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I am Open Access (OA)!

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Alerting OA accessibility using available bibliographic metadata standards

 
Alerting Open Access Availability

Forward thinking publishers have started to include in their Table of Contents (TOC) RSS feed metadata, elements that describe the copyright and access rights associated with an OA article. Being able to identify the accessibility of an article becomes even more important when the article has been published in a hybrid journal in which some articles are OA while the rest of the articles are available on an individual pay-per-view basis or journal subscription. The following is a sample of those publishers and the metadata elements that they are using to identify article’s copyrights and access rights:

  • Inderscience Publishers
    For subscription articles:
    <dc:rights>© 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.</dc:rights>
    <cc:license></cc:license>

    For OA articles:
    <dc:rights>First Author [et al] (Open Access)</dc:rights>
    <cc:license rdf:resource=”https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/”/>

  • John Wiley and Sons
    For both OA and subscription articles:
    <dc:rights xmlns:dc=”https://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/”/>
  • Wolters Kluwer – Lippincott Williams and Wilkins
    For both OA and subscription articles:
    <copyright><![CDATA[(C)2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.]]></copyright>

  • Biomed Central Ltd.
    All articles are OA. For all articles:
    <cc:license rdf:resource=”https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/” />
  • Hindawi Publishing Corporation
    All articles are OA. For all articles:
    <copyright>Copyright © 2013 First Author [et al.] All rights reserved.</copyright>
  • Libertas Academica
    For subscription articles:
    <cc:license></cc:license>

    For OA articles:
    <cc:license rdf:resource=”https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/”/>

  • ISRN International Scholarly Research Network
    All articles are OA. For all articles:
    <copyright>Copyright © 2013 First Author [et al.] All rights reserved.</copyright>
  • PeerJ
    All articles are OA. For all articles:
    <dc:rights>© 2013 First Author [et al.]</dc:rights>
    <terms:license>
        <terms:LicenseDocument rdf:about=”https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/”/>
    </terms:license>
    <prism:copyright>© 2013 First Author [et al.]</prism:copyright>
    <cc:license rdf:resource=”https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/”/>
    <cc:attributionURL rdf:resource=”[article URL]”/>
    <cc:attributionName> First Author [et al.]</cc:attributionName>

Some diversity can be seen in the implementation of the copyright and license elements. However, it is positive to notice that a pattern is emerging, where the dc:rights element is used to identify the copyrights holder for the article and cc:license to indicate the access rights for the article. JournalTOCs supports the use of dc:rights and cc:license that follow this pattern:

  • For Non-OA articles:
    <dc:rights>Copyright © [Publication Year] [Publisher_Name]</dc:rights>
    <cc:license></cc:license>
  • For OA articles:
    <dc:rights>Copyright © [Publication Year] First Author_Surname, First_Author_Initial [et al]</dc:rights> (if copyright is retained by the author)
    <cc:license rdf:resource=”[Selected_CC_License]”/>

These elements should be included in the journal RSS feeds and in any metadata that publishers expose for aggregators and discovery services. A&I, aggregators and discovery services will be able to identify an item as an OA article by checking that its dc:rights element contains the text “Open Access” and/or the cc:license element is pointing to a specific CC license.

JournalTOCs supports the use of standard metadata to identify OA content in particular from hybrid journals in which OA and subscription articles are published together. In that sense we advise publishers to use the dc:rights and cc:license elements as describe above. Publishers are welcome to contact JournalTOCs at journaltocs@hw.ac.uk for further information and guidance in the implementation of these two elements for their RSS feeds.

Written by Santiago Chumbe

March 18th, 2013 at 4:17 pm

John Wiley & Sons is the first publisher to use <dc:rights> in TOC RSS feeds

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John Wiley & Sons, Inc. has become the first publisher to use the <dc:rights> element from the Dublin Core Metadata standard to indicate copyright at the paper level.

While their values have not yet been defined, all John Wiley’s journal TOC RSS feeds include a <dc:rights> element in each of their items.

The granularity of this development would enable aggregators, discovery systems and other bibliographic services to provide accurate information about the full-text access rights for a particular paper. Thus, for example we would be able to alert end-users when an Open Access paper has been published in a hybrid (open access) journal.

A hybrid journal is a closed or subscription journal that also publishes Open Access papers.

Notably John Wiley has various hybrid journals. Hybrid journals are considered as a transitional model by some publishers and an optional publishing model by others. The publishers said (on the whole) that it is easier to start new pure Open Access journals than to transition a subscription journal.

Nevertheless, we are aware that there is a lot of Open Access (OA) papers published in hybrid journals that are not being systematically identified as OA by aggregators and discovery systems. This is an issue that would be solved by using <dc:rights> or CC-BY licensing in the RSS feeds at the item level.

In a recent message sent by Peter Murray-Rust to the Open Bibliography list when talking about “Open Science Bibliography – where can I find Open Access papers on … ?“, Peter concluded: “The attraction of this is that the results can go straight into CKAN (metadata about open access) and Open Bibliography. Obviously full open access publishers (BMC, PLoS) are straightforward. Hybrid journals (e.g. Springer, Wiley, Elsevier, ACS) are the most immediate gain. This will locate and publicize the Open Access papers, even when hidden in traditional closed journals.

Our interest at JournalTOCs is to make easier or evident the identification of OA papers published in hybrid journals. At the moment we only can identify OA at the journal level. In that sense we look forward of reusing the new John Wiley’s TOC RSS feeds to identify OA at the paper level from hybrid journals.

Written by Santiago Chumbe

August 16th, 2011 at 1:58 pm

Author Affiliation

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The affiliation of an author is vital information for a successful service such as the journalTOCs API. So far, the most common query received from our users involves this request: “find the papers published by authors from my institution

Taking into account the Recommendation # 6 of the “Guidelines for Encoding Bibliographic Citation Information in Dublin Core Metadata” proposed by Ann Apps, MIMAS, the journalTOCs schema has been upgrade to include the dc:contributor element to capture authors’ affiliations.

Thus, the normalized bibliographic metadata schema that JournalTOCs is using for syndicating journal TOC metadata in RSS format includes now the elements shown in the following figure.

Bibliographic metadata schema that JournalTOCs proposes for syndicating journal TOC metadata in RSS format

Basically, the reason behind using the “contributor” Dublin-Core element is that the affiliation for a journal article pertains to the resource. In this way we also recognise the contribution made by the author’s institution to the creation of the resource. Because affiliation is a property of the resource, rather than a creator, the fact that there is no way to explicitly correlate particular authors with their affiliations shouldn’t be an issue. Similarly the fact that the affiliation will no longer corresponds to the author when he moves to a different institution shouldn’t negatively impact to the current awareness service provided by the journalTOCs API.