Journal Cover Journal of Cereal Science
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0733-5210 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9963
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Using RVA-full pattern fitting to develop rice viscosity fingerprints and
           improve type classification
    • Authors: Ling Zhu; Gangcheng Wu; Hui Zhang; Li Wang; Haifeng Qian; XiGuang Qi
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81
      Author(s): Ling Zhu, Gangcheng Wu, Hui Zhang, Li Wang, Haifeng Qian, XiGuang Qi
      The rapid visco analyser (RVA) method has been widely used to investigate starch viscosity and to quality control starch based cereals. Different rice types vary significantly in composition, which is reflected by their different pasting properties. However, the RVA has a reduced sensitivity when it is used to identify types. This study combined RVA profiles with multivariate data analysis methods to obtain more information from the RVA profiles. A total of 152 rice profiles were collected and analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLSDA). The results showed that there were two rice subspecies group types that could be distinguished. In order to optimize the established model, all the data were subjected to a regression analysis and the initial stage was identified as the point when viscosity differences between the groups had the highest regression coefficients. The discrimination accuracy improved when the extracted viscosity data was used. For further verify the applicability of the models, 60 of unknown samples were examined, and the classification accuracy was 100%. All the findings confirmed that this study offers a practical and reliable way to predict rice types, providing a foundation for further studies on origin discrimination and age prediction.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T15:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.02.013
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2018)
       
  • High-amylose starch as a new ingredient to balance nutrition and texture
           of food
    • Authors: Yuyue Zhong; Heyuan Zhu; Wenxin Liang; Xu Li; Linsan Liu; Xudong Zhang; Huifen Yue; Jiquan Xue; Xingxun Liu; Dongwei Guo
      Pages: 8 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81
      Author(s): Yuyue Zhong, Heyuan Zhu, Wenxin Liang, Xu Li, Linsan Liu, Xudong Zhang, Huifen Yue, Jiquan Xue, Xingxun Liu, Dongwei Guo
      Starch can provide food (such as cake) with a good texture. However, starch also causes the postprandial glycaemic response, which leads to Type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we developed high-amylose starch as a new ingredient. The molecular structure of high-amylose maize starch (HAMS) was also studied to explore the effects of HAMS on the physicochemical, digestion and texture properties of high-amylose maize flour cakes (HAMFCs). The results showed the small molecular size, low amounts of short amylopectin chains, and high amounts of long amylopectin chains and amylose chains of HAMS are helpful to understand the texture (the increase in hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness and resilience and the decrease in springiness) and digestion (the increase in SDS and RS and the decrease in RDS) properties, and the formation of V-type crystalline structure in HAMFCs. Special molecule structure of HAMS and V-type crystalline are the main reason for the improvement of RS in HAMFCs. Sensory evaluation showed that HAMFCs would be accepted by customers and 20% HAMF addition is the best scheme. In sum, the molecular structure of HAMS helps understand the quality of HAMFCs; and HAMFCs could be developed as novel food with a higher RS and acceptable sensory attributes.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T15:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2018)
       
  • Selenium biofortification of rice grains and implications on
           macronutrients quality
    • Authors: Fernando Cebola Lidon; Karliana Oliveira; Maria Manuela Ribeiro; João Pelica; Inês Pataco; José Cochicho Ramalho; António Eduardo Leitão; Ana Sofia Almeida; Paula Scotti Campos; Ana I. Ribeiro-Barros; Isabel P. Pais; Maria Manuela Silva; Maria Fernanda Pessoa; Fernando Henrique Reboredo
      Pages: 22 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81
      Author(s): Fernando Cebola Lidon, Karliana Oliveira, Maria Manuela Ribeiro, João Pelica, Inês Pataco, José Cochicho Ramalho, António Eduardo Leitão, Ana Sofia Almeida, Paula Scotti Campos, Ana I. Ribeiro-Barros, Isabel P. Pais, Maria Manuela Silva, Maria Fernanda Pessoa, Fernando Henrique Reboredo
      Selenium is an essential element for human health but its intake is low. Accordingly, biofortified rice with this trace element can be prophylactic to consumers. In this context, this study aimed to develop an agronomic itinerary for rice biofortification with selenium, considering sodium selenite and selenate as foliar fertilizers. Since both forms of selenium fertilizers have different metabolic specificity among genotypes, the implications on sugars, fatty acids and proteins quality were also assessed. Biofortification was performed in field trials, in four target genotypes, applying both foliar fertilizers with concentrations ranging between 0 and 300 g Se ha−1. It was found that biofortification with sodium selenite caused, relatively to sodium selenate, a higher accumulation of selenium in the grain. Application of high concentrations of sodium selenite and selenate increased total lipids in all the genotypes, mostly oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2) and palmitic acid (C16:0). Sugars (with the concentration pattern being sucrose > glucose > raffinose > fructose) and proteins showed a similar trend. It is concluded that biofortification of crops with selenium is more effective with 120–300 g Se ha−1, but macronutrients quality in the flour varies significantly within rice genotypes.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T15:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2018)
       
  • Impact of protein content on processing and texture properties of waxy
           rice flour and glutinous dumpling
    • Authors: Zhenni Li; Li Wang; Zhengxing Chen; Qiusheng Yu; Wei Feng
      Pages: 30 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81
      Author(s): Zhenni Li, Li Wang, Zhengxing Chen, Qiusheng Yu, Wei Feng
      This study investigated the effect of protein content on the physicochemical and rheological properties of waxy rice flour and textural properties of glutinous dumplings. Mechanical removal of protein content significantly influenced the color parameters and slurry transparency of waxy rice flour, thereby resulting in a brighter and less yellow color with decreased protein content. Swelling power and solubility increased as a result of decreased thiol groups, and weakened starch-protein network interactions, thereby resulting in increasing cooking solid losses and decreasing height to diameter ratios of cooked glutinous dumplings. The pasting properties revealed that the viscosities of the peak, trough, final, and after breakdown values increased with decreasing protein content. Mechanical property determinations using dynamic rheometer and texture analyzers indicated a less elastic gel-like network structure with decreased protein content of waxy rice flour and glutinous dumplings. This study indicated that partial removal of protein from waxy rice flour may lead to potential energy savings and could be helpful in food processes. Among varieties ranked for personal preference by tasters, glutinous dumplings with 3% protein content were the most preferred, with a white and glossy appearance, a less chewy texture, and a sticky feeling in the mouth.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T15:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2018)
       
  • Heteropolysaccharide preparations from rye and wheat bran as sources of
           antioxidants
    • Authors: Justyna Rosicka-Kaczmarek; Aleksandra Komisarczyk; Ewa Nebesny
      Pages: 37 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81
      Author(s): Justyna Rosicka-Kaczmarek, Aleksandra Komisarczyk, Ewa Nebesny
      The antioxidant potential of heteropolysaccharides (HPS) isolated from several types of rye and wheat bran differing in terms of granularity (FG – fine granularity, CG – coarse granularity, and WM – wholegrain) was determined. Dietary fiber, and especially its arabinoxylan fraction, has been increasingly used as a food component because of its health benefits attributable, amongst others, to the presence of ferulic acid, an antioxidant. In this study, HPS preparations were analyzed for the content of carbohydrates, proteins, total polyphenols, and ferulic acid, as well as in terms of their antioxidant potential expressed as the IC50 coefficient. The structure of the residual material remaining after bran extraction was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained results showed that the properties of HPS preparations depend on their botanical origin and bran granularity. The preparations isolated from rye bran contained more arabinoxylans than those derived from wheat bran and exhibited higher antioxidant activity despite having lower total polyphenolic levels. This suggests that the properties of polyphenols affect the antioxidant activity of HPS preparations to a greater extent than the total content of those compounds. The results of this study demonstrate that rye and wheat HPS preparations are characterized by strong antioxidant activity and may be used as valuable, health-promoting food components.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T15:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.03.013
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2018)
       
