Journal Cover Journal of Latin American & Caribbean Anthropology
  [SJR: 0.371]   [H-I: 7]   [14 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1935-4932 - ISSN (Online) 1935-4940
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1592 journals]
  • Big Coffee in Brazil: Historical Origins and Implications for
           Anthropological Political Economy
    • Authors: Daniel R. Reichman
      Abstract: La mayoría del trabajo antropológico sobre el café se enfoca en los productores de pequeña escala en el mercado de “especialidad” pero el mercado mundial del café está cada vez más determinada por la agroindustria del café en Brasil, el mayor productor de café del mundo, y el segundo mayor consumidor. Este artículo examina los orígenes históricos y las realidades contemporáneas del “big coffee” en Brasil a través de un enfoque en programas de mejoramiento de café en la ciudad de Campinas. Actualmente, la producción de café brasileño está colapsando la diferencia entre los mercados “homogéneos “ e “ especiales” para el café y este cambio tiene implicaciones para la economía política antropológica, en particular las nociones de “ posfordismo “ extraídas del geógrafo David Harvey. La teorización antropológica del mercado mundial del café necesita tener en cuenta el aumento de la agroindustria del café en Brasil si se trata de comprender con precisión la dinámica económica políticos del presente y futuro. [agricultura, Brasil, café, economia]Most anthropological research on coffee focuses on small-scale producers in the specialty market, but the global coffee market is increasingly shaped by coffee agribusiness in Brazil—the world's largest coffee producer and second-largest consumer. This article examines the historical origins and contemporary realities of “big coffee” in Brazil through a focus on coffee breeding programs in the city of Campinas. At present, Brazilian coffee production is collapsing the difference between “homogenous” and “specialty” markets for coffee, and this change has implications for anthropological political economy—and particularly for the concept of post-Fordism drawn from the work of geographer David Harvey. Anthropological theorization of the global coffee market needs to account for the rise of coffee agribusiness in Brazil if it is to accurately understand its political and economic dynamics. [agriculture, Brazil, coffee, economics]
      PubDate: 2018-01-04T04:40:27.020515-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12293
       
  • The Rise and Fall of Cheap Chinese Goods in Ecuadorian Popular Markets:
           The Limits of Post-Neoliberal Development in Correa's Ecuador
    • Authors: Rudi Colloredo-Mansfeld
      Abstract: En contraste con sus vecinos Colombia y Perú, Ecuador ha utilizado los aranceles para regular el flujo de bienes importados de China. En esta investigación, estoy enfocada en la ropa china y las prácticas de negocio y aspiraciones económicas de dos comunidades de comerciantes paralela–uno quichua, el otro chino. Algunos operadores de fábricas textiles nacional se han beneficiado claramente de los aranceles. Sin embargo, desde la crisis fiscal “dolarización” de Ecuador de la década de 2000, muchos comerciantes indígenas se han desplazado a la comercialización Asia, especialmente los bienes fabricados en China como una táctica para preservar los medios de vida y las comunidades de la diáspora comercial. Con ganancias empujadas a cerca de cero, créditos informales, costumbres durables de la vida comercial y la cortesía profesional han llegado a asumir el papel urgente en la supervivencia de la empresa no sólo individual, sino comunidades enteras comerciales. [diáspora, Ecuador, indígenas, mercados populares, migración]In contrast to its neighbors Colombia and Peru, Ecuador has used tariffs to regulate the supply of imported Chinese-made goods. This article reports on research carried out in 2015 in relation to traders and manufacturers in four cities in the northern Ecuadorian Andes: Otavalo, Atuntaqui, Ibarra, and Tulcan. It focuses on Chinese-made apparel and describes the business practices and economic aspirations of the parallel trading diasporas—one Quichua, the other Chinese—that embraced these textiles. Some domestic manufacturing has benefited from tariffs and a newly active state. However, since Ecuador's fiscal “dollarization” crisis of the early 2000s, many indigenous traders have shifted to marketing Asian and especially Chinese-made goods as a way of preserving livelihoods and commercial diasporic communities. With profits pushed to near zero, informal, culturally encoded habits of credit and professional courtesy have taken on an outsize role in the survival of not just individual enterprise but entire trading communities. [diaspora, Ecuador, indigenous people, markets, migration]
      PubDate: 2017-08-18T01:50:41.548425-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12289
       
  • Producing the Middle Class: Domestic Tourism, Ethnic Roots, and Class
           Routes in Brazil
    • Authors: Audrey Ricke
      Abstract: Este artigo analisa o papel que o turismo étnico tem na construção da classe média e a interação entre as classes médias rurais e urbanas neste processo. Baseando-se em dados etnográficos da Festa Pomerana, uma festa alemã em Pomerode, Brasil, este artigo mostra que a manutenção da etnicidade é parte de um amplo processo de construção da classe média no Brasil. Este artigo usa a metáfora roots/routes para analisar a formação e manutenção de certos segmentos da classe média na América Latina. Este artigo ilustra que a classe média no Brasil ajuda a perpetuar tradições étnicas alemães no Brasil e ao mesmo tempo este turismo étnico contribui para a formação da classe média no país. O artigo salienta o papel que turismo doméstico tem na construção da identidade de classe média nas regiões rurais da América Latina e a interação com a classe média urbana. [Brasil, classe media, etnicidade, identidade, turismo]This article analyzes the role that ethnic tourism plays in the formation of the middle class and the interaction of rural and urban residents in this process. Drawing on ethnographic data from Festa Pomerana, a German festival in Pomerode, Brazil, the article illustrates how the maintenance of ethnic roots is part of a larger process of constructing Brazil's middle class. It adapts the root/route metaphor established by previous scholars to analyze the formation and maintenance of certain segments of the middle class in Latin America. It argues that middle-class Brazilians’ consumption of German and other ethnic traditions through domestic tourism helps perpetuate ethnic roots at the same time as it provides semirural hosts and urban tourists with routes to middle-classdom. This work highlights the role of domestic tourism in the construction of middle-class identity in less urban regions of Latin America and its interplay with middle-class identity in larger urban spaces. [Brazil, class, ethnicity, identity, tourism]
      PubDate: 2017-07-13T03:00:36.990902-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12291
       
