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Publisher: Medknow Publishers   (Total: 355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 355 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Arab Academy of Audio-Vestibulogy J.     Open Access  
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African J. for Infertility and Assisted Conception     Open Access  
African J. of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African J. of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African J. of Paediatric Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.269, h-index: 10)
African J. of Trauma     Open Access  
Ain-Shams J. of Anaesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical J.     Open Access  
Al-Basar Intl. J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ancient Science of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anesthesia : Essays and Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 15)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.408, h-index: 15)
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.308, h-index: 14)
Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.441, h-index: 10)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.24, h-index: 29)
Annals of Thoracic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 19)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 5)
APOS Trends in Orthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arab J. of Interventional Radiology     Open Access  
Archives of Intl. Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Pharmacy Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asia Pacific J. of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asia-Pacific J. of Oncology Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian J. of Andrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 49)
Asian J. of Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian J. of Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian J. of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.362, h-index: 10)
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Avicenna J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AYU : An international quarterly journal of research in Ayurveda     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Benha Medical J.     Open Access  
BLDE University J. of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Brain Circulation     Open Access  
Bulletin of Faculty of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Translational Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CHRISMED J. of Health and Research     Open Access  
Clinical Dermatology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Trials in Degenerative Diseases     Open Access  
Clinical Trials in Orthopedic Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Community Acquired Infection     Open Access  
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 12)
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Medical Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CytoJ.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.339, h-index: 19)
Delta J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access  
Dental Hypotheses     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.131, h-index: 4)
Dental Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Dentistry and Medical Research     Open Access  
Digital Medicine     Open Access  
Drug Development and Therapeutics     Open Access  
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 22)
Egyptian J. of Bronchology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cataract and Refractive Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Dermatology and Venerology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Haematology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.121, h-index: 3)
Egyptian J. of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian J. of Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Orthopaedic J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Pharmaceutical J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Retina J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Rheumatology and Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Endodontology     Open Access  
Endoscopic Ultrasound     Open Access   (SJR: 0.473, h-index: 8)
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, h-index: 11)
European J. of General Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European J. of Prosthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European J. of Psychology and Educational Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Fertility Science and Research     Open Access  
Formosan J. of Surgery     Open Access   (SJR: 0.107, h-index: 5)
Genome Integrity     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.227, h-index: 12)
Global J. of Transfusion Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Heart India     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Heart Views     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hepatitis B Annual     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IJS Short Reports     Open Access  
Indian Anaesthetists Forum     Open Access  
Indian Dermatology Online J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian J. of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.302, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Burns     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Cancer     Open Access   (SJR: 0.318, h-index: 26)
Indian J. of Cerebral Palsy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.618, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 24)
Indian J. of Dental Sciences     Open Access  
Indian J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 29)
Indian J. of Dermatopathology and Diagnostic Dermatology     Open Access  
Indian J. of Drugs in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indian J. of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Medical and Paediatric Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.292, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 34)
Indian J. of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.716, h-index: 60)
Indian J. of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 31)
Indian J. of Multidisciplinary Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.233, h-index: 12)
Indian J. of Nuclear Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 5)
Indian J. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, h-index: 34)
Indian J. of Oral Health and Research     Open Access  
Indian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Orthopaedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.393, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Otology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.218, h-index: 5)
Indian J. of Paediatric Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 12)
Indian J. of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.285, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Pharmacology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.347, h-index: 44)
Indian J. of Plastic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.496, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Psychological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.444, h-index: 17)
Indian J. of Radiology and Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.253, h-index: 14)
Indian J. of Research in Homoeopathy     Open Access  
Indian J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.169, h-index: 7)
Indian J. of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Social Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Industrial Psychiatry J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Academic Medicine     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Advanced Medical and Health Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Applied and Basic Medical Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Clinical and Experimental Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Critical Illness and Injury Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Educational and Psychological Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Environmental Health Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Forensic Odontology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Green Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.229, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Heart Rhythm     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Mycobacteriology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.239, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Noncommunicable Diseases     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Oral Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Orthodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pedodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutical Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.523, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Shoulder Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.611, h-index: 9)
Intl. J. of Trichology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.37, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Yoga : Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Iranian J. of Nursing and Midwifery Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Iraqi J. of Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Academy of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.427, h-index: 15)
J. of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.416, h-index: 14)
J. of Applied Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Association of Chest Physicians     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cancer Research and Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.359, h-index: 21)
J. of Carcinogenesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.152, h-index: 26)
J. of Cardiothoracic Trauma     Open Access  
J. of Cardiovascular Disease Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 13)
J. of Cardiovascular Echography     Open Access   (SJR: 0.134, h-index: 2)
J. of Cleft Lip Palate and Craniofacial Anomalies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Imaging Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.277, h-index: 8)
J. of Clinical Neonatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Ophthalmology and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Clinical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Conservative Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.532, h-index: 10)
J. of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.199, h-index: 9)
J. of Current Medical Research and Practice     Open Access  
J. of Current Research in Scientific Medicine     Open Access  
J. of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cytology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 9)
J. of Dental and Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Dental Implants     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Dental Lasers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Dental Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Digestive Endoscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Dr. NTR University of Health Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Earth, Environment and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Education and Ethics in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Education and Health Promotion     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 14)
J. of Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Family and Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Family Medicine and Primary Care     Open Access   (Followers: 11)

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Journal Cover Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
  [SJR: 0.148]   [H-I: 5]   [15 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1755-6783 - ISSN (Online) 0974-6005
   Published by Medknow Publishers Homepage  [355 journals]
  • Continue the intensity of the ongoing prevention and control measures to
           contain the 2016 outbreak of yellow fever in Angola

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1099 - 1100
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1099-1100

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1099-1100
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.217528
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Necessity to strengthen prevention activities and expand treatment
           services to accomplish global elimination of Hepatitis C

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1101 - 1102
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1101-1102

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1101-1102
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.217529
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Delivering comprehensive sexuality education among youths to eventually
           achieve human immunodeficiency virus-free generation

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1103 - 1104
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1103-1104

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1103-1104
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.217530
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Young people acting as ambassadors for the accomplishment of women-related
           sustainable development goals

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1105 - 1106
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1105-1106

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1105-1106
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.217532
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Universal health coverage: Necessity, monitoring, and the vision ahead

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1107 - 1108
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1107-1108

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1107-1108
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.217533
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Building an effective mechanism to respond to the repeated outbreaks of
           cholera in the african region

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1109 - 1110
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1109-1110

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1109-1110
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.217534
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Combating infectious diseases on the global scale in the era of the
           sustainable development goals

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1111 - 1112
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1111-1112

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1111-1112
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.217535
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Developing a mechanism to reduce after effects and track health workers
           affected by terrorism

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1113 - 1114
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1113-1114

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1113-1114
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.217536
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Meeting the sexual and reproductive health needs of young people in
           developing nations

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1115 - 1116
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1115-1116

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1115-1116
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.217537
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Implementing maternal death surveillance and response through the
           Millennium Villages Project: World Health Organization

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1117 - 1118
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1117-1118

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1117-1118
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.217538
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • International agencies working together to empower adolescent girls in
           Mozambique: A community-based intervention

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1119 - 1120
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1119-1120

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1119-1120
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.217539
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Encouraging and expanding screening activities for cervical cancer in
           low-resource settings

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1121 - 1122
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1121-1122

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1121-1122
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.217540
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Generation of electronic-waste and its impact on environment and public
           health in Malaysia

    • Authors: MD Abul Kalam Azad, Mohd Aminul Islam, MM Ismail Hossin
      Pages: 1123 - 1127
      Abstract: MD Abul Kalam Azad, Mohd Aminul Islam, MM Ismail Hossin
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1123-1127
      Generation of municipal solid waste as well as electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) is rapidly increasing in the developing countries, especially in the electronic manufacturing industries which have seen some technological growth within a short timeframe in Malaysia. The purpose of this study is to find out the factors that contribute to the generation of e-waste and to present the current scenario of Malaysia's e-waste management system. The data were collected from the review of various scientific journals and the Department of Environment Malaysia (DOE) which were published and available in online currently. It was observed that recently in Malaysia, the generation of e-waste is one of the environmental problems in Malaysia. Among other factors, besides industries, use pattern for households, business entities, and institutions are the main contributors of the increased e-waste generated in Malaysia. DOE reported that, the ratio of bought and possessed electronic appliances among the respondents in Malaysia is not balance. The rate of discarding is higher than possessed rate. Remarkably, in television, 95.6% of the television sets currently possessed are bought from shops, but only 33% of respondents were using it up to now, whereas 62.60% of people are not using their televisions and they have discarded it. Consequently, the discarded rate of other electronic appliances is also almost in the same trend by households, business entities, and institutions in Malaysia. E-waste containing a lot of dangerous chemicals and metals such as Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Zinc, and Chromium causes diseases such as brain disorders, kidney, renal, and neurological damage, thus leading to even deaths, learning disabilities, lung damage, mental retardation, behavioral problems, hearing impairment, fragility of the bones, and high blood pressure. It is, therefore, recommended that government should develop the 3Rs initiatives to reduce, reuse, and recycle of e-waste. At the same time, create awareness among the society to prevent it from the negative impact on the environment through pollution and public health hazards.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1123-1127
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_349_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • HIV and sexually transmitted co-infections among sex workers in the
           Southern African economic region

