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Journal of Cereal Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.121
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 5  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0733-5210 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9963
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3159 journals]
  • The in vitro digestibility of starch fractions in maize tortilla can be
           rendered healthier by treating the nixtamalized masa with commercial
           baking yeast
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018Source: Journal of Cereal ScienceAuthor(s): E.J. Vernon-Carter, J. Alvarez-Ramirez, L.A. Bello-Perez, A. Garcia-Hernandez, S. Garcia-Diaz, C. Roldan-CruzAbstractBaking yeast exhibiting amylolytic activity was used for treating masa made from nixtamalized maize flour (NMF). Baking yeast (0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 g˖100 g−1 NMF) was added to the basic masa recipe (40 NMF:60 water mass ratio). Two masa controls without yeast addition were prepared: CM1 used as such, and CM2 subjected to a mild incubation treatment (2 h, 38 °C). Tortillas were made (350 °C, 1.0 min) with the yeast-treated masa. Baking yeast reduced total sugars, apparent amylose and viscoelasticity of the masa. Tortillas made with treated masa exhibited significant lower hardness than tortillas made with CM1 and CM2, and this effect was more pronounced in the tortillas stored for 4 days. Tortillas freshly made from yeast-treated masa displayed reduced RDS and SDS, but increased RS fractions. When stored for 4 days, they showed reduction in RDS, but an increase in SDS and RS fractions (∼30%) with respect to tortillas made with CM1 and CM2. Hardness of the yeast-treated tortillas was significantly lower and remained practically without change during storage, while the untreated tortillas hardened significantly. Treatment with baking yeast induces beneficial health and textural effects in tortillas.
       
  • Effects of germination combined with extrusion on the nutritional
           composition, functional properties and polyphenol profile and related in
           vitro hypoglycemic effect of whole grain corn
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2018Source: Journal of Cereal ScienceAuthor(s): Kuijie Gong, Lirong Chen, Xiaoyue Li, Linlin Sun, Kaichang LiuAbstractA combination of germination and extrusion was applied to whole grain corn to increase its nutritional composition, functional properties and non-anthocyanin polyphenol profile, especially related to in vitro hypoglycemic effects. Individual germination and extrusion both led to an increase in soluble dietary fiber and lysine, methionine, tryptophan content, while insoluble dietary fiber content decreased. Extruded germinated whole corn flour (EGWCF) had a higher water absorption and solubility index, showing 103 and 575% increases over untreated ones, respectively. Germination increased free, bound phenolic acid and bound flavonoid content to 169, 230 and 311%, respectively. The total phenolic acid and flavonoid content of EGWCF was 260 and 249% of WCF, respectively. Germination increased the polyphenol composition from 12 to 15 species. Phenolic profiles of EGWCF exhibited collective effects, showing three new phenolic compounds. Polyphenol extracts showed more potent activity against α-glucosidase rather than α-amylase. Free form polyphenols had stronger inhibitory activity than the bound forms. Compared with WCF, free and bound polyphenol extracts from EGWCF increased the anti-α-glucosidase activity by 221 and 40%, and increased the anti-α-amylase activity by 105 and 108%.
       
  • Authentication of indigenous flours (Quinoa, Amaranth and kañiwa) from
           the Andean region using a portable ATR-Infrared device in combination with
           pattern recognition analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 82Author(s): Mei-Ling Shotts, Marcal Plans Pujolras, Collen Rossell, Luis Rodriguez-SaonaAbstractQuinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) and kiwicha (amaranth, Chenopodium pallidicaule) are high nutritional value grains that are at risk for adulteration with less expensive grains. Our objective was to develop a rapid untargeted approach to authenticate high-value Andean grain flours by combining infrared spectroscopy and pattern recognition analysis. Samples (n = 106) were collected from Peruvian (n = 89) and US (n = 17) markets that included quinoa, amaranth, kañiwa and other common flours from the Andean region. Flour composition was characterized by reference methods including fat (Soxhlet, AOAC#922.06), protein (Dumas, ICC Standard #167), and fatty acid profile (AOAC #996.0). Spectra was collected by using a portable infrared system with a single-reflection diamond ATR crystal, and analyzed by Soft Independent Model of Class Analogies and Partial Least Square Regression. Authentic grain flours formed distinct clusters and commercial samples from Peruvian markets showed a prevalence of adulteration. Spectral differences were associated with the fingerprint region (1100-900 cm−1) due to differences in starch structure. Regression models were generated for rapid determination of fat (Rcv = 0.98, SECV = 0.3) and protein (Rcv = 0.98, SECV = 0.96) levels. New generation of portable infrared devices provided a viable tool for chemical profiling allowing for rapid, “in-field”, and reliable authentication of food ingredients.
       
  • Identification of rice varieties and determination of their geographical
           origin in China using Raman spectroscopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 82Author(s): Ling Zhu, Juan Sun, Gangcheng Wu, Yanan Wang, Hui Zhang, Li Wang, Haifeng Qian, XiGuang QiAbstractThe processing and quality properties of rice are significantly influenced by its variety and region of origin. However, discriminating between varieties and geographic regions is an urgent but difficult and time-consuming endeavor in China. In this study, an effective and reliable identification method was established by combining Raman spectroscopy (RS) with multivariate data analysis methods. Numerous RS spectra were collected, and the sensitive fundamental vibrations of less polar groups and bonds in rice were analyzed. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for preliminary identification. Subsequently, different modeling methods were compared and seemed to reliably identify rice types, varieties, and region of origin, with accuracies of between 80 and 100%. As a result, a soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) model was shown to be the superior model for rice identification. The SIMCA model can deliver high precision detection of adulterated rice (i.e., rice of high quality blended with rice of inferior quality), and this study lays the foundations for an advanced rice quality identification technology system.
       
  • Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Wild.): As a potential ingredient of
           injera in Ethiopia
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 82Author(s): Bilatu Agza, Ruth Bekele, Legesse ShiferawAbstractBoth tef (Eragrostis tef) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) are known in their nutritional quality. While tef is the most common cereal crop in Ethiopia, quinoa is introduced to the country recently and its utilization as a food is not known. In this study, quinoa flour was substituted into tef flour at 10% interval to evaluate injera making potential of the two flour blends. Standard methods of analysis were used to analyze proximate composition and essential amino acid contents of the grains and injera made from blended flours. Five point hedonic scale was used to evaluate sensory acceptability of tef-quinoa injera. The overall essential amino acid profile of the tef and quinoa grains, and the injera product can be regarded as well-balanced. With an increase in the quinoa substitution levels from 0 to 40%, protein (10.14–11.66 g/100g), fat (1.78–2.67g/100g), fiber (3.53–4.38 g/100g) and ash (2.60–2.74 g/100g) contents of the injera increased, whereas sensory scores for taste (3.90–3.03), aroma (3.67–3.13), rollability (4.25–3.25), eyes evenness (3.70–2.60), underneath color (4.10–2.45) and overall acceptability (4.10–3.10) had shown decreasing. Therefore, up to 30% quinoa flour could be incorporated into tef flour with improved nutritional quality without adverse effect on sensory acceptability of tef-quinoa injera.
       
  • Synergistic effect of oats and LGG fermented milk on lowering
           hypercholesterolemia in rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 82Author(s): Seema Sangwan, Rameshwar SinghAbstractHypercholesterolemia is a major concern worldwide. The aim of this work was to evaluate the additive and synergistic effect of oat supplementation to probiotic fermented milk on lowering hypercholesterolemia in vivo. Forty eight male albino rats divided into six groups were fed with six different diets i.e. normal synthetic diet, cholesterol enriched diet, cholesterol enriched diet supplemented with skim milk, cholesterol enriched diet supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG or (LGG) fermented skim milk at the rate of 108 cfu/ml, cholesterol enriched diet supplemented with oat bran and cholesterol enriched diet supplemented with oats in LGG fermented skim milk (108 cfu/ml) for 60 days. Blood samples were withdrawn on 0, 30 and 60 day to analyze the lipid profile. Hypocholesterolemic effect was illustrated in terms of lowering of cholesterol by 19%, triglycerides by 63.5%, LDL by 6%, VLDL by 44.5% in rats fed with oats supplemented with LGG. These values were not only higher than the values from other groups fed with either oats or LGG, but most importantly, the level of HDL did not increase significantly in this group. This study concluded that a composite diet of oats with LGG has a beneficial effect on hypercholesterolemia, illustrating synergistic interactions among these two components.
       
