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Journal Cover Journal of Cereal Science
  [SJR: 1.265]   [H-I: 82]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0733-5210 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9963
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3123 journals]
  • The quality of steam-cooked rice bread is directly linked with the level
           of starch gelatinization and the fluidity of fermented dough
    • Authors: Marcel Houngbédji; Yann E. Madodé; Christian Mestres; Noël Akissoé; John Manful; Brigitte Matignon; Joël Grabulos; D. Joseph Hounhouigan
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Marcel Houngbédji, Yann E. Madodé, Christian Mestres, Noël Akissoé, John Manful, Brigitte Matignon, Joël Grabulos, D. Joseph Hounhouigan
      Ablo is a rice or maize-based steam-cooked bread-like product, very popular in Benin, Togo and Ghana. This study optimized the processing steps of rice ablo using response surface methodology. The effect of precooking (proportions of flour and water, duration), kneading (wheat level, duration), fermentation (yeast level, temperature, duration) conditions to dough (gelatinization level, fluidity, proofing) and ablo (ethanol content, pH, density, cooking expansion, firmness, alveolar structure) properties were studied. It was demonstrated that ablo texture can be controlled by the fluidity of the fermented dough. Fluid fermented dough (at least 0.5 cm/s) expands adequately during steam-cooking and results in a less dense ablo in line with commonly consumed ablo. The optimal dough fluidity comes from a low gelatinization level of the precooked dough (less than 20%) and an intense fermentation (high yeast dose and long fermentation). Surprisingly, dough proofing appears to have no effect on final ablo expansion.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Effect of precooking on antinutritional factors and mineral
           bioaccessibility in kiwicha grains
    • Authors: Verónica Elizabeth Burgos; María Julieta Binaghi; Patricia Ana Ronayne de Ferrer; Margarita Armada
      Pages: 9 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Verónica Elizabeth Burgos, María Julieta Binaghi, Patricia Ana Ronayne de Ferrer, Margarita Armada
      Kiwicha is the most important genus of Amaranthus and has a high mineral content. However, it contains antinutritional factors that may influence their bioaccessibility. Thus, the aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of precooking on antinutritional factors and mineral bioaccessibility of iron, calcium and zinc in kiwicha grains. Puffed kiwicha (PK) had the highest bioaccessibility and potential contribution (PC) of iron. The bioaccessibility of zinc was reduced in PK and laminated kiwicha (LK). The heat treatment decreased the content of: total dietary fiber (11–14%), bound fraction (15–36%) and total polyphenols (15–16%) and inositol hexaphosphate (19–27%). Phytic acid free fraction and total polyphenols, values exhibited a high negative correlation with iron, calcium and zinc bioaccessibility. On the other hand, iron bioaccessibility improved with puffing and therefore PK had the highest PC to requirements for children (4–8 years old), pregnant women and aging adults. Puffing and lamination processes increased the calcium bioaccessibility but decreased that of zinc. We concluded that the precooking of kiwicha grain influenced on antinutritional factors and, consequently, the minerals bioaccessibility. It would be important to study the effect of other processes and the use of enhancers to improve mineral bioaccessibility and potential contribution.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.12.014
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Estimating genetic variation and genetic parameters for grain iron, zinc
           and protein concentrations in bread wheat genotypes grown in Iran
    • Authors: Reza Amiri; Sohbat Bahraminejad; Kianoosh Cheghamirza
      Pages: 16 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Reza Amiri, Sohbat Bahraminejad, Kianoosh Cheghamirza
      The low grain micronutrient concentrations particularly iron and zinc are well documented problems in wheat. Eighty bread wheat genotypes were assessed for grain iron (GFeC), zinc (GZnC) and protein (GPC) concentrations along with agronomic traits for two consecutive years under normal and terminal drought stress conditions within each year. The results of combined ANOVA revealed high significant genotypic variations for GFeC, GZnC and GPC as well as agronomic traits under both conditions. The genotype × year interaction was significant for thousand kernel weight (TKW) and GPC under normal and for TKW under drought stress conditions. According to average of both years, drought stress caused reduction in kernel yield (KY) and its components, while raising trends in GFeC, GZnC and GPC were observed. In all environments, KY had negative phenotypic and genotypic correlations with GFeC, GZnC and GPC. Broad sense heritability of GZnC, GFeC and GPC were observed as moderate to high under normal conditions across two years. Cluster analysis showed that the older genotypes and landraces were located on a separate cluster with high GFeC, GZnC and GPC and low KY. Finally, the two extreme groups of genotypes were identified in order to be used as parent in crossing programs.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Functional and physical properties of cookies enriched with dephytinized
           oat bran
    • Authors: B. Baumgartner; B. Özkaya; I. Saka; H. Özkaya
      Pages: 24 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): B. Baumgartner, B. Özkaya, I. Saka, H. Özkaya
      Oat bran is widely used for enrichment of health-oriented products due to their high dietary fiber (DF) and bioactive compounds contents. However, its high phytic acid (PA) content generally is overlooked. PA is an antinutrient which decreases bioavailability of minerals and proteins. Therefore, our aim was to produce oat bran cookies with low PA content. Oat bran was dephytinized with two different methods (fermentation and hydrothermal). Cookies were prepared by substitution of flour with dephytinized oat brans (0%, 7%, 14% and 21%) and evaluated in terms of physical characteristics, functional and sensory properties. Dephytinized oat brans supplemented cookies had significantly low PA content. Additionally, this supplementation enhanced DF content, phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity of corresponding cookies much more than untreated bran. Oat bran and dephytinized oat bran addition has similar effects on cookies, resulted in higher spread ratios, harder texture and darker color. Their sensory evaluation scores are promising, especially fermented oat bran's. These results show dephytinized oat brans have a great potential use in bakery industry, does not have to be limited with cookies but also could be suitable for different types of baked goods.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Identification of proteins contained in aqueous extracts of wheat bran
           through a proteomic approach
    • Authors: Guadalupe Chaquilla-Quilca; René Renato Balandrán-Quintana; José Ángel Huerta-Ocampo; Gabriela Ramos-Clamont Montfort; Jesús Guadalupe Luna-Valdez
      Pages: 31 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Guadalupe Chaquilla-Quilca, René Renato Balandrán-Quintana, José Ángel Huerta-Ocampo, Gabriela Ramos-Clamont Montfort, Jesús Guadalupe Luna-Valdez
      Proteins of aqueous extracts of wheat bran are usually considered as the albumin fraction, and have been characterized in terms of molecular weight, amino acid content and functional properties. However, there are no reports on the variety of the extracted proteins and their amino acid sequence, despite this information would be useful if the extracts were used in distinct applications. In the present work, the proteins contained in the aqueous extracts of wheat bran were separated by SDS-PAGE. Nineteen bands with molecular weights in the range 8─93 kDa were revealed in the SDS-PAGE gels. After tryptic digestion of proteins, the resulting peptides were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. Database search against the Viridiplantae subset of the NCBInr protein database resulted in 39 unique proteins, 11 from which had not been previously identified in different sections of the wheat grain through proteomic analysis. Most of the proteins were metabolic and stress defense enzymes, with the storage proteins representing just a minor fraction.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Tartary buckwheat malt as ingredient of gluten-free cookies
    • Authors: Romina Molinari; Lara Costantini; Anna Maria Timperio; Veronica Lelli; Francesco Bonafaccia; Giovanni Bonafaccia; Nicolò Merendino
      Pages: 37 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Romina Molinari, Lara Costantini, Anna Maria Timperio, Veronica Lelli, Francesco Bonafaccia, Giovanni Bonafaccia, Nicolò Merendino
      The impact of malting on the profile of the phenolic compounds and the antioxidant properties of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum L. Gaertn.) was investigated. A considerable increase in total phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant activity were observed after 88 h of germination. The highest relative increases in phenolic compounds were observed for quercetin, orientin, and vitexin, which are consequently major inducible phenolic compounds during malting. Only a minor relative increase was observed for the most abundant phenolic compound, rutin. Formulations of gluten-free cookies based on rice flour and buckwheat malt or flour in ratios 70:30, have been produced. In the raw material and cookies the proximate composition, starch, resistant starch, total polyphenols, profile of polyphenols, antioxidant activity and expected glycemic index were determined. Gluten-free cookies made with rice flour and buckwheat malt exhibited significantly higher total phenolic and quercetin contents. Comparing to control cookies higher antioxidant activity and lower glycemic index (p < 0.05) was found.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.11.011