  • Characterising the most critical climatic parameters that impact the
           quality of spring-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on the Canadian Prairies
           using partial least squares (PLS) analysis
    • Authors: Manasah S. Mkhabela; Paul R. Bullock; Harry D. Sapirstein
      Pages: 44 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81
      Author(s): Manasah S. Mkhabela, Paul R. Bullock, Harry D. Sapirstein
      The Canadian Prairies experience wide-ranging growing-season climatic conditions, which impact spring-wheat quality. This study characterised agroclimatic parameters that impact spring-wheat quality using partial least squares (PLS) regression. Agrometeorological data collected from several spring-wheat trials across the Prairies were utilised. Fifty-nine agroclimatic parameters were derived and used as predictor variables. Wheat quality characteristics i.e., Grain Protein Content (GPC), Farinograph Absorption (FarAB), Dough Development Time (DDT) and Loaf Volume (LVol) were response variables. Quality characteristics for variety AC-Barrie were used to build the PLS models, which were then used to simulate quality characteristics for variety Superb. Results showed that three separate 3-variable PLS models explained 83%, 80% and 69% of variability in GPC, DDT and LVol, respectively; while a 4-variable model explained 82% of variability in FarAB. Simulated and observed values for Superb were not different (p > 0.05) for all quality characteristics except FarAB. Modelled and observed values correlated well with R2 values ranging from 0.69 to 0.96, indicating that the models explained 69–96% of the variability in the various quality characteristics. Mean bias error for GPC was zero indicating perfect model simulation, but negative for other quality characteristics suggesting underestimation. Generally, water-demand and water-use agroclimatic parameters had strongest relationship with all wheat quality characteristics.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T15:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.02.012
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2018)
       
  • Extraction of soluble β-glucan from oat and barley fractions: Process
           efficiency and dispersion stability
    • Authors: E. Aktas-Akyildiz; J. Sibakov; M. Nappa; E. Hytönen; H. Koksel; K. Poutanen
      Pages: 60 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81
      Author(s): E. Aktas-Akyildiz, J. Sibakov, M. Nappa, E. Hytönen, H. Koksel, K. Poutanen
      This study comprises laboratory-scale extraction of soluble β-glucan (BG) from oat (16 and 32% BG) and barley (12 and 32% BG) fractions, investigation of chemical composition and stability of dispersions prepared from water extracts and techno-economic evaluation for small industrial scale production. Oat and barley fractions were hydrolysed with an enzyme preparation and BG was extracted from hydrolysed samples by boiling water. Enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in medium molecular weight (MW = 38,500–69,400 g/mol) after 2 h incubation with 10 nkat β-glucanase activity/g bran and low MW (11,800–22,600 g/mol) after 4 h incubation with 50 nkat/g bran. MW and concentration of BG affected the stability of dispersions during storage. Barley fractions, after both 2 and 4 h hydrolysis, resulted in higher viscosities than oat fractions. MW of BG in soluble barley fractions was only slightly higher, but the difference in MW does not seem to be adequate to justify the observed viscosity differences. Barley extracts contained higher amounts of starch, however, starch did not have a distinct effect on viscosity. Techno-economic analysis for production process with feedstock design capacity of 100 kg/h showed that production costs varied from 0.06 to 0.11€/g soluble BG. Raw material and capital charge were key cost factors.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T15:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2018)
       
  • Phenolic profiles, β-glucan contents, and antioxidant capacities of
           colored Qingke (Tibetan hulless barley) cultivars
    • Authors: Shang Lin; Huan Guo; Jia Duo Bu Gong; Min Lu; Ming-Yuan Lu; Lu Wang; Qing Zhang; Wen Qin; Ding-Tao Wu
      Pages: 69 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81
      Author(s): Shang Lin, Huan Guo, Jia Duo Bu Gong, Min Lu, Ming-Yuan Lu, Lu Wang, Qing Zhang, Wen Qin, Ding-Tao Wu
      In order to explore colored Qingke as functional food ingredients, bioactive components (phenolic compounds and β-glucans) and their antioxidant capacities (DPPH radical scavenging capacity, ABTS radical cation scavenging capacity, and reducing power) of colored (black, blue, and white) Qingke cultivars were determined and compared. Results showed that the highest average contents of total phenolics (4.37 ± 0.04 mg GAE/g DW, n = 3), total flavonoids (2.86 ± 0.11 mg RE/g DW, n = 3), total proanthocyanidins (2.54 ± 0.08 mg CE/g DW, n = 3), total anthocyanins (9.55 ± 0.28 mg cyanidin-3-glucose/100 g DW, n = 3), and total β-glucans (6.29 ± 0.02%, n = 3), as well as the highest average level of antioxidant capacities were observed in the black Qingke cultivar, followed by lower blue Qingke cultivar, and the lowest white Qingke cultivar. And besides, the highly positive correlations between antioxidant capacities and free phenolic compounds indicated that the phenolic compounds were the main contributors to the antioxidant activity of Qingke. Results showed that the colored Qingke was potential sources of phenolic compounds, β-glucans, and antioxidants, which suggested that the colored Qingke could be explored further as functional food ingredients for industrial applications.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T15:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2018)
       
  • Effects of superfine grinding of bran on the properties of dough and
           qualities of steamed bread
    • Authors: Xiaoyun Xu; Yan Xu; Naifu Wang; Yibin Zhou
      Pages: 76 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81
      Author(s): Xiaoyun Xu, Yan Xu, Naifu Wang, Yibin Zhou
      In order to investigate the influence of superfine grinding of wheat bran on the qualities of southern and northern-styles steamed bread, wheat bran with different particle size (coarse, medium and superfine grinding) was blended with low/medium protein content flours. For the two kinds of wheat flours, their water absorption, peak viscosity, starch hot-gel stability and starch crystallinity significantly (P < 0.05) increased with the reduction of bran particle size investigated by Mixolab, while dough development time decreased. The results of Rheofermentometer F4 showed that superfine grinding of bran resulted in lower maximum height and total CO2 production of dough during fermentation compared to coarse and medium wheat bran. The Chinese southern and northern-styles steamed bread making test showed that reducing the bran particle size could significantly (P < 0.05) decrease the specific volume of steamed bread. Higher crumb hardness and starch relative crystallinity after 24 h storage were observed in steamed bread of superfine bran than those of coarse or medium wheat bran. These results demonstrated that the superfine grinding of wheat bran (from ∼433 μm to ∼39 μm) could have detrimental effect on the quality of steamed bread.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T15:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2018)
       
  • Identification and characterization of phenolic compounds extracted from
           barley husks by LC-MS and antioxidant activity in vitro
    • Authors: Teber Hajji; Sonia Mansouri; Xanel Vecino-Bello; José Manuel Cruz-Freire; Salah Rezgui; Ali Ferchichi
      Pages: 83 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81
      Author(s): Teber Hajji, Sonia Mansouri, Xanel Vecino-Bello, José Manuel Cruz-Freire, Salah Rezgui, Ali Ferchichi
      Phenolic compounds were extracted from Tunisian barley husks obtained through a pearling process, by using two different extraction solvents: acid treatment with sulfuric acid and alkaline delignification with sodium hydroxide. Their antioxidant properties in vitro were investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). Antioxidants composition was evaluated with LC-MS analysis. Results suggest that the best yield of crude extracts with high level of phenolic compounds exhibiting strong antioxidant activities were found after pre-hydrolysis and delignification step of barley husks. The lowest average total phenolic content found was 763.665 mg/100 g, presenting an EC50 value of 0.93 g/L, four higher antioxidant levels than BHA (0.24 g/L). All extracted fractions showed high contents of p-coumaric acid (≥491.189 mg/100 g), trans-ferulic acid (≥501.475 mg/100 g) and syringic acid (≥192.228 mg/100 g). These results contribute to enhancing the value of barley husks as a good source of natural antioxidants, which serve as new functional food ingredients and dietary supplements.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T15:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2018)
       