  • Potassium chloride affects gluten microstructures and dough
           characteristics similarly as sodium chloride
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 82Author(s): Gengjun Chen, Ruijia Hu, Yonghui LiAbstractSalt (sodium chloride, NaCl) has critical technological functions in dough and bread, other than sensory contribution. Adverse effects of excessive sodium intake on human health drive the research of salt alternatives. Potassium chloride (KCl) is recognized as a promising salt replacer; however, its technological functions in dough and bread have not yet been well understood. In this study, wheat dough and bread with different levels (0–2%, fwb) of KCl were prepared and investigated to provide a fundamental understanding of its functions in comparison with NaCl. Physical and rheological tests of the dough were conducted using Mixograph, TA XT2 Texture analyzer, and Bohlin CVOR 150 rheometer. The microstructural characteristics of gluten and starch were analyzed using Zeta Potential Analyzer, RP-HPLC, FTIR, spectrophotometer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), etc. The addition of KCl greatly increased the strength and elasticity of the dough and reduced dough stickiness. KCl effectively altered gluten microstructures and physicochemical characteristics in a way very similar to NaCl, without compromising the qualities of dough and bread. Therefore, (partially) replacing NaCl with KCl in dough and bread products could be a feasible way to alleviate sodium related health concerns. Further research is needed to improve end product sensory.
       
  • Triticale-oat bread as a new product rich in bioactive and nutrient
           components
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 82Author(s): Anna Fraś, Damian Gołębiewski, Kinga Gołębiewska, Dariusz R. Mańkowski, Marlena Gzowska, Danuta BorosAbstractNowadays non-bread cereals, including oats, due to their healthy properties are increasingly used as additives in bread production. The aim of the present study was to evaluate new healthy triticale-oat bread by replacement as much as possible of triticale flour by high fibre oat concentrate (COF), without decreasing technological quality of bread. The flours obtained from 4 winter triticale varieties were enriched with 2.5%, 5% and 10% of COF. An increasing COF level resulted in significantly increased nutritional parameters content as well as dietary fibre (up to 11.5%), including six-fold increase in β-glucan content (from 0.3% for control breads to 1.0% and 1.8% for 5% and 10% COF, respectively) and as a consequence even two-fold increase in viscosity of water extracts (WEV). Obtained results were compared to popular, available in bakery wheat and wheat-rye breads. All obtained triticale-oat breads can be included as food products high in fibre (over 6 g per 100 g). The dough properties and bread parameters, especially bread volume, shape and crumb texture decreased with the addition of COF. Results show that triticale flour replaced by up to 5% of COF makes it possible to prepare new kind of healthy bread.
       
  • Effect of intermittent high-intensity sonication and temperature on barley
           steeping for malt production
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 82Author(s): Gisandro Reis de Carvalho, Tiago Carregari Polachini, Roger Darros-Barbosa, José Bon, Javier Telis-RomeroAbstractBarley malt production comprises three main steps: steeping, germination, and drying. Ultrasound technology has been widely studied to find ways to improve mass transfer in food processes and, consequently, to reduce process times. So, this study evaluated the effect of temperature and the intermittent application of ultrasound on the steps involved in barley hydration. The barley hydration was carried out at 10, 15, 20, and 25 °C with and without the application of 0.75 W/mL and 1.5 W/mL of nominal power density at 20 kHz. The ultrasonic energy delivered was measured in the same conditions as the steeping process using a calorimetric method, taking distinct differential volume measurements throughout the hydration medium. The ultrasonic energy delivered presented average values of 51.1 W at 750 W and 84.7 W at 1500 W nominal power. Ultrasound application increased both water uptake rates and equilibrium moisture content as shown by the Peleg and Weibull-exponential model parameters, with the latter showing better adjustment (Radj2>0.953 and NRMSE
       
  • Trichothecenes in wheat: Methodology, occurrence and human exposure risk
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 82Author(s): Elisa Rosa Seus Arraché, Milena Ramos Vaz Fontes, Jaqueline Garda Buffon, Eliana Badiale-FurlongAbstractA QuEChERS extraction purification method for the simultaneous determination of type B trichothecenes deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (ADONS) and nivalenol (NIV) in wheat grain samples was standardized and validated using quantitation by HPLC-UV. To standard the extraction of mycotoxins, the phase separation and clean-up steps of the method were evaluated. The method was proved to be suitable for the determination of trichothecenes in wheat, and DON was detected in 19 of the 20 samples analyzed, its concentration ranging from 163.48 to 1590.69 μg kg−1. The co-occurrence of DON and ADONS was also observed in nine samples, and one sample showed the co-occurrence of DON and NIV. According to the bioaccessibility study, 79% of DON and 85% of ADONS becomes available for absorption into the body. The ingestion risk of DON and ADONS was 2.0 and 0.39 μg kg−1 of body weight per day by consumption of wheat, respectively.
       
  • Effects of milling sorghum into fractions on yield, nutrient composition,
           and their performance in extrusion of dog food
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 82Author(s): Isabella Corsato Alvarenga, Zhining Ou, Shawn Thiele, Sajid Alavi, Charles Gregory AldrichAbstractThe pet food market has grown steadily in part through introduction of novel ingredients. Whole sorghum has been used frequently, but more novelty and nutritional value may be derived if sorghum flour or bran were considered separately. Therefore, the objective of this research was to produce and evaluate sorghum fractions for use in a pet food. A locally grown red sorghum was purchased and milled into different fractions that were later incorporated into extruded dog foods. Yields of flour, mill-feed and germ averaged 69.2%, 28.5% and 0.79%, respectively. Four diets were produced by extrusion: a whole sorghum (WSD), sorghum flour (FLD), sorghum mill-feed (MFD), and control (CON) with equal parts corn, rice and wheat in a completely randomized design experiment. The FLD had the greatest (P 
       
  • Breads fortified with wholegrain cereals and seeds as source of
           antioxidant dietary fibre and other bioactive compounds
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 82Author(s): Vanesa Benítez, Rosa M. Esteban, Eva Moniz, Natalia Casado, Yolanda Aguilera, Esperanza MolláAbstractAntioxidant dietary fibre (DF) and bioactive compounds are considered important factors for nutritional and health-promoting properties of cereal products. Breads fortified with wholegrain cereals and seeds are increasingly demanded, making it necessary to investigate the influence of these ingredients on nutritional value of breads. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of wheat flour fortification on the composition in antioxidant DF, non-glycemic oligosaccharides, polyphenols (PC), and antioxidant activity (AA) of the final bread products. Breadmaking affected bioactive compounds in different way depending on flour composition. Although wholegrain flour was the most sensitive to breadmaking process, both multigrain and wholegrain breads stood out for their level in DF, PC and AA, whereas white bread showed higher fructan content. Results showed that replacing of refined flour with other cereals (rye, oat), fibre (wheat bran, wheat fibre) and seeds (flaxseeds, sunflower, sesame) would improve the potential health benefits of breads.
       
  • Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using rice husk extracts prepared
           with acid–alkali pretreatment extraction process
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 82Author(s): Yee-Shing Lieu, Yung-Chung Chang, Hui-Huang ChenPhenolic acids are the major bioactive compounds responsible for the reducing properties of rice husk. This study quantified the phenolic acid profile, total phenolic content (TPC), reducing power, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of rice husk extracts ameliorated with acid–alkali pretreatment extraction (AAPE) process. The AAPE rice husk extract exhibited higher phenolic content (TPC: 3428 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g husk) and possessed stronger reducing properties (FRAP of 1433 mM FeSO4/g husk) than the rice husk extract with hot water extraction (TPC: 33 mg GAE/100 g husk, FRAP: 12 mM FeSO4/g husk). A green synthesis process for preparing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs diameter approximately 19 nm) with stable dispersion was obtained, and a conceptual model using caffeic acids as protective agents in synthesized AgNPs was conducted. The recycling of rice husk not only reduces the pollution from the use of chemical reducing agents and dispersants but also enhances the value-addition of the husk.Graphical abstractA conceptual model of AgNPs synthesis using caffeic acids derived quinone compounds as protective agents in rice husk extract.Image 1
       
  • Proton relaxation of waxy and non-waxy rice by low field nuclear magnetic
           resonance (LF-NMR) to their glassy and rubbery states
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 82Author(s): Khongsak Srikaeo, Mohammad Shafiur RahmanAbstractThe proton relaxation of waxy and non-waxy rice was investigated using low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR). The relaxation showed 3 types of protons from their relaxation times as strongly-bound (T2b), moderately-bound (T21) and weakly-bound (T22). These relaxation times were analyzed as a function of temperature. The strongly-bound proton showed three characteristics of critical temperatures. The second critical temperature (i.e. when relaxation time increased after a plateau region) was observed as close to the DSC glass transition. Considering relaxation time as a function of temperature, one maximum peak was observed in the case of T2b and T21, whereas T21 showed an additional minimum peak. The relaxation time T22 did not show any peak, however non-waxy rice showed a minimum peak while it increased after a plateau region in the case of waxy rice. The characteristic relaxations were relatively similar in the cases of waxy and non-waxy rice, while both rice varieties showed similar diffraction angle (2θ) with different intensities as measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD).
       
  • Structural characterization and inhibition on α-glucosidase of a novel
           oligosaccharide from barley malt
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 82Author(s): Huiqing Sun, Wenwen Song, Lijuan Zhang, Xueying Yang, Zhenyuan Zhu, Ruicheng Ma, Danyang WangAbstractThe barley was used as material. The effects of germination time on the inhibition on α-glucosidase and saccharides properties of barley malt were explored. The inhibition on α-glucosidase of crude saccharides was the highest and the proportion of low molecular weight saccharides was the highest (86.72%) in 4 d. A novel oligosaccharide was separated from the crude saccharides of 4 d with column chromatography. The structure of the oligosaccharide was analyzed with HPLC, MALDI-TOF-MS, FT-IR, NMR. The oligosaccharide was α-pyran glucosan which composed of four glucoses with (1 → 3) linkage. And its specific optical rotation and molecular weight were +45° and 666 Da, respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of crude oligosaccharide, pure oligosaccharide and acarbose were 1.30 mg/mL, 0.48 mg/mL and 0.26 mg/mL, respectively. All the results demonstrated that the pure oligosaccharide has in vitro inhibition on α-glucosidase. The achievement of this study not only developed a new oligosaccharide but only demonstrated the inhibition on α-glucosidase. It provided new orientation on development of barley and had significant importance to the utilization of barley.
       
  • Discrimination of conventional and organic rice using untargeted
           LC-MS-based metabolomics
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 82Author(s): Ran Xiao, Ying Ma, Dongjie Zhang, Lili QianA metabolite profiling method was developed for rice samples under conventional and organic agricultural practices. In this study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight MS based (UHPLC-QTOF based) metabolite approach in combination with multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), was applied to determine metabolite patterns among rice samples. In addition, an orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied to identify key constituents to efficiently distinguish between cultivation methods. In total, 30 discriminant components were chosen from these two kinds of rice samples, in which 8 secondary metabolites could be considered to be potential biomarkers for the discrimination of organic and conventional rice. These results suggest that a metabolomics approach could be a reliable, precise, and effective method for the identification of rice under different cultivation practices.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • A study on the quality of einkorn (Triticum monococcum L. ssp.
           monococcum) pasta
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 82Author(s): Andrea Brandolini, Mara Lucisano, Manuela Mariotti, Alyssa HidalgoAbstractThe continuous increase of pasta consumption is favoured by the availability of new products, manufactured from non-traditional cereals. Einkorn is a diploid relative of durum and bread wheats, appreciated for its high protein, carotenoid and tocol contents, and for its excellent organoleptic characteristics. Aim of this research was to assess its suitability for pasta production and the quality of its products.The dry einkorn pasta differed from durum wheat pasta for most of the traits, including dimensions, carotenoids content, colour and image analysis parameters. During cooking the pasta from einkorn flours was significantly less firm but had lower cooking losses, probably for a better structure of the gluten matrix. Compression-extrusion tests evidenced, at equal cooking times, significant differences between pasta samples. Among einkorns, ID331 and SAL98-32 showed firmness values similar to durum wheat pasta. Pasta manufacturing led to a significant decrease in lutein and a limited increase in heat damage, but cooking did not induce any further changes. Overall, einkorn pasta had similar technological characteristics but better nutritional value than the control durum wheat pasta.
       
  • Fermentation by Lactobacillus fermentum strains (singly and in
           combination) enhances the properties of ting from two whole grain sorghum
           types
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 82Author(s): Oluwafemi Ayodeji Adebo, Patrick Berka Njobeh, Eugenie KayitesiAbstractChallenges with spontaneous fermentation of whole grain (WG) sorghum into ting, necessitates the use of starter cultures that could ensure consistency, better acidification and improved quality. This study therefore investigated the effect of single and co-starter culture additions [L. fermentum (FUA 3165 and 3321)] on ting properties (physicochemical, bioactive components and antioxidant activity) obtained from whole grain (WG) sorghum types [high tannin (HT) and low tannin (LT)]. WG-ting samples were obtained from different sorghum types after fermentation at 34 °C for 24 h and 28 °C for 72 h. Both single starter cultures yielded better results with significantly lower pH (4.94–5.07), tannin content (0.41–2.83 mg CE/g), total phenolic content (8.11–32.13 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid content (7.53–26.38 mg CE/g), with higher titratable acidity (1.98–2.67 g/kg) and antioxidant activity (4.82–7.81 μM TE/g). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) quantification of some phenolic compounds showed that WG-ting samples from the HT-sorghum, fermented with L. fermentum FUA 3321 had significantly higher bioactive compounds (catechin, gallic acid and quercetin). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of diverse functional groups, while principal component analysis (PCA) of the FTIR data further differentiated the ting samples into group clusters. Sorghum type and fermentation with L. fermentum significantly influenced fermentation and subsequently the WG-ting composition. Fermenting HT sorghum type with L. fermentum FUA 3321 yielded WG-ting higher pH, titratable acidity, bioactive components and improved phenolic composition.
       
  • Apparent amylase diffusion rates in milled cereal grains determined in
           vitro: potential relevance to digestion in the small intestine of pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 82Author(s): Vishal Ratanpaul, Barbara A. Williams, John L. Black, Michael J. GidleyAbstractStarch digestion in grain particles depends on the diffusion of amylase into the particles. Enzyme diffusion rate (EDR) is influenced by grain structure, and may be key in determining the extent of grain digestion in the small intestine. EDR values of sixteen grains (wheat, barley and sorghum) were compared with their ileal digestibility from pigs. Five fractions of each hammer-milled grain were digested in vitro under conditions mimicking monogastric digestion to obtain apparent amylase diffusion coefficients (ADC) from the inverse square dependence of rate-coefficients on particle sizes. The ADC values in sorghum were lower than in wheat (P 
       
  • Simultaneous Zinc and selenium biofortification in rice. Accumulation,
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 82Author(s): Adilson V. de J. Mangueze, Maria F.G. Pessoa, Maria J. Silva, Alexis Ndayiragije, Hilário E. Magaia, Viriato S.I. Cossa, Fernando H. Reboredo, Maria L. Carvalho, José P. Santos, Mauro Guerra, Ana I. Ribeiro-Barros, Fernando C. Lidon, José C. RamalhoAbstractZinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) are essential mineral nutrients for humans, but their daily intake is often below adequate levels, particularly in developing countries. To increase these minerals amounts in the edible plant tissues, agronomic biofortification is an efficient strategy. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important food crop, and a crucial source of mineral nutrients. Within the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) program to guarantee food and nutritional security in Sub-Saharan Africa region, this work aims at evaluating Zn- and Se-biofortification capability of two Mozambican rice cultivars (Makassane and IR-87684-23-2-3-2), considering three Zn levels (0, 300, 600 g ha−1), and three Se levels (0, 150, 300 ha−1). Results showed that foliar Zn and Se application promoted higher accumulation of these minerals in the IR grains. Biofortification was more efficient in the whole grain than in polished grain, with mineral mapping images and quantification showing that Zn, Se, K, Ca, and S accumulation prevailed in the outer part of the grain irrespective of genotype. The 600 Zn and 150 Se g ha−1 dosage maximized Zn content in the flour, while provided Se values that reduced the Se antagonism with Zn, Ca, S and Mo. Still, Se doses can be lowered.
       