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Sorption isotherm and state diagram for indica rice starch with and
           without soluble dietary fiber
    • Authors: Jie Wan; Yueping Ding; Guohui Zhou; Shunjing Luo; Chengmei Liu; Fei Liu
      Pages: 44 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Jie Wan, Yueping Ding, Guohui Zhou, Shunjing Luo, Chengmei Liu, Fei Liu
      Moisture sorption isotherms and state diagrams for indica rice starch (IRS) and indica rice starch-soluble dietary fiber (IRS-SDF) were developed to investigate the effect of SDF on the stability of IRS. Sorption isotherms of IRS and IRS-SDF were determined by the static gravimetric method and the data were modeled by Guggenheim–Anderson–de Boer (GAB) model. The GAB monolayer moisture contents were calculated to be 7.43 and 8.37 g/100g (dry basis) for IRS and IRS-SDF, respectively. The state diagram was composed of the glass transition line and freezing curve, which were fitted according to Gordon–Taylor and Chen models, respectively. The ultimate maximum-freeze-concentration conditions were calculated as characteristic glass transition temperature (T g ’) of −42.5 °C and −31.5 °C with characteristic solids content (X s ') being 0.71 and 0.72 g/g (wet basis), and characteristic temperature of end point of freezing (T m ’) being −18.2 °C and −13.8 °C for IRS and IRS-SDF, respectively. The state diagrams and sorption isotherms of IRS and IRS-SDF have great significance for evaluating storage stability, optimizing drying and freezing processes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Use of durum wheat clear flour in vital gluten and bioethanol production
    • Authors: Abdulvahit Sayaslan; Mehmet Koyuncu; Selman Türker; Yavuz Irklı; Abdullah Serin; Fatma Gülşah Orhan
      Pages: 50 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Abdulvahit Sayaslan, Mehmet Koyuncu, Selman Türker, Yavuz Irklı, Abdullah Serin, Fatma Gülşah Orhan
      During milling of durum wheat (Triticum durum) into semolina used for pasta processing, certain amount of clear flour (5–15%) with low economic value is obtained. This study aimed at determining the suitability of durum clear flours for vital gluten and bioethanol productions. The durum clear flours were wet-processed into vital gluten by three wet-milling methods, namely dough-washing, dough-water dispersion and flour-water dispersion. Vital glutens with acceptable purities (71.0–82.1% protein, Nx5.7, dm), yields (9.8–14.3%, dm) and recoveries (48.7–76.8%) were achieved by the dough-water and flour-water dispersion methods. However, vital gluten by the dough-washing method could not be isolated satisfactorily. The dough mixing and breadmaking qualities of vital glutens from the clear flours were found comparable to the commercial vital gluten. The carbohydrate-rich remnants of the clear flours upon isolation of glutens were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis and yeast fermentation, leading to ethanol yields and conversion efficiencies of 32.2–33.5% (g/g, based on clear flour solids) and 80.5–87.6%, respectively. In conclusion, except for the dough-washing method, vital gluten and bioethanol with acceptable purities, yields, recoveries and qualities can be produced by the dough-water and flour-water dispersion methods.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.014
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Contribution of zein content and starch characteristics to vitreousness of
           commercial maize hybrids
    • Authors: Kristina Kljak; Marija Duvnjak; Darko Grbeša
      Pages: 57 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Kristina Kljak, Marija Duvnjak, Darko Grbeša
      Fast, simple laboratory methods were used to analyze 22 maize samples varying in kernel vitreousness from 50.23% to 76.41%. Samples were analyzed in terms of zein content (53.86–86.37 g/kg endosperm DM), amylose content (190.76–259.77 g/kg endosperm DM), amylose to amylopectin ratio in starch (0.28–0.43), as well as starch granule size (10.95–14.89 μm in equivalent diameter) and starch granule shape (circularity, 0.85–0.94). More vitreous samples had higher zein and amylose content, as well as smaller and less circular starch granules. Nearly all grain traits on their own significantly affected vitreousness, and a multiple regression model to account for their combined effects was able to explain 61.8% of variability in kernel vitreousness. Zein content contributed most to the model, followed by starch granule projected area and circularity. In contrast, the amylose content contributed only 5.1% to the model. These results suggest that starch-protein interactions influence maize kernel vitreousness more strongly than starch molecular properties do.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Comparison of pregelatinization methods on physicochemical, functional and
           structural properties of tartary buckwheat flour and noodle quality
    • Authors: Xiaojing Sun; Wenhao Li; Yayun Hu; Xingjie Zhou; Mengying Ji; Didi Yu; Kaori Fujita; Eizo Tatsumi; Guangzhong Luan
      Pages: 63 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Xiaojing Sun, Wenhao Li, Yayun Hu, Xingjie Zhou, Mengying Ji, Didi Yu, Kaori Fujita, Eizo Tatsumi, Guangzhong Luan
      The microstructural, physicochemical, nutritional, functional and protein structural properties of buckwheat flour as affected by different pregelatinization treatment including roasting, steaming, extrusion, boiling and microwave before milling were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed that flours treated by boiling and extrusion displayed more swollen and more compacted flour particles than raw, roasted and microwave treated flours. Native buckwheat flours displayed lower values of gelatinization degree, swelling power and hydration capacity than pretreated flours, while pretreated flours were darker and more reddish than native flour. Regarding the functional ingredients, native flours have more total flavonoid, rutin and content than quercetin treated flours with the exception of steaming and extrusion. The different pregelatinization treated buckwheat flours showed a remarkably decrease in their viscosities as revealed by rapid visco analyzer (RVA). Furthermore, the primary structure of buckwheat protein did no change with different pretreatments, whereas the extrusion treatment seemed to induce a conjugation between protein molecules. The pregelatinized buckwheat flours were also observed to have potential for producing high quality and functional noodles.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Betaine, choline and folate content in different cereal genotypes
    • Authors: Mohammed E. Hefni; Franziska Schaller; Cornelia M. Witthöft
      Pages: 72 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Mohammed E. Hefni, Franziska Schaller, Cornelia M. Witthöft
      The importance of dietary methyl donors, e.g. betaine, choline and folate, is increasingly being recognised. This study examined variations in methyl donor concentrations in different cereals grown in Sweden. Fourteen cereal samples, representing different genera and cultivars, were analysed using HPLC-UV/FLD. The content of methyl donors in the cereals varied significantly due to cereal genotype. Betaine content varied most, with 28 mg/100 g DM in oats and 176 mg/100 g DM in rye. Total choline varied less, with 67 mg/100 g DM in rye and 149 mg/100 g DM in naked barley. In wheat, the lowest concentration of folate with 36 μg/100 g DM was found, and the highest of 91 μg/100 g DM in barley. Esterified choline was the major contributor to total choline content (80–95%) in the cereals. Free choline was less abundant, ranging from 3 to 27 mg/100 g DM. 5-CHO-H4folate was the dominant folate form in all cereals, amounting to approx. 35–50% of the sum of folates, as determined after pre-column conversion. Due to the limited number of available cultivars, no interpretation regarding effects from cultivar can be made. In conclusion, the studied cereal genotypes are good sources of methyl donors, but concentrations show considerable variation between different cereals.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Do ancient types of wheat have health benefits compared with modern bread
           wheat'
    • Authors: Peter R. Shewry
      Pages: 469 - 476
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 79
      Author(s): Peter R. Shewry
      A number of studies have suggested that ancient wheats have health benefits compared with modern bread wheat. However, the mechanisms are unclear and limited numbers of genotypes have been studied, with a particular focus on Kamut® (Khorasan wheat). This is important because published analyses have shown wide variation in composition between genotypes, with further effects of growth conditions. The present article therefore critically reviews published comparisons of the health benefits of ancient and modern wheats, in relation to the selection and growth of the lines, including dietary interventions and comparisons of adverse effects (allergy, intolerance, sensitivity). It is concluded that further studies are urgently required, particularly from a wider range of research groups, but also on a wider range of genotypes of ancient and modern wheat species. Furthermore, although most published studies have made efforts to ensure the comparability of material in terms of growth conditions and processing, it is essential that these are standardised in future studies and this should perhaps be a condition of publication.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2018)
       
