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Neurosurgical Review
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.016
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 0  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1437-2320 - ISSN (Online) 0344-5607
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2573 journals]
  • Endovascular reconstruction of extracranial traumatic internal carotid
           artery dissections: a systematic review
    • Abstract: Abstract Extracranial internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) is a potential source of morbidity and mortality in trauma patients and requires high degree of suspicion for diagnosis after the initial presentation. Occasionally, if standard therapy is contraindicated, endovascular reconstruction is a treatment option. The aim of this systematic review was to report clinical and radiographic outcomes following endovascular repair of ICAD of traumatic and iatrogenic etiology. A comprehensive systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were searched. Twenty-four studies comprising 191 patients (204 lesions) were included; 179 underwent traditional carotid artery stenting (CAS), whereas 12 patients underwent flow diversion with the pipeline embolization device (PED). In total, 75.7% of the CAS group and 66.6% of the PED group presented with ICAD-related symptomatology. Concomitant pseudoaneurysms were identified in 61.9% and 78.5% of lesions in the CAS and PED group, respectively. Adverse event rates among CAS-treated lesions after 30-day follow-up were below 2.2% for stroke, transient ischemic attack, and mortality. During follow-up in the CAS group, there was no incidence of ICAD-related stroke or death and 2.2% of patients underwent a repeat CAS procedure. In the PED group, no patient suffered stroke or death in the reported follow-up. In the PED cohort, there was an adequate occlusion rate and no patient had to be retreated. Endovascular reconstruction of traumatic or iatrogenic ICAD appears safe. This approach demonstrated acceptable short- and long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes in both groups.
      PubDate: 2019-03-22
  • Adult spinal deformity surgery: a systematic review of venous
           thromboprophylaxis and incidence of venous thromboembolic events
    • Abstract: Abstract Venous thromboprophylaxis consisting of chemical and/or mechanical prophylaxis is administered to patients undergoing adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery to prevent venous thromboembolic events. However, the true incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after these surgeries is unknown resulting in weak recommendations and lack of consensus regarding type and timing of prophylaxis in these patients. A systematic literature review was conducted to examine VTE incidence in addition to optimal type and timing of VTE prophylaxis. A detailed search was carried out on Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases through October 18, 2017, for studies that evaluated venous thromboembolic outcomes, type, and timing of prophylaxis administration among ASD surgery patients who were on VTE prophylaxis. The randomized study was assessed for risk of bias using the Cochrane tool and the observational studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS). The search yielded 1180 studies, and three articles published between 1996 and 2008 met the inclusion criteria. There were 583 surgeries performed on 537 patients with a mean age ranging from 45 to 52 years. Females dominated the study with percentages ranging from 60 to 94% in the different study populations. VTE prophylaxis was initiated before surgery in 87.7% patients and intraoperatively in 12.3% patients. VTE incidence ranged between 0 and 9.1% among the studies. VTE can occur after ASD surgery regardless of the type of prophylaxis, and incidence may be higher when mechanical prophylaxis alone is initiated intraoperatively. Further studies to examine VTE prophylaxis in patients undergoing ASD surgery should be considered.
      PubDate: 2019-03-18
  • Determination of optimal time window for cortical mapping in awake
           craniotomy: assessment of intraoperative reaction speed
    • Abstract: Abstract Currently, there is no known time frame when the patients are the most responsive during awake craniotomy. The aim of this work is therefore to determine when the patient has the shortest reaction time and so to extrapolate the optimal time window for cortical mapping. In this analytic observational study, our group has recorded the reaction times of 35 patients undergoing an awake craniotomy and compared them with the preoperative baseline. The operations were performed according to a “sleep–awake–awake” protocol. Data collection was performed in parallel with standard methods for evaluation of language and cognitive functions. The preoperative reaction times of our patient cohort (average ± SD = 510 ± 124 ms) were significantly shorter than those measured during the operation 786 ± 280 ms, p < .001. A one-factor ANOVA within subjects showed a significant increase in reaction times; p < .001. Post hoc comparisons on a Bonferroni-corrected α-error level of .05 showed significant differences between the reaction speed during the 0–10 min time frame and the preoperative baseline, as well as the intraoperative reaction times during the 20–30 min, 30–40 min, and the t > 40 min time frames. In conclusion, measurement of intraoperative reaction speed seems to be a technically feasible method that is well tolerated by the patients. The intraoperative reaction speed performance was shown to be significantly slower than on the day before the operation. The patients seem to be the slowest directly after extubation and gradually wake up during the awake phase. The poorest wakefulness is demonstrated during the first 20 min after extubation.
