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Journal Cover Journal of Coatings Technology and Research
  [SJR: 0.425]   [H-I: 25]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1547-0091 - ISSN (Online) 1935-3804
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Synthesis and characterization of novel renewable castor oil-based
           UV-curable polyfunctional polyurethane acrylate
    • Authors: Yun Hu; Chengguo Liu; Qianqian Shang; Yonghong Zhou
      Pages: 77 - 85
      Abstract: In recent years, a lot of interest has been given to renewable resources for their environmental friendliness and potential biodegradability in the synthesis of urethane-derived polymers. In this work, UV-curable castor oil-based polyfunctional polyurethane acrylate (COPUA) was prepared by the reaction of isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) with castor oil and pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA). The structures and molecular weights of the targeted IPDI–PETA and COPUA were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, and GPC, respectively. In addition, the effect of reactive diluent content on damping properties, thermal stabilities, and mechanical properties of COPUA was characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and universal test machine. DMA revealed the copolymers had a glass transition temperature (T g) from 31.81 to 48.09°C. TGA showed that thermal initial decomposition temperatures were above 344.5°C, indicating the copolymers had certain thermal stability. Finally, some physical properties of curing films were studied by the contact angle and water absorption, and the results showed that the coatings exhibited good hydrophobicity. The COPUA obtained from castor oil can be used as eco-friendly materials and other applications alternative to the use of other petrochemicals in coatings.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11998-017-9948-z
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2018)
  • Bioinspired metal–polymer thin films with varying hydrophobic
    • Authors: J. Rao; S. S. Anjum; M. Craig; J. R. Nicholls
      Pages: 87 - 94
      Abstract: Nanocomposites involve the inclusion of one material into the layers of another material at a nanoscale level. Inspired by nature, nanocomposites material systems offer functionalities over their bulk forms which in some cases have evolved over millions of years. Here, thin film coatings have been fabricated by PVD sputtering, comprising a soft PTFE phase which is combined with a hard metallic NiTi phase. A series of coatings with PTFE ranging from 10 to 75 vol% have been prepared, and their surface energies and microstructures investigated. The surface energy of the nanocomposite films changes with the PTFE content, falling in the range between PTFE and NiTi with water contact angles between 80° and 102° for a thin film with 25 and 75 vol% of PTFE, respectively. Here, both TEM and EDX reveal PTFE forming along NiTi column boundaries. Coatings with PTFE content greater than 50 vol% failed due to a build-up of intrinsic stress. The degree of hybridization between NiTi and PTFE was found to be dependent on the PTFE layer thickness. SEM analysis of this coating reveals PTFE at the surface embedded within the NiTi matrix.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11998-017-9953-2
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2018)
  • Synthesis of core–shell-type styrene acrylic latexes with low NMA
           content and their application in pigment printing pastes
    • Authors: Mesut Eren; Gökhan Akbulut; Sanem Senler; Burçak Karagüzel Kayaoğlu
      Pages: 121 - 129
      Abstract: In this paper, novel core–shell polymers comprising styrene (St) and butyl acrylate (BA) in both core and shell layers of the polymer particles have been synthesized and employed in pigment printing pastes which were applied on 100% cotton and 65% cotton/35% polyester (PET) fabrics. The aim was to reduce the NMA content and the formation of free formaldehyde from pigment printing pastes by employing newly synthesized core-/shell-type polymers. After five washing cycles, the synthesized core-/shell-type polymer including 1% NMA in the core and 1% NMA in the shell with T g values +30°C and −20°C, respectively, with lowest total NMA content (1.03%) yielded the best result and showed closest ΔE values to the commercially available polymer including 4% NMA. Dry and wet rubbing fastness results showed no significant changes in the absence of NMA when compared with NMA containing samples. The penetration degree of the pigment pastes of the corresponding polymers was relatively higher on 100% cotton fabric for both red- and blue-colored pigments. A negligible decrease in color strength has been observed for all polymers when colored in red.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11998-017-9955-0
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2018)
  • Study of ionic/nonionic polyurethane dispersions with high solid content
           and low viscosity using a complex hydrophilic chain-extending agent
    • Authors: Faxing Zhang; Xiaoli Wei
      Pages: 141 - 148