    • Authors: Clarence S Yah, Ernest Tambo, Oluwafemi Adeagbo, Ayanda Magida
      Pages: 1128 - 1136
      Abstract: Clarence S Yah, Ernest Tambo, Oluwafemi Adeagbo, Ayanda Magida
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1128-1136
      Background: The Southern African Development Community (SADC) economic block is the most affected region by HIV epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Despite programmatic interventions, HIV infections remain unprecedentedly high among female sex workers (FSW) in the region. This review assesses the HIV burden and the drivers associated with FSW in the SADC region. Methods: We systematically extracted and analyzed HIV burden and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) research data on FSW indexed in various journal platform and reports from governmental and nongovernmental organizations between 2003 and 2015. Meta-analysis technique was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of the HIV burden among FSW in the region. Results: Of the 192 peer-reviewed articles and reports addressing HIV burden, only 21 articles met eligibility criteria totaling 14998 FSW. The combined overall pool HIV prevalence was estimated at 42.0% (95% CI 0.41–0.43). The estimated pooled HIV prevalence ranged from 16% (95% CI 0.13–18) in Democratic Republic of Congo, 59% (95% CI 0.57–0.62) in South Africa and 71% (95% CI 0.65–0.76) in Malawi. The most common STIs reported were syphilis, Chlamydia, and gonorrhea with little emphasis on viruses. Structural factors such as stigma and discrimination, access to healthcare services and various socioeconomic and political barriers impeded treatment and prevention. Conclusion: The HIV prevalence among FSW was 5–30 times higher when compared to the overall female reproductive age population in the SADC region. This signifies and necessitates increase evidence based HIV/STIs research and programs among FSW in the SADC region.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1128-1136
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_31_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • A systematic review of medical service branding: Essential approach to
           hospital sector

    • Authors: Omid Khosravizadeh, Soudabeh Vatankhah, Mohammadreza Maleki
      Pages: 1137 - 1146
      Abstract: Omid Khosravizadeh, Soudabeh Vatankhah, Mohammadreza Maleki
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1137-1146
      Introduction: Understanding the branding aspects of health care and its application and development strategies is undoubtedly necessary for hospitals to achieve optimal marketing. The purpose of the present paper was to systematically review healthcare branding factors, the results of which can be useful in the understanding of these factors and improving the healthcare services. Materials and Methods: The present systematic review was conducted in 2017. Research related to branding in the field of healthcare services was searched using valid keywords, including hospital, medical service, and healthcare combined with keywords such as brand and brand building and through various databases (e. g., Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Sciences). Using a check list, analytical studies (SCORB) were evaluated qualitatively. Endnote X6 was applied to arrange and evaluate abstract titles and to remove duplicate abstracts. Results: A total of 54 papers were selected for the systematic review. The results were classified and reported based on three categories, including dimension, process/strategies, and results/benefits. The most important brand building dimension was brand equity, the most important process was stabilization of brand positioning, and the most important result was development of optimal marketing. Moreover, some of the results suggested the effect of branding on financial and clinical performance of hospitals. Conclusion: The concept of brand building in healthcare services is an emerging phenomenon, and most of the healthcare organizations have limited experience in building brand strategies and developing their services. In this regard, it is necessary for hospitals to identify comprehensively the dimensions, processes, and results of optimal branding in healthcare services and use them for planning, implementation, and management.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1137-1146
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_328_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Factors associated with malnutrition among under five-year-old children in
           Iran: A systematic review

    • Authors: Mohammad Mohseni, Aidin Aryankhesal, Naser Kalantari
      Pages: 1147 - 1158
      Abstract: Mohammad Mohseni, Aidin Aryankhesal, Naser Kalantari
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1147-1158
      Background: Children are one of the most important population groups in the world and malnutrition is considered as one of death causes among them, especially those under 5 years old. The aim of our study was to conduct a systematic review of malnutrition and its associated factors among under five-year-old children of Iran. Materials and Methods: Data were collected through searching electronic databases and searching motors of PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar, Scientific Information Database, Magiran and IranMedex using key words of “malnutrition,” “under-nutrition,” “stunting,” “underweight,” “wasting,” “factor,” “children,” “under 5 years,” “Iran,” and their Persian synonyms. Some of the relevant journals and websites were hand searched. Results: Of 608 preliminarily retrieved articles, 36 were selected for the final phase of the study. The most important factors related to underweight were mother's education level, father's education level, and birth weight. In regard to wasting, gender was one of the main factors and the next four were living location, birth weight, mother's, and father's education levels. Mother education level, father education, gender, birth weight, and age group were mentioned as the most important factors resulting in stunting as well. Conclusions: In some regions with low socioeconomic status, especially rural areas, the focus should be on the improvement of households living conditions such as mothers' and children's nutrition. Improvement in parents' education, particularly mothers' education, can have a significant impact on children's health. Under 5 years old girls need more attention than boys regarding to their poorer indicators.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1147-1158
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_668_16
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Chemical composition and screening of antibacterial activity of essential
           oil of Pistacia khinjuk against two selected pathogenic bacteria

    • Authors: Reza Tahvilian, Rohallah Moradi, Hossein Zhaleh, Mohammad Mahdi Zangeneh, Akram Zangeneh, Hossein Yazdani, Majid Hajialiani
      Pages: 1159 - 1164
      Abstract: Reza Tahvilian, Rohallah Moradi, Hossein Zhaleh, Mohammad Mahdi Zangeneh, Akram Zangeneh, Hossein Yazdani, Majid Hajialiani
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1159-1164
      Background: Medicinal plants are considered as modern resources for producing agents that could act as alternatives to antibiotics in demeanor of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Pistacia khinjuk (combined with the dominance γ-terpinene) against P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis. Materials and Methods: The chemical composition of the essential oil was identified using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS). As a screen test to detect antibacterial property of the essential oil, agar disk diffusion and agar well diffusion methods were employed. Macrobroth tube test was performed to determinate minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Results: According to results of the GC-MS analysis, γ-terpinene (81.14%) (w/w), β-pinene (3.93%) (w/w), and α-terpinolene (2.38%) (w/w) were the abundant components of the essential oil. The MIC and MBC values were 0.015/0.031 g/ml for essential oil of P. khinjuk in case of P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis, respectively. Conclusion: We believe that the article provides support to the antibacterial property of the essential oil. In fact, the results indicate that the essential oil of P. khinjuk can be useful as medicinal or preservative composition. Fractionation and characterization of active molecules will be the future work to investigate.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1159-1164
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_630_16
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Effect of narrative writing on quality of life in chronic renal failure
           patients underwent hemodialysis

    • Authors: Akram Ahmadzade, Sayed Mojtaba Ahmadi, Khirollah Sadeghi, Akram Sanagu, Sayed Mojtaba Amiri, Arash Parsa Moghadam, Alireza Abdi
      Pages: 1165 - 1168
      Abstract: Akram Ahmadzade, Sayed Mojtaba Ahmadi, Khirollah Sadeghi, Akram Sanagu, Sayed Mojtaba Amiri, Arash Parsa Moghadam, Alireza Abdi
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1165-1168
      Background: Chronic renal failure is the most common chronic disease affects the physical and psychological health of suffers and their quality of life (QOL). Recently, narrative writing is considered as a new approach to improve the problems of these patients, moreover, there is a paucity of information in this regard; hence, the current study was conducted to determine the effect of narrative writing on the QOL of hemodialysis patients. Methods: In a clinical trial, 28 hemodialysis patients of Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah were enrolled to the study in 2015. They are divided into two groups: case and control through randomization. The information was gathered through the short form-36 QOL questionnaire before and after intervention. Data were entered into SPSS-22 and analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings: The mean of QOL score for case and control groups was 94.92 and 97.53, respectively, before intervention, which increased to 98.85 in case group and declined in control group to 90.80. The analysis of covariance test showed a significant difference between two groups after intervention (P = 0.004). Conclusion: The results indicate narrative writing can enhance the QOL of hemodialysis patient; however, it is required to carry out more studies with higher sample size.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1165-1168
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_105_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Effects of cold alcohol compression on pain of preschoolers receiving
           intravenous fluid infusion

    • Authors: Atchariya Wonginchan, Sureeporn Thanasilp, Branom Rodcumdee
      Pages: 1169 - 1173
      Abstract: Atchariya Wonginchan, Sureeporn Thanasilp, Branom Rodcumdee
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1169-1173
      Purpose: The study aimed to determine the effects of cold alcohol compression on pain of preschoolers receiving an intravenous (IV) fluid infusion. Methods: In this quasi-experimental, four group study, 3–5-year-old children in the intervention groups (n = 20) received cold alcohol compression 1 min before IV insertion. The control group (n = 20) received conventional nursing care. The Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale was used to assess pain intensity. The t-test was used to analyze pain. Results: The result indicated that the pain score of the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.01). Practice Implications: Cold alcohol compression is a time, cost-saving, and efficient method to reduce pain in preschoolers receiving the IV fluid infusion. Conclusion: Providing cold alcohol compression is the effective method which does not need intensive preparation.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1169-1173
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_269_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • The effect of life skills training program on quality of life and its
           dimensions in patients with type 2 of diabetes

    • Authors: Fariba Nasiri Ziba, Fatemeh Sadeghi Meresht, Naiemeh Seyedfatemi, Hamid Haghani
      Pages: 1174 - 1178
      Abstract: Fariba Nasiri Ziba, Fatemeh Sadeghi Meresht, Naiemeh Seyedfatemi, Hamid Haghani
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1174-1178
      Background and Objective: Diabetes is a major cause of death and disability and worsening of public health which is a concern in the world. Patients with diabetes had significantly poorer mental health than normal subjects and patients are psychologically vulnerable. Therefore, life skills training can promote mental health and quality of life (QOL) of patients with diabetes. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of life skills training on QOL in patients with type 2 of diabetes. Methodology: This research is a quasi-experimental study in which the effect on QOL and life skills training and its dimensions in patients with type 2 diabetes referred to health centers in Babolsar city. In this study, 100 patients with type 2 diabetes selected by convenience sampling in both experimental and control groups (each n = 50) were enrolled. To prevent data leakage, two centers were selected to test samples and controls separately; in this case, the experimental group and control group were selected from Arabkheil and Bahnamir health centers. For six 90 min, sessions for test group were trained in life skills. Moreover, after 6 weeks through QOL questionnaire (short-form 36), training effects in both groups were measured and compared. Data using Chi-square tests and t-test and Fisher's exact SPSS20 were analyzed using statistical software. Results: The mean scores at posttest in QOL (P = 0.005) and of energy and vitality (P = 0.002), mental health (P < 0.001), social functioning (P = 0.041), general health (P = 0.008) was a significant difference. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that life skills education program had an impact on the QOL in patients with type 2 diabetes.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1174-1178
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_276_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Relation between subjective sleepiness and changes in some vital signs
           among the clinical night workers

