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Cell Stress and Chaperones
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.987
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 2  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1466-1268 - ISSN (Online) 1355-8145
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2570 journals]
  • Impact of chronic exercise on counteracting chronic stress-induced
           functional and morphological pancreatic changes in male albino rats
    • Abstract: Abstract Chronic stress has been linked to many diseases resulted from dysfunction of both the nervous system and peripheral organ systems. Yet, the effects of chronic stress on the pancreas have received relatively little attention. This work aims to investigate the influence of chronic stress exposure on both the endocrine and exocrine pancreatic function and morphology and its possible mechanism of action, and also to evaluate the impact of chronic exercise with moderate intensity on ameliorating the stress-induced pancreatic changes. Forty adult male albino rats were used and divided into four groups: control group, exercised group (3 weeks of swimming exercise), stressed group (3 weeks of immobilization stress), and stressed group practicing exercise (3 weeks of exercise, concomitant with 21 daily sessions of stress). On the final day of the experiment, all rats were sacrificed. Biochemical, immunohistochemical, and histological studies were conducted. The results showed that chronic immobilization stress produced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and increased homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) with increasing exocrine pancreatic injury markers by increasing oxidative and inflammatory status of the pancreatic tissue. Histological study showed the injurious effect of stress on the morphology of pancreatic tissue. Physical exercise protected the pancreas from the negative effects of stress through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects, evidenced by increasing pancreatic interleukin 10 and total antioxidant capacity and decreasing pancreatic tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and malondialdehyde with ameliorating most of the histological changes induced by stress exposure. Physical exercise effectively counteracts chronic stress-induced pancreatic changes through different mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2019-03-22
  • The influence of high-fat, high-sugar diet and bariatric surgery on HSP70
           and HSP90 plasma and liver concentrations in diet-induced obese rats
    • Abstract: Abstract Metabolic surgery ameliorates insulin resistance and is associated with long-term, effective weight loss, but the mechanisms involved remain unknown. Here, the duodenal-jejunal omega switch (DJOS) surgery in combination with high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet was performed on diet obese rats and joint effects of bariatric surgery and different dietary patterns on heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and HSP90 plasma and liver concentrations were measured. We found that plasma and liver levels of HSP70 were lower after DJOS surgery in comparison to the control in the groups of animals kept on control diet (CD) and high-fat, high-sugar diet (HFS) but the postoperative change of the diet led to the increase in HSP70 in plasma and liver concentration in DJOS-operated animals. A high-calorie meal, rich in carbohydrates and fats, significantly increased circulating levels of HSP90, reducing the normalising effect of DJOS. The HFS diet applied during all stages of the experiment led to the higher levels of liver HSP90 concentration. The combination of CD and DJOS surgery was the most efficient in the lowering of the HSP90 liver concentration. The normalisation of circulating levels and liver concentrations of HSP70 and HSP90 may be achieved in a combination of DJOS procedure with a proper dietary plan.
      PubDate: 2019-03-06
  • Learning to successfully search the scientific and medical literature
    • Abstract: Abstract Searching the literature is often overlooked and receives inadequate attention. In this article, we seek to address this issue by presenting several strategies. Here, five steps are outlined and discussed to facilitate effective literature searching.
      PubDate: 2019-03-06
  • Detection of functional polymorphisms in the hsp70 gene and association
           with cold stress response in Inner-Mongolia Sanhe cattle
    • Abstract: Abstract The genetic mechanisms underlying the cattle resilience to severe cold temperatures are still unknown. In this study, we observed that four blood biochemical parameters were significantly altered, i.e., blood adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and potassium (K+) after expose to − 32 °C for 3 h. This was observed using 105 healthy Sanhe heifers with similar weight (398.17 ± 34.06 kg) and age (19.30 ± 4.91 months). A total of 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in 5′-flanking region of the hsp70 gene in Sanhe cattle, while only 10 SNPs were segregating when comparing genetic variations between Sanhe cattle and 285 Chinese Holstein samples. Statistically significant associations between the genomic markers SNP-42−, SNP-105+, SNP-181+, and SNP-205+ with blood T3 and between SNP-105+ and blood T4 were observed by applying the general linear model procedure and Bonferroni t test. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the T alleles of SNP-42− and SNP-205+ in the GC box and Kozak sequence of the hsp70 gene, respectively, significantly decreased the green fluorescent proteins activity in vitro GFP reporter assays. These findings suggest that these two SNPs are causative polymorphisms involved in the regulation of hsp70 promoter activity and might contribute to the observed association between the hsp70 gene and T3 and T4 levels in Sanhe cattle. Thus, hsp70 gene is a promising candidate gene to be validated in independent cattle populations and functional studies related to cold stress resilience in cattle.
