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Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.412
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 5  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0925-4927
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Cerebellar white matter in young adults with a familial risk for psychosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 30 May 2019Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, Volume 287Author(s): Juho Pudas, Lassi Björnholm, Juha Nikkinen, Juha Veijola
  • Corrigendum to: “Striatal changes in Parkinson disease: An investigation
           of morphology, functional connectivity and their relationship to clinical
           symptoms” [Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging. Volume 275 (May 2018),
           Pages 5-13]
    • Abstract: Publication date: 30 April 2019Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, Volume 286Author(s): Conor Owens-Walton, David Jakabek, Xiaozhen Li, Fiona A. Wilkes, Mark Walterfang, Dennis Velakoulis, Danielle van Westen, Jeffrey C.L. Looi, Oskar Hansson
  • The effect of N-acetylcysteine and working memory training on neural
           mechanisms of working memory and cue reactivity in regular cocaine users
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2019Source: Psychiatry Research: NeuroimagingAuthor(s): Mieke H.J. Schulte, Anne Marije Kaag, Wouter J. Boendermaker, Wim van den Brink, Anna E. Goudriaan, Reinout W. WiersABSTRACTThe current study investigated the combined effects of N-acetylcysteine and working memory (WM) training on behavioral and neural mechanisms of cue reactivity and WM in cocaine users in a randomized, double-blind design. Twenty-four of 38 cocaine-using men completed a 25-day treatment with either 2400mg/day NAC or placebo. Both groups performed WM-training. During pre- and post-test lab-visits, neural mechanisms of cue reactivity and WM, and cue-induced craving and WM performance were assessed. Additionally, exploratory whole brain analyses were performed. Overall, the hypotheses were not confirmed, possibly due to small sample size, low WM-training adherence and/or ongoing substance use.
  • Microstructural correlates of Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS
           Screen (ECAS) changes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2019Source: Psychiatry Research: NeuroimagingAuthor(s): Francesca Trojsi, Giuseppina Caiazzo, Mattia Siciliano, Cinzia Femiano, Carla Passaniti, Antonio Russo, Alvino Bisecco, Maria Rosaria Monsurrò, Mario Cirillo, Fabrizio Esposito, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Gabriella SantangeloAbstractEdinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) was designed for testing patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a multi-system neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive physical disability. In this study, we aim to explore the potential brain microstructural substrates associated with performance on ECAS in the early stages of ALS, using a whole-brain tract-based spatial statistics diffusion tensor imaging approach. Thirty-six non-demented ALS patients, assessed using ECAS, and 35 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla. The ALS patients showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the cortico-spinal tracts and corpus callosum (CC) and significant association between verbal fluency score, among ALS-specific ECAS scores, and FA measures in several long association fiber tracts in the frontal, temporal and parietal lobes. Furthermore, the ALS non-specific total score was inversely related to axial diffusivity (AD) in the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus, with more extended areas of correlation in the CC, when considering only the memory subscore. Our results point towards microstructural degeneration across motor and extra-motor areas in ALS, underlining that alterations in verbal fluency performances may be related to impairment of frontotemporal connectivity, while alterations of memory may be associated with damage of thalamocortical circuits.