  • Burning and Rebuilding Bridges: Forensic Infrastructures in War and its
           Aftermath
    • Authors: Erin Parish
      Abstract: El 20 de febrero del año 2002, las FARC destruyeron el puente Danticas en la región colombiana del oriente antioqueño. Tres personas murieron, incluyendo una mujer en labor de parto. Durante la próxima década, el puente destruido era una metáfora material de la debilidad del gobierno frente las negociaciones con las FARC y la reparación de la infraestructura destruida. Basado en los campos de antropología forense y arquitectura forense, este artículo propone el concepto de “infraestructura forense” para investigar la importancia simbólica y política de la destrucción y reconstrucción del puente Danticas. Utilizo el marco conceptual de Eyal Weizman que entiende forense como el conocimiento de materiales como evidencia y foro donde se discute y se crea la verdad. Sugiero que el performance, la fisicalidad y el lúdico—cuando se los entiende como un foro—puedan apoyar la creación de formas incorporadas de justicia y reparación en las posguerras. [Colombia, conflicto, ecología, medio ambiente]On February 20, 2002, FARC (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia) guerrillas bombed Danticas Bridge in the Colombian region of Eastern Antioquia. Half an hour later, three people plunged to their deaths there. For the next decade, the broken bridge was a material metaphor for the government's inability to successfully negotiate with the FARC or repair the damage of sabotage. This article uses the concept of “forensic infrastructures” to examine the symbolic and political importance of the destruction and reconstruction of Danticas. It draws on Eyal Weizman's interpretation of forensics as the art and science of understanding materials as evidence and forums where truth is debated and crafted. It examines the political utility a forensic understanding of infrastructure offers in assessing responsibility for destruction in the aftermath of war. It suggests that performance, physicality, and play—when seen forensically as forums for truth creation—can help achieve embodied forms of justice and reparation after war. [Colombia, conflict, ecology, environment]
      PubDate: 2017-07-12T08:55:39.495893-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12290
       
  • “We are all Garimpeiros:” Settlement and Movement in Communities of
           the Tapajós Small-Scale Gold Mining Reserve
    • Authors: Judith Kolen; Eline Smet, Marjo Theije
      Abstract: Este artigo aborda o papel da mineração de ouro em pequena escala na urbanização da Amazônia brasileira, enfocando os processos locais em dois assentamentos de mineração na Província Aurífera Tapajós. Nossa análise revela três tendências na mudança de mobilidade para permanência. Em primeiro lugar, evidencia-se que, ao longo dos anos, os assentamentos de mineração irregulares cresceram em aldeias formalizadas. Mobilidade e permanências temporais, características tradicionais de mineração de ouro em pequena escala, gradualmente, dá lugar a estadias mais longas em assentamentos de mineração. Fatores cruciais, identidificados nesse processo, são a presença de representação do governo e de infra-estrutura material. Em segundo lugar, essa transição de assentamentos de forma irregular e provisória para uma condição mais estável e formalizado não é um processo unilateral. Este processo está tomando forma através da sinergia das iniciativas locais e informais e um governo local e federal, entendido nesta pesquisa no sentido passivo- reativo. Em terceiro lugar, a permanência é em grande medida construída com a manutenção de uma “comunidade garimpeira” através de ligações com centros urbanos regionais.Scholars have been carrying out research into the urbanization of the Brazilian Amazon since the 1960s. This article addresses the role of small-scale gold mining in urbanization, by focusing on local processes in two mining settlements in the Tapajós Mineral Province: Creporizão and Creporizinho. This analysis addresses why mobility and temporary settlement, which are traditional characteristics of small-scale gold mining, are gradually giving way to longer stays in these mining settlements. Over the years, irregular mining settlements have evolved into formalized villages. These settlements attract increasing numbers of families and service providers. This transition from an irregular and provisional settlement to a more stable and formalized one is not a unilateral process, but takes shape through the interaction of local and informal initiatives and passive–reactive local and federal governments. In addition, settlement permanence is to a large extent constructed around the notion of a “garimpeiro community” in which small-scale gold mining lies at the root of a collectively formed identity. In these villages, links with regional urban centers such as Santarém and Itaituba remain strong. In the context of urban development in the region, Creporizão and Creporizinho can still be seen as mining villages, where settlement remains a strategic choice and a stage in the life trajectory of its inhabitants.[Amazon, Brazil, development, geography, migration, urbanization]
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T20:10:21.984517-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12271
       