    • Authors: Alireza Khammar, Raze Nabi Amjad, Mitra Moghadasi, Marzieh Rohani, Arezoo Poursadeghian, Mahsa Hami, Mohammad Khandan, Hamed Yarmohammadi, Mohsen Poursadeghiyan
      Pages: 1179 - 1183
      Abstract: Alireza Khammar, Raze Nabi Amjad, Mitra Moghadasi, Marzieh Rohani, Arezoo Poursadeghian, Mahsa Hami, Mohammad Khandan, Hamed Yarmohammadi, Mohsen Poursadeghiyan
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1179-1183
      Background: Individuals with shift work sleep disorder are at risk for significant behavioral and health related such as emotional, psychological, and somatic issues. Sleeping problems in the health-care workers can lead to medication error incidents, resulting in undesired patients' safety. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the subjective sleepiness and changes in some vital signs of the night shift health care workers. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study that has been done in a hospital in Iran, 2017. Clinical staffs were as the study population; all of them were in shift working schedule. Seventy-nine personnel were selected in random. Data gathered using a researcher-developed demographic questionnaire and Stanford Sleepiness Scale to measure the intensity of the sleepiness. Data were analyzed using t, ANOVA, and Pearson's tests by SPSS V20. Responders were aged 35.24 ± 6.35 (mean ± standard deviation) years. Results: Staff had the lowest amount of sleepiness at around 22:30 and the highest at the end of the shift. Sleepiness was significantly correlated with age, work experience, and body mass index (BMI), and level of education. A significant relationship was observed between age, work experience, BMI, and education level (P < 0.05). Beat and breath rates were in diverse and significant relationship with sleepiness (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Sleepiness in two studied groups was similar. Sleepiness can decrease beat and breath rates, so decision makers should pay attention to physical health of staffs, especially on health-care centers to increase staff and patients safety.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1179-1183
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_303_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Investigating the relationship between the number of care provided and
           changes in the variables associated with diabetes in health homes and
           health centers affiliated to Lamerd Healthcare Network

    • Authors: Ebrahim Ezzati, Afshin Goodarzi, Mohammad-Rafi Bazrafshan, Foziyeh Faraji, Mahmood Rahmati, Amir Mansouri
      Pages: 1184 - 1188
      Abstract: Ebrahim Ezzati, Afshin Goodarzi, Mohammad-Rafi Bazrafshan, Foziyeh Faraji, Mahmood Rahmati, Amir Mansouri
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1184-1188
      Introduction: Diabetes influences the quality of life and the life expectancy of affected people and is an expensive disease to treat that imposes a heavy burden on the health and economy of each country. There have been few studies performed on the effectiveness of diabetes care in the clinical setting in Iran. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of care in the clinical setting. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive research, as an analysis of available data. Information about patients was extracted from the reports that submitted to Lamerd Healthcare Network. The criteria of the effectiveness of achieving the desired indicators in this study were in accordance with the goals of treatment of diabetes in country (Iran) about diabetic patients. Descriptive statistics and analytical statistics including Pearson's correlation coefficient and t-test were used to analyze the data. Results: About 59.7% of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) participants had <7% and 40.3% HbA1c >7%. About 45.3% of body mass index (BMI) participants had <25 and 54.7% of BMI >25. There was a significant relationship between the level of care and changes in hemoglobin glycolysis (r = 0.243, P < 0.05). Conclusion: In terms of achieving therapeutic goals for diabetes, blood pressure and BMI were within the acceptable range, but levels of fasting blood glucose and HbA1c were not in this range. Since there is a relationship between the changes of HbA1c and the number of physician care and health worker, it can be achieved by increasing the number of care for the purpose of treatment. Planning for weight loss in diabetic patients and increasing the number and quality of care for controlling blood glucose in Lamerd is recommended.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1184-1188
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_368_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Utilizing the information and communication technology as a learning tool
           for students

    • Authors: Shahriar Sakhaei, Hossein Motaarefi, Soryya Zinalpoor, Hassan Ebrahimpour Sadagheyani
      Pages: 1189 - 1194
      Abstract: Shahriar Sakhaei, Hossein Motaarefi, Soryya Zinalpoor, Hassan Ebrahimpour Sadagheyani
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1189-1194
      Introduction and Objective: The use of information and communication technology (ICT) to facilitate learning and training the students has led to the learning environment tend to become virtual and to change the communication and learning styles. This study aimed to investigate how students benefit from new learning technologies as a learning tool. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive–analytical study; the population included all students of the school of Medical Sciences in 2016, in Khoy, Iran. A questionnaire was used for data collecting. The questionnaire contains 50 questions regarding demographic information, the skills and the benefits of the students of computers and the Internet as the learning tools. After gathering the data, the analysis SPSS version 16 software and descriptive and inferential statistical analysis were used. Results: Students expressed their relatively high access to computers and the Internet (60.7%) and using ICT in learning (59.3%). The students' skills in the use of computers and the Internet (56%) were relatively high (97%). Most of the students used PowerPoint software as a learning tool, and the use of educational websites was relatively high in the nursing group (75%) compared to environmental health (50%). Conclusion: Considering the increased use of information technology proportionate with the students' personal skills and the effectiveness of multimedia educational software and Internet in learning, educational planners should provide access to e-learning by creating the conditions and introducing the high quality and rich educational software.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1189-1194
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_325_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Gastrointestinal carriage of Salmonella species and intestinal parasites,
           and nasal and hand carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among asymptomatic
           food handlers

    • Authors: Lona Dash, Ashvini Khaparde, Kumar Vivek, Jayanthi S Shastri
      Pages: 1195 - 1198
      Abstract: Lona Dash, Ashvini Khaparde, Kumar Vivek, Jayanthi S Shastri
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1195-1198
      Background: Food borne diseases continue to be a public health problem globally. Food handlers (FHs) have been implicated in food borne outbreaks. Asymptomatic carriers go unnoticed and are thus an important source of pathogens. Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to detect intestinal carriage of Salmonella species and parasites as well as nasal and hand carriage of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) among asymptomatic FHs. Personal hygiene practices followed by them were recorded. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 asymptomatic FHs were studied. A semi-structured questionnaire was filled. Nasal swabs and finger impressions were taken on mannitol salt agar plates which were incubated overnight at 37°C; colonies suggestive of S. aureus were identified and confirmed by standard biochemical tests. Stool culture for Salmonella species was done on MacConkey agar, Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate agar and simultaneously inoculated in Selenite F broth for further processing; colonies suggestive of Salmonella species were identified by standard biochemical tests and Salmonella antisera (Denka Seiken, Japan). Stool-routine/microscopy for parasites was done by gross examination, direct saline, and iodine mount followed by concentration method (saturated salt solution). An arbitrary 10-point scale used in earlier studies was utilized for classifying the level of personal hygiene of FHs. Results: Salmonella Typhi was detected in stool culture of two FHs. Intestinal parasites detected in 10 (3.3%) subjects, included Ascaris lumbricoides (5;1.7%), Entamoeba histolytica (3;1.0%), and Giardia intestinalis (2;0.66%). S. aureus carriage was noted in anterior nares (116;38.7%) and hand (83;27.7%). A total of 149 (50%) FHs were S. aureus carriers. Conclusion: This study indicates that FHs may be a potential source of food borne pathogens.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1195-1198
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_200_16
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Radiographic lumbar spondylosis: Gender and age group prevalence in
           Nigeria

    • Authors: O Okpala Francis
      Pages: 1199 - 1204
      Abstract: O Okpala Francis
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1199-1204
      Background: Lumbar spondylosis (LS) increases with, and is perhaps an inevitable concomitant of age, and is a major cause of low back pain and disability in the elderly. The prevalence in Nigeria is poorly documented, and its knowledge will assist in patient management. Objective: The aim is to study the gender and age group prevalence of LS in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of 368 anteroposterior and lateral lumbosacral spine spondylotic radiographs of patients of both genders. Data analysis was performed with IBM SPSS Statistics 20.0 (New York, USA). The value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The age range was 17–90 years, mean (standard deviation) was 51.96 (13.49) years. The majority (201 [55%]) were aged 45–64 years. The males (217 [59%]) were aged 17–90 years, and the mean (standard deviation) was 52.28 (14.49) years, whereas the females (151 [41%]) were aged 17–80 years, and the mean (standard deviation) was 51.51 (11.95) years. The mean ages showed no significant gender difference (P = 0.429). Male: female ratio was 1.4:1. LS prevalence increased with age, peaked at 45–54 years in females, 55–64 years in males, and steadily declined to zero, in females after 80 years, and in males after 90 years. Conclusion: LS prevalence started as early as 17 years of life, increased with age, peaked at 45–54 years in females, 55–64 years in males, and steadily declined to zero, in females after 80 years, and in males after 90 years. Sex ratio showed slight male preponderance.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1199-1204
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_442_16
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • How is training hospitals of Qazvin preparedness against disaster in
           2015?

