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Publisher: Medknow Publishers   (Total: 355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 355 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Arab Academy of Audio-Vestibulogy J.     Open Access  
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African J. for Infertility and Assisted Conception     Open Access  
African J. of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African J. of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African J. of Paediatric Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.269, h-index: 10)
African J. of Trauma     Open Access  
Ain-Shams J. of Anaesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical J.     Open Access  
Al-Basar Intl. J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ancient Science of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anesthesia : Essays and Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 15)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.408, h-index: 15)
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.308, h-index: 14)
Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.441, h-index: 10)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.24, h-index: 29)
Annals of Thoracic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 19)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 5)
APOS Trends in Orthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arab J. of Interventional Radiology     Open Access  
Archives of Intl. Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Pharmacy Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asia Pacific J. of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asia-Pacific J. of Oncology Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian J. of Andrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 49)
Asian J. of Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian J. of Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian J. of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.362, h-index: 10)
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Avicenna J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AYU : An international quarterly journal of research in Ayurveda     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Benha Medical J.     Open Access  
BLDE University J. of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Brain Circulation     Open Access  
Bulletin of Faculty of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Translational Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CHRISMED J. of Health and Research     Open Access  
Clinical Dermatology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Trials in Degenerative Diseases     Open Access  
Clinical Trials in Orthopedic Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Community Acquired Infection     Open Access  
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 12)
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Medical Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CytoJ.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.339, h-index: 19)
Delta J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access  
Dental Hypotheses     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.131, h-index: 4)
Dental Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Dentistry and Medical Research     Open Access  
Digital Medicine     Open Access  
Drug Development and Therapeutics     Open Access  
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 22)
Egyptian J. of Bronchology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cataract and Refractive Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Dermatology and Venerology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Haematology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.121, h-index: 3)
Egyptian J. of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian J. of Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Orthopaedic J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Pharmaceutical J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Retina J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Rheumatology and Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Endodontology     Open Access  
Endoscopic Ultrasound     Open Access   (SJR: 0.473, h-index: 8)
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, h-index: 11)
European J. of General Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European J. of Prosthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European J. of Psychology and Educational Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Fertility Science and Research     Open Access  
Formosan J. of Surgery     Open Access   (SJR: 0.107, h-index: 5)
Genome Integrity     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.227, h-index: 12)
Global J. of Transfusion Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Heart India     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Heart Views     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hepatitis B Annual     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IJS Short Reports     Open Access  
Indian Anaesthetists Forum     Open Access  
Indian Dermatology Online J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian J. of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.302, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Burns     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Cancer     Open Access   (SJR: 0.318, h-index: 26)
Indian J. of Cerebral Palsy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.618, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 24)
Indian J. of Dental Sciences     Open Access  
Indian J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 29)
Indian J. of Dermatopathology and Diagnostic Dermatology     Open Access  
Indian J. of Drugs in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indian J. of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Medical and Paediatric Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.292, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 34)
Indian J. of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.716, h-index: 60)
Indian J. of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 31)
Indian J. of Multidisciplinary Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.233, h-index: 12)
Indian J. of Nuclear Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 5)
Indian J. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, h-index: 34)
Indian J. of Oral Health and Research     Open Access  
Indian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Orthopaedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.393, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Otology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.218, h-index: 5)
Indian J. of Paediatric Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 12)
Indian J. of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.285, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Pharmacology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.347, h-index: 44)
Indian J. of Plastic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.496, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Psychological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.444, h-index: 17)
Indian J. of Radiology and Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.253, h-index: 14)
Indian J. of Research in Homoeopathy     Open Access  
Indian J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.169, h-index: 7)
Indian J. of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Social Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Industrial Psychiatry J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Academic Medicine     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Advanced Medical and Health Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Applied and Basic Medical Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Clinical and Experimental Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Critical Illness and Injury Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Educational and Psychological Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Environmental Health Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Forensic Odontology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Green Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.229, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Heart Rhythm     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Mycobacteriology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.239, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Noncommunicable Diseases     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Oral Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Orthodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pedodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutical Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.523, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Shoulder Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.611, h-index: 9)
Intl. J. of Trichology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.37, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Yoga : Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Iranian J. of Nursing and Midwifery Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Iraqi J. of Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Academy of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.427, h-index: 15)
J. of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.416, h-index: 14)
J. of Applied Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Association of Chest Physicians     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cancer Research and Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.359, h-index: 21)
J. of Carcinogenesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.152, h-index: 26)
J. of Cardiothoracic Trauma     Open Access  
J. of Cardiovascular Disease Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 13)
J. of Cardiovascular Echography     Open Access   (SJR: 0.134, h-index: 2)
J. of Cleft Lip Palate and Craniofacial Anomalies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Imaging Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.277, h-index: 8)
J. of Clinical Neonatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Ophthalmology and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Clinical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Conservative Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.532, h-index: 10)
J. of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.199, h-index: 9)
J. of Current Medical Research and Practice     Open Access  
J. of Current Research in Scientific Medicine     Open Access  
J. of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cytology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 9)
J. of Dental and Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Dental Implants     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Dental Lasers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Dental Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Digestive Endoscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Dr. NTR University of Health Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Earth, Environment and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Education and Ethics in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Education and Health Promotion     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 14)
J. of Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Family and Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Family Medicine and Primary Care     Open Access   (Followers: 11)