  • Wheat black point: Role of environment and genotype
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 82Author(s): Mohsen Khani, Judy Cheong, Kolumbina Mrva, Daryl MaresAbstractWheat black point is an important quality defect in many areas of the world. The aims of this study were to identify grain tissues involved and to develop a better understanding of the genetic and environmental mechanisms that control black point. Results (of microscopic and genetic investigations) were consistent with control of pigment synthesis being resident in the tissues comprising the grain coat. Analysis of data for a black point susceptible variety revealed a strong correlation between black point and rainfall 20–30 days after anthesis. Application of overhead misting to wheat plots during grain ripening in field experiments appeared to validate this relationship and black point symptoms preceded the appearance of any fungal infestation. A 3-years trials at a high risk field site involving commercial varieties and a doubled haploid population derived from a resistant x susceptible cross indicated significant contributions from genotype, environment and genotype x environment. Germination rate of black pointed developing and ripe grains increased, with no apparent impact on seed viability. The results suggest that black point development can be independent of fungal presence. Furthermore, dark pigment synthesis in susceptible genotypes appears to occur if specific environmental conditions coincide with a sensitive period in grain development.
       
  • Barley lys3 mutants are unique amongst shrunken-endosperm mutants in
           having abnormally large embryos
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 82Author(s): Frederick Cook, Nathan Hughes, Candida Nibau, Beata Orman-Ligeza, Nicole Schatlowski, Cristobal Uauy, Kay TraffordAbstractMany shrunken endosperm mutants of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) have been described and several of these are known to have lesions in starch biosynthesis genes. Here we confirm that one type of shrunken endosperm mutant, lys3 (so called because it was first identified as a high-lysine mutant) has an additional phenotype: as well as shrunken endosperm it also has enlarged embryos. The lys3 embryos have a dry weight that is 50–150% larger than normal. Observations of developing lys3 embryos suggest that they undergo a form of premature germination and the mature lys3 grains show reduced dormancy. In many respects, the phenotype of barley lys3 is similar to that of rice GIANT EMBRYO mutants (affected in the OsGE gene). However, the barley orthologue of OsGE is located on a different chromosome from Lys3. Together these results suggest that the gene underlying Lys3 is unlikely to encode a starch biosynthesis protein but rather a protein influencing grain development.
       
  • Characterization of volatile aroma compounds after in-vial cooking of
           foxtail millet porridge with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 82Author(s): Yiru Zhang, Ni Yang, Rupert G. Fray, Ian Fisk, Chujiao Liu, Hongying Li, Yuanhuai HanAbstractFoxtail millet has become popular over recent years for its nutritional value and ecological functions. The aroma of foxtail millet is not well characterized, which is critical for its eating quality and understanding the biochemistry and genetics of aroma is important for molecular breeding of millets rich in aroma. In this study, the volatile aroma compounds of the elite millet variety Jingu 21 were investigated at different cooking times, pH, processing methods, and compared with 3 other varieties. An in-vial cooking method was developed which combined solid phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the detection and identification of volatile compounds. The main findings were: a) Twelve aroma compounds were identified during cooking, which were hexanal, heptanal, octanal, (E)-2-heptenal, nonanal, trans-2-octenal, trans-2-nonenal, 2,4-nonadienal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-pentylfuran and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. b) Longer cooking times produced higher concentrations of aroma compounds. c) Variations in cooking pH (from 6 to 8) had no obvious impact on the aroma of the millet porridge. d) More volatile compounds were released from millet flour compared to millet grain. e) There were significant differences among varieties and Jingu 21 millet showed the highest abundance of most aroma compounds, explaining partly why it is strongly favored by consumers for decades.
       
  • Fortification effects of different iron compounds on refined wheat flour
           stability
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 82Author(s): Ana Paula Rebellato, Bruna Klein, Roger Wagner, Juliana Azevedo Lima PalloneAbstractThe characterization of the modifications that may occur during the storage of iron-fortified wheat flour is an important tool for understanding the variations in the product quality, since iron may present pro-oxidant activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of refined wheat flour fortification with different iron compounds (ferrous sulfate, ferrous fumarate, reduced iron, sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, microencapsulated ferrous sulfate, and microencapsulated ferrous fumarate) on quality and stability parameters. For this purpose, it was evaluated the following parameters: titratable acidity, color, peroxide value, and hexanal during 120 days of storage. The iron content was in average 1.0 mg/100 g in unfortified flour (control) and it varied from 4.4 to 5.8 mg/100 g in fortified samples. It was observed that wheat flour fortification, with different iron compounds, caused modifications on quality and stability parameters during storage. Ferrous sulfate was the compound that most affected flour quality parameters. The microencapsulated compounds (ferrous sulfate and fumarate) also altered flour quality and stability. In contrast, the reduced iron was the compound that promoted the most stability to flour. These results indicate the influence of different iron compounds on wheat flour quality and stability during storage.
       
  • High amylose wheat: A platform for delivering human health benefits
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 82Author(s): Anthony R. Bird, Ahmed ReginaAbstractNon-communicable diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers are now the leading cause of death and disability, and their prevalence is rising worldwide. Poor diet is a major modifiable risk factor but changing eating habits has had limited success. Enhancing the nutritional quality of staple foods offers a complimentary intervention strategy for alleviating the burden of diet-related chronic disease. Wholegrain cereals, such as wheat, are prime targets. Their nutritional credentials and health-promoting potential are well established. Wheat is the major source of protein, minerals and vitamins, and dietary fibre for most people. Importantly, wheat is a versatile ingredient for producing foods that have high consumer appeal. Their popularity is expanding globally and small improvements in wheat grain composition conceivably translate to substantial dietary change across entire populations. A newly developed, high amylose wheat line illustrates the capacity for developing healthier processed staple food products with potential for remediating chronic disease risk. Dietary fibre density of this novel grain is markedly improved due to a>10 fold increase in resistant starch content. The sensory attributes of finished products are not compromised and preliminary studies demonstrate that consumption of the new wheat significantly improves indices of metabolic and digestive health.
       
  • Free and bound phenolic profiles of the bran from different rice varieties
           and their antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects on ɑ-amylose and
           ɑ-glucosidase
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 82Author(s): Na-Na Wu, Huan-Huan Li, Bin Tan, Min Zhang, Zhi-Gang Xiao, Xiao-Hong Tian, Xiao-Tong Zhai, Ming Liu, Yan-Xiang Liu, Li-Ping Wang, Kun GaoAbstractFree and bound phenolic extracts from three varieties of black, indica, and Japonica rice bran were evaluated for their compositions, antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects on ɑ-amylase and ɑ-glucosidase activities. The free and bound phenolics displayed numerous antioxidant activities of ABTS, DPPH and T-AOC. HPLC results revealed that p-coumaric and ferulic acid mainly existed in bound forms, whereas anthocyanins contents were mainly in free phenolics of black rice bran. The bound phenolics in three varieties of rice bran exhibited higher inhibitory rate towards ɑ-amylase than their corresponding free phenolics did. The ɑ-glucosidase inhibitory rate of the bound phenolics in indica, and Japonica rice bran was higher than that of free forms, which showed the similar trend with that on ɑ-amylase. However, lower ɑ-glucosidase inhibition was observed in the bound phenolics from black rice bran, and the IC50 values of free and bound phenolics on ɑ-glucosidase were 8.59 and 15.26 μg/mL, respectively. This may be attributed to the differences of phenolic composition and content in free and bound forms from varieties of bran. These findings may encourage the consumption of rice in forms of rice bran or whole brown rice for promoting health.
       