      Abstract: An ionic/nonionic polyurethane dispersion with high solid content and low viscosity with a complex hydrophilic chain-extending agent was prepared using isophorone diisocyanate as a hard segment and propylene oxide glycol as a soft segment. The complex hydrophilic chain-extending agent consisted of DPSA and BDSA. The effects of the molar ratio of DPSA/BDSA on the properties of the resultant polyurethane dispersions were studied. The morphologies and properties of the ionic/nonionic PU dispersions were examined using particle-size, TEM, and viscosity analyses. It was found that the ionic/nonionic dispersions possessed wide particle-size distributions due to the addition of the complex hydrophilic chain-extending agent. The ionic/nonionic PU dispersions possessed higher solid content than conventional WPU dispersions because the number and volume percentage of the large particles and small particles of the ionic/nonionic dispersions met the requirements for high solid content. It was observed that the solid content of the ionic/nonionic dispersion increased and then decreased with an increasing molar ratio of DPSA/BDSA. When the ratio ranged from 4:10 to 5:10, the solid content of the ionic/nonionic PU dispersion reached up to 55%. It was also noticed that the apparent viscosity of the ionic/nonionic polyurethane dispersion decreased with an increasing molar ratio of DPSA/BDSA. The complex hydrophilic chain-extending agent consisting of DPSA and BDSA enhanced the solid content and decreased the viscosity of the ionic/nonionic dispersions, which are very important for improving the properties and expanding the applications of PU dispersions. In addition, the ionic/nonionic polyurethane dispersion had good electrolyte-resistance properties, stability at both high and low temperatures, and storage stability.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11998-017-9965-y
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2018)
  • Fabrication of thermally stable porous films from a cured epoxy resin via
           the Breath Figures process
    • Authors: Mikhail A. Soldatov; Maria S. Parshina; Veronika V. Makarova; Olga A. Serenko; Aziz M. Muzafarov
      Pages: 159 - 164
      Abstract: In the current work, porous films based on epoxy resin have been obtained via the Breath Figures method. It was shown that the use of a low-temperature curing agent and fluoro-containing organosilicon copolymer, compatible with epoxy resin, makes it possible to obtain porous, thermostable, highly hydrophobic coatings with a pore diameter of 3–4 µm. When the epoxy resin/copolymer mixture is homogenous, the modifier prevents water droplet coalescence; otherwise, the mixture becomes heterogeneous, and the positive influence of the modifier is lost. The obtained modified porous films are highly hydrophobic and maintain their porous structure until polymer devitrification occurs. The simplicity of the Breath Figures method shows great potential for the manufacture of water-repellent paint coatings based on epoxy resin for use in a variety of applications.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11998-017-9968-8
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2018)
  • Characteristics of nFOG, an aerosol-based wet thin film coating technique
    • Authors: Juha Harra; Mikko Tuominen; Paxton Juuti; Jenny Rissler; Heli Koivuluoto; Janne Haapanen; Henna Niemelä-Anttonen; Christian Stenroos; Hannu Teisala; Johanna Lahti; Jurkka Kuusipalo; Petri Vuoristo; Jyrki M. Mäkelä
      Abstract: An atmospheric pressure aerosol-based wet thin film coating technique called the nFOG is characterized and applied in polymer film coatings. In the nFOG, a fog of droplets is formed by two air-assist atomizers oriented toward each other inside a deposition chamber. The droplets settle gravitationally and deposit on a substrate, forming a wet film. In this study, the continuous deposition mode of the nFOG is explored. We determined the size distribution of water droplets inside the chamber in a wide side range of 0.1–100 µm and on the substrate using aerosol measurement instruments and optical microscopy, respectively. The droplet size distribution was found to be bimodal with droplets of approximately 30–50 µm contributing the most to the mass of the formed wet film. The complementary measurement methods allow us to estimate the role of different droplet deposition mechanisms. The obtained results suggest that the deposition velocity of the droplets is lower than the calculated terminal settling velocity, likely due to the flow fields inside the chamber. Furthermore, the mass flux of the droplets onto the substrate is determined to be in the order of 1 g/m3s, corresponding to a wet film growth rate of 1 µm/s. Finally, the nFOG technique is demonstrated by preparing polymer films with thicknesses in the range of approximately 0.1–20 µm.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11998-017-0022-7
  • Effect of artificial weathering and temperature cycling on the performance
           of coating systems used for wooden windows
    • Authors: Eliška Oberhofnerová; Štěpán Hýsek; Miloš Pánek; Martin Böhm
      Abstract: The effects of ultraviolet light irradiation and water spray and temperature cycling on the color stability of waterborne coating systems on spruce were investigated. The test samples were treated with three coating systems (white and brown pigmented acrylate waterborne coatings systems with different layering) from six producers. The artificial weathering was carried out based on standardized (504 h) and increased weathering parameters (504 h). Thirty cycles of temperature changes were performed. Discoloration suggesting the rate of degradation process and color stability was measured by a spectrophotometer in L*a*b* color space. The results showed greater color stability of white coating systems during both experiments. The producer of acrylate coatings with iodopropynyl butyl carbamate and permethrin as biocides and benzotriazole, silicon dioxide and methylsiloxane as additives was characterized by the best coatings performance. The most sensitive color parameter to describe the surface quality as a result of irradiation and water spray has proven to be a change of lightness. A tendency towards degradation with increasing lightness was observed during weathering. The effect of temperature itself on color change was minimal. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy revealed microscopic changes of coatings caused by artificial weathering.