  • A pilot fMRI study of lithium response in bipolar disorder
    • Abstract: Publication date: 30 April 2019Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, Volume 286Author(s): Kelly Rootes-Murdy, Kara Glazer, Francis M. Mondimore, Fernando S. Goes, Pharmacogenomics of Bipolar Disorder (PGBD) Study, Peter P. Zandi, Arnold Bakker, J. Raymond DePaulo, Pamela B. Mahon
  • Effect of lisdexamfetamine on emotional network brain dysfunction in binge
           eating disorder
    • Abstract: Publication date: 30 April 2019Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, Volume 286Author(s): David E. Fleck, James C. Eliassen, Anna I. Guerdjikova, Nicole Mori, Stephanie Williams, Thomas J. Blom, Travis Beckwith, Maxwell J. Tallman, Caleb M. Adler, Melissa P. DelBello, Stephen M. Strakowski, Susan L. McElroyAbstractWe examined the effects of lisdexamfetamine (LDX) treatment on ventral prefrontal cortex (VPFC) and striatal brain activation in binge eating disorder (BED). We hypothesized that participants with BED have an abnormal brain response to palatable food cues, and that VPFC and striatal regions would respond to such cues after LDX treatment. Twenty women with moderate to severe BED consented to a 12-week, open-label trial of LDX with fMRI before and after treatment. Twenty obese women without BED served as healthy controls and received one fMRI. LDX was started at 30 mg/d with a target of 70 mg/d at week 12. At baseline, women with BED showed greater activation in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), striatum, and globus pallidus to food pictures and brain activation to food pictures predicted clinical outcome at 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of LDX treatment, BED women showed significant reductions in globus pallidus activation. Reductions in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and thalamus activation specifically correlated with binge eating and obsessive-compulsive symptom reductions, respectively. Results suggest that BED is characterized by an abnormally large VPFC-subcortical brain response to palatable foods that LDX treatment helps modify. Moreover, VPFC-subcortical activation at baseline is a potential biomarker of LDX response.
  • Reward-related decision-making in schizophrenia: A multimodal neuroimaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: 30 April 2019Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, Volume 286Author(s): Andràs Tikàsz, Alexandre Dumais, Olivier Lipp, Emmanuel Stip, Pierre Lalonde, Mélanie Laurelli, Ovidiu Lungu, Stéphane PotvinAbstractSchizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by important cognitive deficits, which ultimately compromise the patients' ability to make optimal decisions. Unfortunately, the neurobiological bases of impaired reward-related decision-making in schizophrenia have rarely been studied. The objective of this study is to examine the neural mechanisms involved in reward-related decision-making in schizophrenia, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Forty-seven schizophrenia patients (DSM-IV criteria) and 23 healthy subjects with no psychiatric disorders were scanned using fMRI while performing the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). A rapid event-related fMRI paradigm was used, separating decision and outcome events. Between-group differences in grey matter volumes were assessed with voxel-based morphometry. During the reward outcomes, increased activations were observed in schizophrenia in the left anterior insula, the putamen, and frontal sub-regions. Reduced grey matter volumes were observed in the left anterior insula in schizophrenia which spatially overlapped with functional alterations. Finally, schizophrenia patients made fewer gains on the BART. The fact that schizophrenia patients had increased activations in sub-cortical regions such as the striatum and insula in response to reward events suggests that the impaired decision-making abilities of these patients are mostly driven by an overvaluation of outcome stimuli.
  • Regional cortical thickness and neuroticism across the lifespan
    • Abstract: Publication date: 30 April 2019Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, Volume 286Author(s): Melissa Sweeney, Angeliki Tsapanou, Yaakov SternAbstractNeuroticism is associated with greater reactivity to stress and lifetime psychopathology. In the present study we examined the association between neuroticism and regional and total cortical thickness (CT) across the lifespan, accounting for gender. We also assessed interactions among these factors. 450 subjects between 19 and 80 years were included. Participants completed the International Personality Item Pool and a structural MRI scan. Total CT and the mean values of CT in five regions of interest were examined. We also investigated the interaction effect among age, gender and neuroticism on CT. There was no significant association between neuroticism and regional/total CT. A significant interaction between neuroticism, age, and gender on the thickness of the anterior cingulate was found. Women high in neuroticism showed a thinner anterior cingulate cortex than women low in neuroticism, with increasing age. In contrast, men high in neuroticism had a thicker anterior cingulate cortex compared to men low in neuroticism, with increasing age. Overall, high neuroticism was associated with differential cortical thickness in the anterior cingulate among men and women with increasing age.