      PubDate: 2019-03-15
  • Clinical and histopathological predictors of outcome in malignant
    • Abstract: Abstract We investigated possible clinical and histopathological prognostic factors in a malignant meningioma cohort with comprehensive long-term population-based follow-up data. Twenty-four consecutive patients treated surgically for malignant meningioma at the Department of Neurosurgery and the Department of Pathology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark, from December 2000 to March 2014 were retrospectively evaluated regarding progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Clinical parameters were recorded. All specimens underwent immunohistochemical analysis for Ki-67 and phosphohistone-H3 (PHH3). Prognostication was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. The median follow-up was 46.1 months (range 0.7–150.7). The median progression-free survival was 16.5 months (95% CI 11.4–43.0) and the median overall survival was 46.6 months (95% CI 20.4–NA). Six patients were alive at the end of follow-up; two of these had not experienced a recurrence. No clinical parameter showed significant association with PFS or OS. Mitotic index (MI) was significantly associated with PFS and OS, and PHH3 MI with PFS. Immunohistochemical reactivity of Ki-67 > 10% was a negative predictor of PFS (HR 3.92, 95% CI 1.47–10.4, p = 0.0063) and OS (HR 3.35, 95% CI 1.12–10.1, p = 0.0313). The histological subgrouping of grade III meningioma into anaplastic and non-anaplastic revealed increased PFS for the latter (HR 4.57, CI 95% 1.32–15.7, p = 0.0164). We could not verify previous clinical parameters as prognostic factors in malignant meningioma. MI and the PHH3 MI were prognostic within WHO grade III meningiomas for PFS. An overall tumor staining of Ki-67 > 10% correlated with PFS and OS within grade III tumors.
      PubDate: 2019-03-13
  • Prognostic variables and outcome in relation to different bleeding
           patterns in arteriovenous malformations
    • Abstract: Abstract Subarachnoid hemorrhage as bleeding pattern occurs rarely in ruptured arteriovenous malformations (AVM). The aim of the present study is to evaluate different bleeding patterns in hemorrhages due to an AVM and their impact on outcome in terms of risk and treatment stratification. We evaluated 158 patients with ruptured AVMs who were admitted to our neurosurgical department from 2002 to 2017. We compared different bleeding patterns, such as intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), or both (ICH + SAH) and evaluated predictive variables for outcome in the last follow-up. ICH was found in 48.7% of patients, isolated SAH in 20.9% of patients, and both in 30.4% of patients. The mean parenchymal blood volume was 34.5cm3. 38.6% of the patients had AVM-associated aneurysms, mostly located pre-nidal (77%). AVMs with ruptured aneurysms often resulted in ICH with SAH component (p < 0.001) and SAH pattern occurred more often infratentorial (p = 0.003). In a multivariate logistic regression model, poor clinical state on admission (WFNS IV-V) (p < 0.01), eloquence, infratentorial location (p = 0.05), and presence of ICH with SAH component (p = 0.02) were the most relevant predictors of a poor outcome after AVM rupture. Bleeding pattern in AVM hemorrhage depends on angioarchitectural and hemodynamic features and SAH component predicts outcome negatively. AVM-associated pre-nidal aneurysms may harbor a higher risk for rupture and SAH pattern when located infratentorial. Treatment decisions and risk stratifications should be considered in view of these findings.
