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Composites Part B : Engineering
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.039
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 298  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1359-8368 - ISSN (Online) 1359-8368
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3206 journals]
  • Exfoliated graphene/thermoplastic elastomer nanocomposites with improved
           wear properties for 3D printing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Hyerin Jeon, Youn Kim, Woong-Ryeol Yu, Jea Uk Lee
  • Outstanding strengthening behavior and dynamic mechanical properties of
           in-situ Al–Al3Ni composites by Cu addition
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Jeong Tae Kim, Viktor Soprunyuk, Niraj Chawake, Yong Hui Zheng, Florian Spieckermann, Sung Hwan Hong, Ki Buem Kim, Jürgen Eckert
  • Ti, Zr and Ta coated UHMWPE aiming surface improvement for biomedical
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Melissa Machado Rodrigues, Cristian Padilha Fontoura, Ana Elisa Dotta Maddalozzo, Leonardo Mathias Leidens, Higor Gomes Quevedo, Klester dos Santos Souza, Janaina da Silva Crespo, Alexandre Fassini Michels, Carlos Alejandro Figueroa, Cesar Aguzzoli
  • Performance of FRP composite lap joints utilizing fiber tow steering
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): M.J. Robinson, T.C. Adams
  • Higher-order resistivity-strain relations for self-sensing nanocomposites
           subject to general deformations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): G.M. Koo, T.N. Tallman
  • PET FRP-concrete-high strength steel hybrid solid columns with
           strain-hardening and ductile performance: Cyclic axial compressive
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Jun-Jie Zeng, Yu-Yi Ye, Yong-Chang Guo, Jun-Fan Lv, Yi Ouyang, Cheng Jiang
  • Numerical simulation of the tensile behavior of FRCM strengthening systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Ernesto Grande, Gabriele MilaniAbstractThe direct tensile test is one of the experimental procedures used for the characterization of Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Matrix (FRCM) materials. From this test generally emerge the main phenomena characterizing the tensile response of FRCM: cracking of the matrix and de-bonding at the reinforcement-matrix interface. These phenomena, that in some cases are quite difficult to experimentally monitor and understand, particularly influence the performance of FRCM as strengthening systems. In this paper the authors present a simple numerical modeling approach able to simulate the tensile response of FRCM by reproducing the occurrence of both the cracking of the matrix and the de-bonding at the reinforcement-matrix interface. The numerical analyses reported in the paper show the reliability of the proposed approach and, in particular, its role as support tool for understanding the influence of local failure phenomena on the global tensile response of FRCM systems.
  • Promoted ablation resistance of polydimethylsiloxane via crosslinking with
           multi-ethoxy POSS
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Haodong Liu, Guangming Zhu, Chengshuang ZhangThe utilization of advanced propellants leads to unbearable temperature and pressure in propellent ramjet engines, paving the way for the enhancement of thermal insulation materials. High temperature vulcanized polydimethylsiloxane composites have been adopted due to the satisfactory ablation resistance at the expense of complicated industrial costs. For the purpose of simplifying the processes and enhancing the ablation resistance of polymer matrices, room temperature vulcanized hydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (HPDMS) crosslinked with multi-ethoxy POSS (EOPS) coatings (EOPS@ HPDMS) were prepared through capping crosslink. Comparative analyses of different EOPS loadings of EOPS@HPDMS revealed the chemical bonding of EOPS ameliorated the effects about crosslinking properties, mechanical strengths, thermal performance and ablation resistance of HPDMS. This work could provide an optional method for developing advisable ablation resistance composites in aerospace applications.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Compressive response of multi-layered thermoplastic composite corrugated
           sandwich panels: Modelling and experiments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Liming Chen, Shiwei Peng, Jian Liu, Houchang Liu, Liliang Chen, Bing Du, Weiguo Li, Daining FangAbstractMulti-layered thermoplastic composite (TPC) corrugated sandwich panels (CSPs) were designed and fabricated from glass fiber reinforced polypropylene prepregs by hot-pressing and hot-melting bonding methods. Quasi-static compressive response including failure deformation modes of TPC CSPs were experimentally and numerically investigated to reveal the effect of layer numbers and core configurations namely regular, perpendicular and symmetrical. For two-layered CSPs, core layers of the regular configuration panels were firstly compressed to overlapping and then failed together, core layers of the perpendicular ones failed step by step. But for the symmetrical configuration, assembly deviations were found to affect the deformation modes sensitively by comparing the experimental and numerical results. Among three configurations, the perpendicular one has the optimal specific energy absorption (SEA) and crushing force efficiency (CFE), while the regular one has the biggest peak crushing force (PCF). Increasing layer number can enhance the SEA and MCF due to the bending of the interlayer face sheets.