    • Authors: Yousef Khazaei Monfared, Zahra Jamaly, Meysam Safi Keykale, Jalal Asgary, Mitra Khoshghadam, Seyed Amir Farzam, Soheyla Gholami
      Pages: 1205 - 1209
      Abstract: Yousef Khazaei Monfared, Zahra Jamaly, Meysam Safi Keykale, Jalal Asgary, Mitra Khoshghadam, Seyed Amir Farzam, Soheyla Gholami
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1205-1209
      Introduction: Unexpected disasters such as floods, earthquakes, severe weather changes, bioterrorism, and epidemics around the world are increasing. Iran is a disaster-prone country and one of the most prone to accidents and disasters in the world. Hence, the aim of this study is to assess the disaster preparedness of hospitals in Qazvin. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted on six hospitals of the Velayat, Rajaee, Booali, 22 Bahman, Kosar, and Ghods in Qazvin. The tools used to assess for the hospitals' risk of experiencing a disaster were observation, interviews, and a checklist of hospital disaster risk assessment which is provided by the World Health Organization (WHO), including 5 sections and 145 indices for the safety assessment of hospitals. To determine the general weight, three main parts of the questionnaire, that is, functional safety, nonstructural safety, and structural safety, were given weights of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5, respectively, according to the original version of the indices. Each index was scored as 0, 1, and 2 based on the low, medium, and high scores. The safety scores were categorized in three groups, that is, low safety (≤34%), medium safety (34%–66%), and high safety (>66%). The data were analyzed by Excel 2007 and spss 17 software. Results: Functional, structural, and nonstructural safety scores were evaluated as 61.58% (average safety), 64.44% (average safety), and 61% (average safety), respectively. General preparedness of the hospitals we studied were 62.34%, an average safety level. Conclusions: Safety was evaluated in all hospitals at an average level. Although the hospitals' situation is not critical, because of the history of disaster in the province, it is very necessary to plan and carry out appropriate measures to improve hospital safety.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1205-1209
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_267_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Malnutrition among patients suffering from HIV/AIDS in Kermanshah, Iran

    • Authors: Behrooz Hamzeh, Yahya Pasdar, Mitra Darbandi, Shahryar Parsa Majd, Seyed Amir Reza Mohajeri
      Pages: 1210 - 1214
      Abstract: Behrooz Hamzeh, Yahya Pasdar, Mitra Darbandi, Shahryar Parsa Majd, Seyed Amir Reza Mohajeri
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1210-1214
      Background: Inadequate food intake is one of the causes of malnutrition, which is an important complication of HIV and accelerates the progress of HIV toward acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Objective: The present study aimed to assess nutritional status of people with HIV/AIDS. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study recruited 340 people with HIV/AIDS visiting Behavioral Diseases Counseling Center in Kermanshah Province. Malnutrition was measured by body mass index (BMI). Food Frequency Scale was used to assess food intake, and the amounts of food intake were compared to recommended daily allowance (RDA). The data were analyzed in Stata-11 using Chi-square, Kruskal–Wallis, and ANOVA tests. Results: Mean BMI among men and women was 22.12 ± 3.75 kg/m2 and 25.54 ± 4.66 kg/m2. The prevalence of BMI-based malnutrition was 42.21% (141 people). Of participating patients, 11.08% were underweight, 22.75% overweight, and 8.38% obese. Underweight was reported more prevalent in men than in women and also in singles than in married patients (P = 0.001). Intake of protein, folate, Vitamins A and E, and fiber was less than RDA in a significantly large number of patients. Vitamin A deficiency was more evident in men and folate and calcium deficiencies in women. Conclusion: The present study showed inadequate intake of micro- and macro-nutrients in patients with HIV/AIDS. Malnutrition was observed as varying degrees of underweight and overweight, which requires greater attention to and care for these patients.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1210-1214
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_315_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Social determinants of tuberculosis contagion in Malaysia

    • Authors: Khairiah Salwa Mokhtar, Nur Hairani Abd Rahman
      Pages: 1215 - 1220
      Abstract: Khairiah Salwa Mokhtar, Nur Hairani Abd Rahman
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1215-1220
      Context: Tuberculosis (TB) is primarily an airborne disease caused by the infection of a bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which results in more than two million deaths per year worldwide. TB infection is spread when someone with active, infectious TB coughs, or sneezes. In Malaysia, TB is fast rising as a noncommunicable disease, with a death rate higher than death of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-AIDS. For instance, in 2015 health indicators, reported by the Ministry of Health, the mortality rate for TB was 5.33%, compared to HIV/AIDS at 1.91%. Aims: This study attempts to review the social determinants of TB transmission in Malaysia. Methods: This is a qualitative study and employs in-depth interview technique for data collection. A list of 36 informants was identified and approached; 22 of them agreed to be interviewed. The elites were chosen for their background, which related to public health and TB patient management. Each interview was recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: The study finds that the social determinants of TB transmission are related to the following factors: unhealthy lifestyle, inconvenient working environment, negative public perception and stigma, and financial concerns. Conclusions: The identification of as many TB contributing factors as possible is crucial in developing and implementing integrated programs and initiatives that involve all stakeholders in addressing and curbing the spread of the disease.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1215-1220
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_371_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Some aspects of the providing of medical and social assistance of elderly
           persons in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    • Authors: Alfiya I Igissenova, Botagoz S Tyrdalieva, Bakhyt Zh Nysanova, Meiramkul M Shayakhmetova, Zhazira M Utepbergenova, Serik Sh Shakiyev, Galiya S Ibadullayeva
      Pages: 1221 - 1227
      Abstract: Alfiya I Igissenova, Botagoz S Tyrdalieva, Bakhyt Zh Nysanova, Meiramkul M Shayakhmetova, Zhazira M Utepbergenova, Serik Sh Shakiyev, Galiya S Ibadullayeva
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1221-1227
      Background: The demographic aging becomes a state problem for the majority countries, Kazakhstan is no exception: sharply increased the number of elderly and senile age people, which led to a number of problems caused by the aging of society, in connection with which the relevant improvement of medical and social assistance of elderly persons based on the study needs in the medical, social and psychological assistance. Methods: In the period from May 2016 for July 2016 was carried out complex research of the needs in the medical, social and psychological assistance to elderly persons in Almaty based on a specially designed questionnaire. The objects of this study are chosen by representatives of various socio-demographic groups (60 years and older), served in the clinics of the city. In total were interviewed 2996 elderly respondents, aged 60 years and older. Results: As an object of research are determined: Respondents' assessment of their health, financial situation, satisfaction with living conditions, some lifestyle factors, questions of life quality, needs in medical and social assistance. Conclusion: The analysis results of the study confirmed the urgency of activating the provision of medical and social assistance of elderly persons as well as low attendance of employees of social service of the elderly population, require regular monitoring of the activities of local governments and institutions, as well as officials for ensuring the rights of older disabled persons in the area of social services.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1221-1227
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_187_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward onchocerciasis among local
           population in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

    • Authors: Laura Moya Alonso, Zaida Herrador Ortiz, Bel&#233;n Garcia, Rufino Nguema, Justino Nguema, Policarpo Ncogo, Teresa G&#225;rate, Alba Gonz&#225;lez-Escalada, Agust&#237;n Benito, Pilar Aparicio Azcarraga
      Pages: 1228 - 1237
      Abstract: Laura Moya Alonso, Zaida Herrador Ortiz, Belén Garcia, Rufino Nguema, Justino Nguema, Policarpo Ncogo, Teresa Gárate, Alba González-Escalada, Agustín Benito, Pilar Aparicio Azcarraga
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1228-1237
      Introduction: Since 1998, the African program for onchocerciasis control has been working with ultimate goal of reducing the public health impact associated with onchocerciasis in Equatorial Guinea. Although dedicated community engagement is crucial for the success of this program, there is no information on the levels of community's knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward onchocerciasis in this country. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Bioko Island from mid-January to mid-February 2014. Sampling was carried out by multistage cluster survey. Sociodemographic characteristics, KAP, and stigma-related questions were collected through a pretested questionnaire. A bivariate analysis was performed and results were adjusted by sex and age using logistic regression. Results: A total of 140 housekeepers or head of households agreed to participate. Around 54% of the interviewees had heard about the disease, of which more than one-third identified the disease as filariasis (28/68, 41.2%). Overall, 19.3% respondents highlighted the bite of a blackfly as the main mode of transmission. From those who had a familiar affected by onchocerciasis in the past, 21 out of 32 (65.6%) pointed ivermectin as the preferred treatment and 43.8% pointed out the health center as the first choice place to seek for treatment. About 67.1% of individuals believed that having onchocerciasis would not cause any contact avoidance with other members in the community. Conclusions: People's practices toward onchocerciasis tend to be better than disease knowledge in Bioko Island. Increasing awareness through community-based campaigns and educational activities is encouraged in the current onchocerciasis preelimination stage at Bioko Island.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1228-1237
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_726_16
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Lived experienced of patients with sickle cell disease anemia about
           disease management (a qualitative research)

    • Authors: Nasrin Elahi, Noorollah Tahery, Fazlollah Ahmadi, Shahnaz Rostami
      Pages: 1238 - 1242
      Abstract: Nasrin Elahi, Noorollah Tahery, Fazlollah Ahmadi, Shahnaz Rostami
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1238-1242
      Introduction and Goal: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of disorders, comprising sickle cell anemia and compound heterozygous disorders. It is the most common inherited hematological disease in the world. The objectives of this study were to describe the lived experienced patients with SCD during the evolution of a painful event and their solutions for control and manage it. We hope that with finding and cumulative of these solutions help patient with SCD for the management of their painful event. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study explored the experiences of sickle cell patients in management and control of pain and disease crisis in Iran. In-depth, unstructured individual interviews were conducted to extract the subjects' experiences of sickle cell patients in management and control of pain and disease crisis. Results: Codes extracted from the interviews led to the emergence of fore themes, which include implementation of various strategies to pain relief, awareness of pain intensifying, need to have the full support, awareness of the disease process. Conclusion: It is recommended that the instructions and programs written by nurses, be taught to patients and received feedback, to ensure that these strategies will be used.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1238-1242
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_239_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • A pilot study for the detection of Listeria in cerebrospinal fluid samples
           from children and adults with signs of meningitis admitted in a tertiary
           care hospital at Piparia Village, Vadodara, Gujarat, India