      PubDate: 2019-03-05
  • Expression status of heat shock proteins in response to cold, heat, or
           insecticide exposure in the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa
    • Abstract: Abstract The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) is an agricultural pest that threatens the potato industry worldwide. This insect is widely regarded as one of the most difficult-to-control pests, as it can thrive in a wide range of temperature conditions and routinely develops resistance towards various insecticides. The molecular changes associated with response to these challenges have not been fully investigated in L. decemlineata. While differential expression and characterization of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in response to stress have been conducted in several insects, data regarding HSPs in L. decemlineata are limited. The overarching objective of this study consisted of evaluating the expression of various HSPs in L. decemlineata exposed to different temperatures or treated with the insecticides imidacloprid and chlorantraniliprole. Expression levels of HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, and HSP Beta-1 were evaluated by qRT-PCR and insect mortality was assessed using dsRNAs aimed at select HSP targets. Elevated HSP70 and HSP90 transcript levels were observed in heat-exposed L. decemlineata while downregulation of HSP70 transcript levels was measured in insects submitted to cold conditions. Chlorantraniliprole exposure was associated with reduced HSP Beta-1 transcript levels while no change in expression was monitored in insects exposed to imidacloprid. RNAi-based knockdown of HSP60 levels correlated with significant insect mortality 14 days after dsRNA injection. These results highlight the modulation of HSPs that occur in L. decemlineata exposed to fluctuating temperatures and position HSPs as interesting candidates in the identification of novel molecular leads that could be targeted to control this insect.
      PubDate: 2019-02-27
  • Antioxidant effects of ginkgolides and bilobalide against cerebral
           ischemia injury by activating the Akt/Nrf2 pathway in vitro and in vivo
    • Abstract: Abstract Ginkgolide terpenoid lactones, including ginkgolides and bilobalide, are two crucial bioactive constituents of extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) which was used in the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The aims of this study were to investigate the antioxidant effects and mechanism of ginkgolides (ginkgolide A (GA), ginkgolide B (GB), ginkgolide K (GK)) and bilobalide (BB) against oxidative stress induced by transient focal cerebral ischemia. In vitro, SH-SY5Y cells were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) for 4 h followed by reoxygenation with ginkgolides and BB treatments for 6 h, and then cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ROS were respectively detected using kit. Western blot was used to confirm the protein levels of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), quinone oxidoreductase l (Nqo1), Akt, phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), nuclear factor-E2-related factor2 (Nrf2), and phosphorylated Nrf2 (p-Nrf2). GB combined with different concentrations of LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) were administrated to SH-SY5Y cells for 1 h after OGD, and then p-Akt and p-Nrf2 levels were detected by western blot. In vivo, 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was established, followed with reperfusion and GB treatments for 24 and 72 h. The infarct volume ratios were confirmed by TTC staining. The protein levels of HO-1, Nqo1, SOD1, Akt, p-Akt, Nrf2, and p-Nrf2 were detected using western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Experimental data in vitro confirm that GA, GB, GK, and BB resulted in significant decrease of ROS and increase of SOD activities and protein levels of HO-1 and Nqo1; however, GB group had a significant advantage in comparison with the GA and GK groups. Moreover, after ginkgolides and BB treatments, p-Akt and p-Nrf2 were significantly upregulated, which could be inhibited by LY294002 in a dose-dependent manner, meanwhile, GB exhibited more effective than GA and GK. In vivo, TTC staining indicated that the infarct volume ratios in MCAO rats were dramatically decreased by GB in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, GB significantly upregulated the protein levels of HO-1, Nqo1, SOD, p-Akt, p-Nrf2, and Nrf2. In conclusion, GA, GB, GK, and BB significantly inhibited oxidative stress damage caused by cerebral ischemia reperfusion. Compared with GA, GK, and BB, GB exerts the strongest antioxidant stress effects against ischemic stroke. Moreover, ginkgolides and BB upregulated the levels of antioxidant proteins through mediating the Akt/Nrf2 signaling pathway to protect neurons from oxidative stress injury.