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Journal Cover Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
  [SJR: 0.53]   [H-I: 34]   [1 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0255-0857
   Published by Medknow Publishers Homepage  [355 journals]
  • Laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis: Advances in technology and drug
           susceptibility testing

    • Authors: Seema Oommen, Nandita Banaji
      Pages: 323 - 331
      Abstract: Seema Oommen, Nandita Banaji
      Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):323-331
      There have been rapid technological advances in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its drug susceptibility in clinical samples. These include advances in microscopic examination, in vitro culture and application of molecular techniques. The World Health Organization (WHO) has played a large role in evaluating these technologies for their efficacy and feasibility, especially in the developing countries. Amongst these, the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP), through its national network of designated microscopy centres and intermediate reference laboratories, has adopted certain technologies that are currently implemented in India. Advances in microscopy technology include fluorescent microscopy using light-emitting diode source, sodium hypochlorite microscopy and vital fluorescent staining of sputum smears. Automation of in vitro culture has markedly reduced the turnaround time (TAT), even in smear-negative samples, and permits simultaneous detection of resistant mutants. Molecular detection of drug resistance has further reduced the TAT, and the cartridge-based nucleic acid amplification test with its performance convenience and rapid results, appears poised to become the future of tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in all settings, provided the cost of testing is reduced especially for use in private diagnostic settings. This article reviews technologies currently available for the diagnosis of TB, keeping in mind the WHO recommendations and the RNTCP practices. This is a thematic synthesis of data available on diagnosis in literature, preserving the conclusions of the primary studies.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):323-331
      PubDate: Thu,12 Oct 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_16_204
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus co-infection in India: A
           systematic review and meta-analysis

    • Authors: Prabha Desikan, Zeba Khan
      Pages: 332 - 339
      Abstract: Prabha Desikan, Zeba Khan
      Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):332-339
      Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have several important similarities including worldwide distribution, hepato-tropism, similar modes of transmission and the ability to induce chronic infection that may lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Since both viruses are individually known to cause the pathologies mentioned above, co-infection with both HBV and HCV would be expected to be linked with higher morbidity as well as mortality and impact healthcare resource utilisation. Precise estimate of the prevalence of HBV/HCV co-infection would be needed to formulate policy decisions and plan communal health interventions. This systematic review and meta-analysis, therefore, aims to understand the prevalence of HBV and HCV co-infection in India based on the available literature. Following PRISMA guidelines, primary studies reporting the prevalence of HBV/HCV co-infection in India were retrieved through searches conducted in PubMed, Google SCHOLAR, Medline, Cochrane Library, WHO reports, Indian and International journals online. All online searches were conducted between December 2016 and February 2017. Meta-analysis was carried out using StatsDirect statistical software. Thirty studies published between 2000 and 2016 conducted across six regions of India were included in this review. The pooled HBV/HCV co-infection prevalence rate across the thirty studies was 1.89% (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.2%–2.4%). A high heterogeneity was observed between prevalence estimates. The HBV/HCV co-infection prevalence in different subgroups varied from 0.02% (95% CI = 0.0019%–0.090%) to 3.2% (95% CI = 1.3%–5.9%). The pooled prevalence of HBV/HCV co-infection in India was found to be 1.89%. This systematic review and meta-analysis revealed high prevalence of HBV/HCV co-infection in chronic liver patients, followed by HIV-positive patients, and then followed by persons who inject drugs and kidney disease patients.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):332-339
      PubDate: Thu,12 Oct 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_17_257
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Optimisation of antimicrobial dosing based on pharmacokinetic and
           pharmacodynamic principles