    • Authors: S Suguna Hemachander, Krunal K Shah, Yogita Verma, Anchal Malhotra, Himani Pandya, Khyati Passi
      Pages: 1243 - 1247
      Abstract: S Suguna Hemachander, Krunal K Shah, Yogita Verma, Anchal Malhotra, Himani Pandya, Khyati Passi
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1243-1247
      Introduction: Human listeriosis (HL) is a foodborne illness causing life-threatening disease of fetus, neonates, elderly, and others with immunosuppression. It is a public health concern because of the severity of disease. Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) has a predilection for central nervous system and placenta. Aims: To culture, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples with special focus on the isolation of Lm. Materials and Methods: A prospective study on CSF samples with special focus on the identification of Lm by direct microscopy (wet film, Gram-stain) and culture on sheep blood agar and a plate of Listeria selective agar (Himedia). Results: 121 CSF samples were processed. Lm was isolated from blood and CSF samples from 8-day-old male neonate admitted with signs of septicemia and meningitis. The isolate was identified using Vitek 2 Compact; Biomerieux. The newborn was fed with goat milk on the 1st day after birth. Conclusions: As against the global focus on HL, documented cases from India are limited. The reasons and difficulties for poor isolation and diagnosis of Lm infections are discussed. Our single patient of neonatal meningitis as a case of community-acquired HL in our area is of significance.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1243-1247
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_268_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • The effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction on social anxiety of the
           deaf

    • Authors: Alemeh Dehnabi, Hamid Radsepehr, Kazem Foushtanghi
      Pages: 1248 - 1253
      Abstract: Alemeh Dehnabi, Hamid Radsepehr, Kazem Foushtanghi
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1248-1253
      Background and Aim: Individuals with social phobia do not have flexible approach to deal with stress, and they are weak to practice social skills. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on social anxiety of the deaf. Research Methodology: In a quasi-experimental pre- and post-test study with a control group, in 2015, 24 deaf individuals in Sabzevar city were selected for sampling and were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. Subjects completed Social Anxiety Inventory (SPIN) in pre-test and post-test. Then, ANCOVA was used to analyze the data. Results: Data analysis showed that MBSR leads to a reduction in the total score of social anxiety and physiological responses component related to the experimental group compared with the control group treated. Conclusion: It was concluded that teaching MBSR resulted in decreased social anxiety of the deaf.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1248-1253
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_280_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • The comparison of the tuition-paid and free tuition dental students'
           incentives in choosing their field of study at Ahvaz Jundishapur
           University of Medical Sciences, Southwest of Iran

    • Authors: Abdolreza Gilav
      Pages: 1254 - 1259
      Abstract: Abdolreza Gilav
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1254-1259
      Background: Despite ascribed intellectual ability, academic success can be affected by progress motivation. Therefore, the aim of this study is to compare the tuition-paid and free tuition dental students' incentives in choosing their field of study at Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in 2016 which has been carried out in a descriptive-analytical and comparative form. Methods: The statistical population includes all 484 students who study professional doctorate of dentistry at the University. Sampling was carried out using census method. The 118 free tuition students and 58 tuition-paid students filled out questionnaires. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics, frequency, frequency percentage, mean, Kolmogorov–Smirnov's normality test, and Mann–Whitney's nonparametric test for comparison of the mean were utilized using SPSS Version 21 software. Results: Having an independent clinic (0.75 ± 3.40), a high economic income (0.81 ± 3.16) and a proper social position (0.83 ± 3.09) were, respectively, the most important incentives in free tuition students to choose their field of study. In addition, having an independent clinic (0.53 ± 3.59), a proper social position (0.88 ± 3.17) and a high economic income (0.82 ± 3.09) were, respectively, the most important incentives for tuition-paid students to choose their field of the study. Discussion and Conclusion: Although access to a prestigious job and therefore, positions of high economic interests were the major motive of students in both groups, their excessive tendency toward dentistry has made the prospects of this field of study dim due to the saturation of the labor market and thus reduction of job mobility.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1254-1259
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_316_16
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of risk factors impact on cataract development for uranium
           industry workers

    • Authors: Zhibek S Dautbayeva, Zeynet U Ahmedyanova, Polat K Kazymbet
      Pages: 1260 - 1264
      Abstract: Zhibek S Dautbayeva, Zeynet U Ahmedyanova, Polat K Kazymbet
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1260-1264
      The abundance and rough relative risk of cataract among 544 workers at the hydrometallurgical plant of Stepnogorsk Mining and Chemical Combine, depending on the total integrated dose of external irradiation, taking into account non-radiation factors, was studied. The conducted studies showed a statistically significant high abundance of ophthalmic pathology, including cataracts among workers in the main group compared with the control group. A statistically significant trend in the increase of cataracts with an increase in the total integrated dose, smoking index of more than 20 packs/year, increase in body weight and persons suffering from hypertension. As a result of a multivariate analysis of risk factors connection to cataract, we revealed that the cumulative dose and length of exposure are the main indicators predicting the development of cataracts for uranium industry adult workers. It is known that age is a key risk factor for many diseases, including cataracts. Lens opacity is a pluricausal manifestation, which is based on the mechanism associated with the course of time.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1260-1264
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_175_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of green synthesized silver
           nanoparticles using Salvia officinalis extract

    • Authors: Javad Baharara, Tayebeh Ramezani, Marzieh Mousavi, Majid Asadi-Samani
      Pages: 1265 - 1270
      Abstract: Javad Baharara, Tayebeh Ramezani, Marzieh Mousavi, Majid Asadi-Samani
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1265-1270
      Background and Aims: Free-radical-mediated peroxidation of membrane lipids and oxidative damage of DNA and proteins are believed to be associated with a variety of chronic pathological complications such as cancer. The aim of this study was to describe antioxidant and anti-inflammatory of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using medicinal plant extract of Sage (Salvia officinalis). Materials and Methods: AgNPs were synthesized using S. officinalis as reducer agents and characterized using ultraviolet-visible, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, particle seizer, and transmission electron microscopy. Toxicity of AgNPs on MCF-7 cells was investigated using 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Changes in expression of inflammation related genes include cyclooxygenase-2, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) genes were evaluated using semi-quantification reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The antioxidant potential of capped AgNPs was assessed using 1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals activity assay. Results: AgNPs successfully synthesis with an average size of 16 nm and spherical. FTIR spectrum from plant extract and AgNPs indicated the extract covered nanoparticles. AgNPs decreased cells viability with inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 25 μg/ml and 20 μg/ml after 24 and 48 h, respectively. To ascertain the anti-inflammatory genes expression, MCF-7 cells were treated with 20 μg/ml AgNPs (concentration below of IC50 value according to MTT assay). Semi-quantification RT-PCR results showed that AgNPs increased IL-8 and TNF-α genes expression 28.76% and 42%, respectively, but suppressed cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression with 20.5% comparing to control groups. Antioxidant assay of green synthesized AgNPs coated by S. officinalis extract showed free radical scavenging effect with IC50 of 830 and 800 μg/ml for DPPH and ABTS radicals, respectively. Conclusion: The coated AgNPs with S. officinalis have promising potential as a source for the development of chemotherapeutic agents in future.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1265-1270
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_174_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Assessment of level of satisfaction of national health insurance scheme
           enrolees with services of an accredited health facility in Northern
           Nigerian

    • Authors: Godpower Chinedu Michael, Hassan Hassan Suleiman, Bukar Alhaji Grema, Ibrahim Aliyu
      Pages: 1271 - 1277
      Abstract: Godpower Chinedu Michael, Hassan Hassan Suleiman, Bukar Alhaji Grema, Ibrahim Aliyu
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1271-1277
      Introduction: Consumer satisfaction is one of the driving goals of goods and service production. Patient satisfaction surveys, as a means of periodic evaluation of the quality of services offered by the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) accredited facilities, is necessary to ensure that the goals of the scheme are achieved and sustained. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 202 respondents randomly selected from NHIS enrolees attending the Staff Clinic of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. It assessed respondents' perceived waiting time, level of satisfaction at the clinic's service units, and overall clinic satisfaction using a modified general practice assessment questionnaire. Results: The mean age of respondents was 36.4 ± 8.1 with a near equal sex ratio. They were predominantly civil servants (79.2%) with tertiary education (75.7%). Most respondents (70.3%) felt waiting time was too long; with 79.7% of those, feeling they spend at least 30 min after arrival at the registration unit to see their doctor. A majority of respondents: 90.1%, 86.8%, 79%, 76.8%, 75.9%, 77.5%, and 80.6% were satisfied with the consultation time, doctors' consultation, medical records, pharmacy, laboratory, accounts, and nursing services, respectively. However, 65.8% were satisfied with the overall clinic services. The perceived sufficiency of the consultation time was associated with overall satisfaction (χ2 = 6.199, P = 0.013). Conclusion: Although 65.8% of respondents were satisfied with the clinic services, the perceived clinic waiting time was dissatisfactory; therefore, further studies on the determinants of overall satisfaction may be required if improvement in the proportion of satisfied service consumers is desired by the clinic managers.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1271-1277
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_372_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Assessment of the birth preparedness and complication readiness among
           antenatal women at Ahmedabad city, India