  • Mechanical response of negative stiffness truncated-conical shell systems:
           experiment, numerical simulation and empirical model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Xiaojun Tan, Shaowei Zhu, Bing Wang, Kaili Yao, Shuai Chen, Peifei Xu, Lianchao Wang, Yuguo SunAbstractAs promising materials, the NS mechanical metamaterials bring new alternatives for energy-absorbing materials, but also research challenges in performance prediction considering their large, local deformation. In this paper, numerical and experimental methods were employed to investigate the mechanical properties of the truncated-conical shell element. Also, empirical formulas, which can well predicate the element's response, were developed based on the simulated data. Mechanical responses of the metamaterials, consisted of truncated-conical shells in a periodic arrangement, were investigated through the multilinear model. These prediction models were all verified through the simulations and experiments, and the comparison results indicated that the presented models were applicable in wide parameter range, attributed to a piecewise fitting method. Generally, a comprehensive approach, of general applicability, is presented in this paper to study the NS metamaterial's mechanical response from local to global, and it can be a reference to researches on novel NS metamaterials.
  • Amine functionalized carbon nanotube (ACNT) filled in sulfonated
           poly(ether ether ketone) membrane: Effects of ACNT in improving polymer
           electrolyte fuel cell performance under reduced relative humidity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Ae Rhan Kim, Mohanraj Vinothkannan, Min Ho Song, Jae-Young Lee, Hong-Ki Lee, Dong Jin YooAmine functionalized carbon nanotube (ANCT) is applied as an inorganic potential proton conducting material embedded in a sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) matrix. The morphological, structural, thermomechanical, physiochemical and electrochemical properties of SPEEK/ACNT composite were investigated and compared to obtained results from bare SPEEK. The synthesized ACNT-incorporated SPEEK membrane have uniform and dense morphology and exhibit improved properties as proton exchange membrane (PEM); for example, SPEEK/ACNT possessed higher thermal stability and tensile strength than SPEEK alone. The amine functionalized structure of ACNT is assumed to be one of critical factors resulting in higher performance of SPEEK/ACNT membrane, since it can induce acid-base conducting networks between ACNT and SPEEK matrix, which would improve water uptake and proton conductivity while lowering ion exchange capacity of membrane. When used in 20% relative humidity, a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) with SPEEK/ACNT membrane is found to exhibit much higher performance than a PEFC with bare SPEEK, suggesting the potential use of SPEEK/ACNT membrane as PEM.Graphical abstractProton hopping mechanism between acid-base networks in SPEEK/ACNT composite.Image 1
  • Crashworthy subfloor structure of civil aircraft via inclined
           inward-folding composite tubes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Zhefeng Yu, Xin Zhou, Xiang Zhou, Yangyang Zhang, Qiao ZhuAbstractThis paper describes the design and testing of a shock absorber with an inward-folding composite tube that can be used as a structural component in its normal working state. Although more energy can be absorbed when the hollow of the tube is filled with composite debris, a higher load relative to the initial peak load will be produced. A variable structure based on two inclined energy absorbers was then proposed, and impact tests used to verify the reaction load calculation for two models experimentally. Results indicate that.the variable structure had a greater compression ratio and a flatter load curve, demonstrating its potential for use in the struts of an aircraft cargo floor.
  • Continuous manufacturing of CFRP sheets by rolling for rapid fabrication
           of long CFRP products
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Toru Kizaki, Jingwei Zhang, Qiuyang Yao, Jun YanagimotoAbstractThe application of CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic) parts in the automotive industry is limited by their labor-intensive and time-consuming manufacturing processes. Moreover, the strong demand for long products, such as components with a length of 25 m used in high-speed railroad vehicles, requires the manufacturing of long CFRP sheets, which are extremely difficult to produce using the conventional autoclave process. To achieve the rapid production of long CFRP products, a method of continuously manufacturing CFRP sheets by rolling is proposed in this study, and the effects of the preheating and curing times as well as the gap between rollers on the properties of the produced CFRP sheets such as void fraction, thickness, strength and formability are investigated. The CFRP sheets produced by the newly proposed rolling process have comparable performance characteristics such as void fraction, strength, formability, energy absorption and load tolerance to those of the CFRP sheets fabricated by the autoclave process. Owing to its much higher manufacturing efficiency, the rolling process is expected to replace the conventional time-consuming autoclave process for the fabrication of long CFRP sheets for a wider range of engineering applications.