      PubDate: 2019-02-27
  • Effects of cobalt chloride on the stem cell marker expression and
           osteogenic differentiation of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous
    • Abstract: Abstract Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) are a promising source for tissue engineering and stem cell transplantation. However, long-term in vitro culture and expansion lead to the loss of stemness of SHEDs, compromising their therapeutic benefits. Hypoxia plays an essential role in controlling the stem cell behavior of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of cobalt chloride (CoCl2), a hypoxia-mimetic agent, on the stem cell marker expression and osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs. SHEDs were cultured with or without 50 or 100 μM CoCl2. Their proliferation, apoptosis, stem cell marker expression, migration ability, and osteogenic differentiation were examined. Culture with 50 and 100 μM CoCl2 increased the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) protein levels in a dose-dependent manner in SHEDs without inducing significant cytotoxicity. This effect was accompanied by an increase in the proportion of STRO-1+ cells. CoCl2 significantly increased the expression of stem cell markers (OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, and c-Myc) in a dose-dependent manner. The migration ability was also promoted by CoCl2 treatment. Furthermore, SHEDs cultured in osteogenic medium with CoCl2 showed a dose-dependent reduction in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition. The expression of osteogenic-related genes was also suppressed by CoCl2, especially in the 100-μM CoCl2 group. In conclusion, CoCl2 increased the expression of stem cell markers and inhibited the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs. These findings may provide evidence supporting the use of in vitro hypoxic environments mimicked by CoCl2 in assisting the clinical application of SHEDs.
      PubDate: 2019-02-26
  • Betaine protects against heat exposure–induced oxidative stress and
           apoptosis in bovine mammary epithelial cells via regulation of ROS
    • Abstract: Abstract Heat stress is one of the wide varieties of factors which cause oxidative stress in vivo; elevated temperature can lead to oxidative stress of dairy cows that affects milk production. The aim of this study was to determine the capacity of the betaine to act as an antioxidant against oxidative stress induced by heat exposure and apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells (mammary alveolar cells, MAC-T). The MAC-T were divided into four treatment groups: control (37 °C), heat stress (HS, 42 °C), betaine (37 °C), and HS + betaine. MAC-T under heat stress (HS) showed increased ROS accumulation, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration, and catalase (CAT) activity. During heat stress, betaine decreased the mRNA expression level of HSP70 and HSP27 in MAC-T. Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3, the markers of apoptosis, were also elevated in MAC-T under heat stress. The markers of oxidative stress Nrf-2/HO-1 genes were also elevated in MAC-T under heat stress. Pretreatment of betaine reversed the heat-induced depletion in total antioxidant status, ROS accumulation, and SOD and CAT contents in MAC-T. Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Nrf-2/HO-1 expression of heat-exposed MAC-T were also reduced with betaine supplementation. In conclusion, betaine alleviated oxidative stress and apoptosis of MAC-T by inhibiting ROS accumulation.