  • Sinks for the Press: Cholera and the State Performance of Power at the
           Dominican Border
    • Authors: Kyrstin Mallon Andrews
      Abstract: Con el brote de cólera en Haití del 2010, el ejército dominicano restringió la inmigración, medicalizando los cuerpos de inmigrantes haitianos al incorporar las infraestructuras de salud pública al proceso de cruzar la frontera. Este artículo sostiene que la reacción del estado dominicano en la frontera al brote de cólera trataba no con una amenaza real de salud, sino con una actuación con la intención de reforzar diferencias entre los dos países de la Española. Al interpretar reacciones del ejército y de salud pública como actuaciones, sugiero que generó una narrativa estratégica en la cual el caos y la enfermedad haitiana chocaban contra proyecciones de control y salud en la República Dominicana. Al situar la frontera entre discursos de identidad nacional, seguridad de salud, y poder del estado, el estado dominicano restringió la frontera, legitimando la enajenación de los haitianos basada en un criterio de salud y reestructurando fidelidades económicas que se consideraba históricamente como amenazas a los proyectos de identidad nacional.With the outbreak of cholera in Haiti in 2010, the Dominican military's practices of surveillance restricted immigration and medicalized Haitian immigrant bodies by incorporating public health infrastructures into the process of crossing the border. This article argues that the Dominican state's reaction to the cholera outbreak along the border was less concerned with an actual threat than with presenting a performance intended to reinforce perceived national differences between the two countries of Hispaniola. By reading these public health and military reactions as performative, the research suggests a strategic narrative was played out, in which chaos and disease, viewed as Haitian, grate against projections of control and health in the Dominican Republic. By situating the border within discourses of national identity, health security, and state power, the Dominican state restricted border crossing, thus legitimizing the alienation of Haitians based on a criterion of health and the restructuring of economic allegiances that were historically deemed threatening to nation-making projects. [Dominican Republic, health, identity, migration, race]
      PubDate: 2017-06-06T05:40:28.023345-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12287
       
  • Neoliberal Care: Intimacy, Romance, and Drug Use in Argentine Dispossessed
           Populations
    • Authors: Maria Esther Epele
      Abstract: Basado en el estudio etnográfico que he desarrollado por una década en barrios marginalizados de la Región Metropolitana de Buenos Aires, este artículo examina los cambios en los procesos de formación de parejas heterosexuales, el desarrollo de las prácticas localmente categorizadas como “cuidado” y sus relaciones con el consumo de drogas y supervivencia de los usuario/as de drogas. Partiendo de los desarrollos en Antropología y Ciencias Sociales sobre la problemática del cuidado en general, y cuidado de la salud en particular, el objetivo de este artículo es analizar los modos en que la formación de las parejas heterosexuales implica una solución de compromiso entre diversos procesos sociales (aislamiento territorial, vulnerabilidad en salud, encarcelamiento y muerte de jóvenes). A través de la noción de privatización del cuidado, el análisis muestra las consecuencias de estos procesos en la convivencia de estas parejas y en el refuerzo de los estereotipos de género patriarcales.Based on ethnographic research carried out in shantytowns in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires, this article examines changes taking place in the process of the formation of heterosexual couples, the development of practices locally conceived as “care,” and their relationship to drug consumption and the survival of drug users. It shows how this trend in the formation of heterosexual couples entails a compromise among multiple social processes (territorial isolation, health vulnerability, the incarceration, and the death of young people). The analysis demonstrates, through the lens of the privatization of care, the consequences of these processes for these couples. It also shows how such processes reinforce patriarchal gender stereotypes. [Argentina, gender, health, social anthropology, urban]
      PubDate: 2017-06-06T02:51:18.640746-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12261
       
  • Reclaiming Tangible Heritage: Cultural Aesthetics, Materiality, and Ethnic
           Belonging in the Maya Diaspora
    • Authors: Deanna Barenboim
      Abstract: Este artículo trata la materialización del hogar y la herencia en el contexto de la migración indígena de Yucatán, México, a los Estados Unidos. Analizo la manera en que la realidad contemporánea de la migración Maya, junto con el largo legado de desarraigo y de apropiación cultural, forman la manera en que los migrantes interactúan día a día con la cultura material que los rodea. La manipulación por los migrantes indígenas de objetos a los cuales se les asignan propósitos nuevos que enlazan la vida migrante a la cultura del pueblo y a la herencia arqueológica, toma una prominencia y un significado particular en el contexto de la migración transnacional. A través de encuentros táctiles y visuales con objetos re-definidos que funcionan como indicadores de la identidad Maya y la distinción cultural, los migrantes se re-apoderan de la herencia tangible y crean una “estética de herencia” que les permite reclamar custodia de lugar, hogar, y pertenencia. En retrospectiva, los objetos usados en este proceso permiten que el migrante solidifique una identidad indígena étnica emergente que depende de conexiones emocionales con su hogar al igual que con su pasado pre-Hispánico.This article addresses the materiality of home and heritage in the context of indigenous migration between Yucatán, Mexico, and the United States. It analyzes how the contemporary realities of Maya migration, coupled with enduring legacies of dispossession and cultural appropriation, shape migrants’ everyday engagements with material culture. Indigenous migrants’ manipulation of repurposed objects that link migrant life to both pueblo culture and archaeological inheritance has an altered significance in the context of transnational migration. Through tactile and visual engagements with objects (re-)signified as indices of Maya identity and cultural distinction, migrants repossess a tangible heritage and craft a “heritage aesthetics” that affords custodianship of place, home, and belonging. In turn, the objects employed in this process act upon migrants to solidify an emergent indigenous ethnic identity that rests upon sensibilities of connection to both their homeland and a pre-Hispanic past. [ethnicity, identity, indigenous people, Mexico, migration]
      PubDate: 2017-05-31T00:05:24.788832-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12284
       
