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Cognitive Processing
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.579
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 7  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1612-4790 - ISSN (Online) 1612-4782
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2570 journals]
  • Empirical content as a criterion for evaluating models
    • Abstract: Abstract Hypotheses derived from models can be tested in an empirical study: If the model reliably fails to predict behavior, it can be dismissed or modified. Models can also be evaluated before data are collected: More useful models have a high level of empirical content (Popper in Logik der Forschung, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, 1934), i.e., they make precise predictions (degree of precision) for many events (level of universality). I apply these criteria to reflect on some critical aspects of Kirsch’s (Cognit Process, 2019. unifying computational model of decision making.
      PubDate: 2019-03-20
  • The role of semantic activation during word recognition in Arabic
    • Abstract: Abstract In the current study, the role of semantic activation in the process of word recognition was investigated among native Arab readers. Twenty-nine typical readers in third grade were tested in reading three lists of pseudowords. Each list consisted of thirty pseudowords (lists A, B and C). Each word in list A was matched with a real meaning, and each participant was trained during eight training sessions to learn the meanings of the pseudowords (the semantic list). For list B, the participants were exposed only to the phonological pronunciation of each word during eight phonological training sessions. List “C” was not used for trained at all, and the participants were not exposed to this list either semantically or phonologically. The training processes occurred aloud, and the participants were not exposed to the orthographic pattern of any pseudoword. The results showed that reading the semantic pseudowords revealed the highest accuracy levels and shorter reading times compared to reading the pseudowords from the phonological training trial and the unfamiliar pseudowords. The results support the assumption about the role of semantic activation in word recognition and shed light on the importance of vocabulary knowledge to the process of reading new words.
      PubDate: 2019-03-20
  • Automating the process of identifying the preferred representational
           system in Neuro Linguistic Programming using Natural Language Processing
    • Abstract: Abstract Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP) is a methodology used for recognition of human behavioral patterns and modification of the behavior. A significant part of this process is influenced by the theory of representational systems which equates to the five main senses. The preferred representational system of an individual can explain a large part of exhibited behaviors and characteristics. There are different methods to recognize the representational systems, one of which is to investigate the sensory-based words in the used language during the conversation. However, there are difficulties during this process since there is not a single reference method used for identification of representational systems and existing ones are subject to human interpretations. Some human errors like lack of experience, personal judgment, different levels of skill and personal mistakes may also affect the accuracy and reliability of the existing methods. This research aims to apply a new approach that is to automate the identification process in order to remove human errors, thereby increasing the accuracy and precision. Natural Language Processing has been used for automating this process, and an intelligent software has been developed to identify the preferred representational system with increased accuracy and reliability. This software has been tested and compared to human identification of representational systems. The results of the software are similar to a NLP practitioner, and the software responds more accurately than a human practitioner in various parts of the process. This novel methodology will assist the NLP practitioners to obtain an improved understanding of their clients’ behavioral patterns and the associated cognitive and emotional processes.
      PubDate: 2019-03-05
  • Floating novel object recognition in adult zebrafish: a pilot study
    • Abstract: Abstract The novel object recognition (NOR) tasks can be used to quantify memory function in zebrafish similarly to rodents. The development of zebrafish learning and memory tests provides a means for testing the effects of pharmacological manipulations of memory. Several authors reported on the successful application of different objects in NOR tests placed either at the bottom of test tanks or submerged into the tank water of zebrafish. This pilot study was designed to test the suitability of floating objects in NOR tests using adult zebrafish. Floating objects such as crumpled aluminum balls and pink plastic hollow pearls were found to be suitable for NOR tests when small groups of zebrafish are used as experimental animals. Adult zebrafish of both sexes were capable of distinguishing between the different colors and surface consistencies of certain floating objects. A significantly higher number of mouth-object contacts were recorded when either floating aluminum balls or floating plastic pearls were used as novel object during NOR tests.