  • Wheat bran-associated subaleurone and endosperm proteins and their impact
           on bran-rich bread-making
    • Authors: Pieter J. Jacobs; Sami Hemdane; Sofie Claes; Laura Mulders; Niels A. Langenaeken; Koen Dewettinck; Christophe M. Courtin
      Pages: 99 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Pieter J. Jacobs, Sami Hemdane, Sofie Claes, Laura Mulders, Niels A. Langenaeken, Koen Dewettinck, Christophe M. Courtin
      The functionality of wheat bran-associated subaleurone and endosperm proteins was investigated. The wheat cultivars Apache and Akteur were used as they displayed widely different subaleurone protein contents upon microscopic analysis. Brushing of their roller mill bran yielded a peripheral endosperm- and subaleurone-enriched flour fraction with a protein content of 15.1% and 22.1% for Apache and Akteur, respectively, compared to 10.0% and 12.8% for regular flour. The peripheral endosperm fraction of Akteur, but not Apache, displayed increased glutenin and gliadin contents and increased glutenin subunit crosslinking. Bread-making using bran subjected to heat treatment and particle size reduction indicated that the gluten quantity and quality of the bran-associated tissue, as well as its availability and vitality, significantly affected dough and bread properties. These findings were validated using four commercial bran samples and demonstrate the potential importance of heat stabilization and wheat selection when producing bran for bread-making.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T15:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2018)
       
  • Finlay MacRitchie – An Appreciation
    • Authors: John R.N. Taylor; Peter R. Shewry
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): John R.N. Taylor, Peter R. Shewry