  • The Demise of Mexican State Nationalism and the Rise of Purhépecha
           Ethnicity: Kurikahueri K'uinchikua and Purhéecherio
    • Authors: Andrew Roth-Seneff
      Abstract: Un tema persistente en la antropología mexicana se ha enfocado en las posibilidades y consecuencias de transiciones nacionales mayores, especialmente dentro de paradigmas de modernización. En las vísperas de las transiciones ‘neoliberales’ mayores en México iniciadas en la década de 1990, tanto Adolfo Gilly como Arturo Warman hicieron hincapié en el potencial innovador de formas históricamente enraizadas de solidaridad rural mexicana para la organización de significantes cambios colectivos productivos desde abajo, libres de la dependencia impuesta desde arriba y asociada con el estado. Mediante un análisis conceptual y la etnografía, este artículo explora esta posibilidad en términos de cultura, identidad y partimonio subalternos, y en relación al ocaso del nacionalismo del estado mexicano y la emergencia de la etnicidad purhépecha en las últimas tres décadas.One persistent theme in Mexican anthropology has been that of the possibilities and consequences of major national transitions, especially within modernization paradigms. In the 1990s, on the eve of the broad “neoliberal” transitions in Mexico, both Adolfo Gilly and Arturo Warman stressed the innovative potential of historically rooted forms of Mexican rural solidarity in organizing meaningful productive collective changes from below, free of the dependency imposed from above and associated with the state. Through conceptual analysis and ethnography, this article explores this possibility in terms of subaltern culture, identity, and patrimony, and in relation to the demise of Mexican state nationalism and the rise of Purhépecha ethnicity during the past three decades. [patrimony, ethnicity, globalization, identity, Mexico]
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T02:02:44.665896-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12252
       
  • “I Have to Feel Something”: Gringo Love in the Sexual Economy of
           Tourism in Natal, Brazil
    • Authors: Marie-Eve Carrier-Moisan
      Abstract: Baseada em pesquisa etnográfica conduzida em Natal, no nordeste brasileiro, eu examino como o amor com homens estrangeiros, que chamo de amor gringo, foi constituído como um reconhecível tropo emocional de mulheres brasileiras jovens, de baixa renda, negras ou miscigenadas. Eu situo o amor gringo dentro da racializada economia política do amor na região, e demonstro que ele não somente provém de padrões históricos de dependência de amor e sexo para construir elos de reciprocidade para avanços econômicos e sociais, como também sinaliza uma mudança em escala e significado nas práticas sexuais inter-raciais. Ao contrário de suposições comuns sobre a alienação associada com o trabalho emocional do amor, “sentir algo” proporciona legitimação para engajar com homens estrangeiros e reflete os próprios projetos de auto-construção das mulheres. Portanto, o amor gringo permite que mulheres se refaçam como sujeitos com mobilidade espacial e vertical, ao mesmo tempo que possibilita perturbar hierarquias locais.Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in Natal, Northeast Brazil, this work examines the ways in which love with foreign men, or what I term gringo love, has come to constitute a recognizable emotional trope among young, low-income, black, or mixed-race Brazilian women. This article situates gringo love within the racialized political economy of love in the region, and shows that while it draws on historical patterns of reliance on love and sex to build ties of reciprocity for economic and social advancement, it also signals a shift in the scale and meanings of interracial sex practices. Contrary to common assumptions about the alienation associated with the emotional labor of love, to “feel something” provides legitimation for engagement with foreign men and reflects women's projects of self-making. Gringo love thus enables women to remake themselves as upwardly and spatially mobile subjects, while also making it possible to disrupt local hierarchies. [Brazil, gender, globalization, sexuality, tourism]
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T01:40:42.41441-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12243
       
  • Getting Out to Get Ahead' Perspectives on Schooling and Social and
           Geographic Mobility in Southern Mexico
    • Authors: Jayne Howell
      Abstract: La educación para la movilidad social aparecen en estudios antropológicos de la urbanización y el desarrollo. La escolarización es constantemente ligado al progreso nacional, el aumento de los ingresos individuales, y una mejor calidad de vida en términos de nutrición, salud, y la alfabetización. México ha alcanzado cerca de la asistencia universal en los grados obligatorias. Sin embargo, el acceso desigual a la educación está determinada pr el nivel socioeconómico, sexo y lugar de residencia (Ornelas 2004). En el estado de Oaxaca, una distribución urbancentric de las escuelas significa que los estudiantes rurales deben “salir” de sus pueblos para “salir adelante.” Esta análisis etnográfico explora las percepciones de los individuos sobre el valor de la educación en un estado notorio por bajos niveles de escolaridad y alfabetización, junto con un mercado laboral saturado. Conclusiones examinan en el contexto global la discordia entre las aspiraciones y el creciente desempleo.Increased schooling is recognized as coalescing with improved standard of living indices (better nutrition and health care, higher earnings, and overall national prosperity) at national levels and with providing individuals with opportunities for upward mobility. Mexico's post-Revolutionary government has made great strides toward increasing schooling levels in the last century, yet a historical pattern of uneven access to schooling shaped by socioeconomic status, gender, and place of residence persists (Ornelas 2004). The concentration of schools in urban areas, and the higher quality of instruction in them disadvantages rural students—and especially those of humilde (modest) origins—who aspire to work in the skilled and professional labor market. Schooling inequality is particularly acute in the largely rural, impoverished state of Oaxaca, where children and young people in thousands of rural communities must “get out” of their villages to attend school and “get ahead.” This ethnographic analysis offers important insights into local perceptions of diminishing returns on schooling in light of decreasing opportunities for skilled employment. It contributes a compelling case study to larger debates regarding the dire consequences of neoliberal policies for global youth. [education, Mexico, urbanization]
      PubDate: 2017-05-17T04:16:33.715019-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12286
       