  • Towards a genetic road map of wheat-processing quality
    • Authors: R.J. Henry; C.W. Wrigley
      Pages: 516 - 517
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 79
      Author(s): R.J. Henry, C.W. Wrigley
      The elucidation of wheat-quality genetics may be seen metaphorically as a road map to greater knowledge, and also as an interlocking jigsaw puzzle. Major genes relevant to the attributes needed for wheat-processing quality have been identified, namely, protein content, grain hardness, milling yield, dough strength, dough extensibility, baking quality, starch-paste viscosity and nutritional value.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.12.010
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2018)
       
  • Analysis of the natural dehydration mechanism during middle and late
           stages of wheat seeds development by some physiological traits and
           iTRAQ-based proteomic
    • Authors: Lulu Chen; Zhenlin Wang; Meiling Li; Xueli Ma; Enyun Tian; Aiqing Sun; Yanping Yin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Lulu Chen, Zhenlin Wang, Meiling Li, Xueli Ma, Enyun Tian, Aiqing Sun, Yanping Yin
      Jimai 22 wheat seeds collected at eight developmental stages [20–38 days after anthesis (daa)] were used to characterize the natural dehydration of wheat seeds. An iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics technique was applied to identify differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) and evaluate several physiological traits at 20, 26, 32 and 38 daa. Superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities as well as soluble sugar and soluble protein contents increased during dehydration, while the malondialdehyde content decreased. These results suggested that the antioxidant capacity of seeds increased during the dehydration process. A total of 128 proteins exhibited at least a 1.5-fold difference in abundance relative to the control levels in naturally dehydrating seeds. Forty of the DAPs were related to defense/stress responses. We observed an increase in the abundance of five late embryogenesis abundant proteins, five serpins, a heat shock cognate 70-kDa protein, and the 17.7-kDa Class I heat shock protein, with peak levels detected at 38 daa. Additionally, starch and sucrose metabolic activities were also associated with the natural dehydration of wheat seeds, with trehalose-6-phosphate synthase 7 increasing in abundance during the dehydration process.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.12.015
       
  • The effect of soaking regime and moderate drying temperature on the
           quality of buckwheat-based product
    • Authors: Iveta Brožková; Tomáš Zapletal; Lucie Kroutilová; Tomáš Hájek; Petra Moťková; Libor Červenka
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Iveta Brožková, Tomáš Zapletal, Lucie Kroutilová, Tomáš Hájek, Petra Moťková, Libor Červenka
      The effect of four soaking regimes: 5 °C/20 °C with/without changing of soaking water followed by oven-drying at 40 °C–70 °C on various characteristics of buckwheat-based products was evaluated. Soaking buckwheat groats, hazelnuts and prunes at 5 °C was more favourable to total phenolic content, quercetin level and significantly decreased Escherichia coli counts in comparison with those obtained at 20 °C. The highest contents of phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidant capacity were observed upon drying at 40 °C followed by its decrease with the increase in drying temperature. While quercetin content seemed to be unaffected by drying temperature, rutin content increased. A small but gradual increase of Maillard products was observed at 40 °C–60 °C followed by a steep rise at 70 °C. Total coliforms and E. coli counts increased to >6.0 log cfu/g in products dried at 40 °C but decreased below 1.0 log cfu/g when dried at 50 °C–70 °C.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.015
       
  • Extraction of purple corn (Zea mays L.) cob pigments and phenolic
           compounds using food-friendly solvents
    • Authors: Fei Lao; M. Monica Giusti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Fei Lao, M. Monica Giusti
      Purple corn cob (PCC) is an economic anthocyanin-rich source that could serve as food colorant. Pigment extraction from PCC using mild solvent can be difficult because PCC have hard texture and complex matrix. Due to toxicity concerns, most acidified aqueous organic solvents that produce high anthocyanin recovery from PCC are not desirable for food applications. In this study a consumer-friendly solvent (aqueous ethanol) was used at different ethanol ratios (0–100%) to determine PCC anthocyanin recovery as compared to methanol and 70% (v/v) aqueous acetone. Different acidity levels (0–2% 6 N HCl, v/v) were also investigated to see if the PCC pigment extraction yield could be improved by adjusting solvent acidity. The PCC extract obtained by water-ethanol ratio around 1:1 (40%–60% ethanol) achieved highest yield of monomeric anthocyanins (>13.5 mg/g FW) with low polymeric color, comparable to 70% acetone (14.3 mg/g FW). The amount of PCC monomeric anthocyanin and phenolics recovery extracted with different water-ethanol combination could be predicted using quadratic models (R2 = 0.94 and 0.95). The solvent acidity seemed to impacted water PCC extraction but not much in 70% acetone extraction. This study provides valuable reference information to extract pigments from PCC for potential food application, as synthetic red dye alternatives.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.001
       
  • A study of factors influencing the water absorption capacity of Canadian
           hard red winter wheat
    • Authors: Harry Sapirstein; Yao Wu; Filiz Koksel; Robert Graf
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Harry Sapirstein, Yao Wu, Filiz Koksel, Robert Graf
      The nature of variation in water absorption capacity in Canadian hard red winter (HRW) wheat genotypes was studied. Wheat and flour were evaluated for a range of physical and chemical properties including hardness indices, protein content, total and water-extractable arabinoxylan (WEAX) contents and flour particle size by laser diffraction. Absorption, as measured by farinograph (FA) ranged from 54 to 66%. The most highly correlated conventional parameters to FA were protein and WEAX contents, particle size index and starch damage, with correlations ranging from r=0.37 to 0.56 in absolute values. The volume fractions of large and small flour particles had the highest correlations to FA (r∼0.67). Multivariate regression analysis produced 3 or 4 variable models of FA prediction with R2 ranging from 0.64 to 0.95, depending on the sample population. Results indicated that FA is a complex quality parameter with low values attributable to one or more of low levels of wheat hardness, protein content or AX content, depending on genotype. Improving FA in HRW wheat consistent with hard spring wheat appears to be feasible by increasing concentration of deficient parameters by breeding, especially WEAX which has high heritability and ample variation in the HRW wheat germplasm that was studied.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.012
       
  • Evaluation of sample preparation methods for rice geographic origins
           classification using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy
    • Authors: Ping Yang; Yining Zhu; Xinyan Yang; Jiaming Li; Shisong Tang; Zhongqi Hao; Lianbo Guo; Xiangyou Li; Xiaoyan Zeng; Yongfeng Lu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Ping Yang, Yining Zhu, Xinyan Yang, Jiaming Li, Shisong Tang, Zhongqi Hao, Lianbo Guo, Xiangyou Li, Xiaoyan Zeng, Yongfeng Lu
      Food quality is related to geographic origins. The frequent occurrence of safety affairs in agricultural products makes it necessary to establish a rapid method for monitoring the quality and safety and classifying origins. In this work, 20 kinds of rice samples from different geographic origins were chosen as samples. Four different sample preparation methods, like rice powder pellet with boric acid (RPPBA), rice powder pellet (RPP), rice grain pellet (RGP) and rice grain (RG), were used to compare the results of rice origins classification using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Support vector machine (SVM) was applied to study if the information contained in LIBS spectra was able to classify different geographic origins. The results show that the classification accuracies of these four different sample preparation methods of RPPBA, RPP, RGP, and RG were 93.70%, 95.20%, 98.80%, and 99.20%, respectively; the 5-fold cross-validation classification accuracies were 94.50%, 97.35%, 99.25%, and 99.20%, respectively; and the sample preparation times were 15, 12, 10, and 1 min, respectively. It can be concluded that the RG method was found to be simpler and more efficient. The LIBS technique combined with chemometric method should be a promising tool to rapidly distinguish different rice geographic origins.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.007
       
  • Investigation of the influence of bakery enzymes on non-yeasted dough
           properties during mixing
    • Authors: Filiz Koksel; Martin G. Scanlon
      Pages: 86 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 79
      Author(s): Filiz Koksel, Martin G. Scanlon
      Understanding the influence of bakery enzymes on dough properties during the early stages of the breadmaking process can help optimize the design of enzymes for the bakery industry. The objectives of this study were to determine whether bakery enzymes affected dough aeration during mixing and whether outcomes differed according to flour strength. Doughs were prepared from a strong breadmaking flour and a cookie flour to which various bakery enzymes were added. Dough density was measured, and the ultrasonic phase velocity and attenuation coefficient in the resonance frequency region for bubbles in dough were evaluated. Dough properties differed according to the enzyme and a significant interaction between enzyme type and flour strength was observed. For strong breadmaking wheat flour doughs, the greatest changes were observed for glucose oxidase, followed by xylanase and then cellulose. For the weak flour doughs, the largest changes were observed for doughs containing lipase and xylanase, with the effect of glucose oxidase being much less pronounced. The enzyme-dependent changes in acoustic signatures and in dough density demonstrate that some bakery enzymes influence bread crumb structure as early as at the mixing stage.