    • Authors: Grace Si Ru Hoo, Yi Xin Liew, Andrea Lay-Hoon Kwa
      Pages: 340 - 346
      Abstract: Grace Si Ru Hoo, Yi Xin Liew, Andrea Lay-Hoon Kwa
      Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):340-346
      While suboptimal dosing of antimicrobials has been attributed to poorer clinical outcomes, clinical cure and mortality advantages have been demonstrated when target pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) indices for various classes of antimicrobials were achieved to maximise antibiotic activity. Dosing optimisation requires a good knowledge of PK/PD principles. This review serves to provide a foundation in PK/PD principles for the commonly prescribed antibiotics (β-lactams, vancomycin, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides), as well as dosing considerations in special populations (critically ill and obese patients). PK principles determine whether an appropriate dose of antimicrobial reaches the intended pathogen(s). It involves the fundamental processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination, and is affected by the antimicrobial's physicochemical properties. Antimicrobial pharmacodynamics define the relationship between the drug concentration and its observed effect on the pathogen. The major indicator of the effect of the antibiotics is the minimum inhibitory concentration. The quantitative relationship between a PK and microbiological parameter is known as a PK/PD index, which describes the relationship between dose administered and the rate and extent of bacterial killing. Improvements in clinical outcomes have been observed when antimicrobial agents are dosed optimally to achieve their respective PK/PD targets. With the rising rates of antimicrobial resistance and a limited drug development pipeline, PK/PD concepts can foster more rational and individualised dosing regimens, improving outcomes while simultaneously limiting the toxicity of antimicrobials.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):340-346
      PubDate: Thu,12 Oct 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_17_278
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Recurrent urinary tract infections in women: How promising is the use of
           probiotics?

    • Authors: Varsha Gupta, Deepika Nag, Pratibha Garg
      Pages: 347 - 354
      Abstract: Varsha Gupta, Deepika Nag, Pratibha Garg
      Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):347-354
      Urinary tract infections (UTIs) currently rank amongst the most prevalent bacterial infections, representing a major health hazard. UTIs in females usually start as vaginal infections and ascend to the urethra and bladder. Recurrent UTIs (rUTIs) can be defined as at least three episodes of UTI in 1 year or two episodes in 6 months. Various antibiotics have been the mainstay of therapy in ameliorating the incidence of UTIs, but recurrent infections continue to afflict many women. It necessitates the exploitation of alternative antimicrobial therapy. Probiotics have been shown to be effective in varied clinical trials for long-term preventions of rUTI. Because Escherichia coli is the primary pathogen involved in UTIs which spreads from the rectum to vagina and then ascends up the sterile urinary tract, improving the gut or vaginal flora will thus impact the urinary tract. Since a healthy vaginal microbiota is mainly dominated by Lactobacillus species, in this context, exogenously administered probiotics containing Lactobacilli play a pivotal role in reducing the risk of rUTI. The concept of artificially boosting the Lactobacilli numbers through probiotic administration has long been conceived but has been recently shown to be possible. Lactobacilli may especially be useful for women with a history of recurrent, complicated UTIs or on prolonged antibiotic use. Probiotics do not cause antibiotic resistance and may offer other health benefits due to vaginal re-colonisation with Lactobacilli. However, more comprehensive research is still needed, to recommend for probiotics as an alternative to antibiotics.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):347-354
      PubDate: Thu,12 Oct 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_16_292
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Review on transovarial transmission potentiality of dengue vectors: An
           international perspective with special reference to North-Eastern region
           of India

    • Authors: Monika Soni, Jitendra Sharma
      Pages: 355 - 360
      Abstract: Monika Soni, Jitendra Sharma
      Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):355-360
      Despite extensive research in vaccine development, there is at present no known method of controlling dengue except by the mosquito vectors. Virologic surveillance which involves the detection of dengue virus (DENV) in human serum and followed by isolation of virus using cell culture or mosquito inoculation is used as an early warning symptom to predict the outbreak. The technique is not much effective as the virus is in the human population. However, if the virus is detected in mosquito before it can infect humans could be more effective approach. One of the great mysteries about the epidemiology of dengue is how the virus persists in the interepidemic period. So far, no such studies on dengue vectors have been conducted in the north-eastern region of India, especially in Assam and the dengue cases are increasing every year. There are no reports on the identification of active and potential role of dengue vector responsible for the transmission of dengue in this state. Such type of study will give an overall picture of potential dengue vector responsible for human DENV infection and the viral load carried by the mosquito species in different generations. Such study will be useful in helping the public health personnel.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):355-360
      PubDate: Thu,12 Oct 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_16_64
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Discriminatory power of three typing techniques in determining relatedness
           of nosocomial Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from a tertiary hospital in
           India