    • Authors: Viral R Dave, Bhavik M Rana, Hardika J Khanpara, Kantibhai N Sonaliya, Jayshree Tolani
      Pages: 1278 - 1285
      Abstract: Viral R Dave, Bhavik M Rana, Hardika J Khanpara, Kantibhai N Sonaliya, Jayshree Tolani
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1278-1285
      Introduction: Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR) improve preventive behavioral practices among to be mothers; thereby leading to improvement in care-seeking during obstetric emergency. Objectives: The objective of the study is to assess the knowledge and practices with respect to BP and CR and to find the determinants affecting them. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out at urban slum area of Ahmedabad city, Gujarat, India from August 2015 to February 2016. Personal interviews of 350 antenatal women were conducted. Sociodemographic details, information of antenatal care pursuing and information pertinent to BP and CR were reviewed. Total ten variables, suggesting their knowledge and practices toward BP/CR were assessed. Correct response with at least five variables or more than that was considered as positive knowledge and practices for BP/CR. Results and Conclusion: The study sample mainly comprised of 21–25 years of age group (48%) of participants. Overall, 229 (65.43%) of total participants were found to have positive knowledge and practices in terms of BP/CR. The variables which had statistically significant effect on BP and CR were: level of education, socioeconomic class, age at the time of marriage, order of pregnancy, mode of last delivery, number of live children, history of abortion, and duration of current pregnancy. Fair numbers of women were lacking proper knowledge regarding dangers signs during pregnancy, labor or postpartum, prior identification of doctor for them as well for new born and saving money for pregnancy related needs.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1278-1285
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_318_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Evaluating the understanding of nurses regarding pain management in
           neonatal units and special neonatal units of Qamar Monir Bani Haeshem
           Hospital in Khoy, Iran, in 2016

    • Authors: Soryya Zinalpoor, Shahriar Sakhaei, Hassan Ebrahimpour Sadagheyani, Linda Mehdizadeh Mollabashi, Hossein Motaaref
      Pages: 1286 - 1291
      Abstract: Soryya Zinalpoor, Shahriar Sakhaei, Hassan Ebrahimpour Sadagheyani, Linda Mehdizadeh Mollabashi, Hossein Motaaref
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1286-1291
      Introduction: Pain is a mental and multi-dimension phenomena, which its measurement and definition are difficult. Inability in expressing the pain clearly is the fundamental reason for the difficulty in pain measuring. Since newborns are unable to express their pains, to evaluate their pain quantitatively, valid, and standard tools should be used. The present study aimed to investigate the understanding of nurses about babies' pain in neonatal and special neonatal units of hospitals in Khoy. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study which was performed on 66 people by census method on nurses working in neonatal units and special neonatal units of Qamar Monir Bani Haeshem Hospital. Tool for collecting data includes 5 parts questionnaires containing demographic information, 7 questions related to understanding the pain of babies, 10 questions related to the effects of pain, 9 questions related to the tools of measuring the pain with criterion (true, false, I do not know), and the final part with 28 questions related to the attitude of measuring the pain in infants (I agree, I disagree). To determine the validity of the tool content validity was used and to determine the reliability Cronbach's alpha correlation test and preliminary study were performed (α = 0.82, α = 0.86). After coding, the data were described in frequency, mean, and standard deviation table using SPSS Version 16 software. To analyze the data statistical tests such as Pearson's correlation, t-test, and ANOVA were used (P < 0.05). Results: The majority of the participants were married (97%) with Bachelor education degree (95%) working in neonatal unit (45.5%) with a mean age of 33 years and servicing year of 8 years. The awareness rate of the physiology of pain, with the highest prevalence of 42.2%, complications and pain intensity by 45.5% were at good levels, and tools for measuring pain with 54.6% were poor. Nurses' attitude toward assessing and measuring the pain of babies with 54.5% was positive. Investigating the statistical relationships between the attitudes of nurses and awareness of severity and complications of pain (P ≤ 0.001), between the age and awareness of severity and complications of pain (P ≤ 0.002), and between the servicing year and awareness of pain physiology, severity, and complications of pain (P ≤ 0.003), significant statistical difference was found. Discussion and Conclusion: Based the results, focusing on pain of the babies and the infants in nursing education programs, holding the continuing education courses regarding the pain and pain assessment, and attaching pain assessment checklist for monitoring vital signs checklist and reporting it in each shift are recommended.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1286-1291
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_327_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Clomiphene resistant polycystic ovarian syndrome: Analysis of outcomes
           following laparoscopic ovarian drilling in infertile women in Ilorin,
           North-central, Nigeria

    • Authors: Lukman Omotayo Omokanye, Abdulwaheed Olajide Olatinwo, Abubakar Panti, Sabi Ibrahim, Kabir Adekunle Durowade, Olubukola Olanrewaju Oyedepo, Olufemi Ige, Majeed Babajide Adegboye
      Pages: 1292 - 1298
      Abstract: Lukman Omotayo Omokanye, Abdulwaheed Olajide Olatinwo, Abubakar Panti, Sabi Ibrahim, Kabir Adekunle Durowade, Olubukola Olanrewaju Oyedepo, Olufemi Ige, Majeed Babajide Adegboye
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1292-1298
      Background: Laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) is one-off treatment modality for clomiphene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) avoiding the need of medical therapy and its attendant complications. Aims and Objectives: This study aimed at determining the efficacy of LOD in women with anovulatory infertility secondary to CC-resistant PCOS and factors influencing reproductive outcomes. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of infertile women who underwent LOD on account of CC-resistant PCOS between January 2012 and December 2015 at a tertiary institution. Results: Patients aged 24–38 years (29.7 ± 3.6 years) and their body mass index (BMI) ranges from 20 to 35 (26.3 ± 4.3). The majority (90.5%) were nulliparous. Most (61.3%) had primary infertility. Their duration of infertility ranges from 1 to 13 years (4.3 ± 2.7) and ovarian volume ranges from 10 to 24 cm3 (mean, right ovary = 15.2 ± 3.2; left ovary = 16.3 ± 3.2). The number of drills per ovary ranged from 4 to 14 (mean, right ovary = 7.4 ± 2.1; left ovary = 7.3 ± 2.1) and the luteinizing hormone/follicle stimulating hormone (LH)/FSH ratio ranges from 2 to 6 (3.2 ± 1.4). All achieved spontaneous resumption of menses and ovulation with mean durations of 4.0 ± 1.8 days and 5.3 ± 3.2 weeks, respectively. Eighty-three (60.6%) clinical pregnancies were recorded, of which 68 (49.6%) resulted to live births (61 singletons and 7 twin births) and 14 (10.2%) early first trimester miscarriages. The mean time interval from LOD to pregnancy was 4.4 ± 1.1 months. There was a significant association between BMI, duration of infertility, FSH/LH ratio, and pregnancy outcomes (P < 0.05). Conclusion: LOD is the most preferred treatment modality for CC-resistant PCOS as it resulted in higher pregnancy rate.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1292-1298
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_774_16
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Applying artificial neural network approach to predict nurses' job
           performance based on personality traits and organizational factors

    • Authors: Khatereh Khanjankhani, Roohollah Askari, Sima Rafiei, Mohsen Askari Shahi, Fariba Hashemi, Milad Shafii
      Pages: 1299 - 1305
      Abstract: Khatereh Khanjankhani, Roohollah Askari, Sima Rafiei, Mohsen Askari Shahi, Fariba Hashemi, Milad Shafii
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1299-1305
      Background: The main goal of every organization is to provide the best quality product or service which mostly depends on its employees' performance. Among various factors, both indoor environmental features in an organization and personality traits of working staff play important role in on job performance. Objective: The purpose of current study was to describe the effect of personality traits and organizational factors on nurses' job performance through applying neural network approach. Materials and Methods: This analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted among nursing staff working in inpatient medical departments of a training hospital in Yazd Province in 2016. The study questions were answered through analysis of data obtained from three standard questionnaires. Collected data were entered in SPSS version 20 and analyzed by artificial neural network approach. Results: Findings revealed that from study participants' viewpoint the highest mean score regarding to indoor organizational factors was given to helpful mechanism dimension (5.54 ± 0.79) while the least was mentioned for targeting (5.35 ± 0.81). In association with personnel personality traits, the highest and least mean scores were relatively dedicated to conscientiousness (44.5 ± 4.3) and neuroticism (31.8 ± 4.3). Results of comparing significance coefficients in neural networks depicted that from all study dimensions, agreeableness and reward have got the most importance on job performance (100% and 81.2%) while accountability and helpful mechanisms have got the least (28.5% and 16.5%). Conclusion: Strengthening staff personality traits and environmental factors of a hospital can play an effective role in improving nurses' job performance. Therefore it is suggested that hospital managers help employees to improve their performance through providing a productive work environment and manage the workplace in accordance with important organizational factors mentioned by staff and as well their personality and behavioral patterns.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1299-1305
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_334_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • An investigation of the frequency of the occupational accident in
           Kermanshah, Iran (2009–2013)

    • Authors: Masoud Ghanbari, Hossein Ashtarian, Hamed Yarmohammadi
      Pages: 1306 - 1311
      Abstract: Masoud Ghanbari, Hossein Ashtarian, Hamed Yarmohammadi
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1306-1311
      Background: Occupational accident is an inseparable part of every work especially in the industrialized sections where it has huge adverse economic and social impacts on individuals' lives. Objective: The present study was aimed at investigating the frequency of occupational accidents in Kermanshah, West of Iran. Material and Methods: All registered occupational accidents in the Bureau of Labor and Social Affairs of Kermanshahfrom 2009–2013 were analyzed in this cross-sectional descriptive study. Using the pre-designed checklists, the required information that included demographic information of the casualties, type of job and industry, type of the accident, the limb affected in the accident, and the consequences was gathered. The collected data were then analyzed using software such EXCEL and SPSS 16. Results: Results indicated that the total number of the accidents were 1888 cases with 358, 393, 489, 402, and 246 cases occurring between 2009 and 2013. Kermanshah had the highest number of accidents (776) and Dalahoo had the lowest number of accidents (31). In total, 1455 accidents occurred in the morning shift, 391 in the afternoon, and 42 in the evening. Most of the accidents occurred between 10 am and 13 pm, and the lowest number accidents happened between 4 and 7 am. The most frequent accidents that were 1222 out of 1888 cases were related to construction industry occurring mainly in the form of injuries, fractures, and poisoning. Hand, leg, head, and neck were the most affected limbs during the accidents. The main causes of the accidents were fall from the height, getting trapped in the equipment, crashing into the objects and machinery, and slip and fall. Conclusion: Based on the result of this study and the high frequency of accidents in the workplace, more attention needs to be paid on the training of workers and employers about safety, following the safety rules, using individual safety tools, and controling some of the procedures to reduce the occupational accidents as much as possible.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1306-1311
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_114_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Comparing the effect of endotracheal tube suction using open method with
           two different size catheters 12 and 14 on discharge secretion, pain, heart
           rate, blood pressure, and arterial oxygen saturation of patients in the
           intensive care unit: A randomized clinical trial