      PubDate: 2017-10-25T15:24:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • Effects of hot air treatment on the quality attributes of semidry-milled
           Indica rice
    • Authors: Meng-Ying Ren; Li-Tao Tong; Xianghong Li; Ding Xie; Lili Wang; Xianrong Zhou; Kui Zhong; Liya Liu; Sumei Zhou; Cuiping Yi
      Pages: 93 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 79
      Author(s): Meng-Ying Ren, Li-Tao Tong, Xianghong Li, Ding Xie, Lili Wang, Xianrong Zhou, Kui Zhong, Liya Liu, Sumei Zhou, Cuiping Yi
      To investigate the effects of hot air treatment (HAT) on the quality attributes of Indica rice semidry-milling, HAT was applied at various temperatures (45–120 °C) and processing times (0–240 min). The changes in grain-surface cracking, moisture absorption rate, damaged starch, rheological properties, microbial decontamination, and texture qualities were evaluated. HAT induced many cracks in the rice grains, shortening the soaking time to reach maximum water content (28%) to 8 min. However, at high temperatures, extending the HAT time slowed the water absorption rate. Under the optimum HAT conditions and soaking time, the total viable counts in the rice flour were similar to those of dry-milled rice flour (102–103 cfu/g), with no coliforms and few yeasts and molds. The damaged starch content, rheological and texture properties were similar to those of wet-milling. Therefore, an appropriate HAT can shorten the soaking time of the rice and clean it during the milling process.

      PubDate: 2017-10-25T15:24:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.10.011
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • High amylose wheat starch increases the resistance to deformation of wheat
           flour dough
    • Authors: Thu H. McCann; Stephen H. Homer; Sofia K. Øiseth; Li Day; Marcus Newberry; Ahmed Regina; Leif Lundin
      Pages: 440 - 448
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 79
      Author(s): Thu H. McCann, Stephen H. Homer, Sofia K. Øiseth, Li Day, Marcus Newberry, Ahmed Regina, Leif Lundin
      High amylose wheat (HAW) starch has been the focus of a number of nutritional studies, but there is limited information around its effect on the mechanical properties of wheat flour dough. This study investigated the size, shape and packing volume of HAW starch and their effect on the microstructure and rheology of dough. Four flour blends were formulated by adding vital wheat gluten and either HAW or commercial wheat starch to HAW flour to achieve a constant 14% protein content, but varied amounts of HAW starch. A large number of small and irregularly shaped HAW starch granules resulted in a high packing volume per gram of starch. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of optimally mixed doughs correlated the degree of starch granule aggregation with the level of HAW starch in the bi-continuous dough network. Small deformation rheology demonstrated that increased quantities of HAW starch in the dough increased the elastic modulus G′ values. Uniaxial extension measurements highlighted a synergy between HAW starch and sources of gluten proteins resulting in increased strain hardening. The impact of HAW starch on dough rheology was attributed to its irregular shape and large number of small granules leading to greater granule-granule interactions.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T11:54:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • Identification of suitable reference gene for quantitative transcription
           analysis (RT-qPCR) Fusarium culmorum genes in infected barley plants
    • Authors: Zuzana Faltusová; Jozef Pavel; Kateřina Vaculová; Jana Chrpová; Jaroslava Ovesná
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2017
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Zuzana Faltusová, Jozef Pavel, Kateřina Vaculová, Jana Chrpová, Jaroslava Ovesná


      PubDate: 2017-12-11T17:22:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.12.004
       
  • Interactions between gliadin adsorbed to the air-water interface and
           pectin added to the aqueous phase
    • Authors: Koki Matsushita; Shinya Ikeda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Koki Matsushita, Shinya Ikeda


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T15:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.10.019
       
  • Retention of alkylresorcinols, antioxidant activity and fatty acids
           following traditional hulled wheat processing
    • Authors: Elisa Giambanelli; Federico Ferioli; L. Filippo D’Antuono
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Elisa Giambanelli, Federico Ferioli, L. Filippo D’Antuono
      This study compared alkylresorcinols, fatty acids and antioxidant activity retention following hulled wheat processing by traditional and modern plants. Glume removal and kernel crushing were considered as characterising steps.Samples were collected from two traditional einkorn wheat bulgur processing plants in Turkey, one emmer wheat processing plant in Armenia and a modern two stage processing plant in Italy, also including pearling.Whole kernels showed higher alkylresorcinol contents (759-1037 mg kg-1 dm) and antioxidant activity with respect to the correspondent crushed products. Following crushing a decrease of total alkylresorcinol content was observed, with lowest amounts detected in the semolina-like fractions. Pearling did not determine a significant decrease of alkylresorcinols of the pearled output. However the waste obtained from pearling, mainly composed of bran parts, showed the highest alkylresorcinol amount (1493 mg kg-1 dm) and antioxidant activity. The waste from pearling resulted also the richest fraction of unsaturated alkylresorcinol homologues and unsaturated fatty acids. Among fatty acids, C18:2, C18:1 and C16 resulted the most abundant compounds in all fractions.All the plants showed similar performance, with higher alkylresorcinol decreases due to the loss of specific parts of kernel, such as germ and bran.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T15:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.10.010
       
  • Acid hydrolysis of waxy starches with different granule size for
           nanocrystal production
    • Authors: Brenda B. Sanchez de la Concha; Edith Agama-Acevedo; Maria C. Nuñez-Santiago; Luis A. Bello-Perez; Hugo S. Garcia; Jose Alvarez-Ramirez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Brenda B. Sanchez de la Concha, Edith Agama-Acevedo, Maria C. Nuñez-Santiago, Luis A. Bello-Perez, Hugo S. Garcia, Jose Alvarez-Ramirez
      Acid hydrolysis of waxy maize and amaranth starches was achieved for nanocrystal production. Both starches are of the waxy type with an A-type crystallinity pattern. The mean granule sizes were ∼1–2 μm for amaranth starch and ∼15–18 μm for waxy maize. The starches (15 g dry basis) were subjected to acid hydrolysis with 100 mL of 3.16 M H2SO4 at 40 °C for 3, 5 and 10 days. The hydrolysis extent was higher for amaranth starch, which had a smaller granule size, although the nanocrystal yield was lower because the hydrolysis reactions were more likely to destroy the more crystalline regions. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the relative crystallinity increased by approximately 50% after ten days of hydrolysis, although the intrinsic crystallinity order as indicated by the Miller indices was greatly affected. A determination of the chain length distribution showed that a smaller granule size favoured the formation of shorter chains because the hydrolysis reactions were promoted by the relatively small resistance of proton transport to the inner granule region.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T15:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.10.018
       
  • Effect of new generation enzymes addition on the physical, viscoelastic
           and textural properties of traditional Mexican sweet bread
    • Authors: J.A. Barbosa-Ríos; J. Castillón-Jardón; A.Y. Guadarrama-Lezama; N. Ponce-García; J. Alvarez-Ramirez; H. Carrillo-Navas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): J.A. Barbosa-Ríos, J. Castillón-Jardón, A.Y. Guadarrama-Lezama, N. Ponce-García, J. Alvarez-Ramirez, H. Carrillo-Navas
      Physical, viscoelastic (elastic and plastic work) and textural properties effects of adding new generation enzymes (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0%) on traditional Mexican sweet bread were studied. Physical properties as weight loss, pore uniformity, color, etc., improved with enzyme addition. Viscoelasticity properties were analyzed by uniaxial compression test under small strain, showing that the use of small enzyme fractions (∼0.25-0.5%) suffices to enhance mechanical behavior (higher elastic work) and cohesiveness and resilience parameters after of four storage days. This trend suggests a mechanism related to pore distribution and an equilibrium crust-crumb that lead to improved bread freshness over storage period. Overall, the results indicated that relatively low enzyme concentrations can led to important improvement in fabrication process in traditional Mexican sweet bread. The proposed enzyme concentrations are as small as 0.25-0.3%, corresponding to approximately half percentage enzyme frequently used in industrial bread production.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T15:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.10.012
       