      PubDate: 2018-01-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11998-017-0033-4
  • Facile preparation and good performance of nano-Ag/metallocene
           polyethylene antibacterial coatings
    • Authors: Lin Li; Yunli Wang; Yingchun Zhu
      Abstract: Metallocene polyethylene/nano-silver coatings were prepared by a facile air-spray method on polymer films. Different from the prevailing strategy to endow polyethylene with antibacterial performance, we used metallocene polyethylene sol and nano-silver as a precursor to deposit coatings on polymers at a relatively low operating temperature. Antibacterial coatings with excellent mechanical properties, water resistance, and low silver release were achieved. The composite coatings were examined in terms of surface characteristics, mechanical properties, and antibacterial activity against two representative bacterial strains including Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The composite coatings exhibited favorable microstructure, good mechanical properties, and suitable crystallinity. The antimicrobial tests indicated that the fabricated composite coatings showed promising antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus. Furthermore, Ag ions released by the composite coating after 30 days were under 1.2 ppb. These results indicated a promising prospect of the composite coating for wide antibacterial applications.
      PubDate: 2018-01-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s11998-017-0019-2
  • Preparation in presence of urushiol and properties of acrylate latex with
           interparticle bridges
    • Authors: Jianhong Yang; Qin Shen; Fengqin Shen; Jun Cai; Wanghui Liu; Ming Zhou
      Abstract: Acrylate latices were prepared by seeded emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and butyl acrylate (BA) in presence of urushiol with multifunctional groups (0–6 wt%). The emulsion polymerization was strongly influenced by the urushiol content. With increasing urushiol content, the conversion rate of the monomers first increased then decreased, the stability of emulsion polymerization gradually declined, the average particle size of the latex increased from 115.9 to 175.3 nm, and a change from mono- to bimodal particle size distribution occurred. Interestingly, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that some particles were connected by linear bridges in presence of urushiol. Based on results of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, such formation of interparticle bridges is due to participation of urushiol in the emulsion polymerization of the acrylate monomers. The content of urushiol also affected the properties of latex films. With increasing urushiol content from 0 to 3 wt%, the adhesion, pencil hardness, and contact angle were markedly improved from grade 6 to grade 2, from B to 3H, and from 22° to 61°, respectively, due to formation of interparticle bridges. When the content of urushiol exceeded 3 wt%, the adhesion and pencil hardness remained unchanged, but the water contact angle markedly declined because of higher surface roughness of the latex film. Furthermore, addition of urushiol enhanced the thermal stability of the latex films.
      PubDate: 2018-01-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s11998-017-0023-6
  • Preparation, characterizations, and antibacterial properties of Cu/SnO 2
           nanocomposite bilayer coatings
    • Authors: Takuya Fukumura; Ekambaram Sambandan; Hiromi Yamashita
      Abstract: A nano-bilayer structure consisting of copper and SnO2 nanocomposites was prepared by a magnetron sputtering method. A nano-SnO2 thin layer with a thickness of 52 nm was achieved on quartz glass. A nano-copper layer was then deposited on top of the SnO2 thin layer by the sputtering method. The thickness of the nano-copper layer was approximately 7 nm, such that the SnO2 layer was not only completely covered by the copper layer but it also resulted in transparent bilayer films. Post-annealing was carried out at 400°C in air for 1 h to obtain a crystalline SnO2 phase and simultaneously the copper layer was oxidized to CuO. Sputtered nanocomposites of CuO/SnO2 bilayer films showed a synergistic effect toward E. coli inactivation under indoor light exposure. A possible mechanism for the synergistic effect with respect to the antibacterial properties of CuO/SnO2 bilayer nanocomposites has been proposed. Incorporating CuO onto the SnO2 layer achieves photocatalyst works under indoor light and provides an antimicrobial function even under a dark environment by the antimicrobial property of CuO itself. Reported CuO/SnO2 sputter coating can be useful to apply, for instance, to electric devices such as touch panel displays in a hospital in order to reduce hospital-acquired infections (HAIs).