  • Reference gene selection for quantitative RT-PCR normalisation in barley
           under low-nitrogen stress, based on RNAseq data
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 82Author(s): Zhiwei Chen, Yingbo Li, Chenghong Liu, Yifei Wang, Ting He, Guimei Guo, Chunyan Fang, Runhong Gao, Hongwei Xu, Longhua Zhou, Jianhua Huang, Nigel G. Halford, Ruiju Lu
       
  • Application of low-intensity ultrasound as a rapid, cost-effective tool to
           wheat screening: A systematic frequency selection
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 82Author(s): Ali Salimi Khorshidi, Sijo Joseph Thandapilly, Nancy AmesAbstractA preliminary study on the potential of low-intensity ultrasound for wheat screening purposes was carried out. A transmission technique with the use of longitudinal ultrasonic waves at five frequencies was utilised (0.5–10 MHz) to enable selection of the frequency at which the best discrimination and quality evaluation of five Canadian wheat varieties are achieved. Mixograph, farinograph and micro-extension parameters were also determined for comparison purposes. Statistical interpretation of the data was performed using principal component analysis (PCA) and generalized linear model (GLM). Results indicated that ultrasonic measurements at 10 MHz allowed for better discrimination of wheat varieties with a reasonable degree of confidence, compared to other frequencies. Moreover, correlations between parameters derived from ultrasonic measurements at 10 MHz and those of mixograph, farinograph and micro-extension were found to be significant (P ≤ 0.05) and in good agreement with the definitions of the parameters studied. Based on the statistical analysis of the data, ultrasonic phase velocity and longitudinal storage modulus at 10 MHz were found to be the best discriminators of the wheat varieties used in this study.
       
  • The effects of yeast metabolites on the rheological behaviour of the dough
           matrix in fermented wheat flour dough
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2018Source: Journal of Cereal ScienceAuthor(s): Mathieu Meerts, Ana Ramirez Cervera, Nore Struyf, Ruth Cardinaels, Christophe M. Courtin, Paula MoldenaersAbstractIn this study, the rheological impact of the main yeast metabolites besides CO2 was investigated. By adding these metabolites to unfermented dough at the concentrations observed in fermented dough, the associated rheological changes could be examined with fundamental rheological techniques (oscillatory and uniaxial extensional tests). Glycerol had a softening effect on dough similar to water. Ethanol altered the configuration of the gluten network, resulting in a decrease in the dough's extensional viscosity and extensibility. The stiffness and extensional viscosity were also reduced by succinic acid and glutathione.Subsequently, the impact of these metabolites on the rheology of dough was also investigated in situ by studying the rheological changes in the dough matrix following fermentation. Compared to unfermented dough, the fermented dough matrix exhibited reduced extensibility and a lower maximum extensional viscosity. The storage modulus also decreased, but only at low frequencies. The observed changes can partially be accounted for by the yeast metabolites, yet it is clear that the rheological behaviour of the fermented dough matrix does not merely resemble a superposition of the rheological changes associated with the main yeast metabolites. The differences may reflect the time-dependent accumulation of metabolites in the expanding gluten network during fermentation.
       
  • Enzymatic degradation of mineral binders in cereals: Impact on iron and
           zinc bioaccessibility
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2018Source: Journal of Cereal ScienceAuthor(s): Molly Gabaza, Habtu Shumoy, Maud Muchuweti, Peter Vandamme, Katleen RaesAbstractSuccessful strategies to improve iron and zinc bioaccessibility of cereals can only be realized based on a thorough understanding of the mineral to mineral binder interactions. Therefore, exogenous enzymes were used i.e. phytase and a multiple enzyme system comprising of phytase, laccase and tannase (P + L + T) to degrade phytic acid and phenolic compounds in order to understand the magnitude of their effects on iron and zinc bioaccessibility of cereals commonly consumed in Africa. Bioaccessibility was defined as the proportion of minerals able to pass through a dialysis membrane of 12–14 kDa molecular weight cut-off while total soluble minerals were the sum of soluble minerals able to pass through the dialysis membrane and non-dialyzable minerals. Phytase treatment caused an increase in total soluble zinc from 20.2-59.4 to 29.5–67.6%. A positive effect on the total soluble iron from 23.9-65.5 to 48.7–87.3% was only observed after treatment of cereals with P + L + T. The bioaccessibility of iron and zinc was reduced after both phytase and P + L + T treatments, possibly because of interactions between the minerals and the exogenous enzymes. Nevertheless, phytic acid and phenolic compounds have an effect on iron and zinc bioaccessibility but depending on the type of cereal, dietary fibers may also be important.
       
  • Effects of ozone treatment on the physicochemical and functional
           properties of whole grain flour
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81Author(s): Mohammed Obadi, Ke-Xue Zhu, Wei Peng, Abdellatief A. Sulieman, Khalid Mohammed, Hui-Ming ZhouAbstractWe examined the physicochemical and functional properties of whole grain flour (WGF) treated with ozone gas at 5 g/h for 0, 5, 15, 35, and 45 min. The water and oil absorption, swelling power, and solubility all increased significantly with increasing ozonation time, while the pasting properties showed significant decreases in peak viscosity, trough, breakdown, final, and setback viscosity values (all p ≤ 0.05). Structural analysis revealed changes in the intensities of the O–H, C–H, and CH2 bending vibrations of protein side chains and lipids with increasing ozonation time. Ozone affected the mean particle size of WGF. Confocal laser scanning microscopy examination of WGF revealed remarkable differences between control and treated flours.
       
  • Wheat bran-associated subaleurone and endosperm proteins and their impact
           on bran-rich bread-making
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81Author(s): Pieter J. Jacobs, Sami Hemdane, Sofie Claes, Laura Mulders, Niels A. Langenaeken, Koen Dewettinck, Christophe M. CourtinAbstractThe functionality of wheat bran-associated subaleurone and endosperm proteins was investigated. The wheat cultivars Apache and Akteur were used as they displayed widely different subaleurone protein contents upon microscopic analysis. Brushing of their roller mill bran yielded a peripheral endosperm- and subaleurone-enriched flour fraction with a protein content of 15.1% and 22.1% for Apache and Akteur, respectively, compared to 10.0% and 12.8% for regular flour. The peripheral endosperm fraction of Akteur, but not Apache, displayed increased glutenin and gliadin contents and increased glutenin subunit crosslinking. Bread-making using bran subjected to heat treatment and particle size reduction indicated that the gluten quantity and quality of the bran-associated tissue, as well as its availability and vitality, significantly affected dough and bread properties. These findings were validated using four commercial bran samples and demonstrate the potential importance of heat stabilization and wheat selection when producing bran for bread-making.
       
  • Inflammatory response of gliadin protein isolated from various wheat
           varieties on human intestinal cell line
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81Author(s): Kunj Bihari Gupta, Shishir Upadhyay, Ram Gopal Saini, Anil K. Mantha, Monisha DhimanAbstractWheat protein contributes a significant part in human diet, apart from its well-known nutritional values, wheat gluten/gliadin proteins are also responsible for the many allergic/inflammatory diseases and chronic inflammation in the small intestine may cause diarrhea and malabsorption, in a specific population of individuals. In the present study, the antigenic characteristics of twelve wheat varieties of diverse origin namely C273, C281, C286, C306, C518, C591, Agra Local, 9D, 8A, Raj4229, HD3027, NP824 released during 1920–2012 were evaluated. Gliadin proteins from these varieties were tested on human colon cancer cell line HCT116 to assess their effect on inflammation, oxidative and nitrosative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines. The results show that these wheat varieties induced high levels of ROS/RNS and MPO activity which was further supported by the increase in the mRNA levels of a cytokine such as IL-1β and IL-15. It can be concluded that gliadin from these wheat varieties is suggested to act as a potential antigen by enhancing the level of inflammation irrespective of their year of release and origin which if not controlled may lead to the initiation of celiac disease in genetically susceptible individuals or may be responsible for other wheat protein intolerance associated diseases.
       