  • Influence of ultrasound-assisted alkali treatment on the structural
           properties and functionalities of rice protein
    • Authors: Longtao Zhang; Zheng Pan; Kaiqing Shen; Xiaohua Cai; Baodong Zheng; Song Miao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Longtao Zhang, Zheng Pan, Kaiqing Shen, Xiaohua Cai, Baodong Zheng, Song Miao
      The poor solubility of rice protein (RP) limits its applications in food industry. In this study, the effects of ultrasound-assisted alkali (UAA) treatment on the solubility, structure and functional properties of RP were investigated. Using UAA treatment, the solubility of RP increased with increasing alkali concentration, reaching a maximum value of 19.79 mg/mL at an alkali concentration of 0.08 M. The solubility was improved by 230-fold compared to un-treated samples. In addition, a reduction in particle size and degradation of the protein subunit were observed. UAA seemed to unfold the protein internal structural conformation and expose buried functional groups, which are linked to good emulsifying properties and foaming properties. A decrease in zeta potential was also observed after UAA treatment, which could be the reason for the decreased stability of the emulsion. UAA treatment modified the protein structure and significantly improved solubility.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T15:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.10.013
       
  • Soft wheat quality characteristics required for making baking powder
           biscuits
    • Authors: Fengyun Ma; Byung-Kee Baik
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Fengyun Ma, Byung-Kee Baik
      Fifteen soft wheat varieties were evaluated for their grain, milling, flour and dough mixing characteristics, as well as their solvent retention capacities (SRCs), pasting properties and suitability for making baking powder biscuits, to identify wheat quality characteristics required for making biscuits. Grain and flour protein contents and sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation (SDSS) volume showed positive relationships with biscuit height and shape factor (SF). Kernel hardness, damaged starch content and water SRC exhibited negative correlations with biscuit specific volume (SV), while peak viscosity and grain protein content were positively associated with biscuit SV. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that biscuit height and SV can be predicted from flour protein content (R2=0.65) and damaged starch content (R2=0.69), respectively; while SDSS volume and flour yield together predict biscuit SF (R2=0.83). Cluster analysis based on biscuit height and SF indicated that seven soft wheat varieties with flour protein contents greater than 7.9% and SDSS volumes lower than 32.0 mL produce good-quality biscuits with high height, intermediate SF, great SV and soft crumb. The results of this study suggest that soft wheat flours with intermediate-to-high protein contents (7.9-9.7%), intermediate SDSS volumes (20.0-32.0 mL) and low damaged starch contents (1.9-3.4%) are suitable for making desirable-quality biscuits.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T15:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.10.016
       
  • An ELISA Based Method for Quantifying Arabinoxylan in Wheat Flour
    • Authors: Amber L. Hoffstetter; Daniel P. Griffin; Linda K. Brown; Jamie K. Alan; Eric L. Olson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Amber L. Hoffstetter, Daniel P. Griffin, Linda K. Brown, Jamie K. Alan, Eric L. Olson
      Arabinoxylans (AX) are a type of dietary fiber present in cereal grains. Recent studies have shown consuming water-extractable AX (WE-AX) can reduce blood glucose levels and prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria in the human gut. WE-AX can affect dough quality by increasing baking absorption and reducing gluten formation. Historically, WE-AX has been quantified using the phloroglucinol assay, however, this method is labor intensive and not amendable to large sample sizes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) quantify molecules through specific antigen-antibody binding. The monoclonal antibody LM11 specifically binds to wheat WE-AX and can be used in an ELISA based quantification. In this study, an ELISA was developed to quantify WE-AX in whole grain flour. Flour WE-AX content was evaluated using ELISA and the phloroglucinol assay in five varieties and two milling methods using a Retsch osilating mill and a Thomas Wiley mill. Moderate correlations were found between assays and milling methods. The ELISA assay was found to reduce sample processing time by 16.5 minutes. Twenty soft winter wheat varieties were evaluated for WE-AX content using ELISA. The ELISA developed in this study was found to be a highly accurate method of quantifying WE-AX in large sample sizes.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T15:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.10.014
       
  • Impact of water-extractable components from different cereals on the
           quality of oat bread
    • Authors: Anneleen Pauly; Jan A. Delcour
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Anneleen Pauly, Jan A. Delcour
      Loaf volume and crumb structure of oat bread are not comparable to those of bread from wheat flour. Hydrocolloids, surfactants and/or enzymes are often included in oat batter recipes for quality enhancement reasons. In this study, we examined the impact of water-extractable components from barley, oat, rye and wheat flour on oat bread quality. We speculated that such water extracts contain components which also would enhance the quality of oat bread. As expected, extract protein, non-starch polysaccharide, lipid and enzyme levels varied widely amongst the different cereal flours used. The extracts also varied in foaming properties and extract viscosities. Rye flour contained the highest level of water-extractable components. Inclusion of rye aqueous extract resulted in the largest loaf volume increase and in softer crumb than noted for control oat bread. Rheofermentometer analyses showed that the moment of gas cell opening was delayed when rye extract was added, indicating improved batter gas cell stabilization, while collapse during baking was not affected. The oat bread improving effect of the rye extract is likely due to a combination of the impact of different of its constituents such as enzymes and surface active components.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T15:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.10.006
       
  • Partial purification of components in rye water extractables which improve
           the quality of oat bread
    • Authors: Anneleen Pauly; Jan A. Delcour
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Anneleen Pauly, Jan A. Delcour
      Unlike wheat bread, the dough of which has a visco-elastic network and high gas-holding capacity, oat bread generally has a low volume and a dense structure. We showed earlier that including rye water-extractable components in an oat bread batter recipe increases loaf volume by ca. 30% (Pauly and Delcour, submitted as back-to-back publication). We here report on efforts to identify the active factor(s). Anion exchange chromatography allowed enriching the active factor(s). This and the fact that only a limited volume increase was observed when oat batter was supplemented with boiled rye extract indicate that proteins are likely the most important components responsible for the volume increase. While the most active factor(s) had a pI below 4.5, components with pI values between 4.5 and 8.5 also contributed to oat loaf volume. Alkaline rye components (pI > 8.5) or rye arabinoxylan had no impact. Rye water-extractable components smaller than 6–8 kDa also had a positive impact on loaf volume.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T15:17:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.10.007
       
  • Genetic analysis of kernel texture (grain hardness) in a hard red spring
           wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bi-parental population
    • Authors: Jeffrey D. Boehm; M. Itria Ibba; Alecia M. Kiszonas; Deven R. See; Daniel Z. Skinner; Craig F. Morris
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Jeffrey D. Boehm, M. Itria Ibba, Alecia M. Kiszonas, Deven R. See, Daniel Z. Skinner, Craig F. Morris
      Kernel texture (grain hardness) is a key trait that influences the milling and baking quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Herein, hard red spring wheat varieties Butte86 and ND2603, possessing the Pina-D1b and Pinb-D1b alleles, respectively, were used as parents in the development of 132 recombinant inbred lines (RIL). The RIL population and its parents were phenotyped for single kernel characterization system (SKCS) and NIR kernel texture, grain protein content, test weight, SKCS weight, and SKCS diameter, and genotyped using next-generation genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technology, SSR markers and allele-specific sequence tagged site markers. Linkage maps for the entire RIL population and for two subsets of RILs, grouped on the basis of the Puroindoline-D1 alleles, were developed using a total of 695 markers. Multiple QTL mapping identified 10 QTLs for SKCS and NIR kernel texture with significant loci on 1AS, 1BS, 1BL, 5AL, 5BL, 6BL and 7BS. Of these, the 1BS QTL was associated with the Glu-B3 amplicon 691, and one of the 1BL QTL with Glu-B1. All QTL conferred an additive effect of ∼3–8 hardness units, a difference in kernel texture similar to or greater than the difference between the Pina-D1b and Pinb-D1b hardness mutations.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T15:17:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.09.015
       