      PubDate: 2019-03-05
  • Do not omit the grade of malignancy when correlating the lobar location of
           diffuse gliomas and the risk of preoperative epileptic seizures
    • PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Does the subspecialty of an intensive care unit (ICU) has an impact on
           outcome in patients suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage'
    • Abstract: Abstract We retrospectively compared the outcome of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) patients treated in a neurosurgical ICU (nICU) between 1990 and 2005 with that of patients treated in a general ICU (gICU) between 2005 and 2013 with almost identical treatment strategies. Among other parameters, we registered the initial Hunt and Hess grade, Fisher score, the incidence of vasospasm, and outcome. A multivariate analysis (logistic regression model) was performed to adjust for different variables. In total, 755 patients were included in this study with 456 patients assigned to the nICU and 299 patients to the gICU. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed no significant difference between the patient outcome treated in a nICU versus gICU after adjusting for different variables. The outcome of patients after aSAH is not influenced by the type of ICU (gICU versus nICU). The data do not allow claiming that aSAH patients need to be treated in a specialized ICU for obtaining better results. Parameters which might differ from hospital to hospital, especially warranty of neurosurgical expertise on gICU, have the potential to influence the results.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Trilateral retinoblastoma: A systematic review of 211 cases
    • Abstract: Abstract We conducted a systematic review of 72 studies to characterize trilateral retinoblastomas. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate survival, and statistical significance was assessed by using a log-rank test. We analyzed 211 cases of trilateral retinoblastomas. The average age of onset of retinoblastoma was 0.79 ± 1.38 years, and the average latency period between the onset of retinoblastomas and trilateral retinoblastomas was 1.49 ± 1.76 years. The brain tumors were found before the retinoblastoma diagnosis in 6 cases (3.1%), concurrently in 61 cases (32.1%), and after the retinoblastoma diagnosis in 123 cases (64.7%). Pineal tumors were found in 155 cases (73.4%) and sellar tumors in 46 cases (21.8%). The overall median survival was 10.3 months (95% CI, 8.5–13) and the 5-year survival rate was 15.7%. Central nervous system symptoms were variable and associated with shorter survival in univariate and multivariate analyses. The survival time in patients who received high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant was significantly longer (p = 0.0067) than that of with or without conventional chemotherapy. Twelve long-term survivors were reported, and of these, six patients were treated with high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant and six patients were treated with conventional chemotherapy. It is important that survivors continue to undergo regular medical surveillance in order to detect trilateral retinoblastoma at a potentially curative stage. Trilateral retinoblastoma patients with an irradiation history had shorter survival than those without irradiation history for retinoblastoma. High-dose chemotherapy should be considered as a potential treatment option for trilateral retinoblastomas.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • The emerging role of gamma knife radiosurgery in the management of
           glossopharyngeal neuralgia
    • Abstract: Glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) represents a rare craniofacial disorder accounting for about 1% of all craniofacial pain syndromes. GPN shares several pathophysiologic and clinical features with the more common trigeminal neuralgia. Medical therapy and microvascular decompression, in case of vascular nerve compression, represented the mainstay of GPN management. Other ablative therapies have been reported to date; however, few data are available because of the rarity of this pain syndrome. Among the ablative procedures, gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has been recently introduced in the management of GPN with good pain control and low complication rates.