  • Chino Tico Routes and Repertoires: Cultivating Chineseness and
           Entrepreneurism for a New Era of Trans-Pacific Relations
    • Authors: Monica DeHart
      Abstract: Aunque las comunidades chinas diaspóricas tengan raíces en Centro América desde el siglo diecinueve, la creciente relación contemporánea entre China e América Latina ha asignado un nuevo valor a la cultura china dentro de esta relación. En este ensayo, analizo cómo una nueva generación de costarricenses de descendencia china concibe, practica, y proyecta su identidad étnica para cultivar una ventaja económica dentro de las nuevas iniciativas transpacíficas. Basado en un estudio etnográfico con un grupo de jóvenes ¨Chino Ticos¨ en San José, Costa Rica, trazo las trayectorias y experiencias transnacionales de este grupo con el fin de revelar los cambiantes rutas y repertorios de la identidad china de esta generación y sus implicaciones para las relaciones transpacíficas. En vez de entender la nueva generación de empresario diaspórico chino en Centro América como producto de un esencialismo étnico, enfatizo el papel de relaciones de clase y del estado en configurar las relaciones transpacíficas. [Costa Rica, desarrollo, etnicidad, globalizacion, identidad]Although there has been a Chinese presence in Central America dating back to the nineteenth century, China's now-ascendant global identity and burgeoning relationship with Latin America have given new significance to the forms of Chineseness enacted within Trans-Pacific relations. This article analyzes how a new generation of ethnic Chinese in Latin America conceives, practices, and asserts Chineseness in their efforts to achieve or maintain transnational upward mobility in this new global context. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Costa Rica, it explores how young Chino Ticos (Chinese Costa Ricans) have attempted to “retool” their cultural repertoire in order to embody more contemporary and strategic forms of Chineseness. In doing so, they model complex forms of identity and entrepreneurism that defy discussions of Chinese cultural essence and highlight the important role of class identity and Chinese state diplomacy in the making of Chinese diasporic entrepreneurs in Latin America today. [Costa Rica, development, ethnicity, globalization, identity]
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T04:00:44.341159-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12273
       
  • Remapping the Vertical Archipelago: Mobility, Migration, and the Everyday
           Labor of Andean Development
    • Authors: Eric Hirsch
      Abstract: Este artículo examina los vínculos contemporáneos entre la movilidad y la inmovilidad en la region de Arequipa, en los Andes del sur del Peru. Basado en observación participante y una recopilación etnográfica de “cuentos de movilidad,” un género narrativo en el que se relatan los momentos clave en la vida de las personas con atención a cómo y dónde se mueven, yo conecto los estudios Andinos sobre el “archipiélago vertical”—la idea de que se puede explotar las tierras próximas cuyas alturas varían para lograr la diversificación de recursos—con estudios actuales sobre movilidad, migración, y desarrollo. El artículo analiza los elementos andinos de la movilidad, las personas y las cosas que lo unen, y las vidas que lo configuran. Yo sostengo que la movilidad es una forma de labor que utiliza valores regionales del desarrollo simultáneamente económico y personal, en un espacio que requiere la circulación entre niveles de alturas para generar valor.This article analyzes contemporary relationships between mobility and immobility in the Arequipa region in Peru's Southern Andes. It links scholarship in Andean studies on the “vertical archipelago” model—the idea that proximal land at varying altitudes has been exploited to achieve resource diversity—with current research on the technological and affective dimensions of mobility, migration, and development. I draw on participant observation and an ethnographic corpus of mobility stories—in which people recount the key moments of their life trajectories by chronicling how and where they have moved. This article presents an inquiry into what is specifically Andean about mobility, the people and things it connects, and the lives it configures. I argue that mobility is a form of labor that puts regionally valued notions of simultaneously economic and personal development to work in an Andean space that tasks its users to generate value by moving between elevations. [Andes, anthropology, development, migration, Peru]
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T02:10:27.932145-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12260
       
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 401 - 405
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T00:32:50.511633-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12247
       
  • From the Editor
    • Authors: Linda J. Seligmann
      Pages: 407 - 408
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T00:32:50.617187-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12324
       
  • Introduction: Twenty-First Century Dynamics of Cooperation and Reciprocity
           in the Andes
    • Authors: A. J. Faas
      Pages: 409 - 418
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T01:15:20.621678-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12305
       