  • Zein film functionalized atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopic
           evaluations on surface differences between hard and soft wheat flour
    • Authors: Jin Kwek; Kaliramesh Siliveru Shuying Cheng Qisong R.P.Kingsly Ambrose
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Jin W. Kwek, Kaliramesh Siliveru, Shuying Cheng, Qisong Xu, R.P.Kingsly Ambrose
      Fundamental differences exist between the surfaces of hard and soft wheat flours. Ranging from surface roughness, chemical composition to cohesive forces, these differences could affect the flow behaviour of wheat flour. In an attempt to address these differences, we developed a zein film functionalized atomic force microscopy technique to evaluate the surface forces on compacts of hard, soft wheat flour, and its pure components, starch and gluten. Using the pure wheat components as the baseline, we analyzed the chemical compositional differences via Raman spectroscopy coupled with Band–Target Entropy Minimization (BTEM®) algorithm. The zein film functionalization distinguishes between wheat starch and gluten with stronger interactions on starch at least twice that of gluten. In general, soft wheat flour has higher adhesion forces than hard wheat flour of the same particle size. Higher starch content at the expense of protein in soft wheat flour seems to suggest the difference. However, the microstructural difference of starch granules on the compacted surface could describe more adequately the effect of particle size on the interaction forces.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T15:00:23Z
       
  • Impact of thermochemical pre-treatment and carbohydrate and protein
           hydrolyzing enzyme treatment on fractionation of protein and lignin from
           brewer’s spent grain
    • Authors: Katariina Rommi; Piritta Niemi Katariina Kemppainen Kristiina Kruus
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Katariina Rommi, Piritta Niemi, Katariina Kemppainen, Kristiina Kruus
      The aim of this study was to investigate how fractionation of protein and lignin from brewer’s spent grain can be influenced by thermochemical and enzymatic pretreatments, including steam explosion, carbohydrase treatment and protease treatment. Following these pretreatments, protein and lignin were partially fractionated by alkaline extraction and acidic precipitation. Steam explosion and hydrolysis of cell wall polysaccharides substantially increased lignin solubilization and its recovery by acidic precipitation. Meanwhile, effective protein extraction required the use of protease, which increased protein solubilization from 15% to nearly 100% from otherwise untreated BSG. Steam explosion reduced the enzymatic protein solubilization but enhanced the extract recovery in the centrifugation step, presumably due to lower water-holding capacity of steam-exploded BSG compared to untreated BSG. Lignin and protein showed clear co-extraction and could only be partially separated by acidic precipitation, suggesting similar solubilities and strong interactions between these components. According to the results, protein and lignin are extractable from BSG after suitable pretreatments. This work provided increased understanding of the chemistry and interactions underlying the challenges in fractionation of BSG components.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T15:00:23Z
       
  • A Quantification Method of Retrogradation for Cooked Rice based on a
           Single Isolated Peak in X-ray Diffraction
    • Authors: Atsuko Nagataki; Haruo Tomita Yuki Himeda Toshikazu Takemori Mika Fukuoka
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Atsuko Nagataki, Haruo Tomita, Yuki Himeda, Toshikazu Takemori, Mika Fukuoka
      We have established a novel quantification method for the evaluation of cooked rice retrogradation by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD). We have focused on the diffraction peak at 5.5° 2θ, which is a single isolated peak apart from the fingerprint region and corresponds to 1.6 nm periodic structure. This signal in the lower angular region is representative of the retrogradation of cooked rice, which formed wide periodic structure with high water content. Our method does not require special pre-treatment of the sample such as drying/rehydration before measurement, complicated mathematical background correction, or peak separation procedures after measurement for evaluation of the crystallinity from the acquired XRD spectra. Furthermore, this method is very sensitive for the small amount of crystal region in the sample, that is, the retrogradation in the short term after cooking, especially for amylose based structure in rice starch. Thus, our proposed method can be applied for the rapid evaluation of short term starch retrogradation, such as one day after cooking for samples having high water content.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T15:00:23Z
       
  • Acrylamide in bread samples: Determining using ultrasonic-assisted
           extraction and microextraction method followed by gas chromatography-mass
           spectrometry
    • Authors: Elham Norouzi; Marzieh Kamankesh Abdorreza Mohammadi Abdolmohammad Attaran
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Elham Norouzi, Marzieh Kamankesh, Abdorreza Mohammadi, Abdolmohammad Attaran
      In the present research, a various bread samples were analyzed to determine acrylamide using highly sensitive ultrasonic assisted extraction and microextraction method. Xanthydrol was used in derivatization step and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as a powerful instrumentation was implied. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the effective factors in microextraction process. The best microextraction efficiency was obtained under optimum conditions. The calibration graph of the proposed method was linear in the range of 10-500 ng g-1 with the correlation coefficient (R2) 0.9982. The relative standard deviations were 5.4% (n=7). The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.54 ng g-1 and the recovery of these compounds in spiked bread sample was 98%. The increased sensitivity in using the proposed method has been demonstrated. Compared with other methods, UAE-DLLME-GC-MS is an accurate, sensitive, fast and reliable sample-pretreatment method for determining the very low amount of acrylamide in various bread samples.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T15:00:23Z
       
  • The effect of Ca2+ ions on the pasting, morphological, structural,
           vibrational, and mechanical properties of corn starch–water system
    • Authors: los Cornejo-Villegas; Natalia Alicia Del Mario
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): María de los Ángeles Cornejo-Villegas, Natalia Rincón-Londoño, Alicia Del Real-López, Mario E. Rodríguez-García
      This work focuses on the effects of different concentrations of Ca2+ ions 0, 0.10, 0.15, 0.25, and 0.35% w/w and the steeping time in corn starch-water system with and without heating, as well as the influence of the Ca2+ concentrations on the pasting profile, regarding the physicochemical changes that take place along the thermal process. The first and second derivatives of the pasting profiles were calculated to identify the main changes originated in the heating and cooling regions. The inclusion of Ca2+ ions has a strong effect at the end of the pasting profile; below the gelatinization temperature starch grains exhibit a semi-crystalline structure and were still integer, at the peak viscosity, the samples were amorphous as a result of the gelatinization, at the final viscosity the structure was complete amorphous observed in the X-ray patterns. Micrographs of the starch-water system with Ca2+ show that the morphology changed rapidly and depends on the Ca2+ concentrations. IR spectroscopy shows that Ca2+ions did not form any new chemical bonds, yet only the Van der Walls interaction occurred. We demonstrate for the first time the effect of calcium ions on the elastic and plastic regions of the custard and hydrogels.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T15:00:23Z
       
  • Characteristics of annealed glutinous rice flour and its formation of
           fast-frozen dumplings
    • Authors: Yue Li; Guangqin Ding; Wallace Yokoyama; Fang Zhong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Yue Li, Guangqin Ding, Wallace Yokoyama, Fang Zhong
      In this study, characteristics of glutinous rice flour annealed in different conditions were evaluated, and qualities of fast-frozen dumplings made with these annealed flour were determined. Three kinds of annealed glutinous rice flour obtained under different conditions (ANN1, 55% moisture, 50 °C, 4 h; ANN2, 55% moisture, 50 °C, 6 h and ANN3, 50% moisture, 55 °C, 6 h) showed higher resistant starch content (5.92%-11.67% of the whole flour), gelatinization temperature and storage modulus of the pastes. The breakdown and setback values were decreased and temperature range of gelatinization was narrowed from 14.5 °C to around 12 °C. The glutinous dumplings made of annealed flour showed better freezing, storage and boiling qualities, especially the lower cracking rate, water loss, hardness and better sensory quality. It was notable that the boiled dumplings made of annealed flour had slower in vitro digestion rate, due to the increased resistant starch content (8.62%-15.25%) caused by the annealed treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T15:00:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.09.016
       