      PubDate: 2019-02-25
  • p38 MAPK pathway-dependent SUMOylation of Elk-1 and phosphorylation of
           PIAS2 correlate with the downregulation of Elk-1 activity in heat-stressed
           HeLa cells
    • Abstract: Abstract Stress-activated and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) regulate gene expression by post-translational modifications of transcription factors. Elk-1, a transcription factor that regulates the expression of immediate early genes, is amenable to regulation by all the three mammalian MAPKs. In the present report, using inhibitors specific for different MAPK pathways, we show that during exposure of HeLa cells to heat stress, Elk-1 is SUMOylated with SUMO1 by p38 MAPK pathway-dependent mechanisms. Elk-1-phosphorylation levels were significantly reduced under similar conditions. We also show that transcriptional activity of Elk-1 as assessed by luciferase reporter expression and qPCR estimation of the expression of genes regulated by Elk-1 was downregulated upon exposure to heat stress; this downregulation was reversed when heat exposure was performed in the presence of either SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) or ginkgolic acid (inhibitor of SUMOylation). Elk-1 induced transcription is also regulated by PIAS2 which acts as a coactivator upon the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and as a corepressor upon its phosphorylation by p38 MAPK. Since heat stress activates the p38 MAPK pathway, we determined if PIAS2 was phosphorylated in heat-stressed HeLa cells. Our studies indicate that in HeLa cells exposed to heat stress, PIAS2 is phosphorylated by p38 MAPK pathway-dependent mechanisms. Collectively, the results presented demonstrate that in heat-stressed HeLa cells, p38 MAPK pathway-dependent SUMOylation of Elk-1 and phosphorylation of PIAS2 correlate with the downregulation of transactivation by Elk-1.
      PubDate: 2019-02-19
  • Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone of Portunus trituberculatus : evidence of
           alternative splicing and potential roles in osmoregulation
    • Abstract: Abstract The crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) gene of Portunus trituberculatus (Pt-CHH) consists of four exons and three introns spanning 3849 bp in size and generating two mature mRNA, Pt-CHH1, and Pt-CHH2. The primary gene transcript produces a cDNA encoding for the putative Pt-CHH2 from exons 1, 2, 3, and 4 and an alternative transcript encodes for a putative Pt-CHH1 peptide from exons 1, 2, and 4. A promoter fragment of about 3 kb was obtained by genomic walking. The tissue-specific expression pattern is examined by reverse transcriptase chain reaction, and the results show that Pt-CHH1 is detected in the eyestalk, brain, muscle, and blood. However, Pt-CHH2 is detected in the ganglia thoracalis and gill. The results indicate that the expression of Pt-CHH2 in the gill might suggest a potential role in osmoregulation. The Pt-CHH transcript level in the gill increases when the crab is exposed to low salinity. The injection of dsRNA for Pt-CHH causes a significant reduction in Pt-CHH2 transcript level and the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase, and carbonic anhydrase (CA) show a serious decrease. In conclusion, this study provides molecular evidence to support the osmoregulatory function of Pt-CHH2.
      PubDate: 2019-02-14
  • Small heat shock proteins: multifaceted proteins with important
           implications for life
    • Abstract: Abstract Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) evolved early in the history of life; they are present in archaea, bacteria, and eukaryota. sHSPs belong to the superfamily of molecular chaperones: they are components of the cellular protein quality control machinery and are thought to act as the first line of defense against conditions that endanger the cellular proteome. In plants, sHSPs protect cells against abiotic stresses, providing innovative targets for sustainable agricultural production. In humans, sHSPs (also known as HSPBs) are associated with the development of several neurological diseases. Thus, manipulation of sHSP expression may represent an attractive therapeutic strategy for disease treatment. Experimental evidence demonstrates that enhancing the chaperone function of sHSPs protects against age-related protein conformation diseases, which are characterized by protein aggregation. Moreover, sHSPs can promote longevity and healthy aging in vivo. In addition, sHSPs have been implicated in the prognosis of several types of cancer. Here, sHSP upregulation, by enhancing cellular health, could promote cancer development; on the other hand, their downregulation, by sensitizing cells to external stressors and chemotherapeutics, may have beneficial outcomes. The complexity and diversity of sHSP function and properties and the need to identify their specific clients, as well as their implication in human disease, have been discussed by many of the world’s experts in the sHSP field during a dedicated workshop in Québec City, Canada, on 26–29 August 2018.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
  • The effect of temperature and heat shock protein 72 on the ex vivo acute
           inflammatory response in monocytes
    • Abstract: Abstract The acute inflammatory response to active or passive activities that increase body temperature may aid to reduce chronic low-grade inflammation. This study investigates the impact of temperature and extracellular heat shock protein 72 (eHsp72) on the acute intracellular Hsp72 (iHsp72) and interleukin-6 (iIL-6) response in monocytes. Whole blood was incubated for 2 h at 37.0 °C, 38.5 °C and 40.0 °C, in the absence or presence of 0.5 μg/ml eHsp72. Flow cytometry was used to assess iHsp72 and iIL-6 expression in total monocytes and the three monocyte subsets. Incubation at 40.0 °C (p < 0.001) but not 38.5 °C (p = 0.085) increased iHsp72 expression when compared with 37.0 °C, while there was no effect of temperature on iIL-6 expression (p = 0.635). Following incubation with eHsp72, the expression of iHsp72 in classical monocytes was reduced at all temperatures (p < 0.001), while there was no effect of eHsp72 on iIL-6 expression (p = 0.071). Large temperature elevations are needed to induce an acute iHsp72 response in monocytes. In addition, contrary to its suggested role as a danger signal for the innate immune system, eHsp72 reduced iHsp72 and iIL-6 expression in monocytes.