      PubDate: 2018-01-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11998-017-0017-4
  • Absorption and release of coating solvents by a thermoplastic polyolefin
           and effects on mechanical properties
    • Authors: Fabian Schuster; Thomas Razniewski; Guido-Thorsten Wilke
      Abstract: This study treats the transport of solvents in a thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO) and influence on mechanical bulk properties. The selected substrate and solvents represent materials used in coatings on plastics. The swelling of TPO was found to depend on the temperature and, in accordance with Hansen’s concept of solubility, revealing the following order of swelling power for solvent types: aromatic hydrocarbons ≫ esters > alcohols. Absorption of TPO by the solvent xylene at 20 and 80°C allowed for the calculation of a diffusion coefficient. Complete release of xylene was found to last several months. Recovered TPO samples were of slightly lower weight, reduced E-modulus and tensile strength compared to the original state.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11998-017-0013-8
  • Ultra-repellency of Al surfaces: design and evaluation
    • Authors: Y. Zhu; Y. M. Hu; L. Ma; H.-Y. Nie; W. M. Lau
      Abstract: Aluminum (Al) surfaces with ultra-repellency as well as desirable robustness were designed and fabricated. With photolithographic patterning of a thick SU-8 layer and sputtering of a thin Al film, re-entrant micro-pillar textured Al surfaces were prepared. After derivatization with perfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid (FPA), the textured Al surfaces showed ultra-repellency for a wide variety of liquids. The contact angles (CAs) of deionized (DI) water, hexadecane and dodecane were larger than 150°, and those of methanol and ethanol were larger than 100°. The sliding angles (SAs) of DI water, hexadecane and dodecane were 5°, 10°, and 10°, respectively, showing excellent superamphiphobicity. The SAs of methanol and ethanol were in the range of 20°–30°. The robustness of the ultra-repellent Al surface was evaluated by three parameters: robust height (H*), robust angle (T*) and robust factor (A*). For the DI water probing, the values of the parameters are H* ≈ 403, T* ≈ 119 and A* ≈ 92, respectively, indicative of a desirable robustness. We clarified that only re-entrant structures can support composite liquid–solid–vapor interfaces when the corresponding Young’s CAs are smaller than 90°, and the function of the nanometer structures of the hierarchical textures which were widely adopted to fabricate superamphiphobic surfaces is to help construct re-entrant structures. FPA derivatization is effective in lowering the surface energy of Al surfaces, combining with re-entrant textures to provide a simple and high throughput approach to ultra-repellency for a wide variety of liquids.
      PubDate: 2018-01-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11998-017-0012-9
  • Synthesis and characterization of solvent-free hybrid alkyd resin with
           hyperbranched melamine core
    • Authors: Güngör Gündüz; Nagehan Keskin; Üner Çolak; Bora Mavis
      Abstract: In this study, a new hybrid alkyd resin was formulated using melamine-based hyperbranched polymer having 24 hydroxyl groups on its structure and relatively low molecular weight alkyd. The alkyd was synthesized using an oil mixture (40% linseed + 60% sunflower). Melamine was used as the core molecule for the hyperbranched polymer due to its excellent properties such as greater hardness, alkali and solvent resistance, and thermal stability. Melamine was first hydroxylated using formaldehyde and changed into hexamethylol melamine. This product was then twice hydroxylated with dimethylol propionic acid to obtain a hyperbranched polymer with 24 hydroxyl end groups. It was then reacted with low molecular weight alkyd resin at different proportions. The product had a low viscosity and could easily flow like oil. It is a solvent-free and water-free liquid. The ‘hyperbranched polymer/alkyd’ ratio affected physical properties of the liquid polymer and also the mechanical properties of the hardened polymer, which can be used for surface coating. The viscosity of the liquid resin decreases from 148 to 8.84 Pa.s as the hyperbranched-polymer-to-alkyd ratio is decreased from 1:3 to 1:24. On the other hand, the hardness of heat-treated resin decreases from 198 Persoz to 43 Persoz, respectively. That is, the increase in the amount of hyperbranched polymer in the resin increases hardness, whereas the increase in the amount of alkyd decreases it. The mechanical tests of hardened resins showed that all specimens passed conical mandrel bending test, and they all depicted high adhesion, and high abrasion and impact resistance. The specimens also had excellent gloss properties.