  • Identification and characterization of phenolic compounds extracted from
           barley husks by LC-MS and antioxidant activity in vitro
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81Author(s): Teber Hajji, Sonia Mansouri, Xanel Vecino-Bello, José Manuel Cruz-Freire, Salah Rezgui, Ali FerchichiAbstractPhenolic compounds were extracted from Tunisian barley husks obtained through a pearling process, by using two different extraction solvents: acid treatment with sulfuric acid and alkaline delignification with sodium hydroxide. Their antioxidant properties in vitro were investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). Antioxidants composition was evaluated with LC-MS analysis. Results suggest that the best yield of crude extracts with high level of phenolic compounds exhibiting strong antioxidant activities were found after pre-hydrolysis and delignification step of barley husks. The lowest average total phenolic content found was 763.665 mg/100 g, presenting an EC50 value of 0.93 g/L, four higher antioxidant levels than BHA (0.24 g/L). All extracted fractions showed high contents of p-coumaric acid (≥491.189 mg/100 g), trans-ferulic acid (≥501.475 mg/100 g) and syringic acid (≥192.228 mg/100 g). These results contribute to enhancing the value of barley husks as a good source of natural antioxidants, which serve as new functional food ingredients and dietary supplements.
       
  • Effects of superfine grinding of bran on the properties of dough and
           qualities of steamed bread
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81Author(s): Xiaoyun Xu, Yan Xu, Naifu Wang, Yibin ZhouAbstractIn order to investigate the influence of superfine grinding of wheat bran on the qualities of southern and northern-styles steamed bread, wheat bran with different particle size (coarse, medium and superfine grinding) was blended with low/medium protein content flours. For the two kinds of wheat flours, their water absorption, peak viscosity, starch hot-gel stability and starch crystallinity significantly (P 
       
  • Phenolic profiles, β-glucan contents, and antioxidant capacities of
           colored Qingke (Tibetan hulless barley) cultivars
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81Author(s): Shang Lin, Huan Guo, Jia Duo Bu Gong, Min Lu, Ming-Yuan Lu, Lu Wang, Qing Zhang, Wen Qin, Ding-Tao WuAbstractIn order to explore colored Qingke as functional food ingredients, bioactive components (phenolic compounds and β-glucans) and their antioxidant capacities (DPPH radical scavenging capacity, ABTS radical cation scavenging capacity, and reducing power) of colored (black, blue, and white) Qingke cultivars were determined and compared. Results showed that the highest average contents of total phenolics (4.37 ± 0.04 mg GAE/g DW, n = 3), total flavonoids (2.86 ± 0.11 mg RE/g DW, n = 3), total proanthocyanidins (2.54 ± 0.08 mg CE/g DW, n = 3), total anthocyanins (9.55 ± 0.28 mg cyanidin-3-glucose/100 g DW, n = 3), and total β-glucans (6.29 ± 0.02%, n = 3), as well as the highest average level of antioxidant capacities were observed in the black Qingke cultivar, followed by lower blue Qingke cultivar, and the lowest white Qingke cultivar. And besides, the highly positive correlations between antioxidant capacities and free phenolic compounds indicated that the phenolic compounds were the main contributors to the antioxidant activity of Qingke. Results showed that the colored Qingke was potential sources of phenolic compounds, β-glucans, and antioxidants, which suggested that the colored Qingke could be explored further as functional food ingredients for industrial applications.
       
  • Extraction of soluble β-glucan from oat and barley fractions: Process
           efficiency and dispersion stability
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81Author(s): E. Aktas-Akyildiz, J. Sibakov, M. Nappa, E. Hytönen, H. Koksel, K. PoutanenAbstractThis study comprises laboratory-scale extraction of soluble β-glucan (BG) from oat (16 and 32% BG) and barley (12 and 32% BG) fractions, investigation of chemical composition and stability of dispersions prepared from water extracts and techno-economic evaluation for small industrial scale production. Oat and barley fractions were hydrolysed with an enzyme preparation and BG was extracted from hydrolysed samples by boiling water. Enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in medium molecular weight (MW = 38,500–69,400 g/mol) after 2 h incubation with 10 nkat β-glucanase activity/g bran and low MW (11,800–22,600 g/mol) after 4 h incubation with 50 nkat/g bran. MW and concentration of BG affected the stability of dispersions during storage. Barley fractions, after both 2 and 4 h hydrolysis, resulted in higher viscosities than oat fractions. MW of BG in soluble barley fractions was only slightly higher, but the difference in MW does not seem to be adequate to justify the observed viscosity differences. Barley extracts contained higher amounts of starch, however, starch did not have a distinct effect on viscosity. Techno-economic analysis for production process with feedstock design capacity of 100 kg/h showed that production costs varied from 0.06 to 0.11€/g soluble BG. Raw material and capital charge were key cost factors.
       
  • A study of factors influencing the water absorption capacity of Canadian
           hard red winter wheat flour
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81Author(s): Harry Sapirstein, Yao Wu, Filiz Koksel, Robert GrafAbstractThe nature of variation in water absorption capacity in Canadian hard red winter (HRW) wheat genotypes was studied. Wheat and flour were evaluated for a range of physical and chemical properties including hardness indices, protein content, total and water-extractable arabinoxylan (WEAX) contents and flour particle size by laser diffraction. Absorption, as measured by farinograph (FA) ranged from 54 to 66%. The most highly correlated conventional parameters to FA were protein and WEAX contents, particle size index and starch damage, with correlations ranging from r = 0.37 to 0.56 in absolute values. The volume fractions of large and small flour particles had the highest correlations to FA (r∼0.67). Multivariate regression analysis produced 3 or 4 variable models of FA prediction with R2 ranging from 0.64 to 0.95, depending on the sample population. Results indicated that FA is a complex quality parameter with low values attributable to one or more of low levels of wheat hardness, protein content or AX content, depending on genotype. Improving FA in HRW wheat consistent with hard spring wheat appears to be feasible by increasing concentration of deficient parameters by breeding, especially WEAX which has high heritability and ample variation in the HRW wheat germplasm that was studied.
       
  • Characterising the most critical climatic parameters that impact the
           quality of spring-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on the Canadian Prairies
           using partial least squares (PLS) analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81Author(s): Manasah S. Mkhabela, Paul R. Bullock, Harry D. SapirsteinAbstractThe Canadian Prairies experience wide-ranging growing-season climatic conditions, which impact spring-wheat quality. This study characterised agroclimatic parameters that impact spring-wheat quality using partial least squares (PLS) regression. Agrometeorological data collected from several spring-wheat trials across the Prairies were utilised. Fifty-nine agroclimatic parameters were derived and used as predictor variables. Wheat quality characteristics i.e., Grain Protein Content (GPC), Farinograph Absorption (FarAB), Dough Development Time (DDT) and Loaf Volume (LVol) were response variables. Quality characteristics for variety AC-Barrie were used to build the PLS models, which were then used to simulate quality characteristics for variety Superb. Results showed that three separate 3-variable PLS models explained 83%, 80% and 69% of variability in GPC, DDT and LVol, respectively; while a 4-variable model explained 82% of variability in FarAB. Simulated and observed values for Superb were not different (p > 0.05) for all quality characteristics except FarAB. Modelled and observed values correlated well with R2 values ranging from 0.69 to 0.96, indicating that the models explained 69–96% of the variability in the various quality characteristics. Mean bias error for GPC was zero indicating perfect model simulation, but negative for other quality characteristics suggesting underestimation. Generally, water-demand and water-use agroclimatic parameters had strongest relationship with all wheat quality characteristics.
       