      PubDate: 2019-02-12
  • Is the small heat shock protein HspB1 (Hsp27) a real and predominant
           target of methylglyoxal modification'
    • Abstract: Abstract This study analyzed the interaction of commercial monoclonal anti-methylglyoxal antibodies that predominantly recognize argpyrimidine with unmodified and modified model proteins and small heat shock proteins. These antibodies specifically recognize methylglyoxal (MG)-modified bovine serum albumin and lysozyme, but they react equally well with both unmodified and MG-modified HspB1. Mutation R188W decreased the interaction of these antibodies with unmodified HspB1, thus indicating that this residue participates in the formation of antigenic determinant. However, these antibodies did not recognize either short (ESRAQ) or long (IPVTFESRAQLGGP) peptides with primary structure identical to that at Arg188 of HspB1. Neither of the peptides obtained after the cleavage of HspB1 at Met or Cys residues were recognized by anti-argpyrimidine antibodies. This means that unmodified HspB1 contains a discontinuous epitope that includes the sequence around Arg188 and that this epitope is recognized by anti-argpyrimidine antibodies in unmodified HspB1. Incubation of HspB1 with MG is accompanied by the accumulation of hydroimidazolones, but not argpyrimidines. Therefore, conclusions based on utilization of anti-argpyrimidine antibodies and indicating that HspB1 is the predominant and preferential target of MG modification in the cell require revision.
      PubDate: 2019-02-12
  • l -Thyroxine induces thermotolerance in yeast
    • Abstract: Abstract The cellular stress response (CSR) is a universal inducible reaction modulated, among others, by heat, drugs, and hormones. We aimed to investigate the role of l-thyroxine (T4) on the heat shock (HS) response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The CSR was evaluated by determining growth and viability of post-logarithmic phase grown yeast cultures after HS at 53 °C for 30 min. We found that long-term T4 exposure can induce a dose-dependent and Hsp90 and H+ trafficking-related thermotolerance in yeast.
      PubDate: 2019-02-08
  • The synthesis of diapause-specific molecular chaperones in embryos of
           Artemia franciscana is determined by the quantity and location of heat
           shock factor 1 (Hsf1)
    • Abstract: Abstract The crustacean, Artemia franciscana, displays a complex life history in which embryos either arrest development and undertake diapause as cysts or they develop into swimming nauplii. Diapause entry is preceded during embryogenesis by the synthesis of specific molecular chaperones, namely the small heat shock proteins p26, ArHsp21, and ArHsp22, and the ferritin homolog, artemin. Maximal synthesis of diapause-specific molecular chaperones is dependent on the transcription factor, heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1), found in similar amounts in cysts and nauplii newly released from females. This investigation was performed to determine why, if cysts and nauplii contain comparable amounts of Hsf1, only cyst-destined embryos synthesize diapause-specific molecular chaperones. Quantification by qPCR and immunoprobing of Western blots, respectively, demonstrated that hsf1 mRNA and Hsf1 peaked by day 2 post-fertilization in embryos that were developing into cysts and then declined. hsf1 mRNA and Hsf1 were present in nauplii-destined embryos on day 2 post-fertilization, but in much smaller amounts than in cyst-destined embryos, and they increased in quantity until release of nauplii from females. Immunofluorescent staining revealed that the amount of Hsf1 in nuclei was greatest on day 4 post-fertilization in cyst-destined embryos but could not be detected in nuclei of nauplius-destined embryos at this time. The differences in quantity and location of Hsf1 explain why embryos fated to become cysts and eventually enter diapause synthesize p26, ArHsp21, ArHsp22, and artemin, whereas nauplius-destined embryos do not produce these molecular chaperones.