      PubDate: 2018-01-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11998-017-0031-6
  • Atomic force microscopy analysis of cathodic arc ion-plated CrN and CrC
    • Authors: Kong Dejun; Zhu Shouyu
      Abstract: Coatings of CrN and CrC were deposited on a YT14 cemented carbide cutting tool using cathodic arc ion plating (CAIP). The surface and interface morphologies of the as-obtained CrN and CrC coatings were analyzed using a field emission scanning electron microscope. The heights, particle diameters and power spectral densities of CrN and CrC coatings were analyzed using atomic force microscopy and the correlated parameters of roughness were obtained. The results show that the roughness of the CrN and CrC coatings is 81.7 × 10−3 and 70.2 × 10−3 nm, respectively, and CAIP has little effect on the CrN and CrC coating roughness. The height of the peak values of CrN and CrC coatings is 0.498 and 0.502 nm, respectively, and the reduction friction of the CrN coating was slightly better than that of the CrC coating. The average particle diameter of the CrN and CrC coatings is 6.575 × 102 and 7.678 × 102 nm, respectively, and the particles are uniformly distributed with no large-scale fluctuations. The power between the cursors of the CrN and CrC coatings is 1.44 × 10−2 and 9 × 10−3 nm2, respectively, with the power spectral density of the CrN coating being the dominant frequency.
      PubDate: 2018-01-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11998-017-0034-3
  • Self-healing hybrid coating of phytic acid/silane for improving the
           corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy
    • Authors: Yan Li; Shu Cai; Sibo Shen; Guohua Xu; Feiyang Zhang; Fengwu Wang
      Abstract: In order to improve the corrosion resistance of a biodegradable magnesium alloy, a series of phytic acid/3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (γ-APS) hybrid coatings was prepared on AZ31 magnesium alloys by dipping the magnesium alloy into the mixing solution of phytic acid and γ-APS. During the preparation of hybrid coatings, the pH values of the mixing solutions greatly affected the uniformity of the coatings and subsequently influenced their corrosion resistance. Electrochemical tests indicated that the hybrid coating prepared in the solution of pH = 8.0 could highly improve corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloys. Meanwhile, corrosion current density of the hybrid coating coated sample was significantly decreased from the uncoated sample of 138.1 ± 11.9 to 8.5 ± 0.8 μA cm−2. Immersion test in simulated body fluid revealed that the cracks on the surface of the hybrid coating gradually healed up during the lengthy immersion.
      PubDate: 2018-01-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11998-017-0014-7
  • Fire-proof silicate coatings with magnesium-containing fire retardant
    • Authors: O. Kazmina; E. Lebedeva; N. Mitina; A. Kuzmenko
      Abstract: A formula for an environmentally friendly and safe fire-proof paint was developed based on a potassium silicate aqueous solution with addition of a magnesium-containing fire retardant. The predominant use in paint of magnesium-containing fire retardant such as hydromagnesite compared to brucite and magnesite was demonstrated. It was established that a paint containing 5.5 wt% of hydromagnesite provides the first group of fire resistance for a wooden surface. The high fire resistance of the paint with this formula is proven by the high intumescence ratio (150%) and low weight losses (8.4%) after tests in a ceramic tube. When the paint is heated, a gradual loss of weight is detected, which is related to the characteristics of the hydromagnesite structure and helps to obtain an effectively foamed protective layer that prevents the diffusion of combustible gases and flame.