    • Authors: Mostafa Javadi, Hossein Hejr, Mohammad Zolad, Arash Khalili, Akvan Paymard
      Pages: 1312 - 1317
      Abstract: Mostafa Javadi, Hossein Hejr, Mohammad Zolad, Arash Khalili, Akvan Paymard
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1312-1317
      Background and Purpose: Performing suction with complications such as tachycardia or bradycardia, increase or decrease blood pressure, pain, discharge, and decrease arterial oxygen saturation. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of endotracheal tube suctioning to open two different size catheters 12 and 14 on the discharge, pain, heart rate, blood pressure, and blood oxygen saturation in patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Materials and Methods: This clinical trial compared two interventions of a pre- and post-test, and sampling was random. 36 patients admitted to the ICU in Yasuj martyr Beheshti Hospital iran, in a group of suctioning with catheter size 12 and 14. Changes in heart rate, blood pressure, pain, discharge, and arterial oxygen saturation before, during, 5 min and 20 min after the suction were recorded. Data analysis was performed by analysis of variance with repeated measures and paired t-test. Results: The Heart rate increased during suction catheter 14 than to 12, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.000). Suctioning with both catheters decreased oxygen saturation, but the reduction was not significant between both (P = 0.149). Systolic pressure increased after suction, and this increase was significantly in the higher catheter (P = 0.05). Diastolic pressure increased during suction with the highest increase of 5 min. There were no significant differences between the two catheters (P = 0.186). In the third episode, the highest rated pain during suctioning was observed and the difference was significant between large and small catheters (P = 0.000). Post-suction discharge was in the higher catheter was more and statistically significant (P = .000). Conclusion: The use of small size suction catheter To a lesser extent in heart rate, blood pressure, pain and suffering oxygen saturation changed.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1312-1317
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_181_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Comparison of two educational methods, lecturing and simulation, in
           

    • Authors: Hossein Saidi, Mahdi Rezai, Mani Mofidi, Reza Mosaddegh, Azra Riahi, Mohamad Tahmasbi Sisakht
      Pages: 1318 - 1321
      Abstract: Hossein Saidi, Mahdi Rezai, Mani Mofidi, Reza Mosaddegh, Azra Riahi, Mohamad Tahmasbi Sisakht
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1318-1321
      Background: Due to developments in science, there is the need to develop approaches in the field of medical education. The utilization of educational technologies such as computers and instructional videos has been introduced rapidly into the education curriculum. This study compared video training tutorial method in ventilator settings with video traditional methods (lectures). Materials and Methods: In this statistical research, 33 assistant training groups lecture and video tutorial (video tutorial) were divided into two groups. The assistants in ventilator settings by observing the experimenter, the ventilators were assessed using the checklist. Research Findings: Adjusting the ventilator before and after training assistant was 13 (40%) and 18 (5.54%), respectively. However, in both groups after training, there was significant increase accuracy in the ventilator settings, but there was no significant difference between the two methods. Conclusion: The use of video tutorials and without training could be effective as attending lectures.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1318-1321
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_185_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • The evaluation of Valsalva maneuver on pain intensity within the needle
           insertion to the arteriovenous fistula for patients undergoing
           hemodialysis in the selected hospitals in Isfahan in 2015

    • Authors: Elham Davtalab, Sayedali Naji
      Pages: 1322 - 1327
      Abstract: Elham Davtalab, Sayedali Naji
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1322-1327
      Introduction: Pain is an unpleasant feeling and it is called as the fifth vital sign. Fistula cannulation in hemodialysis patients is a very stressful and painful process. Nurses can help relieve pain with the use of nonpharmacological pain management therapies, independently. This study conducted aimed to investigate and determine the effect of Valsalva maneuver on pain intensity during cannulation of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 35 hemodialysis patients who were selected by convenience sampling in two Amin Medical Center and Hazrat-e Zahra-e Marziye Hospital in Isfahan. Data collection was performed using an interview questionnaire developed by the researcher, Abbey pain scale, and numerical pain rating. Data analysis was done using the descriptive and analytic tests in SPSS Software Version 20. Results: Paired t-test results showed that the score average of objective and subjective pains was reduced significantly after intervention compared to before that (P < 0.001). Wilcoxon test showed that the objective pain is reduced after intervention (P < 0.001). Wilcoxon test showed that the subjective intensity due to the needle insertion had a significant reduction after intervention (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Performing the Valsalva maneuver before the AVF cannulation reduces pain in patients undergoing hemodialysis.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1322-1327
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_202_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • The impact of guided mental imagery on the sleep quality of the elderly
           after having heart attack

    • Authors: Sepideh Aghababaei, Ahmad Reza Yazdannik, Mahrokh Keshvari
      Pages: 1328 - 1332
      Abstract: Sepideh Aghababaei, Ahmad Reza Yazdannik, Mahrokh Keshvari
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1328-1332
      Background: There are numerous factors such as cardiovascular diseases which cause sleep problems for the elderly. Relaxation is one of the components of cognitive behavioral therapy which refers to the practice of relaxation solutions to improve the sleep quality. Objectives: This paper aims to examine the impact of guided mental imagery on the sleep quality of the elderly after having heart attack. Patients and Methods: This study is considered to be a two-group random clinical trial that was carried out on sixty elderly patients suffering heart attack who have been discharged with sleep problems from selected teaching hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Participants were placed in intervention and control groups through random allocation method. Two training sessions of calm making and guided imagery protocols were applied to the intervention group. The sleep quality in research units was examined before and after the intervention using Pittsburgh sleep quality questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out by the statistical software SPSS version 16 through paired and independent t-tests. Results: The mean sleep quality score in the intervention group was significantly lower after intervention (2.6 ± 2.3) (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the mean of changes in sleep quality score after intervention was significantly greater in the case group (−7.9 ± 2.3) compared to the control group (−2.9 ± 2.2) (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The guided mental imagery program was found to be effective in improving the sleep quality of the elderly suffering heart attack. The guided mental imagery is, therefore, recommended to be considered as a part of rehabilitation care for the elderly having heart attack with sleep disorders.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1328-1332
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_204_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Investigating the relationship between self-leadership and resistance to
           organizational changes in the nursing managers of hospitals affiliated
           with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 2015

    • Authors: Sara Moradpour, Heidar Ali Abedi, Ahmad Bahonar
      Pages: 1333 - 1340
      Abstract: Sara Moradpour, Heidar Ali Abedi, Ahmad Bahonar
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1333-1340
      Background and Objectives: Change is the only solution for today's organizations. The organization as a social entity is both affected from and affecting the environment. To change the organization, people should change. Involving people in the management of the organization is effective in reducing the resistance to change. Strategies used to change attitudes, behaviors, and recognition of the individuals resulting in their success lie in leadership. Therefore, this study examines the relationship between self-leadership and resistance to organizational change in nursing managers. Materials and Methods: This study being a descriptive correlational study used Houghton and Neck's standard self-leadership questionnaire with 35 questions and reliability of 94% as well as resistance to organizational change scale of Wayne and Andy with twenty questions and reliability of 84% to collect the data. Content and face validities of the research tools were determined through the study of theoretical foundations as well as the opinions of professors and specialists. The population (250 people) included all nursing managers (matrons, supervisors, and head nurses) of educational centers of Isfahan in 2015. One hundred and fifty-six individuals were selected through the available sampling out of the 250 people of the population (males and females). Data analysis was conducted by SPSS software, version 22; in addition, statistical tests of Pearson, t-test, variance analysis, regression model, and Mann–Whitney tests were used. Results: In general, the average rating of the research units is above average (54.0 + 3.88) in self-leadership questionnaire of nursing managers. Besides, the amount of resistance to change in 92.2% of nursing managers is at average level. The findings also showed that there is a positive relationship between self-leadership and resistance to organizational change (P < 0.001, r = 0.310) and the score of self-leadership increases with the increase in job experience (P = 0.049, r = 0.154). It was observed that with the increase in age and job experiences, the resistance to organizational change also increases in nursing managers (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In this study, resistance to organizational change was at an average level with respect to the self-leadership of the managers. Increase in age and experience of nursing managers is associated with self-leadership and resistance to change. Thus, to move toward positive and useful changes in the organization and achieve noble objectives in educational centers, it is important to attract and guide the behavior of experienced managers and increase their knowledge of organizational behavior to reduce the resistance to organizational changes.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1333-1340
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_205_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • The effect of space face games on the amount of children attention with
           attention deficit hyperactivity disorders

    • Authors: Zahra Shahmoradi, Jahangir Maghsoudi, Mostafa Najafi, Saeed Pahlavanzadeh
      Pages: 1341 - 1344
      Abstract: Zahra Shahmoradi, Jahangir Maghsoudi, Mostafa Najafi, Saeed Pahlavanzadeh
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1341-1344
      Introduction: As ever play therapy using a special toy which is produced with therapeutic target in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHDs) has not been conducted, this study was carried out with the aim to determine the effect of space face games on the attention of children with ADHDs. Materials and Methods: In this research, 72 children with ADHDs referred to Isfahan's Noor psychiatric clinic were randomly placed in two test and control groups. Attention level of both groups was evaluated using continuous performance test before and after the intervention. The space face games in the test group were used for 16 sessions. Statistical analysis of data was conducted using descriptive and analytical statistics in SPSS Software Version 18. Findings: The average score of attention had no significant difference between the two groups before the intervention, but the number of correct answer in the test group was significantly more than the control group and the number of provided errors and the number of removed errors were significantly lower than the control group immediately after the intervention. Conclusion: Space face games are effective in the promotion of attention in children with ADHDs.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1341-1344
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_206_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • The incidence and prevalence of hearing disorders in children according to
           the audiological screening