      PubDate: 2019-01-30
  • Molecular cloning and transcriptional regulation of Indian peafowl ( Pavo
           cristatus ) IFN-α gene
    • Abstract: Abstract Interferon-α (IFN-α) resists viral infections by triggering the transcription of a diverse range of antiviral IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). However, information about the Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) IFN-α (PcIFN-α) has not been reported. In this study, a PcIFN-α gene was amplified, which encoded a protein of 193 amino acids with a 26-amino acid signal peptide sharing 72.16–95.70% identity with other avians in Aves. After expression in prokaryote, PcIFN-α was analyzed for its physicochemical property and antiviral activity. Intriguingly, compared with chicken IFN-α, an effective viral infection therapeutic agent, PcIFN-α showed superior anti-VSV, NDV, and AIV activities, which were then abrogated by rabbit anti-PcIFN-α antibodies in vitro. Moreover, PcIFN-α was shown to be highly sensitive to trypsin; however, it remained stable despite changes in pH and temperature. Additionally, PcIFN-α induced the transcriptional or translational levels of Mx1 and ISG12 genes time-dependently. Overall, the present study revealed that PcIFN-α is a potential novel effective therapeutic agent in antiviral defense responses in peafowl, improving understanding of its involvement in bird antiviral defense.
      PubDate: 2019-01-30
  • The role of N 6 -methyladenosine RNA methylation in the heat stress
           response of sheep ( Ovis aries )
    • Abstract: Abstract With the intensive development of the sheep industry and increasing global temperatures, heat stress in sheep has become an increasingly severe and important issue in recent years. The level of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA methylation changes in response to stress plays important roles in stress responses. However, the role of m6A in the heat stress response of sheep remains unclear. To explore this issue, we measured heat stress protein (HSP) expression, liver function indexes, m6A on RNA, m6A-related enzyme expression, and tissue damage in sheep that had been subjected to heat stress. At the transcriptome level, our results showed significant increases in m6A on RNA and increased mRNA levels of HSPs (HSP70, HSP90, and HSP110) and m6A-related enzymes [METTL3 (methyltransferase-like 3), METTL14 (methyltransferase-like 14), WTAP (wilms tumor 1-associated protein), FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated protein), ALKBH5 (alkB homologue 5), YTHDF1-3 (YTH domain family proteins), and YTHDC1-2 (YTH domain-containing proteins)] following heat stress. At the protein level, the expression of METTL3, YTHDF1-2, and YTHDC2 showed no significant differences following heat stress. However, in contrast to its mRNA level after heat stress, the protein expression of YTHDF3 was reduced, while the expression of HSPs (HSP70, HSP90, and HSP110), METTL14, WTAP, FTO, ALKBH5, YTHDF3, and YTHDC1 increased in line with their measured mRNA levels. Histological experiments revealed that heat stress caused varying degrees of damage to sheep liver tissue. Moreover, immunohistochemical staining indicated that the m6A-related enzymes were expressed in sheep hepatocytes, and differences in expression patterns were observed between the control and heat stress groups. In summary, differences in the level of m6A and the expression of m6A-related enzymes in the liver of sheep were observed after heat stress. This indicates that m6A is involved in the regulation of heat stress in sheep. Our findings provide a new avenue for studying the responses to heat stress in sheep.