  • Variation of protein MWD parameters and their associations with free
           asparagine concentration and quality characteristics in hard red spring
           wheat
    • Authors: Jae-Bom Ohm; Senay Simsek; Mohamed Mergoum
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Jae-Bom Ohm, Senay Simsek, Mohamed Mergoum
      The lower free asparagine concentration (FAC) in wheat is better since it is a precursor to form carcinogenic acrylamide during baking. This research was performed to determine the variations of protein molecular weight distribution (MWD) parameters and the associations of protein MWD parameters with quality characteristics and FAC using eleven hard red spring (HRS) wheat genotypes grown at three locations in North Dakota. Among MWD parameters, the polymeric proteins of SDS unextractable fraction were found to be useful in screening HRS wheat genotypes for low FAC and improvement of bread-making quality characteristics. The ANOVA indicated that growing locations and genotypes significantly (P<0.01) influenced variation of SDS unextractable polymeric protein parameters while effect of genotype by location interaction was non-significant (P>0.05). The quantity of SDS unextractable polymeric proteins had significant and positive genotypic correlations (rg) with quality characteristics including mixograph pattern (rg =0.87, P<0.01) and bread loaf volume (rg =0.86, P<0.01). The ratio of SDS unextractable polymeric proteins to total protein had a negative correlation with FAC (rg=-0.92, P<0.01). These results supported the conclusion that the genotypic variations were primarily associated with the significant (P<0.05) correlations of SDS unextractable polymeric protein parameters with mixograph pattern, bread loaf volume, and FAC.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T15:00:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.09.014
       
  • A low calorie and nutritive sorghum powdered drink mix: Influence of
           tannin on the sensorial and functional properties
    • Authors: Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz; Aline da Silva Aguiar; Cícero Beserra de Menezes; Carlos Wanderlei Piler de Carvalho; Caroline Liboreiro Paiva; Patrícia Costa Fonseca; Renata Regina Pereira da Conceição
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz, Aline da Silva Aguiar, Cícero Beserra de Menezes, Carlos Wanderlei Piler de Carvalho, Caroline Liboreiro Paiva, Patrícia Costa Fonseca, Renata Regina Pereira da Conceição
      Sorghum tannins are excellent antioxidants and may contribute to the health although their astringency is believed to be objectionable. This work aims to develop a low calorie and nutritive powdered drink mix with tannin-sorghum (PDT-3670) and tannin-free sorghum (PDTF-7064) extruded flours and to evaluate their sensorial, nutritional and functional properties. Both products were accepted on all attributes with acceptance from 70.9 to 93.2%. PDT-3670 had greater purchase intention than PDTF-7064 and better acceptability for flavor and overall acceptability. There was no difference in the aroma, texture and color acceptability between the two products. The antioxidant activity, phenols, tannins and anthocyanin contents were higher in the PDT-3670 powdered drink, having potential functional properties. Chemical analyzes indicated that both powdered formulates may be potential sources of fiber (7.9 - 9.1 g/100g) and proteins (18.5 g/100g). The serving size dissolved in water had 126.5 - 128.3 kcal and dissolved in milk 214 - 215.18 kcal. The tannin did not negatively influence the acceptance of drinks, and improved their functional properties. This nutritive and low calorie sorghum powdered drink mix has potential to be introduced, especially, into the gluten-free food market and can bring health benefits to the consumers.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T15:00:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.10.001
       
  • Flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolamides, benzoxazinoids, lignans and
           alkylresorcinols in rye (Secale cereale) and some rye products
    • Authors: Juha-Matti Pihlava; Jarkko Hellström; Tuula Kurtelius; Pirjo Mattila
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Juha-Matti Pihlava, Jarkko Hellström, Tuula Kurtelius, Pirjo Mattila
      Besides dietary fibre, rye (Secale cereale) grains are rich source of various phytochemicals such as phenolic acids, lignans and alkylresorcinols. The major aim of this study was to gain new insight into certain less studied phytochemicals e.g. flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolamides and benzoxazinoids in wholegrain rye and its milling fractions as well as in selected rye products by ultra performance liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometery (UPLC-QTOF). In addition, quantitation of total flavonoid content, anthocyanins, major benzoxazinoids and alkylresorcinols in the rye samples was accomplished by high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Although the concentration of flavonoids in rye was low compared to, e.g. berries and vegetables, the chemical diversity of flavonoids was high. Various phenolamides were also tentatively identified from rye and rye samples. High concentrations of benzoxazinoids were found in rye malt flour, coarsely ground rye malts and the traditional Finnish dish, mämmi.

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T14:39:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.09.009
       
  • Phenolic acids, avenanthramides, and antioxidant activity of oats defatted
           with hexane or supercritical fluid
    • Authors: Mallory Walters; Ana Paula Lima Ribeiro; Farah Hosseinian; Apollinaire Tsopmo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Mallory Walters, Ana Paula Lima Ribeiro, Farah Hosseinian, Apollinaire Tsopmo
      The aim of the study was to determine the effect of two defatting methods on antioxidant activities and polyphenol contents of oat milling fractions. Whole flour (WF), medium oat bran (MB), fine bran (FB) and low bran (LB) were defatted with hexane or supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) fluid and then extracted with aqueous methanol. Oil yields from SC-CO2 extraction were 3.1–5.3% compared to 2.3–5% for hexane. Three main avenanthramides (AVs) and five phenolic acids, vanillic, caffeic, para-coumaric, ferulic and cinnamic acids were quantified by HPLC. The AV contents of three of the defatted flour/bran samples (WF, LB, FB) were 1.7 to 2.4-fold higher when SC-CO2 was used instead of hexane. However, for MB sample, using SC-CO2 resulted in lower concentration of AVs (but not phenolic acids) compared to hexane implying that its larger particle size was a limiting factor for AVs only during the SC-CO2 step. FB had the highest amount of AVs (358.9 μg/g) compared to other samples (172.1–277.8 μg/g). The same trend was observed for phenolic acids. HPLC data corrected (p < 0.001) with ROO• scavenging activities. FB-SC-CO2 had the highest ROO• activity (23.0 μM TE/g) and highest inhibition of HO• radicals (25.5). In summary, SC-CO2 and fine particles were better facilitated the extraction of polyphenols in the defatted fraction and yielded higher radical scavenging activities.

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T14:39:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.09.010
       
  • Rice grain protein composition influences instrumental measures of rice
           cooking and eating quality
    • Authors: Jeanette L. Balindong; Rachelle M. Ward; Lei Liu; Terry J. Rose; Laura A. Pallas; Ben W. Ovenden; Peter J. Snell; Daniel L.E. Waters
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Jeanette L. Balindong, Rachelle M. Ward, Lei Liu, Terry J. Rose, Laura A. Pallas, Ben W. Ovenden, Peter J. Snell, Daniel L.E. Waters
      Rice cultivar starch composition differences do not completely explain variation in rice cooking and eating quality. Rice grain storage proteins possess divergent solubility properties suggesting they may contribute to cultivar differences in rice grain quality. Application of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis to protein extracts derived from medium and long grain advanced rice breeding lines revealed rice grain protein composition differences which were associated with instrumental measures of grain quality. Globulin content displayed little variation in both grain types. The mean glutelin content was higher in long grain rice lines than medium grains. Although the mean content of prolamins in medium and long grain rice were similar, the prolamin content of medium grains was more variable. Individual medium grain prolamin HPLC peaks, total prolamin content and the prolamin:glutelin + prolamin ratio were positively correlated with several rapid visco analyser (RVA) parameters. The long grain HPLC data displayed a similar pattern of correlations with RVA parameters but of reduced magnitude. Protein composition was associated with instrumental measures of grain quality in this set of germplasm and although the textural properties of rice are complex, these data suggest consideration of rice grain protein composition could contribute to breeding high quality rice.

