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Emotion
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.151
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 42  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal(Not entitled to full-text)
ISSN (Print) 1528-3542
Published by APA Homepage  [86 journals]
  • “The empathy impulse: A multinomial model of intentional and
           unintentional empathy for pain”: Correction.
    • Abstract: Reports an error in "The empathy impulse: A multinomial model of intentional and unintentional empathy for pain" by C. Daryl Cameron, Victoria L. Spring and Andrew R. Todd (Emotion, 2017[Apr], Vol 17[3], 395-411). In this article, there was an error in the calculation of some of the effect sizes. The w effect size was manually computed incorrectly. The incorrect number of total observations was used, which affected the final effect size estimates. This computing error does not change any of the results or interpretations about model fit based on the G² statistic, or about significant differences across conditions in process parameters. Therefore, it does not change any of the hypothesis tests or conclusions. The w statistics for overall model fit should be .02 instead of .04 in Study 1, .01 instead of .02 in Study 2, .01 instead of .03 for the OIT in Study 3 (model fit for the PIT remains the same: .00), and .02 instead of .03 in Study 4. The corrected tables can be seen here: http://osf.io/qebku at the Open Science Framework site for the article. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-01641-001.) Empathy for pain is often described as automatic. Here, we used implicit measurement and multinomial modeling to formally quantify unintentional empathy for pain: empathy that occurs despite intentions to the contrary. We developed the pain identification task (PIT), a sequential priming task wherein participants judge the painfulness of target experiences while trying to avoid the influence of prime experiences. Using multinomial modeling, we distinguished 3 component processes underlying PIT performance: empathy toward target stimuli (Intentional Empathy), empathy toward prime stimuli (Unintentional Empathy), and bias to judge target stimuli as painful (Response Bias). In Experiment 1, imposing a fast (vs. slow) response deadline uniquely reduced Intentional Empathy. In Experiment 2, inducing imagine-self (vs. imagine-other) perspective-taking uniquely increased Unintentional Empathy. In Experiment 3, Intentional and Unintentional Empathy were stronger toward targets with typical (vs. atypical) pain outcomes, suggesting that outcome information matters and that effects on the PIT are not reducible to affective priming. Typicality of pain outcomes more weakly affected task performance when target stimuli were merely categorized rather than judged for painfulness, suggesting that effects on the latter are not reducible to semantic priming. In Experiment 4, Unintentional Empathy was stronger for participants who engaged in costly donation to cancer charities, but this parameter was also high for those who donated to an objectively worse but socially more popular charity, suggesting that overly high empathy may facilitate maladaptive altruism. Theoretical and practical applications of our modeling approach for understanding variation in empathy are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Apr 2018 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • “The impact of uncertain threat on affective bias: Individual
           differences in response to ambiguity”: Correction.
    • Abstract: Reports an error in "The impact of uncertain threat on affective bias: Individual differences in response to ambiguity" by Maital Neta, Julie Cantelon, Zachary Haga, Caroline R. Mahoney, Holly A. Taylor and F. Caroline Davis (Emotion, 2017[Dec], Vol 17[8], 1137-1143). In this article, the copyright attribution was incorrectly listed under the Creative Commons CC-BY license due to production-related error. The correct copyright should be “In the public domain.” The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-40275-001.) Individuals who operate under highly stressful conditions (e.g., military personnel and first responders) are often faced with the challenge of quickly interpreting ambiguous information in uncertain and threatening environments. When faced with ambiguity, it is likely adaptive to view potentially dangerous stimuli as threatening until contextual information proves otherwise. One laboratory-based paradigm that can be used to simulate uncertain threat is known as threat of shock (TOS), in which participants are told that they might receive mild but unpredictable electric shocks while performing an unrelated task. The uncertainty associated with this potential threat induces a state of emotional arousal that is not overwhelmingly stressful, but has widespread—both adaptive and maladaptive—effects on cognitive and affective function. For example, TOS is thought to enhance aversive processing and abolish positivity bias. Importantly, in certain situations (e.g., when walking home alone at night), this anxiety can promote an adaptive state of heightened vigilance and defense mobilization. In the present study, we used TOS to examine the effects of uncertain threat on valence bias, or the tendency to interpret ambiguous social cues as positive or negative. As predicted, we found that heightened emotional arousal elicited by TOS was associated with an increased tendency to interpret ambiguous cues negatively. Such negative interpretations are likely adaptive in situations in which threat detection is critical for survival and should override an individual’s tendency to interpret ambiguity positively in safe contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Apr 2018 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • Automatic stimulus evaluation depends on goal relevance.