      PubDate: 2019-01-30
  • Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans are involved in the
           extracellular Hsp90-stimulated migration and invasion of cancer cells
    • Abstract: Abstract The extracellular heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is known to participate in cell migration and invasion. Recently, we have shown that cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are involved in the binding and anchoring of extracellular Hsp90 to the plasma membrane, but the biological relevance of this finding was unclear. Here, we demonstrated that the digestion of heparan sulfate (HS) moieties of HSPGs with a heparinase I/III blend and the metabolic inhibition of the sulfation of HS chains by sodium chlorate considerably impair the migration and invasion of human glioblastoma A-172 and fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells stimulated by extracellular native Hsp90. Heparin, a polysaccharide closely related to HS, also reduced the Hsp90-stimulated migration and invasion of cells. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, an intracellular inducer of cell motility bypassing the ligand activation of receptors, restored the basal migration of heparinase- and chlorate-treated cells almost to the control level, suggesting that the cell motility machinery was insignificantly affected in cells with degraded and undersulfated HS chains. On the other hand, the downstream phosphorylation of AKT in response to extracellular Hsp90 was substantially impaired in heparinase- and chlorate-treated cells as compared to untreated cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated for the first time that cell surface HSPGs play an important role in the migration and invasion of cancer cells stimulated by extracellular Hsp90 and that plasma membrane-associated HSPGs are required for the efficient transmission of signal from extracellular Hsp90 into the cell.
      PubDate: 2019-01-18
  • Sirtuin 3 inhibition induces mitochondrial stress in tongue cancer by
           targeting mitochondrial fission and the JNK-Fis1 biological axis
    • Abstract: Abstract Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3)-modified mitochondrial fission participates in the progression of several types of cancers. However, its role in tongue cancer requires investigation. The aim of our study is to determine whether Sirt3 knockdown regulates the viability of tongue cancer cells via modulating mitochondrial fission. Two types of tongue cancer cells were used in the present study, and siRNA was transfected into the cells to suppress Sirt3 expression. Mitochondrial function and cell apoptosis were determined via immunofluorescence, Western blotting, ELISA, and qPCR assays. A pathway blocker was applied to verify the role of the JNK-Fis1 signaling pathway in regulation of mitochondrial fission. The present study showed that loss of Sirt3 promoted tongue cancer cell death in a manner dependent on mitochondrial apoptosis. Mitochondrial oxidative stress, energy metabolism disorder, mitochondrial cyt-c liberation, and mitochondrial apoptosis activation were observed after Sirt3 silencing. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Sirt3 knockdown activated mitochondrial stress via triggering Fis1-related mitochondrial fission and that inhibition of Fis1-related mitochondrial fission abrogated the pro-apoptotic effect of Sirt3 knockdown on tongue cancer cells. To this end, we found that Sirt3 modulated Fis1 expression via the c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) signaling pathway and that blockade of the JNK pathway attenuated mitochondrial stress and repressed apoptosis in Sirt3 knockdown cells. Altogether, our results identified a tumor-suppressive role for Sirt3 deficiency in tongue cancer via activation of the JNK-Fis1 axis and subsequent initiation of fatal mitochondrial fission. Given these findings, strategies to repress Sirt3 activity and enhance the JNK-Fis1-mitochondrial fission cascade have clinical benefits for patients with tongue cancer.
      PubDate: 2019-01-17
  • Structural and functional insights into TRiC chaperonin from a
           psychrophilic yeast, Glaciozyma antarctica
    • Abstract: Abstract Studies on TCP1-1 ring complex (TRiC) chaperonin have shown its indispensable role in folding cytosolic proteins in eukaryotes. In a psychrophilic organism, extreme cold temperature creates a low-energy environment that potentially causes protein denaturation with loss of activity. We hypothesized that TRiC may undergo evolution in terms of its structural molecular adaptation in order to facilitate protein folding in low-energy environment. To test this hypothesis, we isolated G. antarctica TRiC (GaTRiC) and found that the expression of GaTRiC mRNA in G. antarctica was consistently expressed at all temperatures indicating their importance in cell regulation. Moreover, we showed GaTRiC has the ability of a chaperonin whereby denatured luciferase can be folded to the functional stage in its presence. Structurally, three categories of residue substitutions were found in α, β, and δ subunits: (i) bulky/polar side chains to alanine or valine, (ii) charged residues to alanine, and (iii) isoleucine to valine that would be expected to increase intramolecular flexibility within the GaTRiC. The residue substitutions observed in the built structures possibly affect the hydrophobic, hydrogen bonds, and ionic and aromatic interactions which lead to an increase in structural flexibility. Our structural and functional analysis explains some possible structural features which may contribute to cold adaptation of the psychrophilic TRiC folding chamber.
      PubDate: 2019-01-16
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