  • Magnetic Fe nanoparticle to decorate N dotted C as an exceptionally
           absorption-dominate electromagnetic shielding material
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Zirui Jia, Kaichang Kou, Shuai Yin, Ailing Feng, Chuanhui Zhang, Xuehua Liu, Haijie Cao, Guanglei WuConversional electromagnetic shielding material with strong reflection coefficient are becoming insufficient for today's application, since the serious 2nd electromagnetic pollution. Herein, we demonstrate a magnetic carbon based shielding material constructed by magnetic Fe nanoparticles (NPs) and N dotted amorphous carbon nanosphere (∼200 nm). The structure, morphology, chemical composition of the samples have been studied in depth. It is observed that the average sizes of Fe NPs is ∼8.0 nm and can be loaded well on the surface of N dotted amorphous spheres. The electromagnetic shielding performance has been investigated. Significantly, the as-prepared samples show excellent electromagnetic shielding performance. The maximum shielding effectiveness can up to 30 dB under a thickness of 1.2 mm. More importantly, the reflection coefficient can be reduced to 2.3 dB, presenting excellent absorptiondominate shielding performance. The desirable shielding mechanism with less reflection are attributed to the boosted loss ability and matched impedance matching behavior, which originate from N doping and magnetic component. This work which integrates magnetic component with N dotted amorphous carbon has been demonstrated as a useful strategy for the development of absorption dominate EM shielding material.Graphical abstractThe magnetic N dotted carbon/Fe sample with tunable component was developed and showed excellent absorption dominate electromagnetic shielding performance.Image 1
  • A constitutive model for 3D printed continuous fiber reinforced composite
           structures with variable fiber content
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Zhanghao Hou, Xiaoyong Tian, Ziqi Zheng, Junkang Zhang, Lu Zhe, Dichen Li, Andrei V. Malakhov, Alexander N. PolilovAbstract3D printing provides a new technical means for the preparation of functionally controlled continuous fiber reinforced composites (CFRCs) with variable fiber content. The constitutive model of 3D printed CFRCs with different fiber contents are the basis for establishing mechanical analysis models and design methods of functionally regulated CFRCs based on 3D printing. In this paper, stiffness and strength properties of 3D printed CFRCs with different fiber contents were systematically studied, and the mapping relationship between material properties and fiber content was obtained. The failure processes of 3D printed CFRCs under different loads were studied by microstructural morphology and interfacial performance analysis, revealing the formation mechanisms of the material properties. The constitutive model and finite element analysis method of 3D printed CFRCs were established by using the material properties of 3D printed CFRCs with different fiber contents. The mechanical analysis mode was used to predict and analyze the performance of functionally graded CFRCs with variable fiber content. The results show that the mechanical analysis mode can be used for the optimization design and mechanical analysis of functionally controlled CFRCs.
  • Transverse and longitudinal flexural properties of unidirectional carbon
           fiber composites interleaved with hierarchical Aramid pulp
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Fei Cheng, Yunsen Hu, Bingyan Yuan, Xiaozhi Hu, Zhaohui HuangAbstractUnidirectional carbon fiber reinforced polymer (UD-CFRP) composites designed for ultimate tensile strength and stiffness along the fiber direction are vulnerable in the transverse direction. In this study, UD-CFRPs were reinforced in the transverse direction using sparsely distributed hierarchical Aramid pulp (AP) micro/nano-fibers between 2 and 8 g per square meter (gsm) per ply interface. Those AP micro/nano-fibers, a few hundred microns in length, effectively formed an ultra-thin interleaving layer around 20 μm in thickness between carbon fiber plies. Flexural properties along and perpendicular to continuous carbon fiber direction were measured under three-point-bending (3-P-B) to determine the toughening effects of AP. Flexural loads in both longitudinal and transverse directions have been enhanced by 30% and over 100% respectively from those randomly distributed AP micro/nano-fibers with diameters varied from a few hundred nanometers to 10 μm. Even slight increase in the elastic modulus of AP-toughened CFRP along the fiber direction was observed. Total fracture energy absorption, initial cracking and final fracture loads were measured and compared, indicating AP micro/nano-fibers have contributed to the high strength, high toughness and high modulus characteristics of AP-interleaved UD-CFRPs. Details on toughening mechanisms were revealed from SEM and cross-section optical microscopy examinations. Comparisons of unreinforced UD-CFRP and AP-toughened UD-CFRP showed the hierarchical AP micro/nano-fibers indeed played an important role in composite microstructure design and property optimization. The ultra-thin interleaved AP veil around 20 μm in thickness can be conveniently incorporated into pre-preg fabrication so that the extra interleaving step can be eliminated, i.e. the toughened pre-pregs can be used as normal pre-pregs in the final composite forming.
  • A crosslinkable graphene oxide in waterborne polyurethane anticorrosive
           coatings: Experiments and simulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Jincan Cui, Jingcheng Xu, Jing Li, Hanxun Qiu, Shiyou Zheng, Junhe YangA crosslinkable graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized and employed as reinforcement in waterborne polyurethane (WPU) composite coatings for improving corrosion protection properties. Polycarbodiimide (PCD), a crosslinking agent of WPU, was chosen to modify GO. Three different conformations of functionalized graphene will be generated: grape cluster conformation, network conformation and tail conformation, varying mainly with the PCD/GO ratio. Experiments and molecular dynamics simulation were carried out to study the correlations between the PCD/GO ratio, the conformations of functionalized graphene, as well as the dispersion state of graphene layers. The functionalized graphene with tail conformation was crosslinkable with WPU molecules along the interfaces. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the WPU coatings with 0.2 wt% crosslinkable graphene remained at a maximum impedance modulus of 109 Ω cm2 after 120 days immersion without any decrease. The superior anticorrosive properties benefited from the barrier properties of well-dispersed graphene layers, the crosslinking structure along the functionalized graphene/WPU interfaces, as well as the improved water resistance of the coatings.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Multiscale modelling of scaling effects in the impact response of plain
           woven composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Z.W. Xu, Y.H. Chen, W.J. Cantwell, Z.W. GuanAbstractThis paper presents a multiscale model developed to predict scaling effects in plain woven carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. The model contains a parameter-segmented unit cell (UC) developed to account for the contribution of the fabric architecture to the macroscopic response. The behaviour of constituent materials was considered by employing the models that have been established for characterising the nonlinearity and rate-dependence of the polymer matrix and the damage of the yarn material. A user subroutine was developed to numerically implement the parameterised UC and the material models for multiscale analyses. Based on the multiscale model, numerical examples were performed to investigate scaling effects in the impact response of a plain woven composite by simulating scaled panels subjected to projectile impact. It is shown that the proposed model is capable of predicting both scalable and non-scalable effects in this composite with reasonable success. The simulation results highlighted an evident variation of the load-displacement curves with scale size at the post-elastic stage, insensitivities of the primary failure modes and their appearance to scale size, as well as a clear trend of increased capability of energy absorption with scale size, which all agree well with those observed in experiments. The significance of this research is the development of a numerical tool capable of capturing the influence of microscopic features on macroscopic scaling effects in plain woven composites.