    • Authors: DE Zhaisakova, SF Kudaibergenova, ZT Mukanova, GK Djarkinbekova, Meruert B Kaltayeva, YA Kuzembayev
      Pages: 1345 - 1349
      Abstract: DE Zhaisakova, SF Kudaibergenova, ZT Mukanova, GK Djarkinbekova, Meruert B Kaltayeva, YA Kuzembayev
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1345-1349
      One of the important tasks of children's audiology is the early identification of hearing impairment in children and the timely commencement of rehabilitation activities, such as a hearing aid, and in the presence of deep hearing loss difficult to treat with traditional methods of hearing rehabilitation, cochlear implantation should be used. Currently, due to the introduction of objective methods of hearing evaluation in clinical practice,there is a real opportunity to detect hearing disorders in children from the βirst days of life including premature newborns. In this study, we analyzed data of hearing acuity audiological screening among children at the age of 0–17 years for the period from 2015 to 2016. During this period, 4,588,365 children were examined in 2015, and 4,562,489 children were examined in 2016, within the Republic of Kazakhstan.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1345-1349
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_210_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Ruptured amoebic liver abscess with perforated amoebic typhlitis: A rare
           entity

    • Authors: S Nishanth, Sudhir Kumar Jain, Chandra Bhushan Singh, Lovenish Bains
      Pages: 1350 - 1353
      Abstract: S Nishanth, Sudhir Kumar Jain, Chandra Bhushan Singh, Lovenish Bains
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1350-1353
      Background: Amoebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most frequent extra intestinal manifestation of Entamoeba histolytica infection. Rupture of ALA is an important cause of morbidity and mortality mainly in developing countries. In invasive amoebiasis, the trophozoites penetrate the intestinal mucosa causing amoebic colitis. Simultaneous amoebic cecal perforation and ALA rupture is a rare complication of invasive amoebiasis with a high rate of mortality which mainly occurs in malnourished patients. We report 4 rare cases of amoebic cecal perforation with ruptured liver abscess. Cases Patients and Methods: 4 unusual cases of ruptured ALA associated with perforated cecum which were operated at Department of Surgery, Maulana Azad Medical College from June 2016 to May 2017 are reported along with relevant review of literature. Results: Three patients were male and 1 was female. The mean age was 35.5 years. All cases had generalized peritonitis. Two patients had a single abscess in the right lobe, 1 had an abscess in both lobes of liver and 1 had multiple abscesses. Liver abscess in all 4 cases were amoebic as amoebic serology of pus was positive in all cases. At presentation, all 4 cases had clinical signs of generalized peritonitis. Ultrasonography for collection in peritoneal cavity showed moderate free fluid in with internal echoes suggestive of pyoperitoneum. Two patients had free air under the diaphragm. All 4 patients underwent resuscitation and then taken up for surgery. Exploratory laparotomy was done which showed pyoperitoneum. One patient had sealed perforation in the cecum, 2 had a perforation in cecum, and 1 had multiple perforations in cecum and ascending colon. Limited resection was done in 3 cases and right hemicolectomy in 1 case who had multiple perforations in cecum and ascending colon, in all 4 cases, exteriorization of bowel was done. Postoperatively, 1 patient died of respiratory failure due to bilateral pneumonia. Conclusion: Ruptured ALA along with perforation of cecum is a rare condition presenting as acute abdomen with high mortality. Surgical intervention is mandatory in all these cases.
      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1350-1353
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_319_17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Swine fluand lymphoma: A short summary

    • Authors: Somsri Wiwanitkit, Viroj Wiwanitkit
      Pages: 1354 - 1355
      Abstract: Somsri Wiwanitkit, Viroj Wiwanitkit
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1354-1355

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1354-1355
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196750
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Thrombocytopenia and bleeding: Existed but little mentioned in Zika virus
           infection

    • Authors: Somsri Wiwanitkit, Viroj Wiwanitkit
      Pages: 1355 - 1356
      Abstract: Somsri Wiwanitkit, Viroj Wiwanitkit
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1355-1356

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1355-1356
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196753
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Expanding the reach and utility of emergency medical teams to ensure
           appropriate management of disasters

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1356 - 1357
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1356-1357

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1356-1357
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196824
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Establishing connection among all through blood donation: Current status
           and public health implications

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1357 - 1358
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1357-1358

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1357-1358
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196825
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Identifying gaps and recommending targeted strategies to ensure effective
           control of asthma

    • Authors: Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1359 - 1360
      Abstract: Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1359-1360

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1359-1360
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196601
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Preventing the outbreaks of food-borne botulism and minimizing the risk of
           fatality

    • Authors: Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1360 - 1361
      Abstract: Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1360-1361

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1360-1361
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196826
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Strengthening civil registration system on a global scale: Offering double
           benefit for the policy makers and the community

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1361 - 1362
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1361-1362

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1361-1362
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196602
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Targeting cervical cancer in low and middle income nations: Necessity of a
           comprehensive approach

    • Authors: Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1363 - 1364
      Abstract: Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1363-1364

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1363-1364
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196603
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Preventing the acquisition and progression of chronic Hepatitis B
           infection in middle and low income nations: World health organization

    • Authors: Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1364 - 1365
      Abstract: Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1364-1365

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1364-1365
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196619
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Fast-tracking efforts to accomplish the global elimination of trachoma by
           2020

    • Authors: Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1366 - 1367
      Abstract: Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1366-1367

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1366-1367
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196620
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Aiming to achieve elimination of Chagas disease: Before it acquires a
           status of global public health concern

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1367 - 1368
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1367-1368

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1367-1368
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196623
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Elimination target for lymphatic filariasis attained in Sri Lanka and
           Maldives: World health organization

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1369 - 1370
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1369-1370

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1369-1370
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196626
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Prevention and control of legionellosis: A public health perspective

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1370 - 1371
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1370-1371

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1370-1371
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196627
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Public health approach to minimize the prevalence and associated sequels
           of leishmaniasis in the affected regions

    • Authors: Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1371 - 1372
      Abstract: Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1371-1372

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1371-1372
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196628
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Dealing with the neglected issue of oral health: Building a global
           consensus

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1373 - 1374
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1373-1374

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1373-1374
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196630
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Targeting the end of the AIDS epidemic in the era of sustainable
           development by the year 2030

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1374 - 1375
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1374-1375

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1374-1375
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196633
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • The global public health challenge of malnutrition: Ensuring trend
           reversal

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1375 - 1376
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1375-1376

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1375-1376
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196635
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • How can we respond to the challenge of insufficient physical
           activity?

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1377 - 1378
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1377-1378

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1377-1378
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196636
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Offering adolescent girls&#39; centered care in developing nations:
           Fighting against all odds

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1378 - 1379
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1378-1379

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1378-1379
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196639
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Whether fractional dosing of yellow fever vaccine can be recommended to
           meet the challenges of the ongoing 2016 West African outbreak and the
           resulting vaccine shortage?

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1379 - 1381
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1379-1381

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1379-1381
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196650
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Noncommunicable diseases: Strengthening the process of data collection for
           potential risk factors

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1381 - 1382
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1381-1382

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1381-1382
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196677
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Prevention and control of Hepatitis A in developing nations: Public health
           perspective

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1382 - 1384
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1382-1384

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1382-1384
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196683
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Responding to the rapid upsurge in the rise of overweight and obesity at
           global scale

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1384 - 1385
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1384-1385

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1384-1385
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196685
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Targeting asbestos across different industries to minimize the incidence
           of asbestos-related diseases on the global front

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Ramasamy Jegadeesh
      Pages: 1385 - 1386
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Ramasamy Jegadeesh
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1385-1386

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1385-1386
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196698
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Global health security: Transforming commitments into practical actions

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1387 - 1388
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1387-1388

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1387-1388
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196732
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Public health measures to minimize exposure to arsenic and associated
           morbidities

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1388 - 1389
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1388-1389

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1388-1389
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196740
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Ensuring availability of pregnancy and childbirth care services in
           conflict-affected regions of Syria

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1390 - 1391
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1390-1391

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1390-1391
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196748
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Application of data available through health information systems in
           preventing maternal deaths

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1391 - 1392
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1391-1392

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1391-1392
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196752
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Ensuring delivery of integrated care for reducing the morbidity and
           mortality attributed to cardiovascular diseases

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1392 - 1394
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1392-1394

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1392-1394
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196754
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Mobilizing youth population to spread peace in the conflict-affected
           regions of Central Africa

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1394 - 1395
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1394-1395

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1394-1395
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196755
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Extending humanitarian assistance to displaced pregnant women in armed
           conflict-affected nations

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1396 - 1397
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1396-1397

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1396-1397
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196756
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Cardiovascular diseases in low- and middle-income nations: Responding to
           the leading cause of mortality

    • Authors: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Pages: 1397 - 1398
      Abstract: Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1397-1398

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1397-1398
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196757
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Medical IT curriculum for local public health promotion: Expert comments
           on its way for actual implementation and operating

    • Authors: Bordinthon Jeenpea, Suphattra Wayalun, Wasana Kaewla, Viroj Wiwanitkit
      Pages: 1398 - 1399
      Abstract: Bordinthon Jeenpea, Suphattra Wayalun, Wasana Kaewla, Viroj Wiwanitkit
      Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1398-1399

      Citation: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(5):1398-1399
      PubDate: Mon,6 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196641
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
       
 
 
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