    • Authors: Swathi Purighalla, Sarita Esakimuthu, Mallika Reddy, George K Varghese, Vijay S Richard, Vasan K Sambandamurthy
      Pages: 361 - 368
      Abstract: Swathi Purighalla, Sarita Esakimuthu, Mallika Reddy, George K Varghese, Vijay S Richard, Vasan K Sambandamurthy
      Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):361-368
      Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the discriminatory power of two DNA-based technique and a protein-based technique for the typing of nosocomial isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae. A second objective was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and characterise the presence of genes encoding extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemases. Materials and Methods: Forty-six K. pneumoniae isolates from patients with bloodstream infections at a tertiary care hospital in India between December 2014 and December 2015 were studied. All isolates were typed using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and ESBLs were detected using the BD Phoenix system. The types of ESBL and carbapenemase genes present were detected using PCR. Results: Isolates were subtyped into 31, 30 and 33 distinct genotypes by ERIC-PCR, RAPD and MALDI-TOF, respectively. Several isolates displaying identical DNA fingerprints were binned into different branches based on their proteomic fingerprint. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests revealed that 33/46 strains were multidrug resistant (MDR); a majority of the strains (83%) were sensitive to colistin. PCR-based analysis demonstrated 19 strains to harbour two or more ESBL and carbapenemase genes. Conclusion: ERIC-PCR was the most reproducible method for typing K. pneumoniae isolates and could not be substituted by MALDI-TOF for clonality analysis. A high degree of genetic diversity and the presence of MDR genes highlight the challenges in treating K. pneumoniae-associated infections.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):361-368
      PubDate: Thu,12 Oct 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_16_308
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Antimicrobial prescribing patterns of surgical speciality in a tertiary
           care hospital in India: Role of persuasive intervention for changing
           antibiotic prescription behaviour

    • Authors: Chand Wattal, Shilpi Khanna, Neeraj Goel, Jaswinder Kaur Oberoi, BK Rao
      Pages: 369 - 375
      Abstract: Chand Wattal, Shilpi Khanna, Neeraj Goel, Jaswinder Kaur Oberoi, BK Rao
      Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):369-375
      Background: Inappropriate use of antibiotics globally has been linked to increase in antibiotic resistance. Objectives: This interventional study assessed the impact of antibiotic prescription feedback and focus group discussions (FGD) on hospital-based prescribers before and after the FGD. Study Design: The present study was performed at a tertiary care centre in New Delhi, wherein 45 units from surgical specialities were included for FGD. Thirty-five units were assessed for the antibiotic usage during 12 months pre-intervention and 3 and 6 months post-intervention period. The outcome measured was a change in antibiotic prescription rates reflected as daily defined doses per 100 bed days as defined by the World Health Organisation. Results: Reduction in the level of antibiotic consumption was observed in 15 of 35 units (42.85%) during the 3 months post-intervention period, which was significant (P < 0.05) in 3/35 (8.57%) surgical units. A significant reduction (P < 0.05) was observed for the units of endoscopic gynaecology, super-speciality and transplant surgery units B and C, and orthopaedic unit C during the 6 months period. Decreasing trend (P < 0.05) was observed in 2/35 (5.71%) units during the entire period. Overall reduction of antibiotic consumption (1.88%) was observed, with an increase in the use of low-end antibiotics and a decrease in the use of high-end antibiotics. Conclusion: The present study clearly demonstrates a weak impact of FGD in changing antibiotic prescribing behaviour. Further analysis of the sustainability of FGD and its long-term impact on antimicrobial resistance needs to be evaluated. The effect of continuous educational sessions and multifaceted interventions cannot be ignored.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):369-375
      PubDate: Thu,12 Oct 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_17_273
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Diagnostic efficacy of microscopy, rapid diagnostic test and polymerase
           chain reaction for malaria using bayesian latent class analysis