  • Tensile failure strength and separation angle of FDM 3D printing PLA
           material: Experimental and theoretical analyses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Tianyun Yao, Juan Ye, Zichen Deng, Kai Zhang, Yongbin Ma, Huajiang OuyangIt is discovered in this investigation that there exist two different failure modes and a special separation angle which is the demarcation point of the two different failure modes when FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling) 3D printing materials fail under a tensile load. In order to further understand the mechanical properties of FDM 3D printing materials and promote the use of FDM 3D printing materials, their tensile failure strengths at different printing angles and separation angles are measured and analysed theoretically. A new separate-modes of transversely isotropic theoretical failure model is established to predict the tensile failure strength and separation angle of FDM 3D printing PLA (polylactic acid) material based on the hypothesis of transverse isotropy and the classical separate-modes failure criterion. During this research, the tensile specimens designed according to the current test standard ISO (527-2-2012) for plastic-multi-purpose specimens are fabricated in 7 different printing angles (0∘, 15∘, 30∘, 45∘, 60∘, 75∘, 90∘) and three levels of printing layer thickness (0.1 mm, 0.2 mm, 0.3 mm). Experimental results show that the tensile failure strength increases with the increase of the printing angle or the decrease of the layer thickness. Meanwhile, inter-layer failure tends to occur when the printing angle is small and in-layer failure tends to occur when the printing angle is big. In comparison with the results predicted by the established theoretical model, all values of the Generalized-Relative-Root-Mean-Square Error are close to zero and the experimental separation angles are also between 45∘ and 60∘. So the predictive capacity of the theoretical model is affirmed by experimental results.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Improved adhesion between stainless steel heating element and PPS polymer
           in resistance welding of thermoplastic composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Vincent Rohart, Louis Laberge Lebel, Martine DubéAbstractResistance welding of thermoplastic composites involves applying an electric current to a heating element, usually a stainless-steel (SS) mesh, which heats up by Joule effect, melts the surrounding polymer matrix and remains at the joint interface following the welding operation. In this study, the adhesion between a thermoplastic matrix, i.e., polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), and the SS mesh heating element is evaluated and improved through the application of surface coatings on the SS. The coatings are based on an organosilane, a bivalent molecule often used to create an organic coating on metals. The efficiency of the surface coatings is evaluated by measurement of the water contact angle on treated SS plates, characterization of the coating by ATR-FTIR, observations by SEM and TEM and mechanical testing of resistance-welded quasi-isotropic carbon fibre (CF)/PPS joints. A lap shear strength (LSS) improvement of 32% is reported for joints welded using the treated heating elements relative to joints welded using untreated heating elements. Double cantilever beam tests between a SS plate and the CF/PPS composite also show a much better adhesion between the PPS and SS following surface coating, with a higher load at failure and fracture surfaces showing polymer and fibre remaining attached to the SS plate.