  • DRD2 methylation and regional grey matter volumes in young adult offspring
           from families at ultra-high risk for alcohol dependence
    • Abstract: Publication date: 30 April 2019Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, Volume 286Author(s): Shirley Y. Hill, Vinod K. SharmaAbstractDopaminergic alteration is a prominent feature in those with AD and may influence brain development in those with a family history of AD. MRI scans (3T) from 43 HR offspring (27.4 ± 3.6 years) and 45 controls (24.5 ± 4.1 years) provided whole brain (WB) and region of interest (ROI) analyses. The VBM8 toolbox was used for WB analysis (threshold p 
  • Frontoparietal network abnormalities of gray matter volume and functional
           connectivity in patients with generalized anxiety disorder
    • Abstract: Publication date: 30 April 2019Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, Volume 286Author(s): Zijuan Ma, Chun Wang, Christina S. Hines, Xin Lu, Yun Wu, Huazhen Xu, Jinyang Li, Qiuyu Wang, Manlong Pang, Yuan Zhong, Ning ZhangAbstractWe hypothesized that the frontoparietal region would exhibit differences in gray matter volume (GMV) and resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) versus healthy controls (HCs). We also aimed to report on correlations between these neuroradiological findings and HAMA scores. We recruited 27 patients with GAD and 28 HCs, matched for gender, age and education. GMV was estimated using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We found decreased GMV in the precentral gyrus (PrCG) and the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) in patients with GAD, which were used as regions of interest (ROI) for rs-FC analyses. We detected enhanced rs-FC in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) based on an increase in negative connections, and reduced rs-FC in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) based on a decrease in positive connections compared to HCs. The right PrCG may be a candidate biomarker in patients with GAD, as well as a potential stimulation target for improvement of anxiety symptoms. By combining GMV and rs-FC analyses, our findings help to understand the pathophysiology of GAD by combining GMV and rs-FC.
  • An examination of orbitofrontal sulcogyral morphology in
           obsessive–compulsive disorder
    • Abstract: Publication date: 30 April 2019Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, Volume 286Author(s): Rebekah Delahoy, Cali F. Bartholomeusz, Hugh Pemberton, Pino Alonso, Jesus Pujol, Narcis Cardoner, José M. Menchon, Carles Soriano-Mas, Ben J. HarrisonAbstractObsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has been consistently associated with structural and functional alteration of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and its subcortical connections. In exploring these alterations, a neurodevelopmental basis to OCD has been suggested. While some studies have examined outcomes of early cortical maturation processes, such as global cortical thickness and gyrification, no work has specifically examined the OFC. Within the OFC, three types of sulcogyral patterns have been identified as a result of variance in cortical folding. The distribution of these patterns has been found to differ in patients of various neuropsychiatric disorders relative to the general population, however no study has yet investigated this distribution in individuals with OCD. Eighty OCD patients and 78 healthy controls were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging, with identification of the sulcogyral pattern based on the method of Chiavaras and Petrides (2000). While gross changes in OFC sulcogyral patterning did not distinguish OCD patients from healthy controls, expression of both the Type II and Type III patterns was significantly associated with increased OCD illness severity. This finding indicates that early neurodevelopmental factors may influence illness severity.
  • Relationship between trust in neighbors and regional brain volumes in a
           population-based study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 30 April 2019Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, Volume 286Author(s): Mohona Sadhu, Theresa de Freitas Nicholson, Rogelio Garcia, Susana Lampley, Marian Rain, Andrew Fritz, Bayan Jalalizadeh, Erin Van Enkevort, Jayme Palka, E. Sherwood BrownAbstractTrust is a fundamental part of human interpersonal relationships, and among other complex factors it is shown to be linked with demographic characteristics and specific regions of the brain. The authors utilized a large, community-based database gathered from the Dallas Heart Study to determine specific brain regions associated with an individual's trust in neighbors. A trust questionnaire was taken and regional brain volumes were determined from structural magnetic resonance imaging. Two analyses using logistic regressions in a training set and validation set were performed to investigate the association between measures of trust and bilateral brain region volumes and thickness. A total of 1527 participants were included in the final analysis. Right caudal anterior cingulate cortex thickness and left caudate volume were inversely correlated with neighbor trust, while left amygdala volume was positively correlated with neighbor trust. Greater age and higher level of education were positively correlated with neighbor trust. African Americans showed less neighbor trust than Caucasians and Hispanics. Anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, and amygdala are all integral parts of the salience network; thus, results of this study suggest that the salience network, the brain network responsible for functions such as communication and social behavior, may play a role in the formation of interpersonal trust.