    • Authors: Sreemanti Saha, Rahul Narang, Pradeep Deshmukh, Kiran Pote, Anup Anvikar, Pratibha Narang
      Pages: 376 - 380
      Abstract: Sreemanti Saha, Rahul Narang, Pradeep Deshmukh, Kiran Pote, Anup Anvikar, Pratibha Narang
      Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):376-380
      Introduction: The diagnostic techniques for malaria are undergoing a change depending on the availability of newer diagnostics and annual parasite index of infection in a particular area. At the country level, guidelines are available for selection of diagnostic tests; however, at the local level, this decision is made based on malaria situation in the area. The tests are evaluated against the gold standard, and if that standard has limitations, it becomes difficult to compare other available tests. Bayesian latent class analysis computes its internal standard rather than using the conventional gold standard and helps comparison of various tests including the conventional gold standard. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary care hospital setting, we have evaluated smear microscopy, rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis of malaria using Bayesian latent class analysis. Results: We found the magnitude of malaria to be 17.7% (95% confidence interval: 12.5%–23.9%) among the study subjects. In the present study, the sensitivity of microscopy was 63%, but it had very high specificity (99.4%). Sensitivity and specificity of RDT and PCR were high with RDT having a marginally higher sensitivity (94% vs. 90%) and specificity (99% vs. 95%). On comparison of likelihood ratios (LRs), RDT had the highest LR for positive test result (175) and the lowest LR for negative test result (0.058) among the three tests. Conclusion: In settings like ours conventional smear microscopy may be replaced with RDT and as we move toward elimination and facilities become available PCR may be roped into detect cases with lower parasitaemia.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):376-380
      PubDate: Thu,12 Oct 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_17_199
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Standardization of a two-step real-time polymerase chain reaction based
           method for species-specific detection of medically important Aspergillus
           species

    • Authors: P Das, P Pandey, A Harishankar, M Chandy, S Bhattacharya, A Chakrabarti
      Pages: 381 - 388
      Abstract: P Das, P Pandey, A Harishankar, M Chandy, S Bhattacharya, A Chakrabarti
      Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):381-388
      Purpose: Standardization of Aspergillus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) poses two technical challenges (a) standardization of DNA extraction, (b) optimization of PCR against various medically important Aspergillus species. Many cases of aspergillosis go undiagnosed because of relative insensitivity of conventional diagnostic methods such as microscopy, culture or antigen detection. The present study is an attempt to standardize real-time PCR assay for rapid sensitive and specific detection of Aspergillus DNA in EDTA whole blood. Materials and Methods: Three nucleic acid extraction protocols were compared and a two-step real-time PCR assay was developed and validated following the recommendations of the European Aspergillus PCR Initiative in our setup. In the first PCR step (pan-Aspergillus PCR), the target was 28S rDNA gene, whereas in the second step, species specific PCR the targets were beta-tubulin (for Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus), gene and calmodulin gene (for Aspergillus niger). Results: Species specific identification of four medically important Aspergillus species, namely, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger and A. terreus were achieved by this PCR. Specificity of the PCR was tested against 34 different DNA source including bacteria, virus, yeast, other Aspergillus sp., other fungal species and for human DNA and had no false-positive reactions. The analytical sensitivity of the PCR was found to be 102 CFU/ml. Conclusion: The present protocol of two-step real-time PCR assays for genus- and species-specific identification for commonly isolated species in whole blood for diagnosis of invasive Aspergillus infections offers a rapid, sensitive and specific assay option and requires clinical validation at multiple centers.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):381-388
      PubDate: Thu,12 Oct 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_17_190
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Molecular and phylogenetic evidence of chikungunya virus circulating in
           Assam, India

    • Authors: Prafulla Dutta, Siraj Ahmed Khan, Naba Kumar Hazarika, Sumi Chetry
      Pages: 389 - 393
      Abstract: Prafulla Dutta, Siraj Ahmed Khan, Naba Kumar Hazarika, Sumi Chetry
      Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):389-393
      Purpose: Northeast Region of India possesses an abundant number of Aedes mosquitoes, the common vector for Dengue and Chikungunya (CHIK). Dengue is reported every year from Assam, but active surveillance for CHIK virus (CHIKV) infection is lacking in this part of India. Therefore, this present study has been undertaken to detect any CHIKV infection during a dengue outbreak in Assam. Materials and Methods: A total of 42 dengue negative samples collected from Guwahati were screened for the presence of CHIK IgM antibodies. Further, all the samples were processed for CHIKV RNA detection by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Phylogenetic analysis was done by Maximum Likelihood method using Kimura-2 parameter model. Results: No IgM positivity was found in the processed samples; however, 7 samples were positive for CHIKV by RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the circulating CHIKV belonged to Eastern, Central and Southern African genotype. Sequence analysis showed two uniform nucleotide substitutions and very less amino acid substitution. Conclusion: Silent existence of CHIKV beside dengue is reported from this study. Therefore, CHIKV diagnosis should be included as a regular practice for active surveillance of the disease and its accomplishment before commencing an outbreak.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):389-393
      PubDate: Thu,12 Oct 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_16_127
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Systemic antibody response to Chlamydia Trachomatis infection in patients
           either infected or reinfected with different Chlamydia serovars