      PubDate: 2019-02-27
  • Integrating visuospatial information across distinct experiences
    • Abstract: Abstract In two experiments, we examined whether the presence of stable visual information and the confluence of the viewpoints would cause participants to integrate in a single memory representation spatial locations they encoded at different points in time. Participants studied from the same or from different viewpoints two layouts of objects within a common visually cluttered room. Then, they carried out a series of pointing trials that involved objects from either the same or different layouts. Results showed that participants were faster for within- than between-layout judgments when they had studied the two layouts from different viewpoints but were equally fast across the two types of judgment after studying the layouts from the same viewpoint (Experiment 1). This finding suggests that they integrated locations into a single representation only when encoding the layouts from the same viewpoint. However, when participants’ memory for the layout studied first was refreshed prior to testing (Experiment 2), no difference in response time was found, suggesting that they had integrated all locations in a single representation before the beginning of testing.
      PubDate: 2019-02-26
  • The format of mental imagery: from a critical review to an integrated
           embodied representation approach
    • Abstract: Abstract The issue of the format of mental imagery is still an open debate. The classical analogue (depictive)–propositional (descriptive) debate has not provided definitive conclusions. Over the years, the debate has shifted within the frame of the embodied cognition approach, which focuses on the interdependence of perception, cognition and action. Although the simulation approach still retains the concept of representation, the more radical line of the embodied cognition approach emphasizes the importance of action and clearly disregards the concept of representation. In particular, the enactive approach focuses on motor procedures that allow the body to interact with the environment, whereas the sensorimotor approach focuses on the possession and exercise of sensorimotor knowledge about how the sensory input changes as a function of movement. In this review, the embodied approaches are presented and critically discussed. Then, in an attempt to show that the format of mental imagery varies according to the ability and the strategy used to represent information, the role of individual differences in imagery ability (e.g., vividness and expertise) and imagery strategy (e.g., object vs. spatial imagers) is reviewed. Since vividness is mainly associated with perceptual information, reflecting the activation level of specific imagery systems, whereas the preferred strategy used is mainly associated with perceptual (e.g., object imagery) or amodal and motor information (e.g., spatial imagery), the format of mental imagery appears to be based on dynamic embodied representations, depending on imagery abilities and imagery strategies.
      PubDate: 2019-02-23
  • Kindergarten children’s event memory: the role of action prediction
           in remembering
    • Abstract: Abstract In two studies, kindergarteners participated in a series of staged events immediately preceded by pre-event interactions that were designed to identify factors relevant to improving recall. The events were based on preschool science-related activities and the experimental pre-event involved predicting actions to occur during a target event, manipulating types of cues available to support these predictive inferences. Action prediction did improve free recall, and effects may have influenced attentional processes evoked by actions generated and enacted. Although children effectively used outcome cues to predict actions, a one-to-one relation between pre-event action prediction patterns and recall did not occur. In combination with other findings, this result may suggest that increased attention during the target event may have supported the pre-event effect rather than integration of information between the pre-event and target event. Early childhood teachers engaging children in science activities should provide explicit cues to enhance usefulness of preparatory activities for recall.
      PubDate: 2019-02-09
  • Evidence of SQUARC and distance effects in a weight comparison task
    • Abstract: Abstract Stimuli associated with large quantities are typically responded to faster with a right- than a left-side key, whereas stimuli associated with small quantities are typically responded to faster with a left- than a right-side key. This phenomenon is known as the spatial-quantity association of response codes (SQUARC) effect. Here, in two experiments, we explored whether a SQUARC effect can emerge for light versus heavy items. Participants judged whether the weight associated with a central target word, describing an animal (e.g. ‘cow’; Experiment 1) or a material (e.g. ‘iron’; Experiment 2), was lighter or heavier than the weight associated with a reference word. Responses were provided with a left- and a right-side button. Then, participants estimated the weight associated with target and reference words. In both experiments, evidence for a SQUARC effect emerged. Moreover, response times for each target word decreased with absolute difference between its rated weight and the rated weight of the reference word, in line with a distance effect. Overall, these results provide evidence of a possible spatial representation of weight.
