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ISSN (Print) 2393-1140
Published by Diacronia Homepage  [1 journal]
  • The apparent contrariety

    • Authors: Francisc Gafton
      Abstract: There are societies in which individual and social mentalities are deeply imbued with religion, which dominates as a philosophy of life, and which guides its followers from the most insignificant to the most important thoughts and acts. There, secular life is the faithful reflection of religious ideology, and unfolds in the shadow of its ancestral and collective narratives. There, present and future celebrate a mystical past, which they replicate through a circular effort and in their own circumstances. There are societies in which social life interferes little, if at all, with the religious one; where religion is merely tolerated, instead of being assimilated or consuming. There, religion is not an ideological guide, an all-leading factor and force, but only a reminiscent paradigm; there, present and future shape themselves as stages of an evolutive spiral. A society to which religion imposes itself as a force that tends to perpetually conserve the status quo, opposing paradigm shifts in order to keep society on the uniform path of the imposed ideal; and a society which considers that, since the fundamental reality is matter acting according to its internal laws, ideology appears, exists and becomes through and in the image of the material being subject to evolution, beyond its developments and avatars.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • A perspective on the vocabulary common to Classical and Vulgar Latin

    • Authors: George Bogdan Țâra
      Abstract: This paper stems from two different perspectives—that of the Latinists, and that of the Romanists—upon the concept of ‘Vulgar Latin’, perspectives that have given rise to a friendly debate between Pierre Flobert and Eugeniu Coșeriu. We try to highlight a number of lexical elements that are common to Classical and Vulgar Latin. Our approach leans upon the idea (found also with Maria Iliescu) that the diachronic vision upon language must take into consideration the sum of the histories of the words that belong to that language. Observing several lexical items excerpted from texts belonging to various epochs of the Latin culture (Archaic, Classical, Late), to various authors (Cicero, Vergilius, etc.), and to authors whose works contain elements of spoken language (Plautus, Petronius, etc.), from works of a high level language (epics, discourse, dissertation), and from texts with strong marks of orality (comedies, letters, sermons), we were able to see the semantic evolution of several Latin words preserved in the Romance languages. Our conclusion endorses the notion of a “common language”, which explains the parallel existence of words like casa, pauimentum, caballus, formosus, uetulus, auricula, gula, bucca, manducare, incendere, draco both in the Classical and Vulgar Latin, without notable differences.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • The diachronic evolution of future tense forms in French from the
           perspective of the re-grammaticalization theory

    • Authors: Cecilia-Mihaela Popescu
      Abstract: Deriving from a comprehensive postdoctoral study, this article aims at presenting the evolution of future tense forms in French from the perspective of the re-grammaticalization process, understood as re-organisation of the grammatical system of a language (v. Andersen, 2006; Lindschouw, 2011). In very general lines, this process may be described as follows: in time, canonical future forms, originally representing outcomes of previous ‘grammaticalization’ processes (i.e. transition from lexical to gramatical), eventually show a poly-functional morpho-syntactic and semantic behaviour, actualising more than one grammatical value. Such a situation will imply the selection of new constituents in the canonical future paradigm and will inevitably result in: (i) a competition between canonical forms and the newly created ones; (ii) a de-semantization and specialization of canonical forms in a certain informational segment, and (iii) the (total or partial) grammaticalization of the concurrent periphrastic forms. We shall thus see that the synthetic future form in French underwent a semantic-functional reduction in terms of actualisation of temporal [prospective], which is mostly due to the “intervention” and grammaticalization of the itive periphrasis aller + infinitive on the same conceptual area; in current spoken language, this periphrasis has become the most frequent form to express [future]. An even stronger reduction in the number of occurrences is seen in terms of purely modal uses, in spoken language, as native speakers again prefer a periphrastic structure, i.e. devoirepistemic + infinitive.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • The influence of foreign patterns in the morphology section of Ioan
           Piuariu-Molnar’s grammar (Deutsch-Walachische Sprachlehre, Vienna, 1788)

    • Authors: Ana-Maria Minuț, Ion Lihaciu
      Abstract: One of the stages we have made in the process of publishing the German–Romanian grammar of Ioan Piuariu Molnar consisted in identifying the patterns followed by the author. The statement which claims that Molnar’s grammar followed the pattern of Samuel Micu and George Șincai’s grammar, Elementa linguæ daco-romanæ sive valachicæ (Vienna, 1780) is widespread in today’s literature review. We have found that, in case of some grammar chapters, the influence of this model is clearly confirmed. But there are also chapters different from their corresponding ones in Elementa or chapters that emerge only in Molnar’s grammar, not in that one of Micu and Șincai. This is explained by the fact that Molnar also followed the pattern of foreign grammars, which at that time were successful and were widely spread; these are two French grammars written in German with Latin grammatical terminology: the work of J.R. des Pepliers, Nouvelle et parfaite grammaire royale françoise et allemande. Neue und vollständige königliche französische Grammatik, bisher unter dem Nahmen des Herrn der Pepliers vielmals herausgegeben (Leipzig, 1765, M.G. Weidmanns Erben und Reich Printing House), respectively the grammar of Hilmar Curas, Erleichterte und durch lange Erfahrung verbesserte französische Grammatik (Berlin, 1759, Friedrich Nicolai Printing House). In this article we have revealed the chapters of morphology in which the influence of the Pepliers and Curas’ grammars is confirmed. The influence of foreign patterns is reflected in: the structure of the chapters, the used terminology and the German sequence of words; on the latter, we have highlighted where German equivalents for the Romanian words indicated by Molnar are identical with the German equivalents listed in Pepliers’ grammar or that of Curas for the French words.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • On the history of the indefinite pronoun altcineva ‘someone else’.
           Grammatical observations