  • Surface topography evolution of woven thermoplastic composites under
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): John Holmes, Youssef Hafiz, Zbigniew Stachurski, Raj Das, Shankar KalyanasundaramThe evolution of architectural distortion of woven composites can significantly influence the deformation behaviour but is challenging to measure experimentally. In this paper, two techniques are proposed to examine the out-of-plane topography of composites under deformation measured using stereo digital image correlation (DIC). The primary method relies on fitting a surface to the data to compensate for global sample distortion and reveal local topography while the supplementary method uses local curvatures calculated for each data point on the surface. These methods have been applied to thermoplastic composites with different weave architectures, matrix and fibre materials. Topography results show good agreement in magnitude and form with mesoscale finite element analysis (FEA). The methods improve existing experimental techniques to examine local effects with multiple applications regarding deformation, defect detection and failure analysis of composites.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Size tailored bimetallic metal-organic framework (MOF) on graphene oxide
           with sandwich-like structure as functional nano-hybrids for improving fire
           safety of epoxy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Jing Zhang, Zhi Li, Xiaolin Qi, Wen Zhang, De-Yi WangNano-hybrids of Zn and Co bimetallic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) on graphene oxide (Zn/Co MOF@GO, hereafter MOF@GO) with sandwiches structure were synthesized by a facile in-situ growth method. In order to achieve homogeneous growth of MOFs on GO layers, a new method, which is by adjusting the ratio of Zn and Co sources, was proposed to adjust the size and distribution of MOFs grown on GO. Uniform growth of MOFs on GO layers was found at the condition Zn/Co around 6/4. Optimal MOF@GO nano-hybrids show an enhanced thermal stability due to the synergistic effect of the two materials and are employed in epoxy (EP) to reduce the fire hazard. Fire test results demonstrated that EP matrix with 2 wt % of MOF@GO (EP/MOF@GO), the peak heat release rate (pHRR) decreased by 30% and the limiting oxygen index (LOI) of EP composites increased from 23.4% to 29%. Moreover, MOF@GO nano-hybrids significantly decrease the release of toxic gases, in particularly, the production of carbon monoxide (COP) decreased by 37% relative to pure EP. The storage modulus of EP/MOF@GO also increased to 2002 MPa from 1714 MPa. The possible fire retardancy mechanism was proposed which involved the barrier effect of layered GO, superior catalytic oxidation effect of transition metal based MOF and its catalytic carbonization process. In perspective, MOF based hierarchical nano-hybrids open a feasible window in reducing the fire hazards and mechanical property of polymers.Graphical abstractControllable homogeneous growth of MOFs on GO was prepared successfully by adjusting the ratio of Zn and Co. MOF@GO nano-hybrid significantly enhanced flame safety (such as CO) and mechanical property to Epoxy.Image 1
  • Multifunctional MXene/natural rubber composite films with exceptional
           flexibility and durability
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Wei Yang, Jun-Jie Liu, Li-Li Wang, Wei Wang, Anthony Chun Yin Yuen, Shuhua Peng, Bin Yu, Hong-Dian Lu, Guan Heng Yeoh, Chun-Hui WangRecent advancement of MXene (Ti3C2Tx) nanosheets has demonstrated the wide range of applications benefiting from its lightweight and high electrical conductivity. It possesses great potential as electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding material owing to its layered structure and high conductivity. Currently, the major shortcoming of utilizing MXene as EMI shielding films is the lack of flexibility and high oxidation tendency to TiO2 in humid condition, which might significantly impair their mechanical and electrical properties. To overcome this drawback, MXene/natural rubber (NR) composite films were prepared using a suction filtration of the mixed suspension containing MXene (Ti3C2Tx) and NR. The strong interaction between NR and MXene results in the formation of lightweight, interconnected and hydrophobic composite films. The MXene/NR60% film demonstrates high water contact angle (104°) and low density (1.28 g/cm3). It also shows a tensile strength of 34 MPa, elongation at break of 4.5%, and cyclic folding endurance of 7425 times, which are 1.5, 5.6 and 62 times of pure MXene film respectively. MXene/NR60% film at a thickness of 65.6 μm exhibits outstanding EMI shielding efficiency 47.8 dB. Microscale combustion calorimeter results show that higher concentration of MXene leads to more significant flame retardancy of MXene/NR composite films. After soaking in water for 15 days followed by bending 6000 times, this film retains high EMI shielding efficiency (32.8 dB), indicating an excellent durability. The high performance MXene/NR composite films combined with their mechanical endurance provide a new material for protecting wearable electronic devices and other sensitive equipment against microwaves.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Preparation of highly thermally conductive and electrically insulating
           PI/BNNSs nanocomposites by hot-pressing self-assembled PI/BNNSs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Lei Cao, Jingjing Wang, Jie Dong, Xin Zhao, Hai-Bei Li, Qinghua ZhangTraditional polymer-based thermally conductive composites with randomly distributed fillers always yield an undesired heat removal due to the lack of efficient heat transfer pathways. Thus, realization of rational and ordered distribution of thermally conductive nanofillers in polymer matrix is believed to be significant for obtaining a desirable thermal conductivity. Herein, a series of thermally conductive polyimide/boron nitride nanosheets (PI/BNNSs) composites with a highly ordered BNNSs network have been successfully prepared. For achieving an uniform dispersion and high orientation of BN nanosheets in PI matrix, self-assembled PI/BNNSs complex microspheres were firstly prepared via the van der Waals interaction, and then these complex microspheres were further hot-pressed at the Tg of PI matrix, which rendered the alignment of BNNSs during the deformation of complex microspheres and built an efficient heat transfer pathway. As a consequence, the resultant composites possess a much higher in-plane thermal conductivity up to 4.25 W/mK with 12.4 vol% oriented BNNSs than those of pure PI and random distribution composite (0.85 W/mK for pure PI and 1.3 W/mK for the PI/random BNNSs-12.4). Meanwhile, these nanocomposites present excellent electrically insulating properties, improved dimensional stabilities and good thermal stabilities. This facile method provides a new way to design and fabricate highly thermally conductive PI-based composites for applying in heat dissipation of modern portable and collapsible electronic devices.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • High-performance graphene reinforced epoxy nanocomposites using benzyl