  • Volver a Nuestras Raíces: The Reemergence and Adaptation of Traditional
           Forms of Andean Reciprocity
    • Authors: Henry F. Lyle
      Pages: 419 - 437
      Abstract: Este manuscrito es inspirado por la investigación etnográfica del mantenimiento de las instituciones de propiedad común y redes de apoyo social en una pequeña comunidad quechua en el altiplano en el sur de Perú. Campesinos deben instituir los programas de cría y plantar y cultivar cosechas y otros trabajos de mantenimiento. Además de la acción colectiva, la mayoría de las casas tienen su propio jardín y rebaño que requieren el apoyo de otros hogares. El uso de la teoría del capital simbólico y modelos de castigo indirecto, explico cómo formas modificadas de ayni y minga trabajan en conjunto para resolver el problema de parasitismo en una pequeña comunidad de pastores de los Andes. En la exploración de esta intersección convincente de grupo y la cooperación diádica, describiré la acción colectiva y redes de apoyo social en la comunidad, y consideraré sus paralelismos con la reciprocidad andina tradicional. [Andes, ecologia, Peru]This article is inspired by ethnographic research on the maintenance of common property institutions and social support networks among a small Quechua agropastoralist community in the altiplano of southern Peru. Campesinos must come together often in order to institute breeding programs, plant and harvest crops, and so on for the communal herds and gardens. In addition to this collective action, most households have their own garden and herd, which require support from other households. Using symbolic capital theory and models of indirect punishment, I explain how modified forms of ayni and minga work in concert to solve the free riding problem in a small Andean herding community. In exploring this compelling intersection of group and dyadic cooperation, I will describe collective action and support networks in the community, and consider their parallels with traditional Andean reciprocity. [Andes, ecology, Peru]
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T02:02:41.71454-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12283
       
  • “Un Favorzote”: Gender and Reciprocity in the Andes
    • Authors: Mary Elena Wilhoit
      Pages: 438 - 458
      Abstract: En este estudio analizo trabajos recíprocos de mujeres en una comunidad rural en Ayacucho, Perú. Se ha estudiado prácticas formales de reciprocidad durante muchas décadas en los Andes, como fundamental para formación social allí, pero esa literatura se ha centrado en los arreglos convocados para la construcción y producción agrícola. Como consecuencia, la reciprocidad ha sido analizado como fenómeno masculino. Investigación etnográfica con mujeres demuestra que su ayuda mutua en crianza de hijos y otras tareas les permitía entrar a mercados laborales y aprovecharse de programas estatales que buscaban mejorar sus circunstancias, mientras les proveía entornos de apoyo mutuo que muchas habían carecido en el matrimonio. Comprensión de esta forma de reciprocidad es fundamental en Ayacucho, donde el número de madres solteras ha aumentado desde las décadas de guerra. Este estudio presenta un complemento fundamental para descripciones tradicionales de ayni, analizando practicas de mujeres para prosperar en condiciones difíciles. [Andes, clase, género, labor, Perú]This article describes women's reciprocal labor in a rural community in Ayacucho, Peru. While formalized practices of reciprocity have been studied for decades in Andean communities as critical to social formation there, most literature has focused on communal arrangements called upon for construction and agricultural production, meaning that reciprocity has been analyzed as a male-dominated phenomenon. However, ethnographic research with landless, single women demonstrates that their reciprocal work in childrearing and household reproduction tasks enables them to engage in a precarious labor market and take advantage of state efforts to improve their circumstances, while providing a supportive environment that many lacked in marriage. Understanding women's reciprocal work in providing for families is critical in Ayacucho, where the number of single mothers has grown, in part as a result of decades of warfare. This study presents a critical complement to traditional descriptions of ayni, analyzing Andean women's uses of reciprocal practices to thrive under difficult conditions. [Andes, class, gender, labor, Peru]
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T04:19:56.3818-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12288
       
  • Ayni Unbounded: Cooperation, Inequality, and Migration in the Peruvian
           Andes
    • Authors: Karsten Paerregaard
      Pages: 459 - 474
      Abstract: Convencionalmente, los antropólogos han estudiado ayni como una práctica de igualdad. Este artículo examina la cooperación andina como una gramática de reciprocidad que encubre tanto una ideología de igualdad como una práctica de diferencia. Analizando datos de trabajo de campo en una comunidad andina y su colonia de migrantes en los EE.UU. el artículo investiga las relaciones de ayni que los migrantes transnacionales utilizan para patrocinar las fiestas de su comunidad de origen y la estructura de poder en las cuales estas relaciones son incrustadas. Sostiene que cuando los migrantes demuestran su riqueza y competen para ganar prestigio en la fiesta revelan la desigualdad de ayni. Sugiere que a diferencia de la reciprocidad presentada en las etnografías andinas la cooperación entre migrantes es exclusiva y refuerza las relaciones de dominancia. Concluye que futuros estudios tienen que examinar el contexto económico y político en la cual ayni se envuelve.Conventionally, anthropologists have described ayni as an egalitarian practice of cooperation in Andean communities. This article examines the anthropological literature on ayni and investigates Andean cooperation as a grammar of reciprocity that glosses over both an ideology of equality and a practice of difference. Reviewing field data from an Andean community and its migrant colony in the United States, this work scrutinizes the ayni relations that transnational migrants draw on to sponsor community fiestas, and interrogates the power structures in which these relations are embedded. It argues that, when displaying their wealth and competing to gain prestige in the fiesta, migrants disclose the inequality of ayni. The research suggests that unlike the reciprocity described in Andean ethnographies, migrant cooperation is exclusive and reinforces existing relations of dominance. It concludes that future studies of ayni need to examine the changing economic and political context in which Andean cooperation evolves. [Andes, ayni, cooperation, migration, Peru, power, reciprocity]
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T05:10:42.42806-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12285
       