      PubDate: 2019-02-05
  • Interdisciplinary College 2018—IK 2018: Me, My Self, and I
    • PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Announcing Interdisciplinary College 2019 (IK 2019)
    • PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Correction to: Effectiveness of working memory training among children
           with dyscalculia: evidence for transfer effects on mathematical
           achievement—a pilot study
    • Abstract: The following errors require correction in the article. The authors apologize for these errors.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Representations of microgeometric tactile information during object
    • Abstract: Abstract Object recognition through tactile perception involves two elements: the shape of the object (macrogeometric properties) and the material of the object (microgeometric properties). Here we sought to determine the characteristics of microgeometric tactile representations regarding object recognition through tactile perception. Participants were directed to recognize objects with different surface materials using either tactile information or visual information. With a quantitative analysis of the cognitive process regarding object recognition, Experiment 1 confirmed the same eight concepts (composed of rules defining distinct cognitive processes) commonly generated in both tactile and visual perceptions to accomplish the task, although an additional concept was generated during the visual task. Experiment 2 focused only on tactile perception. Three tactile objects with different surface materials (plastic, cloth and sandpaper) were used for the object recognition task. The participants answered a questionnaire regarding the process leading to their answers (which was designed based on the results obtained in Experiment 1) and to provide ratings on the vividness, familiarity and affective valence. We used these experimental data to investigate whether changes in material attributes (tactile information) change the characteristics of tactile representation. The observation showed that differences in tactile information resulted in differences in cognitive processes, vividness, familiarity and emotionality. These two experiments collectively indicated that microgeometric tactile information contributes to object recognition by recruiting various cognitive processes including episodic memory and emotion, similar to the case of object recognition by visual information.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Information processing under high and low distractions using eye tracking
    • Abstract: Abstract The previous studies found the differences of eye movements between systematic and heuristic processing were inconsistent. To bridge this gap, we manipulated both systematic and heuristic processings (using high vs. low distractions) and argument quality (using strong vs. weak), and measured both eye movements and self-reported attitude. The results suggested that low distraction induced larger differentiation of post-message attitude between strong and weak arguments compared to high distraction, indicating the successful operation of both processings. More importantly, low distraction enabled more fixations and shorter saccade lengths independent of argument quality. However, no differentiations were found involving fixation duration, regressions, and reading speed. In addition, argument quality influenced eye movements, i.e., less fixation and faster reading speed were found in strong arguments. Our results explain why distractions reduce the efficiency of information processing from an eye tracking perspective and why fixation duration results were inconsistent in the previous studies.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Cumulative inhibition in neural networks
    • Abstract: Abstract We show how a multi-resolution network can model the development of acuity and coarse-to-fine processing in the mammalian visual cortex. The network adapts to input statistics in an unsupervised manner, and learns a coarse-to-fine representation by using cumulative inhibition of nodes within a network layer. We show that a system of such layers can represent input by hierarchically composing larger parts from smaller components. It can also model aspects of top-down processes, such as image regeneration.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Why does the Quiet Eye improve aiming accuracy' Testing a motor
           preparation hypothesis with brain potential
    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the Quiet Eye (QE) acquired over time is associated with motor preparation processes by using movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs). Eighteen male, right-handed college students voluntarily participated in this study. Participants performed a dart throw while wearing an eye-tracking system and electrode cap to measure electroencephalogram waveforms (EEG). After performing the dart task, participants were randomly assigned to a Quiet Eye training group (QET) or control training group (CT). Six subjects were excluded due to incomplete electroencephalography (EEG) data. MRCPs were analysed separately within 4 QE categories: High performance score and Long fixation time (HL), High performance score and Short fixation time (HS), Low performance score and Long fixation time (LL), and Low performance score and Short fixation time (LS). Results revealed that although the QET group acquired QE characteristics, MRCPs did not differ between the two groups. Thus, a longer-term experimental design may be necessary to observe EEG changes. Furthermore, QE durations may relate to not only motor programming but also online control.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Extended testing with the dot-probe task increases test–retest
           reliability and validity