  • Heteropolysaccharide preparations from rye and wheat bran as sources of
           antioxidants
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81Author(s): Justyna Rosicka-Kaczmarek, Aleksandra Komisarczyk, Ewa NebesnyAbstractThe antioxidant potential of heteropolysaccharides (HPS) isolated from several types of rye and wheat bran differing in terms of granularity (FG – fine granularity, CG – coarse granularity, and WM – wholegrain) was determined. Dietary fiber, and especially its arabinoxylan fraction, has been increasingly used as a food component because of its health benefits attributable, amongst others, to the presence of ferulic acid, an antioxidant. In this study, HPS preparations were analyzed for the content of carbohydrates, proteins, total polyphenols, and ferulic acid, as well as in terms of their antioxidant potential expressed as the IC50 coefficient. The structure of the residual material remaining after bran extraction was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained results showed that the properties of HPS preparations depend on their botanical origin and bran granularity. The preparations isolated from rye bran contained more arabinoxylans than those derived from wheat bran and exhibited higher antioxidant activity despite having lower total polyphenolic levels. This suggests that the properties of polyphenols affect the antioxidant activity of HPS preparations to a greater extent than the total content of those compounds. The results of this study demonstrate that rye and wheat HPS preparations are characterized by strong antioxidant activity and may be used as valuable, health-promoting food components.
       
  • Impact of protein content on processing and texture properties of waxy
           rice flour and glutinous dumpling
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81Author(s): Zhenni Li, Li Wang, Zhengxing Chen, Qiusheng Yu, Wei FengAbstractThis study investigated the effect of protein content on the physicochemical and rheological properties of waxy rice flour and textural properties of glutinous dumplings. Mechanical removal of protein content significantly influenced the color parameters and slurry transparency of waxy rice flour, thereby resulting in a brighter and less yellow color with decreased protein content. Swelling power and solubility increased as a result of decreased thiol groups, and weakened starch-protein network interactions, thereby resulting in increasing cooking solid losses and decreasing height to diameter ratios of cooked glutinous dumplings. The pasting properties revealed that the viscosities of the peak, trough, final, and after breakdown values increased with decreasing protein content. Mechanical property determinations using dynamic rheometer and texture analyzers indicated a less elastic gel-like network structure with decreased protein content of waxy rice flour and glutinous dumplings. This study indicated that partial removal of protein from waxy rice flour may lead to potential energy savings and could be helpful in food processes. Among varieties ranked for personal preference by tasters, glutinous dumplings with 3% protein content were the most preferred, with a white and glossy appearance, a less chewy texture, and a sticky feeling in the mouth.
       
  • Selenium biofortification of rice grains and implications on
           macronutrients quality
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81Author(s): Fernando Cebola Lidon, Karliana Oliveira, Maria Manuela Ribeiro, João Pelica, Inês Pataco, José Cochicho Ramalho, António Eduardo Leitão, Ana Sofia Almeida, Paula Scotti Campos, Ana I. Ribeiro-Barros, Isabel P. Pais, Maria Manuela Silva, Maria Fernanda Pessoa, Fernando Henrique ReboredoAbstractSelenium is an essential element for human health but its intake is low. Accordingly, biofortified rice with this trace element can be prophylactic to consumers. In this context, this study aimed to develop an agronomic itinerary for rice biofortification with selenium, considering sodium selenite and selenate as foliar fertilizers. Since both forms of selenium fertilizers have different metabolic specificity among genotypes, the implications on sugars, fatty acids and proteins quality were also assessed. Biofortification was performed in field trials, in four target genotypes, applying both foliar fertilizers with concentrations ranging between 0 and 300 g Se ha−1. It was found that biofortification with sodium selenite caused, relatively to sodium selenate, a higher accumulation of selenium in the grain. Application of high concentrations of sodium selenite and selenate increased total lipids in all the genotypes, mostly oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2) and palmitic acid (C16:0). Sugars (with the concentration pattern being sucrose > glucose > raffinose > fructose) and proteins showed a similar trend. It is concluded that biofortification of crops with selenium is more effective with 120–300 g Se ha−1, but macronutrients quality in the flour varies significantly within rice genotypes.
       
  • The effect of soaking regime and moderate drying temperature on the
           quality of buckwheat-based product
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81Author(s): Iveta Brožková, Tomáš Zapletal, Lucie Kroutilová, Tomáš Hájek, Petra Moťková, Libor ČervenkaAbstractThe effect of four soaking regimes: 5 °C/20 °C with/without changing of soaking water followed by oven-drying at 40 °C–70 °C on various characteristics of buckwheat-based products was evaluated. Soaking buckwheat groats, hazelnuts and prunes at 5 °C was more favourable to total phenolic content, quercetin level and significantly decreased Escherichia coli counts in comparison with those obtained at 20 °C. The highest contents of phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidant capacity were observed upon drying at 40 °C followed by its decrease with the increase in drying temperature. While quercetin content seemed to be unaffected by drying temperature, rutin content increased. A small but gradual increase of Maillard products was observed at 40 °C–60 °C followed by a steep rise at 70 °C. Total coliforms and E. coli counts increased to>6.0 log cfu/g in products dried at 40 °C but decreased below 1.0 log cfu/g when dried at 50 °C–70 °C.
       
  • High-amylose starch as a new ingredient to balance nutrition and texture
           of food
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81Author(s): Yuyue Zhong, Heyuan Zhu, Wenxin Liang, Xu Li, Linsan Liu, Xudong Zhang, Huifen Yue, Jiquan Xue, Xingxun Liu, Dongwei GuoAbstractStarch can provide food (such as cake) with a good texture. However, starch also causes the postprandial glycaemic response, which leads to Type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we developed high-amylose starch as a new ingredient. The molecular structure of high-amylose maize starch (HAMS) was also studied to explore the effects of HAMS on the physicochemical, digestion and texture properties of high-amylose maize flour cakes (HAMFCs). The results showed the small molecular size, low amounts of short amylopectin chains, and high amounts of long amylopectin chains and amylose chains of HAMS are helpful to understand the texture (the increase in hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness and resilience and the decrease in springiness) and digestion (the increase in SDS and RS and the decrease in RDS) properties, and the formation of V-type crystalline structure in HAMFCs. Special molecule structure of HAMS and V-type crystalline are the main reason for the improvement of RS in HAMFCs. Sensory evaluation showed that HAMFCs would be accepted by customers and 20% HAMF addition is the best scheme. In sum, the molecular structure of HAMS helps understand the quality of HAMFCs; and HAMFCs could be developed as novel food with a higher RS and acceptable sensory attributes.
       
  • Using RVA-full pattern fitting to develop rice viscosity fingerprints and
           improve type classification
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81Author(s): Ling Zhu, Gangcheng Wu, Hui Zhang, Li Wang, Haifeng Qian, XiGuang QiAbstractThe rapid visco analyser (RVA) method has been widely used to investigate starch viscosity and to quality control starch based cereals. Different rice types vary significantly in composition, which is reflected by their different pasting properties. However, the RVA has a reduced sensitivity when it is used to identify types. This study combined RVA profiles with multivariate data analysis methods to obtain more information from the RVA profiles. A total of 152 rice profiles were collected and analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLSDA). The results showed that there were two rice subspecies group types that could be distinguished. In order to optimize the established model, all the data were subjected to a regression analysis and the initial stage was identified as the point when viscosity differences between the groups had the highest regression coefficients. The discrimination accuracy improved when the extracted viscosity data was used. For further verify the applicability of the models, 60 of unknown samples were examined, and the classification accuracy was 100%. All the findings confirmed that this study offers a practical and reliable way to predict rice types, providing a foundation for further studies on origin discrimination and age prediction.
       
  • Ageing of rice: A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81Author(s): Aruva Saikrishna, Sayantani Dutta, Vijayalakshmi Subramanian, J.A. Moses, C. AnandharamakrishnanAbstractAgeing is an intricate phenomenon that starts at pre-harvest and lasts until consumption; but incompletely understood till date. During ageing, significant changes occur in the physicochemical, sensory, cooking and pasting properties of rice. Most changes are time and temperature dependent and their effects on grain quality are irreversible; mostly being beneficial. Aged rice has better commercial value, owing particularly to improved milling yield, higher consumer preference in terms of cooked rice texture, flavor and associated parameters. Natural ageing through conventional processes requires undesirably long storage duration, in addition to associated higher operational and maintenance costs of the warehouse. Alternatively, artificial ageing of rice has been investigated by researchers to achieve similar results in lesser time and lower cost. This review discusses the changes that occur during ageing of rice, and the methods for artificial ageing. The exposition attempts to highlight a comparative evaluation of various techniques and their scopes. Important attributes to identify quality aged rice have also been included to provide an in-depth idea about the topic.
       