           glycidyl ether as a dispersant and surface modifier
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Wenpeng Duan, Ye Chen, Jiahao Ma, Weihan Wang, Jue Cheng, Junying ZhangThe special structure and excellent properties make graphene a great potential in developing advanced polymer nanocomposites; however, its dispersion in molecular-level as well as reinforcement in high efficiency in matrixes has been a challenge. Herein, we report a facile and effective strategy to disperse graphene in epoxy resin by using benzyl glycidyl ether (BGE) as a dispersant and surface modifier through π-π interaction between BGE and graphene. The measurements of UV–vis spectroscopy and Raman spectrum confirm π-π interaction of BGE and graphene, and the remarkably improvement in properties of graphene reinforced epoxy resin are achieved. For 5 mg/mL graphene dispersion, tensile strength increases by 15%, Young's modulus increases by 32.8%, storage modulus at 30 °C increases by 37%, and thermal conductivity increases by 95.7%. This method opens up a feasible approach to make high performance graphene nanocomposites for engineering and high-tech applications.Graphical abstractGraphical . High-performance graphene reinforced epoxy nanocomposites has been fabricated via using benzyl glycidyl ether(BGE) as a dispersant and surface modifier. This work achieves graphene's dispersion in molecular-level and reinforcement in high efficiency in epoxy. The addition of a small amount of graphene has a significant enhancement to the strength and modulus of the host epoxy.Image 1
  • Antimicrobial sodium alginate dressing immobilized with
           polydopamine-silver composite nanospheres
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Limei Liang, Tingting Hou, Qianqian Ouyang, Lei Xie, Saiyi Zhong, Puwang Li, Sidong Li, Chengpeng LiTo endow antibacterial activity and maintain good porosity, oxidized sodium alginate (OSA) sponge was functionalized via polydopamine/silver composite nanospheres (PDA/AgNSs). It is found that uniform PDA spheres (around 1.7 μm) can be successfully coated on OSA sponge surface without compromise of the OSA sponge integrity and porosity using absolute ethanol as optimized solvent. Particularly, the newly-produced PDA spheres can crosslink with the OSA sponge via the Schiff-base condensation, leading to improved stability. On the other hands, those PDA spheres can be served as the active sites to realize the growth of silver nanoparticles (around 50–70 nm) on PDA spheres surface, leading to the formation of novel PDA/AgNSs. Further analysis indicates that our proposed OSA/PDA/AgNSs sponge shows high blood compatibility, low cell cytotoxicity, good hemostatic performance as well as superior inhibitory activity against P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli. In conclusions, our proposed strategy opens a new route for antimicrobial sodium alginate dressing development.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Polypropylene/carbon nanotubes composite materials with enhanced
           electromagnetic interference shielding performance: Properties and
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Hubert Lecocq, Nicolas Garois, Olivier Lhost, Philippe-Franck Girard, Philippe Cassagnau, A. SergheiAbstractThe electrical and electromagnetic shielding interference properties of composite materials made of polypropylene (PP) and carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been investigated in a broad frequency range, both experimentally and theoretically. A remarkably low percolation threshold of only 0.4 vol% and an exceptional shielding performance reaching effectiveness values as high as 90 dB are reported. The shielding effectiveness has been measured between 50 MHz and 18 GHz using two experimental methods (coaxial cell and wave guide cell) and the results were systematically correlated with the conductivity values of our composite materials. Furthermore, an EMI shielding theoretical model was developed and employed to predict the shielding properties of our PP/CNT composite materials as well as of numerous other composite materials reported in the literature and made by employing different polymer matrices and different types of fillers (carbon black, carbon fibers, bamboo charcoal, mesoporous carbon, copper nanowires, reduced graphene oxide). An excellent agreement is found between our theoretical calculations and the experimental data upon systematically varying the frequency of the incident wave, the fillers content and the sample thickness. Our model is allowing one thus to predictively design materials required to exhibit a specific value of EMI shielding effectiveness and operating in a specific frequency range. This can be of significant importance in numerous applications where shielding electromagnetic interference phenomena plays an important role.
  • Strength improvement of adhesively bonded single lap joints with date palm
           fibers: Effect of type, size, treatment method and density of fibers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): F. Delzendehrooy, M.R. Ayatollahi, A. Akhavan-Safar, L.F.M. da SilvaAbstractIn this paper, natural fibers and particles provided from different parts of date palm trees are considered to improve the static strength of adhesively bonded joints. Some influencing factors such as type, size, alkaline treatment and the weight ratio of the natural fibers/particles are the parameters that have been experimentally studied. The date palm fibers are provided from four parts of the tree including Mesh, Rachis, Petiole and Bunch. In order to investigate the effect of treatment of the fiber surface, the raw fibers and treated fibers with two different concentrations of aqueous NaOH solution were considered. To study the effect of fiber size, fibers with different sizes including short fibers (0.5–2 mm) and long fibers (30 mm) were separately added to the adhesive. To find the best weight ratio of the fibers corresponding to maximum joint strength, single lap joints with three different weight ratios of date palm fibers (2, 5 and 10%) were experimentally tested. The results show that date palm fibers significantly improve the strength of adhesively bonded joints. For example, the strength of adhesive single-lap joints reinforced by 2 wt% of Rachis fiber treated with 6 wt% NaOH solution, increased by 140%. To investigate the micromechanisms of failure, the fractured surfaces were analyzed. The results show that the date palm fibers can improve the strength of adhesive joints by slowing down the crack propagation, absorbing energy and load endurance.