      PubDate: 2018-04-24T15:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • The quality of steam-cooked rice bread is directly linked with the level
           of starch gelatinization and the fluidity of fermented dough
    • Authors: Marcel Houngbédji; Yann E. Madodé; Christian Mestres; Noël Akissoé; John Manful; Brigitte Matignon; Joël Grabulos; D. Joseph Hounhouigan
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Marcel Houngbédji, Yann E. Madodé, Christian Mestres, Noël Akissoé, John Manful, Brigitte Matignon, Joël Grabulos, D. Joseph Hounhouigan
      Ablo is a rice or maize-based steam-cooked bread-like product, very popular in Benin, Togo and Ghana. This study optimized the processing steps of rice ablo using response surface methodology. The effect of precooking (proportions of flour and water, duration), kneading (wheat level, duration), fermentation (yeast level, temperature, duration) conditions to dough (gelatinization level, fluidity, proofing) and ablo (ethanol content, pH, density, cooking expansion, firmness, alveolar structure) properties were studied. It was demonstrated that ablo texture can be controlled by the fluidity of the fermented dough. Fluid fermented dough (at least 0.5 cm/s) expands adequately during steam-cooking and results in a less dense ablo in line with commonly consumed ablo. The optimal dough fluidity comes from a low gelatinization level of the precooked dough (less than 20%) and an intense fermentation (high yeast dose and long fermentation). Surprisingly, dough proofing appears to have no effect on final ablo expansion.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Effect of precooking on antinutritional factors and mineral
           bioaccessibility in kiwicha grains
    • Authors: Verónica Elizabeth Burgos; María Julieta Binaghi; Patricia Ana Ronayne de Ferrer; Margarita Armada
      Pages: 9 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Verónica Elizabeth Burgos, María Julieta Binaghi, Patricia Ana Ronayne de Ferrer, Margarita Armada
      Kiwicha is the most important genus of Amaranthus and has a high mineral content. However, it contains antinutritional factors that may influence their bioaccessibility. Thus, the aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of precooking on antinutritional factors and mineral bioaccessibility of iron, calcium and zinc in kiwicha grains. Puffed kiwicha (PK) had the highest bioaccessibility and potential contribution (PC) of iron. The bioaccessibility of zinc was reduced in PK and laminated kiwicha (LK). The heat treatment decreased the content of: total dietary fiber (11–14%), bound fraction (15–36%) and total polyphenols (15–16%) and inositol hexaphosphate (19–27%). Phytic acid free fraction and total polyphenols, values exhibited a high negative correlation with iron, calcium and zinc bioaccessibility. On the other hand, iron bioaccessibility improved with puffing and therefore PK had the highest PC to requirements for children (4–8 years old), pregnant women and aging adults. Puffing and lamination processes increased the calcium bioaccessibility but decreased that of zinc. We concluded that the precooking of kiwicha grain influenced on antinutritional factors and, consequently, the minerals bioaccessibility. It would be important to study the effect of other processes and the use of enhancers to improve mineral bioaccessibility and potential contribution.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.12.014
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Estimating genetic variation and genetic parameters for grain iron, zinc
           and protein concentrations in bread wheat genotypes grown in Iran
    • Authors: Reza Amiri; Sohbat Bahraminejad; Kianoosh Cheghamirza
      Pages: 16 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Reza Amiri, Sohbat Bahraminejad, Kianoosh Cheghamirza
      The low grain micronutrient concentrations particularly iron and zinc are well documented problems in wheat. Eighty bread wheat genotypes were assessed for grain iron (GFeC), zinc (GZnC) and protein (GPC) concentrations along with agronomic traits for two consecutive years under normal and terminal drought stress conditions within each year. The results of combined ANOVA revealed high significant genotypic variations for GFeC, GZnC and GPC as well as agronomic traits under both conditions. The genotype × year interaction was significant for thousand kernel weight (TKW) and GPC under normal and for TKW under drought stress conditions. According to average of both years, drought stress caused reduction in kernel yield (KY) and its components, while raising trends in GFeC, GZnC and GPC were observed. In all environments, KY had negative phenotypic and genotypic correlations with GFeC, GZnC and GPC. Broad sense heritability of GZnC, GFeC and GPC were observed as moderate to high under normal conditions across two years. Cluster analysis showed that the older genotypes and landraces were located on a separate cluster with high GFeC, GZnC and GPC and low KY. Finally, the two extreme groups of genotypes were identified in order to be used as parent in crossing programs.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Functional and physical properties of cookies enriched with dephytinized
           oat bran
    • Authors: B. Baumgartner; B. Özkaya; I. Saka; H. Özkaya
      Pages: 24 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): B. Baumgartner, B. Özkaya, I. Saka, H. Özkaya
      Oat bran is widely used for enrichment of health-oriented products due to their high dietary fiber (DF) and bioactive compounds contents. However, its high phytic acid (PA) content generally is overlooked. PA is an antinutrient which decreases bioavailability of minerals and proteins. Therefore, our aim was to produce oat bran cookies with low PA content. Oat bran was dephytinized with two different methods (fermentation and hydrothermal). Cookies were prepared by substitution of flour with dephytinized oat brans (0%, 7%, 14% and 21%) and evaluated in terms of physical characteristics, functional and sensory properties. Dephytinized oat brans supplemented cookies had significantly low PA content. Additionally, this supplementation enhanced DF content, phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity of corresponding cookies much more than untreated bran. Oat bran and dephytinized oat bran addition has similar effects on cookies, resulted in higher spread ratios, harder texture and darker color. Their sensory evaluation scores are promising, especially fermented oat bran's. These results show dephytinized oat brans have a great potential use in bakery industry, does not have to be limited with cookies but also could be suitable for different types of baked goods.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Identification of proteins contained in aqueous extracts of wheat bran
           through a proteomic approach
    • Authors: Guadalupe Chaquilla-Quilca; René Renato Balandrán-Quintana; José Ángel Huerta-Ocampo; Gabriela Ramos-Clamont Montfort; Jesús Guadalupe Luna-Valdez
      Pages: 31 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Guadalupe Chaquilla-Quilca, René Renato Balandrán-Quintana, José Ángel Huerta-Ocampo, Gabriela Ramos-Clamont Montfort, Jesús Guadalupe Luna-Valdez
      Proteins of aqueous extracts of wheat bran are usually considered as the albumin fraction, and have been characterized in terms of molecular weight, amino acid content and functional properties. However, there are no reports on the variety of the extracted proteins and their amino acid sequence, despite this information would be useful if the extracts were used in distinct applications. In the present work, the proteins contained in the aqueous extracts of wheat bran were separated by SDS-PAGE. Nineteen bands with molecular weights in the range 8─93 kDa were revealed in the SDS-PAGE gels. After tryptic digestion of proteins, the resulting peptides were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. Database search against the Viridiplantae subset of the NCBInr protein database resulted in 39 unique proteins, 11 from which had not been previously identified in different sections of the wheat grain through proteomic analysis. Most of the proteins were metabolic and stress defense enzymes, with the storage proteins representing just a minor fraction.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Tartary buckwheat malt as ingredient of gluten-free cookies
    • Authors: Romina Molinari; Lara Costantini; Anna Maria Timperio; Veronica Lelli; Francesco Bonafaccia; Giovanni Bonafaccia; Nicolò Merendino
      Pages: 37 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Romina Molinari, Lara Costantini, Anna Maria Timperio, Veronica Lelli, Francesco Bonafaccia, Giovanni Bonafaccia, Nicolò Merendino
      The impact of malting on the profile of the phenolic compounds and the antioxidant properties of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum L. Gaertn.) was investigated. A considerable increase in total phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant activity were observed after 88 h of germination. The highest relative increases in phenolic compounds were observed for quercetin, orientin, and vitexin, which are consequently major inducible phenolic compounds during malting. Only a minor relative increase was observed for the most abundant phenolic compound, rutin. Formulations of gluten-free cookies based on rice flour and buckwheat malt or flour in ratios 70:30, have been produced. In the raw material and cookies the proximate composition, starch, resistant starch, total polyphenols, profile of polyphenols, antioxidant activity and expected glycemic index were determined. Gluten-free cookies made with rice flour and buckwheat malt exhibited significantly higher total phenolic and quercetin contents. Comparing to control cookies higher antioxidant activity and lower glycemic index (p < 0.05) was found.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.11.011
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Sorption isotherm and state diagram for indica rice starch with and
           without soluble dietary fiber
    • Authors: Jie Wan; Yueping Ding; Guohui Zhou; Shunjing Luo; Chengmei Liu; Fei Liu
      Pages: 44 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Jie Wan, Yueping Ding, Guohui Zhou, Shunjing Luo, Chengmei Liu, Fei Liu
      Moisture sorption isotherms and state diagrams for indica rice starch (IRS) and indica rice starch-soluble dietary fiber (IRS-SDF) were developed to investigate the effect of SDF on the stability of IRS. Sorption isotherms of IRS and IRS-SDF were determined by the static gravimetric method and the data were modeled by Guggenheim–Anderson–de Boer (GAB) model. The GAB monolayer moisture contents were calculated to be 7.43 and 8.37 g/100g (dry basis) for IRS and IRS-SDF, respectively. The state diagram was composed of the glass transition line and freezing curve, which were fitted according to Gordon–Taylor and Chen models, respectively. The ultimate maximum-freeze-concentration conditions were calculated as characteristic glass transition temperature (T g ’) of −42.5 °C and −31.5 °C with characteristic solids content (X s ') being 0.71 and 0.72 g/g (wet basis), and characteristic temperature of end point of freezing (T m ’) being −18.2 °C and −13.8 °C for IRS and IRS-SDF, respectively. The state diagrams and sorption isotherms of IRS and IRS-SDF have great significance for evaluating storage stability, optimizing drying and freezing processes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Use of durum wheat clear flour in vital gluten and bioethanol production
    • Authors: Abdulvahit Sayaslan; Mehmet Koyuncu; Selman Türker; Yavuz Irklı; Abdullah Serin; Fatma Gülşah Orhan
      Pages: 50 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Abdulvahit Sayaslan, Mehmet Koyuncu, Selman Türker, Yavuz Irklı, Abdullah Serin, Fatma Gülşah Orhan
      During milling of durum wheat (Triticum durum) into semolina used for pasta processing, certain amount of clear flour (5–15%) with low economic value is obtained. This study aimed at determining the suitability of durum clear flours for vital gluten and bioethanol productions. The durum clear flours were wet-processed into vital gluten by three wet-milling methods, namely dough-washing, dough-water dispersion and flour-water dispersion. Vital glutens with acceptable purities (71.0–82.1% protein, Nx5.7, dm), yields (9.8–14.3%, dm) and recoveries (48.7–76.8%) were achieved by the dough-water and flour-water dispersion methods. However, vital gluten by the dough-washing method could not be isolated satisfactorily. The dough mixing and breadmaking qualities of vital glutens from the clear flours were found comparable to the commercial vital gluten. The carbohydrate-rich remnants of the clear flours upon isolation of glutens were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis and yeast fermentation, leading to ethanol yields and conversion efficiencies of 32.2–33.5% (g/g, based on clear flour solids) and 80.5–87.6%, respectively. In conclusion, except for the dough-washing method, vital gluten and bioethanol with acceptable purities, yields, recoveries and qualities can be produced by the dough-water and flour-water dispersion methods.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.014
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Contribution of zein content and starch characteristics to vitreousness of
           commercial maize hybrids
    • Authors: Kristina Kljak; Marija Duvnjak; Darko Grbeša
      Pages: 57 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Kristina Kljak, Marija Duvnjak, Darko Grbeša
      Fast, simple laboratory methods were used to analyze 22 maize samples varying in kernel vitreousness from 50.23% to 76.41%. Samples were analyzed in terms of zein content (53.86–86.37 g/kg endosperm DM), amylose content (190.76–259.77 g/kg endosperm DM), amylose to amylopectin ratio in starch (0.28–0.43), as well as starch granule size (10.95–14.89 μm in equivalent diameter) and starch granule shape (circularity, 0.85–0.94). More vitreous samples had higher zein and amylose content, as well as smaller and less circular starch granules. Nearly all grain traits on their own significantly affected vitreousness, and a multiple regression model to account for their combined effects was able to explain 61.8% of variability in kernel vitreousness. Zein content contributed most to the model, followed by starch granule projected area and circularity. In contrast, the amylose content contributed only 5.1% to the model. These results suggest that starch-protein interactions influence maize kernel vitreousness more strongly than starch molecular properties do.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Comparison of pregelatinization methods on physicochemical, functional and
           structural properties of tartary buckwheat flour and noodle quality
    • Authors: Xiaojing Sun; Wenhao Li; Yayun Hu; Xingjie Zhou; Mengying Ji; Didi Yu; Kaori Fujita; Eizo Tatsumi; Guangzhong Luan
      Pages: 63 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Xiaojing Sun, Wenhao Li, Yayun Hu, Xingjie Zhou, Mengying Ji, Didi Yu, Kaori Fujita, Eizo Tatsumi, Guangzhong Luan
      The microstructural, physicochemical, nutritional, functional and protein structural properties of buckwheat flour as affected by different pregelatinization treatment including roasting, steaming, extrusion, boiling and microwave before milling were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed that flours treated by boiling and extrusion displayed more swollen and more compacted flour particles than raw, roasted and microwave treated flours. Native buckwheat flours displayed lower values of gelatinization degree, swelling power and hydration capacity than pretreated flours, while pretreated flours were darker and more reddish than native flour. Regarding the functional ingredients, native flours have more total flavonoid, rutin and content than quercetin treated flours with the exception of steaming and extrusion. The different pregelatinization treated buckwheat flours showed a remarkably decrease in their viscosities as revealed by rapid visco analyzer (RVA). Furthermore, the primary structure of buckwheat protein did no change with different pretreatments, whereas the extrusion treatment seemed to induce a conjugation between protein molecules. The pregelatinized buckwheat flours were also observed to have potential for producing high quality and functional noodles.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Betaine, choline and folate content in different cereal genotypes