      Authors performed a systematic review of the published literature about GKRS in the management of GPN. Radiosurgical treatment data, pain control and recurrence rate have been analysed and compared. GKRS represented a valuable and effective treatment option for the management of GPN. Pain control and complication rates are better than those reported by other ablative procedures and microvascular decompression; however, future studies should be focused on the long-term efficacy of GKRS.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Usefulness of the knot-tightener device following dural suturing in
           endonasal transsphenoidal surgery: technical report
    • Abstract: Abstract Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) has become a well-established standard surgical technique, but the cerebrospinal fluid leakage remains controversial. Direct suturing of the dura, which is a routine procedure within transcranial surgery, can be applied for closure of the sella turcica within TSS. However, as the dura is not accessible by the index finger, knot tying in the narrow and deep surgical corridor following dural suturing is extremely difficult, cumbersome, and time-consuming in TSS. Here, we present a new, simple, and effective technique for knot tying using our newly developed instrument the “knot tightener” (UC-6603: Medical U & A, Inc., Osaka, Japan) to solve this challenge. The knot tightener has a total length of 235 mm and is bayonet shaped. The tip is 5 × 10 mm in diameter and has one long arm and two short curved arms. The long arm has a dimple which can hook and hold a thread, fulfilling the role of an index finger. Together the two short curved arms make a half circle and are able to hook a thread easily. From the 28th of March 2011 to August 2018, we used the knot-tightener device for 566 patients who underwent endonasal TSS, to deliver and tie knots following stitching of the dura using 6–0 nylon. The device was able to easily deliver a knot from outside of the nostril to the sella turcica through the nasal cavity and successfully tighten it firmly. No complications were observed, confirming the safety of the newly designed instrument. The knot tightener can be considered to be an optimal tool for the challenging surgical procedure of knot tying following dural suturing in TSS. Its potential future applications may extend to include other neurosurgical procedures in anatomically restricted areas.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Hemorrhagic presentation of intracranial pilocytic astrocytomas:
           literature review
    • Abstract: Abstract Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are seemingly innocuous and benign tumors. However, in recent times, many case series have documented high rates of hemorrhage in these neoplasms. We hereby provide a detailed analysis on hemorrhagic pilocytic astrocytomas (HPA) in adults and report one such case managed at our institute. In addition, salient differences between adult and pediatric hemorrhagic PA have been briefed. Hospital records were retrieved for our case. Literature review was conducted by searching online databases for the following keywords—pilocytic astrocytoma, hemorrhage, cranial, pediatric, and adults. A 22-year-old male with neurofibromatosis-1 presented with sudden onset headache and vomiting of 3-day duration. Imaging revealed a lobulated suprasellar lesion with obstructive hydrocephalus. Pterional transsylvian approach and subtotal resection were performed. Histopathology showed features of PA with bleed. Including current report, a total of 26 cases have been reported. Mean age was 37 years (21–75 years) and they are mostly found in the third decade. The male:female ratio was 2.1:1. Sudden headache with vomiting was the most common symptoms. Tumors were mostly located in cerebral hemispheres (n = 9/34.6%), hypothalamus/suprasellar region (n = 7/27%), and cerebellum (n = 6/23%). Two-thirds underwent gross total excision. There were two deaths and except one case, no recurrences were reported in those with available follow-ups. Hemorrhagic presentation of a PA is rare, although more commonly seen in adults and most commonly located in cerebral hemispheres. Maximal safe resection is the standard treatment and recurrences are rare.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Alveolar soft part sarcoma: the new primary intracranial malignancy
    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this paper is to serve as a reference to aid in the management of this poorly understood intracranial malignancy. The authors report their experience treating the eighth ostensible case of a primary intracranial alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS). A 21-year-old man presented to hospital after collapsing. He gave a 1-year history of headache, a 2-month history of reduced visual acuity and on examination had left facial paraesthesia with left-sided incoordination. MRI of the brain revealed a large left posterior fossa mass. The patient underwent resection of the tumour with good recovery in function. Immunohistochemical analysis of the tumour specimen confirmed an ASPS, and multimodal imaging in search of an extra-cranial