    • Authors: Adrian Chircu
      Abstract: Within the present study, we aim to look at the way in which the indefinite pronoun altcineva ‘someone else’ has come to being in Romanian. Its linguistic bearings are mainly discussed from a diachronic perspective, that can help us understand the evolutionary stages of this compound pronoun, starting from a process of syntagmatization on the basis of the Latin model, and ending in a lexicalization on Romanian grounds. In order to perform an analysis on the basis of objectivity and actuality, we have prioritized the investigative leads in recent grammars of the Romanian language, be they diachronic (Frâncu, 2009, Stan, 2013; SOR) or synchronic (GALR; GBLR; RGR; GR). For the accomplishment of this goal, we have made use of a representative sample of old writings (mainly from the 16th and 17th centuries), that illustrate the dynamics of the old language, as well as the mutations that occurred over time. Our research has led to interesting and novel à la fois results pertaining to the structural peculiarities, the semantic compatibility and the syntagmatic association or the syntactic implications of the pronoun in question.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • The formal adaptation of toponyms in Romanian translations from German
           between 1780 and 1830

    • Authors: Ana-Maria Gînsac, Mădălina Ungureanu
      Abstract: Although the translation of foreign proper names into Romanian before its modern stage is insufficiently explored, it is known that the process is characterized (as the whole Romanian writing of the time) by the lack of generally valid norms. The process was influenced by various factors, including: the existence of different alphabets, orthographic and phonetic systems; the influence of the source-text vs. the existence of traditional pronunciation and writing patterns; the translation of a proper name from various languages (French, German, Italian, etc.); the diversity of proper names; the translator’s personality (linguistic knowledge, cultural formation). Starting from the translation strategies adopted by translators, our aim is to analyse the way in which the toponyms from three historical texts translated into Romanian from German in pre-modern stage (1780–1830) were adapted to the formal system of Romanian.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • They made “a mistake” in Job, 4, 11; why not also in Prov, 30, 30'

    • Authors: Adina Chirilă
      Abstract: The existence of the Greek term μυρμηκολέων in Job, 4, 11, in the biblical text of Orthodox tradition, on the steadfast line of the Septuagint, has seemed—time and again—bizarre, and has intrigued enough as to be approached as a textological problem in several articles and studies, some of them extended and well documented, during the last hundred years; it seems that we face an ordinary translation mistake: the Hellenised Hebrew translator of the Septuagint has missed the equivalent of the Heb. ַׁל ֭י ִש (layish [lah’-yish]) ‘a lion’ from the original story of Job, and has produced, consequently, what appears to be a hapax legomenon in the sacred text, an odd and obscure term. Reopening the case, the present study argues in favour of a different reading of the word μυρμηκολέων, which precludes the translator’s presumed mistake. Moreover, it reminds the researcher of the necessity to question, in a lucid manner, the arguments that seem to support a certain conclusion.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • Jean-Louis Dessalles, Către originile limbajului. O istorie naturală a
           vorbirii. Traducere de Alexandru Gafton. Prefață de Alexandru Gafton și
           Ioan Milică, Editura Universității „Alexandru Ioan Cuza”, Iași,
           2017, 589 p.

    • Authors: Adina Chirilă
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • Magda Jeanrenaud, Despre etica traducerii. Exerciții practice, Editura
           Universității „Alexandru Ioan Cuza” Iași, 2017, 208 p.

    • Authors: Gabriela-Iuliana Morcov
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • Georgiana Lungu-Badea, Idei și metaidei traductive românești (secolele
           XVI–XXI), Ediția a II-a, revăzută și adăugită, Editura
           Universității de Vest, Timișoara, 2015, 335 p.

    • Authors: Iulia Cosma
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • Adelina Emilia Mihali, Toponimie maramureșeană. Valea superioară a
           Vișeului, Editura Mega, Cluj-Napoca, 2015, 255 p.

    • Authors: Dinu Moscal
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • Eugeniu Coșeriu & Horst Geckeler, Orientări în semantica structurală,
           Traducere din limba engleză, notă preliminară, comentarii și
           postfață de Cristinel Munteanu, Editura Universității „Alexandru
           Ioan Cuza”, Iași, 2016, 217 p.

    • Authors: Dinu Moscal
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • A new factor in evolution

    • Authors: James Mark Baldwin
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +030
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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