  • Ayni Real and Imagined: Reciprocity, Indigenous Institutions, and
           Development Discourses in Contemporary Bolivia
    • Authors: Amber Wutich; Melissa Beresford, Cinthia Carvajal
      Pages: 475 - 494
      Abstract: Durante la última década hubo un cambio muy grande en las políticas bolivianas, demarcado por el rechazo a los gobiernos neoliberales y un incremento del activismo indígena. Ayni (“reciprocidad,” quechua) representa nuevas posibilidades para un naciente orden económico. Exploramos el papel que las ONGs tienen en la promoción del ayni como una forma alternativa de desarrollo. Extrayendo de un análisis histórico de ayni, examinamos encuentros y desencuentros entre la retórica en ayni utilizada por ONGs y la realidad de la reciprocidad practicada en comunidades. Encontramos que los discursos de las ONGs sobre ayni, primero, amplían y debilitan el concepto, y segundo, re-conciben ayni en formas más compatibles con practicas nuevas de reciprocidad vinculadas a la comercialización y reevangelización. Concluimos que ayni ayuda a las ONGs a encontrar un balance entre diferentes corrientes de cambio social–económico, político y religioso–que han cambiado profundamente a Bolivia en los últimos 30 años.The last decade has seen a major shift in Bolivian politics, marked by a rejection of neoliberal governance and the ascendency of indigenous activism. Ayni (Quechua, “reciprocity”) has come to represent new possibilities for Bolivia's nascent socioeconomic order. We explore the role that NGOs play in the promotion of ayni as an alternative model of development. Drawing on historical analysis of ayni, this article compares NGO's ayni rhetoric and reciprocity as practiced in communities. We find, first, that NGO discourses around ayni both broaden and weaken the concept and, second, that they reenvision ayni in ways that are more compatible with new reciprocal practices linked to commercialization and evangelization occurring in these communities. We conclude that ayni, as reenvisioned in development discourses, helps NGOs strike a balance among the different currents of social change—economic, political, and religious—that have so profoundly changed Bolivia over the last thirty years. [alternative development, alternative economies, Andes, Bolivia, development, reciprocity, social anthropology]
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T04:25:48.19689-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12292
       
  • Reciprocity and Vernacular Statecraft: Andean Cooperation in Post-disaster
           Highland Ecuador
    • Authors: A. J. Faas
      Pages: 495 - 513
      Abstract: Obreros cooperativos conocidos en toda la región andina como mingas, aunque exteriormente aparecen como la misma institución cultural, se practican de manera muy diferente y con distintos significados en diferentes contextos. Este estudio analiza cómo la cooperación minga llegó a exhibir patrones contrastantes, pero íntimamente relacionados, de prácticas y relaciones sociales, tanto en un pueblo afectado y desplazado por un desastre y un reasentamiento inducido por el desastre. Describo cómo los actores en estos diferentes grupos apelan a repertorios aparentemente comunes de significado y la cultura compartida, mientras se organizan de distintas maneras con el fin de acceder y controlar los recursos escasos. En un pueblo, la participación minga se sustenta en gran medida a través de las prácticas tradicionales de reciprocidad, mientras que en el otro se sostienen a través de nuevas estrategias institucionales. En el primero, se movilizan mingas para competir con otros pueblos de escasos recursos, mientras que en la segunda minga participantes compiten entre sí dentro del reasentamiento.Cooperative labor parties known throughout the Andes as mingas, although outwardly appearing to be the same cultural institution, are practiced quite differently and with varying meanings in different socioeconomic contexts. This article discusses how minga cooperation came to exhibit contrasting, yet intimately related, patterns of practice and social relationships in both a displaced, disaster-affected village and a disaster-induced resettlement. It describes actors in these groups appealing to ostensibly common repertoires of shared meaning and culture, while organizing themselves in distinct ways in order to access and control scarce resources. In one village, minga participation is largely sustained through traditional practices of reciprocity, while in the other they are maintained through new institutional strategies. In the former, mingas are mobilized to compete with other villages for scarce resources; in the latter, minga participants compete with one another. [Andes, disaster, Ecuador, labor, mingas, reciprocity, state]
      PubDate: 2017-06-05T21:05:23.647348-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12272
       
  • Theorizing Reciprocity: Andean Cooperation and the Reproduction of
           Community in Highland Bolivia
    • Authors: Marygold Walsh-Dilley
      Pages: 514 - 535
      Abstract: Los estudios andinos han sido cuajado, en gran parte, por la noción compartida de la reciprocidad como un elemento central de la cultura indígena andina, y la reciprocidad (ayni) continúa ser tanto como una práctica activa de las comunidades andinas y una forma idealizada en los movimientos políticos contemporáneos. Sin embargo, los usos de ayni en los discursos politicos contemporáneos han sido criticadas fuertemente como esencialista, estático y anticuado. En este trabajo, se propone una nueva teorización de la reciprocidad andina como una práctica económica-moral-simbólico que se reproduce socialmente a través de las prácticas cotidiana. Re-imaginando la reciprocidad de esta manera nos permite ver cómo la reciprocidad andina es una forma de interración dinámica y cambiante que sirve los propósitos éticos, simbólicos y económicos, y por lo tanto evita tratar la reciprocidad andina como un artefacto tradicional. Basándose en extenso trabajo de campo etnográfico en tres comunidades del altiplano boliviano, este trabajo propone que la interacción recíproca constituye un sitio importante donde las comunidades andinas sean reproducido.Andean Studies cohered, in large part, around the shared notion of reciprocity as a central element of indigenous Andean culture, and reciprocity (ayni) continues both as an active practice among Andean communities and an idealized form of human interaction that is called upon in political and other movements. However, the uses of ayni in contemporary political discourses have been critiqued as essentializing and antiquated. This article proposes a re-theorization of reciprocity as a moral–symbolic economic practice that is socially reproduced through the material practices of everyday life. Reimagining reciprocity in this way frames cooperative practices within the Andes as dynamic and shifting forms of interaction that serve ethical, symbolic, and economic purposes, and thereby avoids treating Andean reciprocity as a traditional artifact. Drawing upon ethnographic fieldwork in three highland Bolivian communities, this work finds that reciprocal interaction forms an important site in which Andean communities are reproduced. [agriculture, Andes, Bolivia, ethnicity, theory]
      PubDate: 2017-06-12T22:05:34.376122-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12265
       