    • Authors: Vivek Kumar Gupta, Courtney Alice Waugh, Noa Ziklo, Wilhelmina M Huston, Jane S Hocking, Peter Timms
      Pages: 394 - 401
      Abstract: Vivek Kumar Gupta, Courtney Alice Waugh, Noa Ziklo, Wilhelmina M Huston, Jane S Hocking, Peter Timms
      Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):394-401
      Introduction: Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiological agent for the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection in both developed and developing countries. The aim of present study was to characterize the antibody response between two groups of individuals, having either a single C. trachomatis infection and or repeated infections. Material and Methods: Current study consisted of two groups, one with an initial Chlamydia infection and a second with repeated infections. A titre based estimation of specific serum (IgG and IgA) levels using ELISA were performed, which further validated by western blot. In vitro neutralizing ability of each patient's serum against both homologous and heterologous strains was also determined. Results: Individuals infected with one of the C. trachomatis serovars D, E or K exhibited a strong systemic antibody response as characterized by ELISA and western blot. These individuals may have developed at least some level of protection as they only represented single infection. By comparison, individuals infected with serovar D, E or F that exhibited low systemic antibody response often presented repeated C. trachomatis infections, suggesting an association with poor immune response. An in vitro neutralizing level of 60-90% was observed in the human sera against homologous serovar D and two heterologous C. trachomatis serovars E and K, compared to <40% against heterologous serovars F. Conclusion: Individuals infected with serovars D and K showed a potential association between circulating antibody response and re-infection risk. While the patients infected with serovars E showed a disconnection between systemic antibody response and re-infection risk.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):394-401
      PubDate: Thu,12 Oct 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_17_1
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of concurrent malaria and dengue infections among febrile
           patients

    • Authors: Parul D Shah, Tanmay K Mehta
      Pages: 402 - 405
      Abstract: Parul D Shah, Tanmay K Mehta
      Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):402-405
      Context: Despite a wide overlap between endemic areas for two important vector-borne infections, malaria and dengue, published reports of co-infections are scarce till date. Aims: To find the incidence of dengue and malaria co-infection as well as to ascertain the severity of such dengue and malaria co-infection based on clinical and haematological parameters. Setting and Design: Observational, retrospective cross-sectional study was designed including patients who consulted the tertiary care hospital of Ahmedabad seeking treatment for fever compatible with malaria and/or dengue. Subjects and Methods: A total of 8364 serum samples from clinically suspected cases of fever compatible with malaria and/or dengue were collected. All samples were tested for dengue NS-1 antigen before 5 days of onset of illness and for dengue IgM after 5 days of onset of illness. In all samples, malaria diagnosis was based on the identification of Plasmodium parasites on a thin and thick blood films microscopy. Results: Only 10.27% (859) patients with fever were tested positive for dengue and 5.1% (434) were tested positive for malaria. 3.14% (27) dengue cases show concurrent infection with malarial parasites. Hepatomegaly and jaundice 37.03% (10), haemorrhagic manifestations 18.51% (5) and kidney failure 3.7% (1), haemoglobin <12 g/dl 100% (27) and thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150,000/cmm) 96.29% (26) were common in malaria and dengue co-infections and were much more common in Plasmodium falciparum infections. Conclusion: All febrile patients must be tested for malaria and dengue, both otherwise one of them will be missed in case of concurrent infections which could lead to severe diseases with complications.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):402-405
      PubDate: Thu,12 Oct 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_15_455
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Detection of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori by polymerase
           chain reaction using residual samples from rapid urease test

    • Authors: Jae-Sik Jeon, Jae Kyung Kim, Ga-Yeon Kim
      Pages: 406 - 409
      Abstract: Jae-Sik Jeon, Jae Kyung Kim, Ga-Yeon Kim
      Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):406-409
      Background: Approximately 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori, which corresponds to a high infection rate. Furthermore, the incidence of antibiotic-resistant H. pylori has increased with the recent rise in use of antibiotics for H. pylori elimination, suggesting growing treatment failures. Aim: The study was aimed to assess the use of residual samples from rapid urease test (RUT) for biomolecular testing as an effective and accurate method to detect antibiotic-resistant H. pylori. Settings and Design: This study was a retrospective study performed using data obtained from medical records of previously isolated H. pylori strains. Materials and Methods: RUT was conducted for 5440 biopsy samples from individuals who underwent health examination in South Korea. Subsequently, 469 RUT residual samples were randomly selected and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect antibiotic-resistant H. pylori. Statistical Analysis Used: The Chi-square test was used to analyse categorical data. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed a concordance between the results of PCR and conventional RUT in 450 of 469 samples, suggesting that the H. pylori PCR test is a time- and cost-effective detection method. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that PCR test can aid physicians to prescribe the appropriate antibiotics at the time of diagnosis, thus preventing the reduction in H. pylori eradication due to antibiotic resistance, averting progression to serious diseases and increasing the treatment success rate.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):406-409
      PubDate: Thu,12 Oct 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_17_246
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Epidemiology of malaria and MSP-2 gene-based genetic diversity of
           Plasmodium falciparum from patients attending community health centre,
           Jiribam, Manipur