    • Authors: Mohammed E. Hefni; Franziska Schaller; Cornelia M. Witthöft
      Pages: 72 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Mohammed E. Hefni, Franziska Schaller, Cornelia M. Witthöft
      The importance of dietary methyl donors, e.g. betaine, choline and folate, is increasingly being recognised. This study examined variations in methyl donor concentrations in different cereals grown in Sweden. Fourteen cereal samples, representing different genera and cultivars, were analysed using HPLC-UV/FLD. The content of methyl donors in the cereals varied significantly due to cereal genotype. Betaine content varied most, with 28 mg/100 g DM in oats and 176 mg/100 g DM in rye. Total choline varied less, with 67 mg/100 g DM in rye and 149 mg/100 g DM in naked barley. In wheat, the lowest concentration of folate with 36 μg/100 g DM was found, and the highest of 91 μg/100 g DM in barley. Esterified choline was the major contributor to total choline content (80–95%) in the cereals. Free choline was less abundant, ranging from 3 to 27 mg/100 g DM. 5-CHO-H4folate was the dominant folate form in all cereals, amounting to approx. 35–50% of the sum of folates, as determined after pre-column conversion. Due to the limited number of available cultivars, no interpretation regarding effects from cultivar can be made. In conclusion, the studied cereal genotypes are good sources of methyl donors, but concentrations show considerable variation between different cereals.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Microstructural changes to proso millet protein bodies upon cooking and
           digestion
    • Authors: Paridhi Gulati; You Zhou; Christian Elowsky; Devin J. Rose
      Pages: 80 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Paridhi Gulati, You Zhou, Christian Elowsky, Devin J. Rose
      Cooking results in a drastic decline in digestibility of proso millet proteins, panicins. Scanning electron and confocal microscopy were used to observe morphological changes in proso millet protein bodies upon cooking and digestion that could be associated with the loss in digestibility. Spherical protein bodies (1–2.5 μm) were observed in proso millet flour and extracted protein. Cooking did not result in any noticeable change in the size or shape of the protein bodies. However, upon digestion with pepsin the poor digestibility of cooked proso millet protein was clearly evident from the differences in microstructure of the protein bodies: large cavities were observed in the uncooked protein bodies while cooked protein bodies had only tiny holes. When proso millet was cooked in 8 M urea and then digested, the protein bodies appeared similar to uncooked digested protein bodies. The morphological changes observed in proso millet protein upon cooking and digestion did not show any visible aggregates, but the inability of pepsin to digest cooked protein bodies was clearly evident under microscopy and is in agreement with the chemical analyses reported previously.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:33:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Arsenic, lead and cadmium distribution in the pearled fractions of
           different winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.)
    • Authors: Debora Giordano; Massimo Blandino
      Pages: 94 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Debora Giordano, Massimo Blandino
      The pearling of wheat has been proposed as a technology to select intermediate bran fractions that can be employed in the production of functional foods. The aim of the study was to determine the distribution of arsenic, lead and cadmium in the pearled fractions of different types of common wheats in order to identify potential safety threats which may arise from the use of intermediate pearled fractions. Arsenic, lead and cadmium were all found to be mainly concentrated in the outer layers of the kernel, but their distribution varied on an element-specific basis. The concentration of arsenic gradually decreased moving towards the internal layers of the kernel. Whereas, the concentration of lead dropped suddenly after the removal of the first fraction corresponding to 5% of the kernel weight. Cadmium was found to be distributed more uniformly in the grain and, after the removal of 25% of the kernel weight, the residual pearled kernel on average retained 56% of the cadmium detected in the whole grain. A careful selection of the raw material, which should meet specific requirements especially in terms of cadmium contamination, should be made in order to avoid any potential risk for the health of consumers.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:33:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Identification of potential lipid binding regions in cereal proteins and
           peptides with the use of bioinformatics
    • Authors: Rob C.A. Keller
      Pages: 128 - 134
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Rob C.A. Keller
      In an era where sustainability becomes increasingly prominent it is clear that agricultural sources are playing an important role in this goal. Cereal science is a well-established research area when it comes to agricultural and food science related topics. Throughout the years a wealth of information has been gathered when it comes to cereals. Recent bioinformatics tools allow detailed scanning of cereal proteins and peptides. The approach presented in this paper will demonstrate a full identification and partial characterization of all potential helical lipid binding regions in a number of proteins and peptides present in cereals. These results will be linked to experimental findings as much as possible and where relevant the contribution to more mechanistic insight in the functionality of the proteins and peptides will be discussed. Finally the use of the approach in helping researcher to fine-tune their search for a better understanding of their protein or peptide of interest will be explained.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:33:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Stabilization of rice bran and its effect on bioactive compounds content,
           antioxidant activity and storage stability during infrared radiation
           heating
    • Authors: Maria Irakli; Fotis Kleisiaris; Aggeliki Mygdalia; Dimitris Katsantonis
      Pages: 135 - 142
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Maria Irakli, Fotis Kleisiaris, Aggeliki Mygdalia, Dimitris Katsantonis
      Rice bran (RB), a by-product of rice milling industry has limited uses despite its nutritional value. Thus, the aim of the current study was to improve the process of RB stabilization and it was conducted in three stages a) optimization of the infrared radiation (IR) conditions in order to inactivate lipase activity b) investigation of the effect of IR treatments on γ-oryzanol, vitamin E, total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of stabilized RB as well as on color and fatty acid composition c) stability tests of free fatty acid (FFA) content and lipophilic compounds. Results indicated that IR heating at 140 °C for 15 min is an effective method for RB stabilization without any loss of γ-oryzanol and fatty acid composition, but with a significant decrease in vitamin E content. Contrary, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of bound extracts of stabilized RB increased as the IR power increased, whereas an insignificant increase was observed on free extracts. Storage stability tests showed that γ-oryzanol of stabilized RB was relatively less stable after 6-months storage than vitamin E. In conclusion, the selection of optimum IR conditions is important to guarantee the quality RB in terms of health beneficial components and undesirable components.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:33:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Effect of starch modification in the whole white rice grains on
           physicochemical properties of two contrasting rice varieties
    • Authors: Malik Adil Nawaz; Shu Fukai; Sangeeta Prakash; Bhesh Bhandari
      Pages: 143 - 149
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Malik Adil Nawaz, Shu Fukai, Sangeeta Prakash, Bhesh Bhandari
      The effect of acetylation of milled rice of selected rice varieties viz. TDK8 and DG on their physicochemical properties was investigated at different acetic anhydride concentrations (1–7 g per 100 g of milled rice samples in 225 mL of water). Results showed that the intact starch of milled grains of both selected verities could be acetylated (Acetyl % for TDK8 = 2.18 and for DG = 0.89) even with 1 g of acetic anhydride. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that acetylation resulted in reduced crystallinity. Acetylation resulted in reduced peak and final viscosities and gel strength, particularly in glutinous (TDK 8) and non-glutinous (DG) rice. Thermal study showed acetylation resulted in reduced thermal transition temperatures and enthalpy of both varieties. Although the increase in retrogradation thermal temperatures was observed, the amount of retrograded starch was decreased in both varieties. Furthermore, the texture of cooked acetylated grains was less hard and more adhesive. In vitro digestion showed significant decrease in GI possibly due to structural changes in the native starch during acetylation. These findings suggest a good potential of applying acetic anhydride pre-treatments in rice processing, especially glutinous varieties to control the hardness and maintain the stickiness properties of rice.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:33:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Proteomic analysis of two malting barleys (Hordeum vulgare L.) and their
           impact on wort quality
    • Authors: Jessica Giselle Herrera-Gamboa; Claudia Berenice López-Alvarado; Esmeralda Pérez-Ortega; Luis Cástulo Damas-Buenrostro; Juan Carlos Cabada-Amaya; Benito Pereyra-Alférez
      Pages: 150 - 157
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Jessica Giselle Herrera-Gamboa, Claudia Berenice López-Alvarado, Esmeralda Pérez-Ortega, Luis Cástulo Damas-Buenrostro, Juan Carlos Cabada-Amaya, Benito Pereyra-Alférez
      Malted barley contributes directly to wort quality. Wort prepared with malt M1 had a higher free amino nitrogen content, whereas wort prepared with malt M2 had a higher diastatic power. The proteome analysis (pI 3–10) in 2D-PAGE gels showed significant differences, with M1 generating 246 ± 9.8 spots and M2 229 ± 9.8 spots. M1 had more hydrolytic enzymes, in particular an esterase with a size of 43.7 kDa and a pI of 9.4, whereas M2 had more proteins involved in stress tolerance and carbohydrate metabolism, particularly a β-glucosidase with a size of 58.7 kDa and a pI of 7.7, which coincided with its higher diastatic power. The biological activity of M1 showed a band at ca. 150 kDa with high proteolytic activity and another band at 27 kDa with amylase activity. This study is the first report of amylase activity of small molecular size in malts.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:33:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Fumonisins and fumonisin-producing Fusarium occurrence in wheat and wheat
           by products: A review
    • Authors: Eugenia Cendoya; María Laura Chiotta; Vanessa Zachetti; Sofía Noemí Chulze; María Laura Ramirez
      Pages: 158 - 166
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Eugenia Cendoya, María Laura Chiotta, Vanessa Zachetti, Sofía Noemí Chulze, María Laura Ramirez
      Cereals, including wheat, rice, barley, maize, rye, oats and millet, make up the majority of the production of the crop sector, being the most important food sources for human consumption. Cereals are commonly colonized by Fusarium species and often contaminated with mycotoxins that have a major impact on health, welfare and productivity. Among the mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species, fumonisins are usually present in maize and maize-based products, but in the last ten years natural occurrence of fumonisins in wheat in different regions have been observed. This review provides information on the occurrence of fumonisins in wheat and wheat by products around the world. Also, data on ecophysiology of Fusarium proliferatum, one of the main species associated to fumonisin presence in wheat are included. Some data on strategies to reduce the problem are included. The possible human exposure risk of these toxins through the wheat consumption in areas where this cereal represents the main staple food is discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T15:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Profiling polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity in
           Australian-grown rice using UHPLC Online-ABTS system
    • Authors: Shiwangni Rao; Esther T. Callcott; Abishek B. Santhakumar; Kenneth A. Chinkwo; Thiru Vanniasinkam; Jixun Luo; Christopher L. Blanchard
      Pages: 174 - 179
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Shiwangni Rao, Esther T. Callcott, Abishek B. Santhakumar, Kenneth A. Chinkwo, Thiru Vanniasinkam, Jixun Luo, Christopher L. Blanchard
      The aim of this study was to profile the polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of 8 Australian-grown rice varieties. UHPLC with an online ABTS system was used to identify and quantify individual polyphenols present in the rice extract whilst simultaneously measuring their respective antioxidant activity. In addition, the synergistic antioxidant activity of the rice extracts was assessed using the ferric reducing ability of plasma assay (FRAP). The study found that the pigmented rice varieties had higher total antioxidant activity than the brown non-pigmented rice varieties. The red variety Yunlu29 had the highest FRAP total antioxidant activity (303.8 ± 16.16 mg 100 g−1 Trolox equivalents). UHPLC profile of Yunlu29 revealed a wide variety of active polyphenols. In particular, the chromatogram from the red rice variety Yunlu29, contained two unidentified peaks that exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. In the purple rice extract, cyanidin-3-glucoside and peonidin-3-glucoside were profiled as having the most free-radical scavenging activity. In comparison, the brown non-pigmented rice extracts did not exhibit substantial antioxidant activity in its polyphenol UHPLC profile. The results of this study demonstrate the antioxidant potential of polyphenols present in Australian-grown pigmented and non-pigmented rice varieties which may have a future role as a potential functional food ingredient.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T15:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Influence of the extraction solvent on phenolic content, antioxidant,
           antimicrobial and antimutagenic activities of brewers’ spent grain
    • Authors: Sonia Ancuţa Socaci; Anca Corina Fărcaş; Zoriţa Maria Diaconeasa; Dan Cristian Vodnar; Bogdan Rusu; Maria Tofană
      Pages: 180 - 187
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Sonia Ancuţa Socaci, Anca Corina Fărcaş, Zoriţa Maria Diaconeasa, Dan Cristian Vodnar, Bogdan Rusu, Maria Tofană
      Recent advances in biotechnology ensure that brewer's spent grain, the major by-product of the brewing industry, is no longer regarded as a waste but rather a rich source of bioactive compounds. With a hypothesis that the antioxidant constituents of this vegetable waste could be efficiently extracted and valorized, this comparative study assessed the capability of different solvents to extract bioactive compounds and evaluate their antioxidant, antimicrobial and antimutagenic activities. From the twelve tested, the highest concentrations in phenolics (97.83–114.23 mg GAE/100 g DW) were obtained for the methanolic extracts and the aqueous mixtures of ethanol and acetone (60/40 and 40/60, v/v). These data were strengthened by the HPLC-ESI-MS phenolic profile and also by the radical scavenging activities determined by DPPH and ABTS assays. All investigated extracts exert antimicrobial activity against different strains, but the extracts with low phenolic content and low antioxidant activity manifested similar or higher antimicrobial activity (especially towards Candida albicans) and significantly enhanced antimutagenic activity. The results emphasize the importance of selecting the proper extraction solvent in order to obtain extracts rich in biomolecules with specific bioactivities (antioxidant, antimicrobial and/or antimutagenic).