    • Abstract: To examine whether automatic stimulus evaluation is dependent upon goal relevance, participants were presented with a mixture of (a) goal-induction trials to create a set of goal-relevant and goal-irrelevant stimuli, and (b) evaluative priming trials to capture the automatic evaluation of these stimuli as good or bad. In line with our predictions, a reliable evaluative priming effect was obtained only for stimuli that were relevant for the goal-induction task. Implications for the use of the evaluative priming paradigm as an assessment tool and the replicability of the evaluative priming effect in the absence of dimensional overlap between the prime set and the target set are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Nov 2017 05:00:00 GMT
       
  • When you see it coming: Stressor anticipation modulates stress effects on
           negative affect.
    • Abstract: Research on the effect of exposure to minor stressors in people’s daily lives consistently reports negative effects on indicators of well-being, often coined stress reactivity. Recent advances in the intensity of data collection have brought about an increasing interest in within-day associations of stress exposure and indicators of well-being, including dynamic aspects of the stress response such as stress recovery. In the present work, we investigated the other end of the stress response: the anticipation of a stressor. We hypothesized that anticipation of an upcoming stressor would be accompanied by higher negative affect. Based on the anticipatory coping account, lower negative affect after occurrence of anticipated (vs. not anticipated) stressors was predicted. We approached this question with a measurement burst study that allowed us to disentangle variation in stress processes across different time scales. One-hundred and seventy-five participants (mean age = 50, range 20–79) completed up to 3 measurement bursts. Each burst consisted of an ecological momentary assessment with 5 assessments per day over 7 days. In line with our expectations, negative affect was significantly higher after stressor anticipation, especially on days with high levels of intrusive thoughts. However, negative affect was not lower after anticipated (vs. not anticipated) stressors. Findings point to the role of perseverative cognition in the effect of stressor anticipation. Directions for future research including the role of controllability and effects on stress recovery are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Nov 2017 05:00:00 GMT
       
  • Down-regulation of amygdala response to infant crying: A role for
           distraction in maternal emotion regulation.
    • Abstract: Infant crying elicits caregiving behaviors, which are indispensable for fulfilling the infant’s needs. However, infant crying can also evoke negative and angry feelings in the caregiver. Therefore, parents need to regulate their own negative emotions to infant crying to sensitively respond to the distressed infant. Thus, the current study aims to examine the neural basis of emotional reactivity and emotional regulation in response to infant crying using functional MRI in primiparous mothers (N = 26). Amygdala activation in response to infant crying was negatively associated with maternal sensitivity and maternal nonhostility during mother–infant interaction. Furthermore, subjective emotional intensity and bilateral activations in the amygdala were decreased using distraction as emotion-regulation strategy. This finding adds neural evidence to the importance of maternal emotion-regulation in response to infant distress. This might be particularly important as some mothers may become overwhelmed by their infant’s distress resulting in intense negative emotions that could potentially impair mother–child interaction and increase child abuse potential. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Nov 2017 05:00:00 GMT
       
  • Attentional avoidance of emotional stimuli in postpartum women with
           childhood history of maltreatment and difficulties with emotion
           regulation.
    • Abstract: Child abuse and neglect can lead to difficulties regulating responses to threatening and emotional situations. Exposure to childhood maltreatment has been linked to conflicting findings of both attention biases toward and away from threat-related information. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether emotion regulation moderated the association between history of childhood maltreatment and attention bias in a sample of postpartum women. One hundred forty women participated in the study at 7 months postpartum. Selective attention to both negative emotional and attachment-related negative emotional words was assessed using the Emotional Stroop task. The latent variable of difficulties with emotion regulation was found to significantly moderate the association between history of childhood maltreatment and attention bias to both negative emotional (β = −0.15, t = −2.04, p < .05) and attachment-related negative emotional stimuli (β = −0.16, t = −2.98, p < .05). In women with higher childhood trauma scores, those with greater emotion regulation difficulties displayed decreased attention to negative emotional and attachment-related emotional stimuli. In contrast, women reporting higher exposure to childhood maltreatment with greater emotion regulation capacity, displayed increased attention toward negative emotional and attachment-related emotional stimuli. This study provides evidence for attentional avoidance of emotional material in postpartum women with greater experiences of maltreatment and difficulties with emotion regulation. As the postpartum period has significant implications for maternal well-being and infant development, these findings are discussed in terms of maternal responsiveness, sensitivity to threat, and the intergenerational transmission of risk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Nov 2017 05:00:00 GMT
       
  • Emotion in the wilds of nature: The coherence and contagion of fear during
           threatening group-based outdoors experiences.
