      Background: The acceptability of herbal formulations as therapeutic agents for numerous diseases has reached to its brim in the latest phytomedicine scenario. Since herbal medicinal products are complex mixtures from biological sources, regulations are necessary to guarantee the constant quality and quantity in order to break the unanimous myth related to herbal medicines consumption. Although the pharmacovigilance program in India has spread its roots in the field of medicines, amazingly there has been no benchmark regulations set up in the herbal segments. Aim: As per the latest regulatory scenario, the herbal drug regulation or herbal pharmacovigilance of India is lagging very much behind the highly regulated international herbal markets. The present article serves as a reminder of the fact that it is the high time for the Indian drug regulators to tame the herbal drug market since India has emerged as resourceful of enormous herbal medicines with full proof folk knowledge but is still lacking the specific legislative criteria to establish these herbal products as "medicine." Conclusion: This systemic herbal pharmacovigilance will definitely boost up not only the herbal market trend, but also the confidence about using of botanical medicines regarding their safe and rationale use within the ambit of pharmacotherapy.
      Citation: Drug Development and Therapeutics 2016 7(2):122-124
      PubDate: Tue,27 Sep 2016
      DOI: 10.4103/2394-6555.191173
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Investigation of ethosomes as surrogate carriers for bioactives

    • Authors: Devina Verma, Tahir Khuroo, Sushama Talegaonkar, Zeenat Iqbal
      Pages: 125 - 128
      Abstract: Devina Verma, Tahir Khuroo, Sushama Talegaonkar, Zeenat Iqbal
      Drug Development and Therapeutics 2016 7(2):125-128
      Background: Ethosomal vesicular system delivering a bioactive phytochemical, chrysin, was developed for transdermal delivery to increase its permeability and penetrability. Materials and Methods: Ethosomal system was optimized by keeping lecithin and ethanol concentration as independent variable while size and size distribution were taken as dependent variables. The optimized formulation was then subjected to various in vitro characterization parameters. Results: Ethosomal vesicle with an optimum size and polydispersity index of 134 ± 35 nm and 0.153, respectively, and entrapment efficiency of 80.05 ± 2.6% was considered as optimized and subjected to characterization. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed spherical entities with uniform surface whereas in vitro permeation and retention study showed the sustained mode of drug release and better skin retention as compared to hydroethanolic solution of the drug. The confocal laser scanning microscopy study reiterated high penetrability of vesicles into the skin. Histopathological and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed its mechanism of penetration. Conclusion : The study thus demonstrated the ability of the ethosomal vesicles as surrogate carriers for delivery of bioactive agents through the skin for better amelioration of skin inflammation and other diseases.
      Citation: Drug Development and Therapeutics 2016 7(2):125-128
      PubDate: Tue,27 Sep 2016
      DOI: 10.4103/2394-6555.191175
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
       
 
 
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