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T15:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • A closer look at the bread making process and the quality of bread as a
           function of the degree of preharvest sprouting of wheat (Triticum
           aestivum)
    • Authors: Heleen Olaerts; Laurence Vandekerckhove; Christophe M. Courtin
      Pages: 188 - 197
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Heleen Olaerts, Laurence Vandekerckhove, Christophe M. Courtin
      In this study, the impact of the extent of field sprouting of wheat on bread making and bread quality was investigated. Wheat with a flour Falling number (FNflour) down to 200 s was still manageable during bread making on laboratory scale. In contrast, the use of severely sprouted wheat (FNflour below 200 s) resulted in sticky dough and bread with impaired crumb texture, high crumb stickiness, and darker crust color. Loaf volume was positively affected by increased α-amylase activity leading to a prolonged dough rise during the baking phase, but excess α-amylase activity resulted in collapse of the bread structure. The increased α-amylase activity largely hydrolyzes starch during baking resulting in a decreased gel forming capacity of starch during cooling, leading to high crumb stickiness and poor crumb texture. Excessive darkening of the bread crust and dough stickiness was associated with an increase in activity of α-amylases and endoxylanases. Peptidases presumably only played a role during dough mixing of sprouted wheat flour. Baking of high enzyme flours due to preharvest sprouting poses a serious challenge to the industry.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T15:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Optimization of supercritical fluid extraction of polyphenols from oats
           (Avena sativa L.) and their antioxidant activities
    • Authors: Yessica Escobedo-Flores; David Chavez-Flores; Ivan Salmeron; Carlos Molina-Guerrero; Samuel Perez-Vega
      Pages: 198 - 204
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Yessica Escobedo-Flores, David Chavez-Flores, Ivan Salmeron, Carlos Molina-Guerrero, Samuel Perez-Vega
      This research explores the effects of pressure and temperature on the supercritical extraction of polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, and total polyphenolic content from oats. Ethanol (80% v/v) was used as co-solvent, and experiments were controlled by response surface methodology (RSM). For polyphenols with C6-C1 structures (vanillin and vanillic acid), a maximum yield of 18.2 μg/g oats was obtained. Polyphenols with C6-C3 structures (caffeic, sinapic, coumaric, and ferulic acids) gave up to 1389 μg/g oats; where coumaric and ferulic acids were found in higher quantities. Avenanthramides (AVNs) yielded up to 34.52 μg/g oats, with 2p and 2c being found in higher quantities than 2f. The polyphenols, TPC (1.25 mg GAE/g of oats), and ORAC (117.88 μmol TE/g of oats) gave the highest yields at 38 MPa and 55 °C. Quadratic models adjusted very well, and a maximum polyphenol content of 1437.57 μg/g was predicted. Moreover, correlations among the polyphenols and antioxidant capacity were found, especially with the ORAC. As a result, the method here presented can be a new procedure for the extraction of polyphenols from oats.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T15:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Effect of drying and ozonation process on naturally contaminated wheat
           seeds
    • Authors: Suian José Granella; Divair Christ; Ivan Werncke; Taise Raquel Bechlin; Silvia Renata Machado Coelho
      Pages: 205 - 211
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Suian José Granella, Divair Christ, Ivan Werncke, Taise Raquel Bechlin, Silvia Renata Machado Coelho
      Ozone application in postharvest grains has a potential reduction of insects, contaminating micro-organisms and a minimal or no effect on grain quality, in addition to being able to be used during the drying process. Thus, this study was evaluated the ozone exposure time applied with the drying air to wheat seeds at different temperatures, under levels of total fungal count, germination, vigor and electrical conductivity. The evaluations occurred shortly after the drying and ozonation process and in 45 days of storage. The achieved data showed that fungal reduction significantly improved with increased ozone exposure time and drying air temperature. The maximum reduction of fungal count was 92.86%, with reduction from 1.87 cfu/g to 0.13 cfu/g, when the wheat seeds was treated with ozone for 45 min and dried with air temperature at 50 °C. Results also showed that germination, vigor and electrical conductivity were not significantly affected by ozone exposure time and drying air temperature. Therefore, the gaseous ozonation applied at the initial instants of the drying process can be considered an effective and rapid way to reduce contamination by filamentous fungi in wheat seeds, not influencing their physiological quality. This method also showed efficacy after storage for 45 days.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T15:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Chemical characterization and breadmaking potential of spelt versus wheat
           flour
    • Authors: Georgia Frakolaki; Virginia Giannou; Evangelos Topakas; Constantina Tzia
      Pages: 50 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 79
      Author(s): Georgia Frakolaki, Virginia Giannou, Evangelos Topakas, Constantina Tzia
      Spelt flour has become increasingly popular due to its superior nutritional properties. Aim of this work was to conduct a comparative evaluation of the chemical composition of wheat and spelt flour, their dough rheology and breadmaking properties. Flours’ comparison included the determination of their moisture, ash, protein, gluten, gliadin, glutenin, starch and total carbohydrates content. Their rheological properties were also analyzed through farinograph and extensiograph. The protein fractions of the two flours were evaluated by electrophoresis. Finally, each flour was separately used for breadmaking and the characteristics of the resulting bakery products (specific volume, dough swelling, crust and crumb color, hardness and water activity), were evaluated. Although spelt flour has higher protein content, it contains less gluten, while wheat flour provides a stronger and more elastic dough with superior breadmaking properties. Bread from spelt flour exhibits lower specific volume, darker crumb and crust color and increased crust and crumb hardness.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T15:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.08.023
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2018)
       