    • Abstract: Abstract The dot-probe task is used to measure attentional biases toward threat. However, the test–retest reliability and validity of the task have been called into question. No studies to date have included an extended number of testing sessions or tailored the task to individual participants by incorporating self-relevant stimuli—doing so may improve reliability. Here, participants provided 10 words that caused them anxiety and 10 neutral words which were incorporated into a dot-probe task for 6 sessions. The test–retest reliability of their bias indices was stronger in bottom-target trials relative to top-target trials and stronger among later relative to earlier sessions. State and trait anxiety were moderately correlated with bias indices in later sessions, but not earlier sessions. Overall reaction time in each session was moderately correlated with state and trait anxiety. These results suggest that including extended testing may facilitate dot-probe task test–retest reliability and validity.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • On the link between phenomenal causality and personality dominance
    • Abstract: Abstract The present study investigated whether personality dominance is related to phenomenal causality. Recently, renewed attention has been given to dispositional theories, suggesting that the causal impression arises because people interpret collisions in terms of antagonistic action roles. Here, we examined the relation between personality dominance and the judgment of causality of ambiguous patterns of motion. The results revealed that dominance as a trait is associated with an increased tendency to infer causality in ambiguous displays. We found that participants with high dominance scores (measured by means of a questionnaire) gave significantly more causal judgments than participants with low dominance scores. Our findings highlight that people’s understanding of causality is grounded in their experiences of action.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Interventions aimed at overcoming intuitive interference: insights from
           brain-imaging and behavioral studies
    • Abstract: Abstract Students experience difficulties in comparison tasks that may stem from interference of the tasks’ salient irrelevant variables. Here, we focus on the comparison of perimeters task, in which the area is the irrelevant salient variable. Studies have shown that in congruent trials (when there is no interference), accuracy is higher and reaction time is shorter than in incongruent trials (when the area variable interferes). Brain-imaging and behavioral studies suggested that interventions of either activating inhibitory control mechanisms or increasing the level of salience of the relevant perimeter variable could improve students’ success. In this review, we discuss several studies that empirically explored these possibilities and their findings show that both types of interventions improved students’ performance. Theoretical considerations and practical educational implications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Human inference beyond syllogisms: an approach using external graphical
    • Abstract: Abstract Research in psychology about reasoning has often been restricted to relatively inexpressive statements involving quantifiers (e.g. syllogisms). This is limited to situations that typically do not arise in practical settings, like ontology engineering. In order to provide an analysis of inference, we focus on reasoning tasks presented in external graphic representations where statements correspond to those involving multiple quantifiers and unary and binary relations. Our experiment measured participants’ performance when reasoning with two notations. The first notation used topological constraints to convey information via node-link diagrams (i.e. graphs). The second used topological and spatial constraints to convey information (Euler diagrams with additional graph-like syntax). We found that topo-spatial representations were more effective for inferences than topological representations alone. Reasoning with statements involving multiple quantifiers was harder than reasoning with single quantifiers in topological representations, but not in topo-spatial representations. These findings are compared to those in sentential reasoning tasks.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • The output monitoring of performed actions: What can we learn from
           “recall-recognition” performance'
    • Abstract: Abstract Memories of simple action phrases are retained better following subject-performed tasks (SPT) than verbal tasks (VT), and this superior memory performance of SPT over VT is referred to as the SPT effect. Although research has been conducted on the SPT effect for more than 30 years, how well participants recognize whether they recalled the items successfully and the relationship between item-specific processing encoding and automatic retrieval have not been addressed. The present study used a 2 (instruction: with or without pleasantness rating) × 2 (type of encoding: SPT or VT) between-subject design and applied a “recall-recognition” paradigm to explore the above issues. For the “recall-recognition” performance, the SPT (and the VT with the pleasantness-rating task) produce very poor recognition of the correct recall of the last items (recency effect) and still poorer recognition of the middle items relative to VT alone, indicating that the retrieval process of these items in SPT needs less intention, effort, or monitoring, happens instantly, and involves a more non-obvious memory trace than that in VT alone. This was taken as support for the idea that an emphasis on item-specific information leads to automatic retrieval and thus poor awareness of the prior correct recall. We suggest that the SPT effect can be explained from the perspective of both encoding and retrieval.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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