    • Authors: Indu Sharma, Appu Saikia, Paromita Chakraborty
      Pages: 410 - 414
      Abstract: Indu Sharma, Appu Saikia, Paromita Chakraborty
      Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):410-414
      Two millilitres of peripheral blood was collected from 323 patients of different age groups and rapid diagnosis (RDT test) was performed. Parasite genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood and MSP-2 gene-based diversity and polymorphism was determined followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using Taq 1 and Vsp 1 digestion of each polymerase chain reaction product to analyse MSP-2 genotypes. Twenty-six sequences of P. falciparum MSP-2 gene were retrieved from the current GenBank database to represent strains from various geographical locations and were analysed for the Taq 1 and Vsp 1 enzyme restriction sites using in silico restriction digestion in Sequence Manipulation Suite, Version 2.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):410-414
      PubDate: Thu,12 Oct 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_14_532
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Survivability and fitness cost of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate
           Staphylococcus aureus

    • Authors: Avinash Singh, Sanjay Singh, Jyoti Singh, Mohibur Rahman, Ashutosh Pathak, Kashi Nath Prasad
      Pages: 415 - 416
      Abstract: Avinash Singh, Sanjay Singh, Jyoti Singh, Mohibur Rahman, Ashutosh Pathak, Kashi Nath Prasad
      Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):415-416
      The aim of this study was to observe the survivability and fitness cost of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus(hVISA) isolates. Survivability study was performed on dry cotton swab, and fitness cost was evaluated by estimating growth kinetics and generation time constant in BACTEC automated system. Total mean maximum time of recovery on primary culture was 4.1 and 7.1 weeks (P = 0.0001) for hVISA and vancomycin-sensitive S. aureus (VSSA), respectively, in dry starved condition. No significant difference between the mean value of lag phase duration (P = 0.89) was noted between hVISA and VSSA isolate in growth kinetics. However, we observed lesser generation time of hVISA isolates compared to S. aureus ATCC 29213 (P = 0.0076). This study concluded that a significant difference in generation time between VSSA and hVISA and suggests that hVISA have fitness cost compared to VSSA. However, further studies with more cases are required.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):415-416
      PubDate: Thu,12 Oct 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_17_311
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Investigation of an outbreak of varicella in Chandigarh, North India,
           using a real-time polymerase chain reaction approach

    • Authors: Mini P Singh, Ramanpreet Kaur, Archit Kumar, Madhu Gupta, Shubha Garg, RK Ratho
      Pages: 417 - 420
      Abstract: Mini P Singh, Ramanpreet Kaur, Archit Kumar, Madhu Gupta, Shubha Garg, RK Ratho
      Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):417-420
      Outbreaks of varicella are reported when susceptible population accumulates. This study reports a chickenpox outbreak in Burail in August 2014, wherein 20 laboratory-confirmed cases were identified by the detection of varicella zoster virus (VZV) DNA and VZV IgM antibodies. The viral load between vesicular swabs and serum samples from 8 patients with active lesions was found to have good correlation and further also related with disease severity. Real-time polymerase chain reaction can be useful for early diagnosis of an outbreak and vesicular swab can be used as a less invasive sample for assessing the disease severity.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):417-420
      PubDate: Thu,12 Oct 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_16_420
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Identification of carbapenemase-mediated resistance among
           Enterobacteriaceae bloodstream isolates: A molecular study from India

    • Authors: Srujana Mohanty, Mittal Gajanand, Rajni Gaind
      Pages: 421 - 425
      Abstract: Srujana Mohanty, Mittal Gajanand, Rajni Gaind
      Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):421-425
      Acquired resistance in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) conferred by carbapenemases is a major concern worldwide. Consecutive, non-duplicate isolates of Escherichia coli (EC) and Klebsiella pneumoniae from clinically diagnosed bloodstream infections were screened for the presence of carbapenem resistance by standard disk-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration breakpoints using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Carbapenemase-encoding genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Of 387 isolates (214 K. pneumoniae, 173 EC) tested, 93 (24.03%) were found to be CRE. Of these, 71 (76.3%) were positive for at least one tested carbapenemase gene. The frequency of carbapenemase genes was New Delhi metallo-β-lactamse-1 (65.6%), oxacillinase (OXA)-48 (24.7%), OXA-181 (23.6%), Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase (6.4%) and K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (2.1%). Our study identified presence of carbapenemases in a large proportion of CRE isolates. Delineation of resistance mechanisms is important in view of future therapeutics concerned with the treatment of CRE and for aiding control efforts by surveillance and infection control interventions.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):421-425
      PubDate: Thu,12 Oct 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_16_386
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Hantavirus and tuberculosis co-infection in an Indian child