    • Abstract: Emotional expressions communicate information about the individual’s internal state and evoke responses in others that enable coordinated action. The current work investigated the informative and evocative properties of fear vocalizations in a sample of youth from underserved communities and military veterans while white-water rafting. Video-taped footage of participants rafting through white-water rapids was coded for vocal and facial expressions of fear, amusement, pride, and awe, yielding more than 1,300 coded expressions, which were then related to measures of subjective emotion and cortisol response. Consistent with informative properties of emotional expressions, fear vocalizations were positively and significantly related to facial expressions of fear, subjective reports of fear, and individuals’ cortisol levels measured after the rafting trip. It is important to note that this coherent pattern was unique to fear vocalizations; vocalizations of amusement, pride, and awe were not significantly related to fear expressions in the face, subjective reports of fear, or cortisol levels. Demonstrating the evocative properties of emotional expression, fear vocalizations of individuals appeared to evoke fear vocalizations in other people in their raft, and cortisol levels of individuals within rafts similarly converged at the end of the trip. We discuss how the study of spontaneous emotion expressions in naturalistic settings can help address basic yet controversial questions about emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Oct 2017 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • Do emotional control beliefs lead people to approach positive or negative
           situations' Two competing effects of control beliefs on emotional
           situation selection.
    • Abstract: Control beliefs are widely acknowledged to play a critical role in self-regulation and well-being, but their impact on decisions to approach or avoid situations that vary in emotional valence remains unclear. We propose that two contradictory, yet equally intuitive, predictions can be made about the impact of control beliefs on emotional situation selection. On the one hand, control beliefs might encourage individuals to initiate proactive emotion regulatory efforts, helping people select positive situations. On the other hand, control beliefs might promote a sense of confidence in one’s ability to manage emotions once they arise, helping people select negative situations. We propose that both effects occur via different mechanisms and suppress one another: control beliefs facilitate (1) positivity engagement by enhancing awareness of opportunities to regulate emotions, and (2) negativity engagement by enhancing confidence in one’s ability to handle negative situations. We found support for this framework in four studies. Consistent with our hypotheses, control beliefs (measured in Studies 1–3 and manipulated in Study 4) exerted two simultaneous and competing effects on emotional situation selection (assessed via self-report measures in Studies 1 and 2 and behaviorally in Studies 3 and 4) via the proposed mechanisms, and evidence of suppression was found. New opportunities for research on control beliefs, emotion regulation, and motivation are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Sep 2017 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • In the spirit of full disclosure: Maternal distress, emotion validation,
           and adolescent disclosure of distressing experiences.
    • Abstract: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the dynamic process of disclosure within the adolescent–mother relationship by examining how maternal personal distress and validation of adolescent negative affect would be related to adolescent disclosure of a distressing experience for the first time. A community sample of 66 mothers and their adolescent children (M = 14.31 years, 58% female) participated. The adolescents disclosed an emotionally distressing experience to their mothers for the first time. Mothers’ validating behaviors and personal distress in response to their adolescents’ expressions of negative emotion were predictive of adolescent disclosure. Adolescents made less detailed or substantive disclosures to their mothers when adolescents perceived their mothers as less validating of their negative emotions and when mothers were more likely to become distressed themselves. Neither adolescent-perceived maternal invalidation nor observed maternal validating or invalidating behaviors were related to adolescent disclosure. Maternal personal distress was further indirectly associated with less substantive disclosures through less maternal validation of negative emotion. These findings provide the foundation for future research evaluating clinical interventions targeted at increasing mothers’ emotion regulation skills and validation of children’s negative emotions. Such interventions may provide an effective way to promote better mother–adolescent communication, especially in regard to distressing experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Sep 2017 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • Maternal emotion dysregulation and the functional organization of
           preschoolers’ emotional expressions and regulatory behaviors.