  • Physical and chemical changes undergone by pericarp and endosperm during
           corn nixtamalization-A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81Author(s): David Santiago-Ramos, Juan de Dios Figueroa-Cárdenas, Rosa María Mariscal-Moreno, Anayansi Escalante-Aburto, Néstor Ponce-García, José Juan Véles-MedinaAbstractNixtamalization is the cooking of corn grains, traditionally in water with wood ashes or alkaline compounds. However, due to the pollution caused, the use of other calcium salts or weak acids, as well as alternative processes, has been explored. The pericarp and endosperm comprise 80.5–92.9% of the total weight of the grain and therefore have great effects on handling during processing and the quality of nixtamalized corn-based products. An introduction to nixtamalization processing conditions is followed by reviews of the microstructure and composition of the pericarp and endosperm, and the effects of nixtamalization on the structures and compositions of these tissues. In particular, the processing of raw corn into masa (dough) affects the gelatinization of starch, the interactions of starch with calcium and amylose-lipid complexes, with impacts on pasting properties and digestibility. Finally, the research required to underpin the development of new processing alternatives is discussed.
       
  • UK researchers receive prestigious award for work on wheat genomics
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81Author(s): Peter R. Shewry
       
  • Reduced-fat soft-dough biscuits: Multivariate effects of polydextrose and
           resistant starch on dough rheology and biscuit quality
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81Author(s): Maria Eletta Moriano, Carola Cappa, Cristina AlampreseAbstractThe aim of this work was a multivariate study of polydextrose and resistant starch (high amylose maize starch; Hi-Maize™ 260) effects on reduced-fat soft-dough biscuits. Design of Experiments and Response Surface Methodologies were applied to model the effects on dough rheology and biscuit quality of a partial substitution of fat with polydextrose (0–50%) and of flour with resistant starch (0–80%). The calculated models evidenced highly significant effects (p 
       
  • The unique compositions of steryl ferulates in foxtail millet, barnyard
           millet and naked barley
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81Author(s): Wakako Tsuzuki, Shiro Komba, Eiichi Kotake-Nara, Masato Aoyagi, Hiroyuki Mogushi, Shuji Kawahara, Akira HoriganeAbstractAlthough oryzanol in rice bran is one of the most utilised steryl ferulates (SFs, ferulic acid/coumaric acid esters of phytosterol/triterpene alcohol), SFs are also present in other cereals. Thus, we herein report the SF profiles present in various cereals, pseudo-cereals and millets using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The SF contents of whole foxtail millet, whole proso millet, and whole barnyard millet were 28.9, 0.2, and 4.8 mg-oryzanol equivalent/100 g, respectively, indicating that the SF content in whole foxtail millet was about 80% of oryzanol in brown rice. Using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation method combined with mass spectrometry (APCI-MS), the SF components from several millets and cereals were identified. It revealed that SFs of whole foxtail millet was composed of stigmastanyl ferulate (73%), stigmastanyl coumarate (10%), and others (17%). Furthermore, SF compositions of whole barnyard millet and naked barley were firstly determined and they were considerably different from those of other cereals.
       
  • A normalized texture profile analysis approach to evaluate firming
           kinetics of bread crumbs independent from its initial texture
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81Author(s): Mario Jekle, Andreas Fuchs, Thomas BeckerAbstractFirming kinetics of bread crumbs are a major quality-determining factor. In literature, dough variations are often related to crumb firming behaviors. It is hypothesized, that this is often a spurious correlation based on methodological effects due to changes of the crumb void fraction. Thus, the study investigated different initial crumb textures with equal solid materials and a normalized TPA methodology with adapted cylinder probe sizes. The results showed a clear methodological impact of the standard TPA approach. The normalized TPA methodology showed weak or no significant correlations between the crumb void fraction and firmness, the firmness and the firming rate, as well as the void fraction and the firming rate. This proves that mostly changes of the bread volume influence the firming behavior of bread crumbs with equal solid materials. The findings of the current study have to be considered for the interpretation of the firming behavior of bread crumbs.
       
  • Polyphenols from Australian-grown pigmented red and purple rice inhibit
           adipocyte differentiation
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81Author(s): Esther T. Callcott, Abishek B. Santhakumar, Padraig Strappe, Jixun Luo, Christopher L. BlanchardColoured rice is rich in polyphenols and has been shown to have significant antioxidant and anti-adipogenic potential. The study aimed to investigate the anti-adipogenic properties of polyphenol extract (PE) derived from Australian-grown rice varieties. Eight wholegrain pigmented rice varieties were screened for their polyphenol content and antioxidant activity, of which, Yunlu29 (red), Purple (purple) and Reiziq (brown) had the highest values. The selected varieties were then subjected to in-vitro investigation to determine the effect of rice-derived PE on adipocyte differentiation. Lipid accumulation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) expression were quantified by oil red O staining and RT-PCR respectively. PE from Yunlu29 (red) and Purple rice varieties significantly reduced (p 
       
  • In situ fortification of vitamin B12 in wheat flour and wheat bran by
           fermentation with Propionibacterium freudenreichii
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 81Author(s): Chong Xie, Rossana Coda, Bhawani Chamlagain, Minnamari Edelmann, Paulina Deptula, Pekka Varmanen, Vieno Piironen, Kati KatinaAbstractVitamin B12 is a micronutrient naturally existing in animal products. A growing interest and need to replace animal protein with plant protein sources have resulted in increased attention to developing vitamin B12-fortified plant-based food. Natural fortification by Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a promising alternative to chemical fortification, as P. freudenreichii can synthesize active vitamin B12. In this work, we studied vitamin B12 production in non-sterile matrices prepared from three raw materials of wheat: durum flour, wholewheat flour and wheat bran. Viable cell counts, pH, total titratable acidity and concentration of acids were determined. After seven days of fermentation, vitamin B12 levels reached 33 ± 4, 87 ± 10 and 155 ± 17 ng/g dry weight in durum flour, wholewheat flour, and wheat bran, respectively. While durum flour supported the growth of P. freudenreichii to higher cell densities and more efficient propionic acid production compared with the other two matrices, wholewheat flour and wheat bran were found to be the most promising of the three matrices for in situ production of vitamin B12.
       
  • Study of grain cell wall structures by microscopic analysis with four
           different staining techniques
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2011Source: Journal of Cereal ScienceAuthor(s): Emmie Dornez, Ulla Holopainen, Sven Cuyvers, Kaisa Poutanen, Jan A. Delcour, Christophe M. Courtin, Emilia NordlundAbstractFour different grain cell wall staining techniques were compared. Two techniques specifically detected arabinoxylan (AX). The first technique used a xylanase probe, while the other one was based on immunolabeling of AX using monoclonal antibodies. The two other staining techniques, one based on Calcofluor and the other on immunolabeling using monoclonal antibodies, stained mixed-linkage β-glucan. Cell walls of wheat, barley, oat and rye grains, differing both in content and location of AX and β-glucan, were examined. The staining methods were complementary to each other in revealing the location and distribution of the major cereal dietary fiber components AX and β-glucan in the different grains. AX was mostly concentrated in nucellar epidermis and aleurone cells, whereas β-glucan was concentrated more in subaleurone cells. Furthermore, in the case of barley and rye, the endosperm cell walls also contained high amounts of β-glucan. Interestingly, β-glucan in rye and barley endosperm cell walls was located adjacent to the cell contents, suggesting that it is not evenly distributed in the endosperm cell walls. The results give new insight into the structure of the cereal dietary fiber complex. Further development of microscopic techniques will help in elucidating the cereal cell wall structure even in more detail.Highlights► Four cell wall staining techniques were compared on wheat, barley, oat and rye. ► Two techniques stained arabinoxylan and two stained β-glucan. ► Arabinoxylan was mostly concentrated in nucellar epidermis and aleurone cells. ► β-glucan was concentrated more in the subaleurone cells of the grains.
       
 
 
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