    • Authors: Someshwar Chate, Ira Shah, Hiren Doshi
      Pages: 426 - 428
      Abstract: Someshwar Chate, Ira Shah, Hiren Doshi
      Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):426-428
      Hantaviruses are a group of antigenically distinct viruses carried out in rodents and insectivores. Humans are accidental hosts and get infected by aerosols generated from contaminated urine, faeces and saliva of infected rodents. Hantaviruses are identified as aetiological agents of two human diseases, haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Hantavirus causing pulmonary renal disease has rarely been reported in children in India. Hantavirus infection is uncommon under the age of 12 years. We report a 9-year-old girl from Mumbai, India with fever, bilateral pleural effusion, thrombocytopaenia, haemoconcentration and oliguria due to hantavirus infection. She also had associated tuberculosis.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):426-428
      PubDate: Thu,12 Oct 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_16_161
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • A case of sterile pyuria caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma
           hominis: A diagnostic challenge

    • Authors: Agrima Mian, Sujeesh Sebastian, Nazneen Arif, Manish Soneja, Benu Dhawan
      Pages: 429 - 431
      Abstract: Agrima Mian, Sujeesh Sebastian, Nazneen Arif, Manish Soneja, Benu Dhawan
      Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):429-431
      Sterile pyuria is a highly prevalent condition with a wide aetiological spectrum, which often challenges the diagnostician. We describe the case of a middle-aged female admitted to the medical Intensive Care Unit for acute gastroenteritis, whose urinalysis revealed persistent sterile pyuria. Polymerase chain reaction assay in urine was positive for Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis. She responded to antimicrobial therapy. We hereby reflect on the approach to a case of sterile pyuria and review the available literature on this entity.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):429-431
      PubDate: Thu,12 Oct 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_17_125
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Multiple parasitic and viral infections in a patient living with HIV/AIDS
           on antiretroviral therapy

    • Authors: K Deepika, Nonika Rajkumari, AS Liji, Subhash Chandra Parija, Abdoul Hamide
      Pages: 432 - 435
      Abstract: K Deepika, Nonika Rajkumari, AS Liji, Subhash Chandra Parija, Abdoul Hamide
      Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):432-435
      Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are more prone for gastrointestinal infections causing diarrhoea, particularly with parasites. Parasitic infections have been regularly reported in such patients. A female patient confirmed positive for HIV 1 on antiretroviral therapy came with complaints of chronic diarrhoea for the past 7 months. Her initial CD4 count was 89 cells/μl of blood, and antibodies to cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 virus were found to be positive in the patient's serum, but there was no HIV-associated retinopathy. Her stool examination showed decorticated fertilised eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, cysts of Blastocystis sp. and Entamoeba species in the unconcentrated sample and oocysts of Cystoisospora species, egg of Schistosoma haematobium and eggs of Trichuris trichiura in the concentrated. The patient responded well to cotrimoxazole and albendazole, and repeat samples were negative for all these parasites.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):432-435
      PubDate: Thu,12 Oct 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_16_304
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Multidrug-resistant Candida auris: Need for alert among microbiologists

    • Authors: Kamini Walia, Anuradha Chowdhary, VC Ohri, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
      Pages: 436 - 436
      Abstract: Kamini Walia, Anuradha Chowdhary, VC Ohri, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
      Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):436-436

      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):436-436
      PubDate: Thu,12 Oct 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_17_345
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • In vitro fosfomycin susceptibility against carbapenem-resistant or
           extended-spectrum beta–lactamase-producing gram-negative
           fosfomycin-naive uropathogens: An alluring option or an illusion

    • Authors: Manisa Sahu, Sanjith Saseedharan, Pallavi Bhalekar
      Pages: 437 - 438
      Abstract: Manisa Sahu, Sanjith Saseedharan, Pallavi Bhalekar
      Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):437-438

      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(3):437-438
      PubDate: Thu,12 Oct 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_16_126
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 3 (2017)
       
 
 
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