disease primary was negative. A review of the literature yielded only seven other cases of primary intracranial ASPS. A variety of diagnostic imaging modalities were employed in search of a disease primary, as were various combinations of surgical resection, chemotherapy and radiotherapy as treatment. Half of the cases documented delayed disease recurrence. The authors discuss the following: the unique radiological and immunohistological characteristics of this disease including the potential for its misdiagnosis; the investigations required to diagnose a primary intracranial ASPS; the efficacy of current medical and surgical treatment options and the factors that will aid in prognostication. This is the first review of this new primary intracranial malignancy. From our analysis, we offer a joint radiological and immunohistochemical algorithm for the diagnosis of primary intracranial ASPS and specific operative considerations prior to resection.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Utility of preoperative meningioma consistency measurement with magnetic
           resonance elastography (MRE): a review
    • Abstract: Abstract Meningioma consistency is a critical factor that influences preoperative planning for surgical resection. Recent studies have investigated the utility of preoperative magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in predicting meningioma consistency. However, it is unclear whether existing methods are optimal for application to clinical practice. The results and conclusions of these studies are limited by their imaging acquisition methods, such as the use of a single MRE frequency and the use of shear modulus as the final measurement variable, rather than its storage and loss modulus components. In addition, existing studies do not account for the effects of cranial anatomy, which have been shown to significantly distort the MRE signal. Given the interaction of meningiomas with these anatomic structures and the lack of supporting evidence with more accurate imaging parameters, MRE may not yet be reliable for use in clinical practice.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Vascular assessment after clipping surgery using four-dimensional CT
    • Abstract: Abstract Recent advances in computed tomography angiography (CTA) enable repeated imaging follow up for post-clipping surgery. The purpose of this study was to clarify the critical volume and configuration of the aneurysmal clip in the postoperative evaluation using volume rendering (VR) imaging, and present four-dimensional (4D)-CTA for these larger metal artifacts. A total of 44 patients with cerebral aneurysm, treated using clipping surgery, were included in this study. The metal artifact volume was assessed using CTA and the association between the type of clips and its metal artifact volume was analyzed. A VR image and a 4D-CTA were then produced, and the diagnostic accuracy of arteries around the clip or residual aneurysm on these images was evaluated. In the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the cutoff value for metal artifacts was 2.32 mm3 as determined through a VR image. Patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 included patients with a simple and small clip, and group 2 included patients with multiple, large or fenestrated clips. The metal artifact volume was significantly larger in group 2, and the group incorporated the cutoff value. Post-clipping status on the VR image was significantly superior in group 1 compared with group 2. In group 2, the imaging quality of post-clipping status on 4D-CTA was superior in 92.9% of patients. The metal artifact volume was dependent on the number, size, or configuration of the clip used. In group 2, evaluation using a 4D-CTA eliminated the effect of the metal artifacts.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Surgery versus stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of multiple
           meningiomas in neurofibromatosis type 2: illustrative case and systematic
    • Abstract: Abstract Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a genetic neoplastic disorder that presents with hallmark bilateral vestibular schwannomas and multiple meningiomas. Though the current standard of care for meningiomas includes surgery, the multiplicity of meningiomas in NF2 patients renders complete resection of all developing lesions infeasible. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) may be a viable non-invasive therapeutic alternative to surgery. We describe a particularly challenging case in a 39-year-old male with over 120 lesions who underwent more than 30 surgical procedures, and review the literature. We also searched three popular databases and compared outcomes of SRS versus surgery for the treatment of multiple meningiomas in patients with NF2. A total of 50 patients (27 radiosurgical and 23 surgical) were identified. For patients treated with SRS, local tumor control was achieved in 22 patients (81.5%) and distal control was achieved in 14 patients (51.8%). No malignant inductions were observed at an average follow-up duration of 90 months. Complications in the SRS-treated cohort were reported in 9 patients (33%). Eight patients (29.6%) died due to disease progression. Six patients experienced treatment failure and required further management. For NF2 patients treated with surgery, 11 patients (48%) showed tumor recurrence and 10 patients (43.5%) died due to neurological complications. SRS may be a safe and effective alternative for NF2-associated meningiomas. Further studies are required to identify the ideal radiosurgical candidate.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • The history of Rhoton’s Lab