    • Abstract: Although psychopathology in mothers is known to be a significant risk factor for child outcomes, less is known about how emotion dysregulation, a transdiagnostic feature that cuts across many diagnoses, shapes emotion-related parenting practices and the development of emotion regulation in offspring. Building upon previous research that examined the functional relations between emotions and regulatory actions in children, we sought to examine the association of maternal emotion dysregulation and emotion socialization with these functional links in an at-risk community sample of mother–preschooler (children ages 36–60 months) dyads that oversampled for mothers with elevated symptoms of borderline personality disorder (n = 68). We found that maternal emotion dysregulation was associated with children displaying more sadness and engaging in less problem solving during the Locked Box Task, which is designed to elicit anger. Maternal emotion dysregulation was also associated with children being more distracted and talking less in the context of sadness. Maternal nonsupportive emotion socialization responses were associated with children engaging in more defiant behaviors throughout the task and using less problem solving in the context of happiness, whereas maternal supportive emotion socialization responses were associated with more play throughout the task and less talking in the context of sadness, above and beyond the effect of maternal emotion dysregulation. These findings indicate that maternal emotion dysregulation and nonsupportive emotion socialization practices are both meaningfully associated with the development of aberrant patterns of emotional and behavioral responding during the preschool years. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 11 May 2017 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • The ideal road not taken: The self-discrepancies involved in
           people’s most enduring regrets.
    • Abstract: Research on the structural features of people’s most enduring regrets has focused on whether they result from having acted or having failed to act. Here we focus on a different structural feature, their connection to a person’s self-concept. In 6 studies, we predict and find that people’s most enduring regrets stem more often from discrepancies between their actual and ideal selves than their actual and ought selves. We also provide evidence that this asymmetry is at least partly due to differences in how people cope with regret. People are quicker to take steps to cope with failures to live up to their duties and responsibilities (ought-related regrets) than their failures to live up to their goals and aspirations (ideal-related regrets). As a consequence, ideal-related regrets are more likely to remain unresolved, leaving people more likely to regret not being all they could have been more than all they should have been. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 11 May 2017 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • The face of fear and anger: Facial width-to-height ratio biases
           recognition of angry and fearful expressions.
    • Abstract: The ability to rapidly and accurately decode facial expressions is adaptive for human sociality. Although judgments of emotion are primarily determined by musculature, static face structure can also impact emotion judgments. The current work investigates how facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR), a stable feature of all faces, influences perceivers’ judgments of expressive displays of anger and fear (Studies 1a, 1b, & 2), and anger and happiness (Study 3). Across 4 studies, we provide evidence consistent with the hypothesis that perceivers more readily see anger on faces with high fWHR compared with those with low fWHR, which instead facilitates the recognition of fear and happiness. This bias emerges when participants are led to believe that targets displaying otherwise neutral faces are attempting to mask an emotion (Studies 1a & 1b), and is evident when faces display an emotion (Studies 2 & 3). Together, these studies suggest that target facial width-to-height ratio biases ascriptions of emotion with consequences for emotion recognition speed and accuracy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 11 May 2017 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • Children’s and mothers’ cardiovascular reactivity to a standardized
           laboratory stressor: Unique relations with maternal anxiety and
           overcontrol.
    • Abstract: Research documents bidirectional associations between parental overcontrol (OC) and children’s anxiety; OC may place children at risk for anxiety and also may occur in response to children’s requests for help. However, to date no studies have examined children’s or parents’ in-the-moment emotional responses to OC. Using a community sample of mothers and school-age children, we examine the individual and interactive influences of maternal OC, maternal anxiety, children’s help-seeking, and children’s anxiety in predicting physiological reactivity in response to a stressor faced by children and observed by mothers, predicting that for children of higher anxiety mothers, higher OC will be associated with increases in reactivity (decreases in respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]), whereas for higher anxiety mothers themselves, engaging in OC will be associated with reductions in physiological reactivity (decreases in heart rate). Multilevel modeling suggested that for children of higher anxiety mothers, greater peak OC is associated with greater reductions in RSA (increases in reactivity) after the onset of OC. In contrast, for higher anxiety mothers themselves, greater peak OC was linked with attenuations in heart rate. Effects held when controlling for children’s anxiety and help-seeking, and no pattern of effects was observed with analyses in which children’s help-seeking was the predictor or children’s anxiety was the moderator, suggesting that in this case, physiological reactivity is uniquely associated with the interaction between maternal OC and anxiety. Among mothers with higher anxiety, OC may serve a regulatory function, reducing physiological reactivity, while exacerbating children’s reactivity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 08 May 2017 04:00:00 GMT
       
 
 
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