  • Inside a Uniform Imaginary: Gender, Politics, and Aesthetics in Peruvian
           Technical Education
    • Authors: Sydney M. Silverstein
      Pages: 578 - 597
      Abstract: Este artículo explora el surgimiento de los Institutos Superiores Tecnológicos (ISTs) en la ciudad amazónica de Tarapoto, Perú, centrándose en su atractivo para mujeres jóvenes. En Perú, el surgimiento de la escuela tecnológica privada llega en una coyuntura histórica con la disminución de un violento conflicto social, seguido por las reformas neoliberales que han reducido drásticamente la financiación de las universidades públicas -y especialmente sus programas en las humanidades y las ciencias sociales. Sin embargo, la dramática representación de las mujeres jóvenes matriculados en los ISTs de Tarapoto—de las cuales son las primeras en sus familias en asistir postsecundaria, o incluso secundario– plantea importantes cuestiones sobre el tipo de esperanzas, posibilidades y experiencias que complementan el plan de estudios técnicos en las aulas de los ISTs.This article explores the rise of private, postsecondary technical schools (ISTs) in the rapidly expanding Amazonian city of Tarapoto, Peru, and particularly their appeal for young women. In Peru, the rise of the for-profit technical school comes at a historical conjuncture with the decline of a violent social conflict, followed by neoliberal reforms that have dramatically cut funding for public universities—and particularly programs in the humanities and social sciences. However, the dramatic overrepresentation of young women enrolled in Tarapoto's private ISTs—many of whom are the first in their families to attend postsecondary, or even secondary school—raises important questions about the sorts of hopes, potentials, and experiences that supplement the technical curriculum in the IST classroom. [Amazonia, education, gender, Peru]
      PubDate: 2017-06-20T02:10:42.752363-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12256
       
  • Violence and Desire in Brazilian Lesbian Relationships. Andrea
           Stevenson Allen, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015. 243 pp.
    • Authors: Richard Parker
      Pages: 598 - 600
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T00:32:47.786741-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12311
       
  • Electric Santería: Racial and Sexual Assemblages of Transnational
           Religion. Aisha Beliso-De Jesús, New York: Columbia University Press,
           2015. 282 pp.
    • Authors: Salvador Vidal-Ortiz
      Pages: 600 - 603
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T00:32:46.3549-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12312
       
  • In This Body: Kaqchikel Maya and the Grounding of Spirit. Servando
           Z. Hinojosa, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2015. 249pp.
    • Authors: Edward F. Fischer
      Pages: 603 - 604
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T00:32:46.804996-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12313
       
  • The Myth of Indigenous Caribbean Extinction. Tony Castanha, New York:
           Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. 177 pp.
    • Authors: James Seale-Collazo
      Pages: 605 - 606
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T00:32:49.031643-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12314
       
  • Upper Perené Arawak Narratives of History, Landscape, and Ritual.
           Elena Mihas, with Gregorio Santos Pérez and Delia Rosas Rodríguez,
           Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 2014. 402 pp.
    • Authors: Zachary O'Hagan
      Pages: 607 - 609
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T00:32:49.966654-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12315
       
  • Mobile Selves: Race, Migration, and Belonging in Peru and the United
           States. Ulla D. Berg, New York: NYU Press, 2015. 303 pp.
    • Authors: Ann Miles
      Pages: 609 - 610
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T00:32:50.062301-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12316
       
  • Tourist Attractions: Performing Race and Masculinity in Brazil's Sexual
           Economy. Gregory Mitchell, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015.
           224 pp.
    • Authors: Andrea S. Allen
      Pages: 610 - 612
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T00:32:46.228985-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12317
       
  • U.S. Military Bases and Antimilitary Organizing: An Ethnography of an Air
           Force Base in Ecuador. Erin Fitz-Henry, New York: Palgrave MacMillan,
           2015. 231 pp.
    • Authors: Daniel Bauer
      Pages: 613 - 614
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T00:32:47.912686-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12318
       
  • Cooking Technology: Transformations in Culinary Practice in Mexico and
           Latin America. Steffan Igor Ayora-Diaz, ed., London: Bloomsbury Academic,
           2016. 196 pp.
    • Authors: Rachel Newcomb
      Pages: 615 - 617
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T00:32:47.821263-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12319
       
  • Savage Frontier: Making News and Security on the Argentine Border.
           Ieva Jusionyte, Oakland, CA: University of California Press, 2015. 286
           pp.
    • Authors: Natasha Zaretsky
      Pages: 617 - 619
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T00:32:50.990512-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12320
       
  • Remixing Reggaetón: The Cultural Politics of Race in Puerto Rico. Petra
           R. Rivera-Rideau, Durham: Duke University Press, 2015. 240 pp.
    • Authors: Anton Kociolek
      Pages: 619 - 622
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T00:32:50.700101-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jlca.12321
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 54.226.55.151
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-