    • Abstract: Abstract The work performed in Dr. Rhoton’s Lab, represented by over 500 publications on microneurosurgical anatomy, greatly contributed to improving the level of neurosurgical treatment throughout the world. The authors reviewed the development and activities of the Lab over 40 years. Dr. Albert L. Rhoton Jr., the founder of, and leader in, this field, displayed great creativity and ingenuity during his life. He devoted himself to perfecting his study methodology, employing high-definition photos and slides to enhance the quality of his published papers. He dedicated his life to the education of neurosurgeons. His “lab team,” which included microneuroanatomy research fellows, medical illustrators, lab directors, and secretaries, worked together under his leadership to develop the methods and techniques of anatomical study to complete over 160 microneurosurgical anatomy projects. The medical illustrators adapted computer technologies and integrated art and science in the field of microneurosurgical anatomy. Dr. Rhoton’s fellows established methods of injecting colors and pursued a series of projects to innovate surgical approaches and instruments over a 40-year period. They also continued to help Dr. Rhoton to conduct international educational activities after returning to their home countries. Rhoton’s Lab became a world-renowned anatomical lab as well as a microsurgical training center and generated the knowledge necessary to perform accurate, gentle, and safe surgery for the sake of patients.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • The fragility of randomized controlled trials in intracranial hemorrhage
    • Abstract: Abstract Fragility of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has been evaluated using a novel metric called fragility index (FI), which measures how many events the statistical significance of a dichotomous outcome depends on. This study aimed to evaluate the fragility of RCTs in intracranial hemorrhage. Literature search (PubMed/Embase) identified all RCTs of intracranial hemorrhage since 2006. The overall distribution of FI was evaluated. Subgroup and spearman correlation analyses were made to explore potential factors that may affect FI value. All the included RCTs were divided into two groups (positive and negative trials) according to the statistical significance of selected outcomes. Finally, 47 positive and 51 negative trials were included. Both the median FI ([2; IQR, 1–4] vs. [6; IQR, 4–9], p < 0.001) and the proportion of trials with FI ≤1 (2 vs. 18, p < 0.001) in positive trials were smaller than negative trials. In subgroup comparison within positive trials, sample size ([165; IQR, 87–200] vs. [83; IQR, 60–120], p = 0.015) and number of events ([35; IQR, 20–72] vs. [24; IQR, 11–32], p = 0.015) were higher in subgroup with FI >1 than the subgroup with FI ≤1. Weak positive correlations were found between FI and sample size and number of events. In the field of intracranial hemorrhage, trials reporting significant conclusions often depend on a small number of events. Compared to sample size, this phenomenon is more likely to be affected by statistical approach and trial methodology.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Risk factors for shunt dependency in patients suffering from spontaneous,
           non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage
    • Abstract: Abstract Patients presenting with spontaneous, non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) achieve better outcomes compared to patients with aneurysmal SAH. Nevertheless, some patients develop shunt-dependent hydrocephalus during treatment course. We therefore analyzed our neurovascular database to identify factors determining shunt dependency after non-aneurysmal SAH. From 2006 to 2016, 131 patients suffering from spontaneous, non-aneurysmal SAH were admitted to our department. Patients were stratified according to the distribution of cisternal blood into patients with perimesencephalic SAH (pSAH) versus non-perimesencephalic SAH (npSAH). Outcome was assessed according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 6 months and stratified into favorable (mRS 0–2) versus unfavorable (mRS 3–6). A multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors of shunt dependency in patients suffering from non-aneurysmal SAH. Overall, 18 of 131 patients suffering from non-aneurysmal SAH developed shunt dependency (14%). In detail, patients with npSAH developed significantly more often shunt dependency during treatment course, when compared to patients with pSAH (p = 0.02). Furthermore, patients with acute hydrocephalus, presence of intraventricular hemorrhage, presence of clinical vasospasm, and anticoagulation medication prior SAH developed significantly more often shunt dependency, when compared to patients without (p < 0.0001). However, “acute hydrocephalus” was the only significant and independent predictor for shunt dependency in all patients with non-aneurysmal SAH in the multivariate analysis (p < 0.0001). The present study identified acute hydrocephalus with the necessity of CSF diversion as significant and independent risk factor for the development of shunt dependency during treatment course in patients suffering from non-aneurysmal SAH.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Predictors of decompressive hemicraniectomy in malignant middle cerebral