  • Bio-based phytic acid and tannic acid chelate-mediated interfacial
           assembly of Mg(OH)2 for simultaneously improved flame retardancy, smoke
           suppression and mechanical properties of PVC
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Weihua Meng, Yanli Dong, Jiahe Li, Luyao Cheng, Hongjie Zhang, Chunzheng Wang, Yunhong Jiao, Jianzhong Xu, Jianwei Hao, Hongqiang QuA bio-based Mg(OH)2@tin phytate@zinc tannate (MH@PASn@TAZn) composite was synthesized via layer-by-layer assembly method. Chemical bonds formed by chelating metal ions with phytic acid and tannic acid were involved in this synthesis. MH@PASn@TAZn was then incorporated into PVC and its effects on flame retardancy, smoke suppression and mechanical properties were investigated. The core-shell structure and binding states between each layer (Mg–O–P, P–O–C) of the composite were examined. The limiting oxygen index (LOI) and cone calorimeter test results showed that the addition of 10 ph MH@PASn@TAZn effectively enhanced the flame retardancy and smoke suppression of PVC. The LOI value of the 10 ph MH@PASn@TAZn-incorporated PVC sample increased to 30.3% because of the combination of the gas dilution effect of vapor generated by the degradation of MH and synergistic catalytic carbonisation of PASn and TAZn. The second peak heat release rate, second peak smoke production rate and total smoke production of PVC/MH@PASn@TAZn composite decreased by 40.8%, 72.2% and 35.2%, respectively. The increase in the interfacial contact area of PASn and the enhancement of interfacial interaction of TAZn significantly improved the tensile strength, elongation at break, and impact strength of PVC. This study presents a promising approach to synthesise flame-retardant PVC with excellent smoke suppression and mechanical properties.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Shear exfoliation of graphite into graphene nanoflakes directly within
           polyetheretherketone and a spectroscopic study of this high modulus,
           lightweight nanocomposite
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Jennifer K. Lynch-Branzoi, Ali Ashraf, Arya Tewatia, Meredith Taghon, Jamie Wooding, Justin Hendrix, Bernard H. Kear, Thomas J. NoskerThis research demonstrates a general approach to produce graphene enhanced polymer matrix composites (G-PMCs) using in situ shear exfoliation of mined graphite directly within molten thermoplastic polymer. It is found that shear exfoliation of 35 wt % graphite within polyetheretherketone (PEEK) after multipass processing creates graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) that are uniformly distributed and bonded to PEEK, resulting in a nearly 400% increase in tensile modulus. Morphology images show surface crystallization of PEEK on GNF surfaces, very good planar adhesion, and size reduction of GNFs in both the c-axis direction and in diameter due to fracture across the basal plane. Spectroscopic analysis from Raman and XPS spectra indicate in-situ formation of chemical bonding between created GNFs and PEEK. This shear exfoliation melt-mixing method allows high GNF concentration, intimate particle-matrix interaction, in situ functionalization, and provides a platform changing technology for lightweight, stiff PMCs with low raw materials costs, tunable properties, and simple part fabrication methods.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • High resolution depth and area measurements of low velocity impact damage
           in carbon fiber laminates via an ultrasonic technique
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Benjamin M. Blandford, David A. JackAbstractThis research presents a method using high frequency ultrasonics to quantify the location, extent, and depth of damage in a carbon fiber laminated composite subjected to a low velocity impact (LVI) producing a Barely Visible Impact Damage (BVID) zone. Carbon fiber laminated composites are used extensively in a wide variety of industries from aerospace to athletic gear. Laminated composites provide a favorable strength to weight ratio but due to their layered structure an interior lamina can be damaged with little to no externally observed damage. This paper analyzes four in-house fabricated carbon fiber laminated composites with a custom high-resolution ultrasonic immersion C-scan system, that have been subjected to increasing levels of low velocity impacts (LVI's) to produce Barely Visible Impact Damage (BVID). Two mathematical techniques are used in analyzing C-scan data to obtain high image contrast and an unbiased ply-by-ply technique is used to create internal 3D profiles of laminate damage due to LVI's. These regions of damage are substantially larger than anticipated based off of surface profile measurements, thus significantly underestimating the reduction in the load carrying capacity of the damaged system. Finite element results of the reduction in load carrying capacity of simple plaques with a damage region obtained exclusively from surface observations of the damage zone indicate in each scenario investigated a reduction of 55–60% in load carrying capacity. Conversely, studies using the actual 3D damage zone from ultrasonic measurements indicate reduction in overall load carrying capacity for the same plaques a 65–75% reduction from that of the undamaged composite.