      PubDate: 2018-01-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11998-017-0010-y
  • Structure and surface properties of a novel bulk-matte waterborne
           polyurethane coating composite
    • Authors: Qiwen Yong; Bing Liao; Guo Ying; Liang Caizhen; Hao Huang; Hao Pang
      Abstract: This paper reports on a novel self-matte or bulk-matte waterborne polyurethane coating composite with inherently extremely low gloss. The coating composite was comprised of a siloxane-containing waterborne polyurethane (SPU) resin and a crosslinked waterborne polyurethane (CPU) resin. The CPU resin was mainly responsible for fabricating the micro-rough surface of the film, which was achieved by a crosslinking reaction between the waterborne polyurethane and bisphenol A-type epoxy E-44 resin. The SPU resin was used to improve the comprehensive properties of the film, which was ascribed to the addition of silane coupling agent KH792. Compared with traditional matte coatings, this coating composite made it possible to avoid high loadings of matting agent and to arrive at highly flexible low-gloss finishes. Gloss levels of as low as a few tenths of a percent, even at high incidence angles, have been achieved with zero loading of extraneous dulling agent. The chemical structures of the SPU and CPU resins were characterized by FTIR-ATR and NMR spectra. The micro-rough topographies and surface rough degrees of the SPU, CPU and their 50%/50% composite films were measured by SEM and MSP, respectively. The particle sizes and particle morphologies of the SPU and CPU resins were imaged by TEM. Finally, the comprehensive properties of the SPU, CPU and their 50%/50% composite resins were evaluated, including the water contact angle, film transparency, tensile strength and storage stability.
      PubDate: 2018-01-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11998-017-0030-7
  • Fabrication of UV-curable waterborne fluorinated polyurethane-acrylate and
           its application for simulated iron cultural relic protection
    • Authors: Jicheng Xu; Yan Jiang; Tao Zhang; Yuting Dai; Dongya Yang; Fengxian Qiu; Zongping Yu; Pengfei Yang
      Abstract: In this study, UV-curable waterborne fluorinated polyurethane-acrylate (UV-WFPUA) coatings were investigated to evaluate their potential application for protecting iron cultural relics. A series of UV-WFPUA materials were synthesized with different contents of hexafluorobutyl methacrylate (HFBMA) and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. When the content of HFBMA was 10%, the UV-WFPUA-3 material exhibited good mechanical properties and excellent hydrophobicity. The iron sheet was selected to simulate an iron artifact sample in this study. The obtained results indicated that the prepared UV-WFPUA material could provide excellent protective properties for simulated iron artifacts.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11998-017-0009-4
  • Sucrose octaesters as reactive diluents for alkyd coatings
    • Authors: Andriy Popadyuk; Austin Breuer; James Bahr; Ihor Tarnavchyk; Andriy Voronov; Bret J. Chisholm
      Abstract: Sucrose octasoyate (SS8) was investigated as a reactive diluent for a medium oil alkyd (MOA). SS8, which is derived from sugar and soybean oil, is 100% biobased, nontoxic, and biodegradable. As a result of its unique molecular architecture, it was expected that SS8 would be an excellent reactive diluent for alkyd coatings. The experiment conducted basically involved the incremental replacement of the MOA with SS8, while maintaining essentially equivalent solution viscosity. The properties of cured coatings were determined using industry standard methods. In general, it was found that SS8 could be used to reduce volatile organic compound content of the coatings, while also reducing drying time (i.e., tack-free time), increasing solvent resistance, and increasing impact resistance. Of the properties measured, the only cured film property that was negatively affected by the use of SS8 was the König pendulum hardness. However, the reduction in König pendulum hardness was only observed when the amount of MOA replaced by SS8 was greater than 10 wt%. Overall, these initial results suggest that SS8 is a very good reactive diluent for alkyd coatings.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11998-017-0016-5
  • Superhydrophobic surfaces: a review on fundamentals, applications, and
    • Authors: Jeya Jeevahan; M. Chandrasekaran; G. Britto Joseph; R. B. Durairaj; G. Mageshwaran
      Abstract: Superhydrophobicity is the tendency of a surface to repel water drops. A surface is qualified as a superhydrophobic surface only if the surface possesses a high apparent contact angle (>150°), low contact angle hysteresis (<10°), low sliding angle (<5°) and high stability of Cassie model state. Efforts have been made to mimic the superhydrophobicity found in nature (for example, lotus leaf), so that artificial superhydrophobic surfaces could be prepared for a variety of applications. Due to their versatile use in many applications, such as water-resistant surfaces, antifogging surfaces, anti-icing surfaces, anticorrosion surfaces etc., many methods have been developed to fabricate them. In this article, the fundamental principles of superhydrophobicity, some of the recent works in the preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces, their potential applications, and the challenges confronted in their new applications are reviewed and discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11998-017-0011-x
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