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T14:39:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.09.008
       
  • Production of anthocyanin-enriched flours of durum and soft pigmented
           wheats by air-classification, as a potential ingredient for functional
           bread
    • Authors: Donatella Bianca Maria Ficco; Grazia Maria Borrelli; Valentina Giovanniello; Cristiano Platani; Pasquale De Vita
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Donatella Bianca Maria Ficco, Grazia Maria Borrelli, Valentina Giovanniello, Cristiano Platani, Pasquale De Vita
      Pigmented wheats have roles in development of functional foods because of their high levels of anthocyanins, which contribute to reduction of postprandial glycaemic levels. This study tested air-classification for production of anthocyanin-rich fractions of durum and soft pigmented wheats for use in bread formulations, which provided a coarse fraction (CF) and a medium-fine fraction (MF). The greatest increases in anthocyanins and their components, and in yellow pigments and antioxidant capacity, were for the blue soft wheat CF and the purple durum wheat MF. By varying the air-flow inlet valve, more CF and MF were obtained, as 220CF and 178MF of blue and purple wheats, respectively. These showed increased total anthocyanins of 1.4-fold and 1.8-fold, and yellow pigments of 1.2-fold and 1.3-fold, respectively, compared to their relative micronised wholemeals. These were chosen for bread making. Anthocyanin levels were consistently increased in bread from blue 220CF and refined flour (3:7, w/w), while they were minimal in bread from purple 178MF and refined soft wheat flour (4:6, w/w). Significant reductions in estimated glycaemic index of these breads were observed, as 46% and 30%, respectively. Finally, enriched bread from purple durum wheat 178MF had a pleasant aroma and good taste.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T14:16:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.09.007
       
  • Effectiveness of predictive markers for marker assisted selection of
           pro-vitamin A carotenoids in medium-late maturing maize (Zea mays L.)
           inbred lines
    • Authors: Sara Gebremeskel; Ana Luísa Garcia-Oliveira; Abebe Menkir; Victor Adetimirin; Melaku Gedil
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Sara Gebremeskel, Ana Luísa Garcia-Oliveira, Abebe Menkir, Victor Adetimirin, Melaku Gedil
      Development of pro-vitamin A (PVA) biofortified staple crops has been promoted as an option for addressing vitamin A deficiency in humans. Recently, crtRBI, lcyE and zep1 genes of carotenoid biosynthesis pathway have been identified as contributors to PVA accumulation in maize endosperm. High phenotyping cost and narrow genetic base for these nutritionally important compounds have been regarded as the major challenges. We evaluated the fidelity of existing functional markers along with new markers for PVA carotenoids and assessed the diversity of 108 maize inbreds using SSR markers. Among the existing markers, crtRB1-5′TE and crtRB1-3′TE exhibited highly significant association with PVA whereas marker Zep-SNP(801), developed in this study, was associated only with α-carotene. Collectively, a substantial improvement in the PVA content, including β-carotene, was observed with increased number of total favourable alleles. Cluster analysis based on SSR produced two major groups, each with three and two sub-groups, respectively. The inbreds containing favourable alleles of the functional markers were present in all sub-groups. Finally, this genetically diverse inbreds with high PVA can be used in breeding programme using marker-assisted selection to enhance PVA content in maize hybrids and cultivars developed for lowlands in sub-Saharan Africa.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T18:43:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.09.001
       
  • The impact of foliar applied zinc fertilizer on zinc and phytate
           accumulation in dorsal and ventral grain sections of four thai rice
           varieties with different grain zinc
    • Authors: Pennapa Jaksomsak; Patcharin Tuiwong; Benjavan Rerkasem; Georgia Guild; Lachlan Palmer; James Stangoulis; Chanakan T. Prom-u-thai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Pennapa Jaksomsak, Patcharin Tuiwong, Benjavan Rerkasem, Georgia Guild, Lachlan Palmer, James Stangoulis, Chanakan T. Prom-u-thai
      This study investigated the effect of foliar applied zinc (Zn) on the distribution of Zn and phytate in rice grain between four Thai rice varieties that differ in grain Zn. Foliar Zn application at 0.5% ZnSO4 was applied at flowering and the early milky stage compared with non-foliar applied Zn. Among the high-yielding, low grain Zn varieties (CNT1 and RD21), foliar applied Zn increased Zn concentration in both dorsal and ventral sections of unpolished rice by up to 17.7 and 14.3%. In the low-yielding, high grain Zn varieties (KPK and NR), Zn concentration increased by 11% in the dorsal section of NR, but no effect was found in both sections of KPK. In polished rice, the Zn concentration increased by 20% in both sections but it was increased only in the ventral section of KPK and CNT1 by 21.0% and 25.0% respectively, while there was an increase of 12.5% in the dorsal section of RD21. The phytate in the seed fractions was measured as an indication for Zn bioavailability within humans. A lower phytate concentration was observed after foliar Zn application in both unpolished and polished rice, indicating the potential for a higher bioavailability of Zn in the rice grain.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T18:43:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.09.004
       
  • Nutritional property of starch in a whole-grain-like structural form
    • Authors: Kaiyun Luo; Genyi Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Kaiyun Luo, Genyi Zhang
      Starch is the main constituent of cereal grains, but less attention has been paid for its contribution to the health benefits of whole-grain foods. In the current investigation, the slow digestion property of corn starch in a whole-grain-like structural form (WGLSF), which mimicked the whole grain microstructure, was studied to better understand the nutritional property of whole grain starch. The WGLSF-starch prepared through Ca2+-induced alginate gelation in the presence of starch and β-glucan showed a reduced content of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) (∼40.4-23.6%) and increased content of resistant starch (RS) (∼20.7-30.9%) and slowly digestible starch (SDS) (∼38.9-47.8%) along the alginate concentrations (0.1-0.4%, w/v). Consistently, the postprandial glycaemic response of the cooked WGLSF-starch (0.3% alginate) exhibited a significant reduction (35.5%) of glucose peak compared to their physical mixture. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation demonstrated that the starch granules were embedded in the β-glucan-alginate co-formed gel matrix with a cell wall-like structure, which might cause a decrease of enzyme accessibility to the substrate, and ultimately a slow digestion profile of starch and reduced glycaemic response. Thus, maximization of the slow digestion property of starch in whole-grain food processing might be essential to further improve the nutritional property of whole-grain foods.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T18:28:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.09.006
       
  • GlutoPeak profile analysis for wheat classification: skipping the
           refinement process
    • Authors: Cristina Malegori; Silvia Grassi; Jae-Bom Ohm; James Anderson; Alessandra Marti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Cristina Malegori, Silvia Grassi, Jae-Bom Ohm, James Anderson, Alessandra Marti
      The GlutoPeak test can predict wheat flour quality by measuring gluten aggregation properties in a short time and using a small amount of sample; thus has usefulness along the entire wheat delivery chain. However, no information on the suitability of this new test on whole grain flours is available. In this contest a multivariate approach was used to assess the GlutoPeak test ability to predict dough quality directly from whole grain flour. GlutoPeak test was performed on both refined and whole grain flours (22 samples), obtaining both profiles and calculated indices, which were subjected to data exploration through Principal Component Analysis. Results suggested a trend according to farinographic stability values. Furthermore, k-Nearest Neighbours classification models were developed using the GlutoPeak profiles to predict farinographic stability, leading to average prediction ability of 81.8% for both refined and whole grain flour data. The present outcome suggests the possibility of predicting farinographic stability by GlutoPeak test directly on whole grain flour, thus skipping the refinement process.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T18:28:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.09.005
       
  • Chemical characterization and breadmaking potential of spelt versus wheat
           flour
    • Authors: Georgia Frakolaki; Virginia Giannou; Evangelos Topakas; Constantina Tzia
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Georgia Frakolaki, Virginia Giannou, Evangelos Topakas, Constantina Tzia
      Spelt flour has become increasingly popular due to its superior nutritional properties. Aim of this work was to conduct a comparative evaluation of the chemical composition of wheat and spelt flour, their dough rheology and breadmaking properties. Flour’s comparison included the determination of their moisture, ash, protein, gluten, gliadin, glutenin, starch and total carbohydrates content. Their rheological properties were also analyzed through farinograph and extensiograph. The protein fractions of the two flours were evaluated by electrophoresis. Finally, each flour was separately used for breadmaking and the characteristics of the resulting bakery products (specific volume, dough swelling, crust and crumb color, hardness and water activity), were evaluated. Although spelt flour has higher protein content, it contains less gluten, while wheat flour provides a stronger and more elastic dough with superior breadmaking properties. Bread from spelt flour exhibits lower specific volume, darker crumb and crust color and increased crust and crumb hardness.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T18:28:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.08.023
       
 
 
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