  • Do ancient types of wheat have health benefits compared with modern bread
           wheat'
    • Authors: Peter R. Shewry
      Pages: 469 - 476
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 79
      Author(s): Peter R. Shewry
      A number of studies have suggested that ancient wheats have health benefits compared with modern bread wheat. However, the mechanisms are unclear and limited numbers of genotypes have been studied, with a particular focus on Kamut® (Khorasan wheat). This is important because published analyses have shown wide variation in composition between genotypes, with further effects of growth conditions. The present article therefore critically reviews published comparisons of the health benefits of ancient and modern wheats, in relation to the selection and growth of the lines, including dietary interventions and comparisons of adverse effects (allergy, intolerance, sensitivity). It is concluded that further studies are urgently required, particularly from a wider range of research groups, but also on a wider range of genotypes of ancient and modern wheat species. Furthermore, although most published studies have made efforts to ensure the comparability of material in terms of growth conditions and processing, it is essential that these are standardised in future studies and this should perhaps be a condition of publication.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T15:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2018)
       
  • Physical and chemical changes undergone by pericarp and endosperm during
           corn nixtamalization-A review
    • Authors: David Santiago-Ramos; Juan de Dios Figueroa-Cárdenas; Rosa María Mariscal-Moreno; Anayansi Escalante-Aburto; Néstor Ponce-García; José Juan Véles-Medina
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): David Santiago-Ramos, Juan de Dios Figueroa-Cárdenas, Rosa María Mariscal-Moreno, Anayansi Escalante-Aburto, Néstor Ponce-García, José Juan Véles-Medina
      Nixtamalization is the cooking of corn grains, traditionally in water with wood ashes or alkaline compounds. However, due to the pollution caused, the use of other calcium salts or weak acids, as well as alternative processes, has been explored. The pericarp and endosperm comprise 80.5-92.9% of the total weight of the grain and therefore have great effects on handling during processing and the quality of nixtamalized corn-based products. An introduction to nixtamalization processing conditions is followed by reviews of the microstructure and composition of the pericarp and endosperm, and the effects of nixtamalization on the structures and compositions of these tissues. In particular, the processing of raw corn into masa (dough) affects the gelatinization of starch, the interactions of starch with calcium and amylose-lipid complexes, with impacts on pasting properties and digestibility. Finally, the research required to underpin the development of new processing alternatives is discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T15:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.04.003
       
  • Inflammatory response of gliadin protein isolated from various wheat
           varieties on human intestinal cell line
    • Authors: Kunj Bihari Gupta; Shishir Upadhyay; Ram Gopal Saini; Anil K. Mantha; Monisha Dhiman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Kunj Bihari Gupta, Shishir Upadhyay, Ram Gopal Saini, Anil K. Mantha, Monisha Dhiman
      Wheat protein contributes a significant part in human diet, apart from its well-known nutritional values, wheat gluten/gliadin proteins are also responsible for the many allergic/inflammatory diseases and chronic inflammation in the small intestine may cause diarrhea and malabsorption, in a specific population of individuals. In the present study, the antigenic characteristics of twelve wheat varieties of diverse origin namely C273, C281, C286, C306, C518, C591, Agra Local, 9D, 8A, Raj4229, HD3027, NP824 released during 1920–2012 were evaluated. Gliadin proteins from these varieties were tested on human colon cancer cell line HCT116 to assess their effect on inflammation, oxidative and nitrosative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines. The results show that these wheat varieties induced high levels of ROS/RNS and MPO activity which was further supported by the increase in the mRNA levels of a cytokine such as IL-1β and IL-15. It can be concluded that gliadin from these wheat varieties is suggested to act as a potential antigen by enhancing the level of inflammation irrespective of their year of release and origin which if not controlled may lead to the initiation of celiac disease in genetically susceptible individuals or may be responsible for other wheat protein intolerance associated diseases.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T15:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.03.012
       
  • UK researchers receive prestigious award for work on wheat genomics
    • Authors: Peter R. Shewry
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Peter R. Shewry


      PubDate: 2018-04-24T15:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.03.001
       
  • Milling behavior and microstructure of rice dried using microwave set at
           915 MHz frequency
    • Authors: Gbenga A. Olatunde; Griffiths G. Atungulu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Gbenga A. Olatunde, Griffiths G. Atungulu
      In industrial milling of rice, the practice is to target certain degree of milling (DOM) which primarily depend on end-use requirement. Unlike convective heated air (CHA) drying, volumetric heating phenomenon which is associated with industrial microwave (MW) drying of rice at 915 MHz frequency could induce unique changes in rice microstructure; this is likely to impact the rice milling characteristics, especially the DOM. Medium grain rough rice at 24% moisture content (wet basis) at bed thicknesses of 0.01 and 0.05 m was dried in a one-pass, continuous drying operation for 8 min using pilot scale MW set at specific energy of 450, 600 and 750 kJ/kg. Samples from each treatment were milled for durations of 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 s. The result shows that, more than 80% of the SLC were removed by 30 s of milling duration for both MW and CHA dried samples. Irregular and hexagonal structure typically alluded to starch granules reduced as the specific energy increased. At specific energy of 750 kJ/kg, the core of the MW dried rice kernel indicated features related to thermal decomposition. The study findings are crucial to determining MW drying condition that maintain the rice milling characteristics.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:33:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.02.008
       