  • Harnessing the ductility of polylactic acid/ halloysite nanocomposites by
           synergistic effects of impact modifier and plasticiser
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Swati Sharma, Anshu Anjali Singh, Abhijit Majumdar, Bhupendra Singh ButolaAbstractThis study explores the efficacy of different additives for tuning ductility of polylactic acid (PLA) without significantly affecting its mechanical and thermal properties. Selective additives with unique characteristics, namely an impact modifier (lotader AX8900), a plasticiser (triethyl citrate- TEC), and a reinforcement (halloysite nanotubes-HNT) were extruded with PLA in different mass ratios, and resulting composites were evaluated for rheological, mechanical and thermomechanical characteristics. The thermomechanical analysis showed that PLA/HNT nanocomposites had 20 times higher storage modulus after rubbery stage, indicating excellent interaction of PLA/HNT. Addition of lotader in PLA/HNT composites reduced the crystallinity to 2% from 21% without affecting the glass transition (Tg) temperature; in contrast, addition of TEC had just the opposite effect. Lotader, individually and in combination with TEC, improved the elongation at break by 14 and 18 times, respectively. The addition of HNT in presence of lotader and TEC also improved the elongation by 19 times. However, lotader and TEC worked synergistically to improve the most sought-after characteristic of PLA, i.e., ductility while maintaining similar tensile properties.
  • Formation mechanism of hierarchically crystalline structures under coupled
           external fields in multi-melt multi-injection molding: Simulation and
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Li-Bo Chen, Yan-Hao Huang, Lei Liu, Xin Zhao, Zheng-Ying Liu, Wei Yang, Ming-Bo YangIn order to clarify the formation mechanism of hierarchically crystalline structures in multi-melt multi-injection molding (M3IM), the structures around the interface were examined, as well as the shear fields and temperature fields were simulated by 3D finite volume method (3D-FVM) and volume of fluid (VOF) method. It is found that theoretically isotactic polypropylene (iPP) tends to form highly oriented superstructures when subjected a critical shear rate of about 1200 s−1 and a cooling rate of 12.5 °C s−1 in the second penetration process of M3IM, while high density polyethylene (HDPE) shows some otherwise in critical conditions to form oriented morphologies in the penetrated layer, i.e., cooling rate of 10 °C s−1 is inadequate for HDPE shish-kebab structures fabrication even though the shear rate surpasses 1200 s−1. This work constructs a bridge between coupled external fields analyzing which involves a multiphase interface and complicate crystal morphologies prediction under multiple melt flow in a facile way.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Bioinspired functionally graded gyroid sandwich panel subjected to
           impulsive loadings
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Chenxi Peng, Phuong TranAbstractGradual and localised changes in mechanical properties can be achieved by functionally graded cellular structures with the aim to improve structural performance. Gyroid belongs to a class of cellular structures that naturally inspired continuous non-self-intersecting surfaces with controllable mechanical properties. In this work, dynamic compression on functionally graded gyroid and sandwich composite panels constructed from functionally graded gyroid core and metallic facets are numerically investigated and compared to evaluate the dynamic behaviours when subjected to extreme loadings. The Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is employed to characterises the deformation of proposed structures considering the rate-dependent properties, elastoplastic response and nonlinear contact. The Johnson-Cook model is utilised to capture the rate-dependent dynamic responses of the gyroid panels. The numerical model is then validated with experimental results under quasi-static compression. Owing to the symmetry, only a quarter of the gyroid panel is modelled using shell elements, which significantly reduces the computational cost. A series of studies are conducted to demonstrate the influences of different functionally graded cores on the blast resistances of gyroid composite panels. Reaction forces and critical stresses extracted from underneath protected structure are assessed. Gyroid sandwich structures clearly demonstrate unique dynamic crushing responses, impact energy mitigation & dissipation mechanisms, which leads to enhancement of the blast resistance.
  • Effects of nanotube agglomeration on wave dynamics of carbon
           nanotube-reinforced piezocomposite cylindrical shells
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Composites Part B: EngineeringAuthor(s): Hossein Bisheh, Timon Rabczuk, Nan WuAbstractDynamics of wave propagation in carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced piezocomposite cylindrical shells affected by nanotube agglomeration is investigated in this study for the first time by developing an analytical approach incorporating existing theories and models. The Mori-Tanaka micromechanics model in combination of the first-order shear deformation shell theory and wave propagation solution are employed to determine wave propagation characteristics of piezocomposite cylindrical shells reinforced with agglomerated CNTs. The effects of both partial and complete nanotube agglomeration on the effective elastic properties and wave dynamics are examined within various axial and circumferential wave numbers for different wave modes by solving an eigenvalue problem. It is found that nanotube agglomeration leads to the reduction of wave phase velocity as a result of decrease in the effective elastic properties. The developed methodology in this study can be used for analysis of the data of structural health monitoring by the non-destructive testing (NDT) in estimating the degree of nanotube agglomeration in nanocomposites.
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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