  • Tryptophan hydroxylase-2 polymorphism is associated with white matter
           integrity in first-episode, medication-naïve major depressive disorder
    • Abstract: Publication date: 30 April 2019Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, Volume 286Author(s): Liangliang Ping, Jian Xu, Cong Zhou, Jin Lu, Yi Lu, Zonglin Shen, Linling Jiang, Nan Dai, Xiufeng Xu, Yuqi ChengAbstractConsiderable evidence suggests that the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) gene is associated with the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present study, we investigated alterations of white matter (WM) integrity and the impact of TPH2 polymorphism on WM in a sample of 118 first-episode, medication-naïve, MDD patients and 118 well-matched healthy controls. Whole brain analyses of fractional anisotropy (FA) were performed using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). The results showed that the MDD group had significantly reduced FA values for the genu and body of the corpus callosum (CC) and the bilateral anterior corona radiate (ACR). In the MDD patient group, the GG homozygote subgroup exhibited a widespread reduction of FA (uncorrected) and significantly reduced FA in the left retrolenticular portion of the internal capsule and left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) compared with those of the T carriers (GT/TT) (FWE corrected). No significant correlation was found between the FA values in any brain region and the patients' clinical variables. Our findings demonstrate the presence of abnormal white matter integrity in untreated patients with first-episode depression. TPH2-rs4570625 polymorphisms may be involved in the pathological mechanism of WM microarchitecture in patients.
  • Social cognition in schizophrenia: Validation of an ecological fMRI task
    • Abstract: Publication date: 30 April 2019Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, Volume 286Author(s): F. Briend, V. Marzloff, P. Brazo, L. Lecardeur, E. Leroux, A. Razafimandimby, S. DollfusAbstractNeuroimaging studies have revealed brain regions involved in social cognition, which reportedly show functional alterations in schizophrenia. However, the social neural network has not been investigated with regards to language perception and social interactions in daily life. Here we developed and validated an integrative fMRI task to explore the neural basis of social cognition with regards to language perception in schizophrenia. The task comprised listening to film extracts and inferring mental states to characters. We first identified the functional network activated during the task in 28 healthy controls (HC). Next, we evaluated the reproducibility of Blood-Oxygen-Level Dependent (BOLD) variations in 14 HC participants. Finally, we investigated network impairment in 20 patients with schizophrenia (SZ) compared to HC. The HC group exhibited bilateral activation in the superior and middle temporal gyri (including the poles and the temporo-parietal junction). Overall, our novel integrative task induced activation of a functional network with good reproducibility and involved in language conveying social information. Compared to the HC group, the SZ group showed decreased recruitment of the right temporo-parietal junction. These findings may be useful for testing the impact of remediation on the brain, particularly on the network of language conveying social information.
  • State and trait neural correlates of the balance between work-nonwork
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2019Source: Psychiatry Research: NeuroimagingAuthor(s): Rhiannon Jones, Michelle Cleveland, Maria UtherAbstractDifficulty managing the demands of work and nonwork roles (often referred to in terms of managing balance) can be detrimental to psychological wellbeing and contribute to occupational burnout. The current study investigated the neural correlates of perceived satisfaction with this balance using both trait and state EEG alpha measures. EEG was recorded from 14 participants in full time employment (12 females, aged 35.1 ± 10.1 years) during a resting state and performance of an auditory oddball task; e-mail and messaging alert sounds were used as target stimuli. It was predicted that dissatisfaction with the balance between work and nonwork roles would be associated with increased resting alpha power, consistent with studies of burnout, and diminished alpha response to oddball distractors, consistent with difficulty suppressing automatic responses to work-related stimuli. Significant correlations between self-reported measures of work/nonwork balance and both resting, and task-related alpha responses, supported our predictions. Furthermore, an exploratory partial correlation between work/nonwork balance and resting EEG, controlling for task-related alpha response, suggested that the three variables were interrelated. We propose that dissatisfaction with work/nonwork balance is associated with a state hypervigilance to work-related cues, and a trait neural marker of fatigue, both symptomatic of lowered cognitive capacity.