  • Effects of heat processing methods on protein subfractions and protein
           degradation kinetics in dairy cattle in relation to protein molecular
           structure of barley grain using advanced molecular spectroscopy
    • Authors: Luciana L. Prates; Yaogeng Lei; Basim Refat; Weixian Zhang; Peiqiang Yu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Luciana L. Prates, Yaogeng Lei, Basim Refat, Weixian Zhang, Peiqiang Yu
      The objectives of this study were: (1) to investigate the effect of three different heat processing methods on chemical profile, CNCPS protein subfraction, rumen degradation characteristics, and protein molecular structure of barley grain (CDC Meredith) using Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance advanced molecular spectroscopy; (2) to detect association between protein degradation and availability; and protein molecular structure profiles in dairy cows. The grains were kept as raw (control) or heated in an air-draft oven at 120 °C for 60min or in an autoclave at 120 °C for 60min or in a microwave at 900w for 5min. The results showed that autoclave heating decreased the ruminal effective degradability and increased the intestinal digestion of protein. The molecular spectroscopy was able to identify heating-induced changes in protein molecular structure, revealing that dry heating increased the amide I to II area when compared with control. The α-helix to β-sheet ratio was greater in microwave heating than autoclave heating, suggesting protein damage in microwave-heated grains. The autoclave heating decreased the effective degradability of protein while increased the intestinal digestion of rumen undegradable protein. Protein subfractions, rumen degradable, undegradable and intestinal digestible protein fractions and degradation characteristics could be predicted by amide I area or α-helix.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:33:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.008
       
  • Analysis of the natural dehydration mechanism during middle and late
           stages of wheat seeds development by some physiological traits and
           iTRAQ-based proteomic
    • Authors: Lulu Chen; Zhenlin Wang; Meiling Li; Xueli Ma; Enyun Tian; Aiqing Sun; Yanping Yin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Lulu Chen, Zhenlin Wang, Meiling Li, Xueli Ma, Enyun Tian, Aiqing Sun, Yanping Yin
      Jimai 22 wheat seeds collected at eight developmental stages [20–38 days after anthesis (daa)] were used to characterize the natural dehydration of wheat seeds. An iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics technique was applied to identify differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) and evaluate several physiological traits at 20, 26, 32 and 38 daa. Superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities as well as soluble sugar and soluble protein contents increased during dehydration, while the malondialdehyde content decreased. These results suggested that the antioxidant capacity of seeds increased during the dehydration process. A total of 128 proteins exhibited at least a 1.5-fold difference in abundance relative to the control levels in naturally dehydrating seeds. Forty of the DAPs were related to defense/stress responses. We observed an increase in the abundance of five late embryogenesis abundant proteins, five serpins, a heat shock cognate 70-kDa protein, and the 17.7-kDa Class I heat shock protein, with peak levels detected at 38 daa. Additionally, starch and sucrose metabolic activities were also associated with the natural dehydration of wheat seeds, with trehalose-6-phosphate synthase 7 increasing in abundance during the dehydration process.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.12.015
       
  • The effect of soaking regime and moderate drying temperature on the
           quality of buckwheat-based product
    • Authors: Iveta Brožková; Tomáš Zapletal; Lucie Kroutilová; Tomáš Hájek; Petra Moťková; Libor Červenka
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Iveta Brožková, Tomáš Zapletal, Lucie Kroutilová, Tomáš Hájek, Petra Moťková, Libor Červenka
      The effect of four soaking regimes: 5 °C/20 °C with/without changing of soaking water followed by oven-drying at 40 °C–70 °C on various characteristics of buckwheat-based products was evaluated. Soaking buckwheat groats, hazelnuts and prunes at 5 °C was more favourable to total phenolic content, quercetin level and significantly decreased Escherichia coli counts in comparison with those obtained at 20 °C. The highest contents of phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidant capacity were observed upon drying at 40 °C followed by its decrease with the increase in drying temperature. While quercetin content seemed to be unaffected by drying temperature, rutin content increased. A small but gradual increase of Maillard products was observed at 40 °C–60 °C followed by a steep rise at 70 °C. Total coliforms and E. coli counts increased to >6.0 log cfu/g in products dried at 40 °C but decreased below 1.0 log cfu/g when dried at 50 °C–70 °C.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.015
       
  • Extraction of purple corn (Zea mays L.) cob pigments and phenolic
           compounds using food-friendly solvents
    • Authors: Fei Lao; M. Monica Giusti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Fei Lao, M. Monica Giusti
      Purple corn cob (PCC) is an economic anthocyanin-rich source that could serve as food colorant. Pigment extraction from PCC using mild solvent can be difficult because PCC have hard texture and complex matrix. Due to toxicity concerns, most acidified aqueous organic solvents that produce high anthocyanin recovery from PCC are not desirable for food applications. In this study a consumer-friendly solvent (aqueous ethanol) was used at different ethanol ratios (0–100%) to determine PCC anthocyanin recovery as compared to methanol and 70% (v/v) aqueous acetone. Different acidity levels (0–2% 6 N HCl, v/v) were also investigated to see if the PCC pigment extraction yield could be improved by adjusting solvent acidity. The PCC extract obtained by water-ethanol ratio around 1:1 (40%–60% ethanol) achieved highest yield of monomeric anthocyanins (>13.5 mg/g FW) with low polymeric color, comparable to 70% acetone (14.3 mg/g FW). The amount of PCC monomeric anthocyanin and phenolics recovery extracted with different water-ethanol combination could be predicted using quadratic models (R2 = 0.94 and 0.95). The solvent acidity seemed to impacted water PCC extraction but not much in 70% acetone extraction. This study provides valuable reference information to extract pigments from PCC for potential food application, as synthetic red dye alternatives.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.001
       
  • A study of factors influencing the water absorption capacity of Canadian
           hard red winter wheat
    • Authors: Harry Sapirstein; Yao Wu; Filiz Koksel; Robert Graf
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Harry Sapirstein, Yao Wu, Filiz Koksel, Robert Graf
      The nature of variation in water absorption capacity in Canadian hard red winter (HRW) wheat genotypes was studied. Wheat and flour were evaluated for a range of physical and chemical properties including hardness indices, protein content, total and water-extractable arabinoxylan (WEAX) contents and flour particle size by laser diffraction. Absorption, as measured by farinograph (FA) ranged from 54 to 66%. The most highly correlated conventional parameters to FA were protein and WEAX contents, particle size index and starch damage, with correlations ranging from r=0.37 to 0.56 in absolute values. The volume fractions of large and small flour particles had the highest correlations to FA (r∼0.67). Multivariate regression analysis produced 3 or 4 variable models of FA prediction with R2 ranging from 0.64 to 0.95, depending on the sample population. Results indicated that FA is a complex quality parameter with low values attributable to one or more of low levels of wheat hardness, protein content or AX content, depending on genotype. Improving FA in HRW wheat consistent with hard spring wheat appears to be feasible by increasing concentration of deficient parameters by breeding, especially WEAX which has high heritability and ample variation in the HRW wheat germplasm that was studied.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.012
       
  • Evaluation of sample preparation methods for rice geographic origins
           classification using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy
    • Authors: Ping Yang; Yining Zhu; Xinyan Yang; Jiaming Li; Shisong Tang; Zhongqi Hao; Lianbo Guo; Xiangyou Li; Xiaoyan Zeng; Yongfeng Lu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Cereal Science
      Author(s): Ping Yang, Yining Zhu, Xinyan Yang, Jiaming Li, Shisong Tang, Zhongqi Hao, Lianbo Guo, Xiangyou Li, Xiaoyan Zeng, Yongfeng Lu
      Food quality is related to geographic origins. The frequent occurrence of safety affairs in agricultural products makes it necessary to establish a rapid method for monitoring the quality and safety and classifying origins. In this work, 20 kinds of rice samples from different geographic origins were chosen as samples. Four different sample preparation methods, like rice powder pellet with boric acid (RPPBA), rice powder pellet (RPP), rice grain pellet (RGP) and rice grain (RG), were used to compare the results of rice origins classification using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Support vector machine (SVM) was applied to study if the information contained in LIBS spectra was able to classify different geographic origins. The results show that the classification accuracies of these four different sample preparation methods of RPPBA, RPP, RGP, and RG were 93.70%, 95.20%, 98.80%, and 99.20%, respectively; the 5-fold cross-validation classification accuracies were 94.50%, 97.35%, 99.25%, and 99.20%, respectively; and the sample preparation times were 15, 12, 10, and 1 min, respectively. It can be concluded that the RG method was found to be simpler and more efficient. The LIBS technique combined with chemometric method should be a promising tool to rapidly distinguish different rice geographic origins.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:36:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.007
       
 
 
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