           artery stroke
    • Authors: Saadat Kamran; Abdul Salam; Naveed Akhtar; Atlantic D’soza; Ashfaq Shuaib
      Abstract: Abstract Identification of factors in malignant middle cerebral artery (MMCA) stroke patients that may be useful in selecting patients for DHC. This study was a retrospective multicenter study of patients referred for DHC based on the criteria of the randomized control trials of DHC in MMCA stroke. Demographic, clinical, and radiology data were analyzed. Patients who underwent DHC were compared to those who survived without surgery. Two hundred three patients with MMCA strokes were identified: 137 underwent DHC, 47 survived without DHC, and 19 refused surgery and died. Multivariate analysis identified the following factors determining DHC in MMCA stroke: age < 55 years (OR 8.5, 95% CI 3.3–22.1, P < 0.001), MCA with involvement of additional vascular territories (anterior cerebral artery, posterior cerebral artery (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.5–14.9, P = 0.007), septum pellucidum displacement ≥ 7.5 mm (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.9–11.7, P = 0.001), diabetes (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.3–10.6, P = 0.012), infarct growth rate (IGR) ml/h (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.02–1.2, P = 0.015), and temporal lobe involvement (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.01–6.1, P = 0.048). The internal validation of the multivariate logistic regression model using bootstrapping analysis showed marginal bias. Among patients with MMCA infarctions, an increased possibility of DHC is associated with younger age, MCA with additional infarction, septum pellucidum deviation of > 7.5 mm, diabetes, IGR, and temporal lobe involvement. The presence of these risk factors identifies those MMCA stroke patients who may require DHC. Bootstrapping analysis indicated the model is good enough to predict the outcome in general population.
      PubDate: 2018-04-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10143-018-0974-9
  • The segmentation of the posterior cerebral artery: a microsurgical
           anatomic study
    • Authors: Aysun Uz
      Abstract: Abstract There are still different descriptions of the segmentation of the posterior cerebral artery, although there is a radiological and anatomical consensus on the segmentation of the anterior and the middle cerebral artery. This study aims to define the most appropriate localization for origin and end points of the segments through reviewing the segmentation of the posterior cerebral artery. The segments and the cortical branches originating from those segments of the 40 posterior cerebral arteries of 20 cadaver brains were examined under operating microscope. In this research, the P1, P2, P3, P4, and P5 classification of the segmentation of the posterior cerebral artery is redefined. This redefinition was made to overcome the complexities of previous definitions. The P1 segment in this research takes its origin from the basilar tip and ends at the junction with the posterior communicating artery. The average diameter of this segment at the origin was 2.21 mm (0.9–3.3), and the average length was 6.8 mm (3–12). The P2 segment extends from the junction with the posterior communicating artery to the origin of the lateral temporal trunk. This point usually situates on one level of posterior of the cerebral peduncle. The average diameter of this segment at the origin was 2.32 mm (1.3–3.1), and the average length was 20.1 mm (11–26). The P3 segment extends from the origin of the lateral temporal trunk to the colliculus where both the posterior cerebral arteries are the nearest to each other (quadrigeminal point) and is located at the anterior-inferior of the splenium. The average diameter of this segment at the origin was 1.85 mm (1.2–2.7), and the average length was 16.39 mm (9–28). The P4 begins at the quadrigeminal point and ends at the top of the cuneus. The average diameter of this segment at the origin was 1.55 mm (1.1–2.2). While the P5 segment is named as the terminal branches of the major terminal branches of the posterior cerebral artery, no definite border was found between the P4 and the P5 segments. In this study, the segmentation of the posterior cerebral artery, developed by Krayenbühl and Yaşargil, was redefined to be more appropriate for radiological and anatomical purposes.
      PubDate: 2018-04-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10143-018-0972-y
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