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2019Source: Psychiatry Research: NeuroimagingAuthor(s): Derek J. Fisher, Erica D. Rudolph, Emma M.L. Ells, Verner J. Knott, Alain Labelle, Philip G. TibboAuditory change detection, as indexed by the EEG-derived mismatch negativity, has been demonstrated to be dysfunctional in chronic schizophrenia using both pure-tone and speech (phoneme) sounds. It is unclear, however, whether reduced MMN amplitudes to speech sound deviants are observed within the first 5 years of the illness. The present study investigated MMNs elicited by across-vowel (phoneme) change in early schizophrenia (ESZ; Experiment 1) as well as chronic schizophrenia (CSZ; Experiment 2). In both experiments, clinical and control participants were presented the Finnish phoneme /e/ (standard; P = .90) and the Finnish phoneme /ö/ (deviant; P = .10) within an oddball paradigm. In experiment 2 we report significantly reduced MMN amplitudes in CSZ relative to HCs, but no differences were found when comparing ESZ and HC in experiment 1. Additionally, in our clinical samples, MMN amplitudes were correlated with symptom scores. These findings suggest that early detection of phonetic change may be impaired in chronic schizophrenia, but not early in the progression of the illness. That MMN reductions only emerged in patients with a longer course of illness, and appears to change with symptom severity, suggests a dynamic change in the early auditory processing of language over time in schizophrenia.Graphical Image, graphical abstract
  • Network neurobiology of electroconvulsive therapy in patients with
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2019Source: Psychiatry Research: NeuroimagingAuthor(s): Preeti Sinha, R. Venkateswara Reddy, Prerna Srivastava, Urvakhsh M. Mehta, Rose Dawn BharathAbstractGraph theory, a popular analytic tool for resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) has provided important insights in the neurobiology of depression. We aimed to analyze the changes in the network measures of segregation and integration associated with the administration of ECT in patients with depression and to correlate with both clinical response and cognitive deficits. Changes in normalised clustering coefficient (γ), path length (λ) and small-world (σ) index were explored in 17 patients with depressive episode before 1st and after 6th brief-pulse bifrontal ECT (BFECT) sessions. Significant brain regions were then correlated with differences in clinical and cognitive scales. There was significantly increased γ and σ despite significant increase in λ in several brain regions after ECT in patients with depression. The brain areas revealing significant differences in γ before and after ECT were medial left superior frontal gyrus, left paracentral lobule, right pallidum and left inferior frontal operculum; correlating with changes in verbal fluency, HAM-D scores and delayed verbal memory (last two regions) respectively. BFECT reorganized the brain network topology in patients with depression and made it more segregated and less integrated; these correlated with clinical improvement and associated cognitive deficits.
  • Impaired prefrontal functional connectivity associated with working memory
           task performance and disorganization despite intact activations in
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2019Source: Psychiatry Research: NeuroimagingAuthor(s): Sripriya Chari, Michael Minzenberg, Marjorie Solomon, J. Daniel Ragland, Quynh Nguyen, Cameron S. Carter, Jong H. YoonAbstractWorking memory (WM) deficits are key features of schizophrenia and are associated with significant functional impairment. The precise mechanisms of WM and their relationship between WM deficits with other clinical symptoms of schizophrenia remain unclear. Contemporary models propose that WM requires synchronous activity across brain regions within a distributed network, including lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and task-relevant posterior sensory cortical regions. This suggests that WM deficits in patients may be due to PFC functional connectivity (FC) impairments rather than activation impairments per se. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the magnitude of FC between lateral PFC and visual cortex and univariate activations within these regions during visual WM. We found decreased FC in patients compared to healthy subjects in the context of similar levels of univariate activity. Furthermore, this decreased FC was associated with task performance and clinical symptomatology in patients. The magnitude of FC, particularly during the delay period, was positively correlated with WM task accuracy, while FC during cue was inversely correlated with severity of disorganization. Taken together, these results suggest that impairment in lateral PFC FC is a key aspect of information processing impairment in patients with schizophrenia, and may be a sensitive index of altered neurophysiology.
  • Brain volumes and their ratios in Alzheimer´s disease on magnetic
           resonance imaging segmented using Freesurfer 6.0
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2019Source: Psychiatry Research: NeuroimagingAuthor(s): Ales Bartos, David Gregus, Ibrahim Ibrahim, Jaroslav TintěraAbstractRatios between opposing volumes from brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide additional information to volumes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Brain three-dimensional MPRAGE MRI at 3T were segmented into 44 regions using FreeSurfer v6 in 75 participants. The region's size in absolute volumes and relative proportions to the whole brain volume were compared between 39 AD patients and 36 age-, education- and sex-matched normal controls (NC). Volumes of the most atrophied parts were related to the opposing volumes of the most enlarged parts as ratios. The most atrophic structures in AD were both hippocampi. By contrast, the greatest enlargements in AD were inferior parts of both lateral ventricles . The best ratio for each side was the hippocampo-horn proportion calculated as ratio: the hippocampus / (the hippocampus + inferior lateral ventricle). Its optimal cut-off of 74 % yielded sensitivity of 74 % and specificity of 78 % on the left and sensitivity of 74 % and specificity of 78 % on the right. The hippocampo-horn proportion is another measure to evaluate the degree of hippocampal atrophy on brain MRI in percentages. It has a potential to be simplified into a comparison of two-dimensional corresponding areas or a visual assessment.
  • Dendrite Complexity of the Posterior Cingulate Cortex as a Substrate for
           Recovery from Post-stroke Depression: A Pilot Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2019Source: Psychiatry Research: NeuroimagingAuthor(s): Fumihiko Yasuno, Daisuke Ando, Akihide Yamamoto, Kazuhiro Koshino, Chiaki YokotaAbstractThe neural basis of recovery from a depressive state remains poorly understood. The main purpose of this study was to determine the neural basis of vulnerability/resilience to depression in stroke patients in terms of changes in regional microstructure. The study included 20 individuals with acute ischaemic stroke. Symptoms of depression were assessed, and the intraneurite volume fraction and neurite orientation-dispersion index (ODI) were evaluated by a multi-shell diffusion imaging and neurite-orientation dispersion and density imaging model. Patients underwent follow-up examinations after 2 months and were classified into depression improvement and depression deterioration groups. A significant interaction effect of group × time on the ODI was shown by voxel-based analysis in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). The ODI change in the PCC was negatively correlated with the change in the depression scale scores at the 2-month time point. The increase in ODI in the PCC that occurred during the 2-month interval was thought to be associated with decreased depressive symptom scores. As the ODI represents the pattern of sprawling dendrite progression, our findings indicate that the dendritic complexity of the PCC is a substrate for recovery in individuals who experienced post-stroke psychosocial and biological stress.
  • Subcortical structures and cognitive dysfunction in first episode
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2019Source: Psychiatry Research: NeuroimagingAuthor(s): Fengmei Fan, Hong Xiang, Shuping Tan, Fude Yang, Hongzhen Fan, Hua Guo, Peter Kochunov, Zhiren Wang, L. Elliot Hong, Yunlong TanAbstractSchizophrenia is associated with widespread cortical and subcortical abnormalities. Studies examining cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have historically focused on cortical deficits; however, many subcortical areas also support cognition. We sought to determine whether deficits in subcortical gray matter are linked to neurocognitive dysfunction in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. This study included 170 patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 88 healthy controls. Clinical symptoms, neurocognitive function, and structural images were assessed. Subcortical volumes were recorded. Patients had significant deficits in all cognitive domains, including processing speed, attention, memory, executive function and social cognition. Patients also demonstrated significantly smaller volumes in the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, and total cortical gray matter than did controls after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Reasoning/problem solving was significantly and positively correlated with the volume of the amygdala and nucleus accumbens in patients. Positive symptoms of psychosis were positively correlated with the volume of the amygdala and nucleus accumbens. In addition, the dose of antipsychotic medication was positively correlated with the volume of the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, caudate, putamen, and pallidum. In conclusion, schizophrenia is associated with profound cognitive deficits. Our findings suggest that subcortical structures contribute to specific domains of cognitive dysfunction in first-episode schizophrenia.
  • Cortical Structure Abnormalities in Females with Conduct Disorder Prior to
           Age 15
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2018Source: Psychiatry Research: NeuroimagingAuthor(s): Meenal Budhiraja, Joana B. Pereira, Philip Lindner, Eric Westman, Jussi Jokinen, Ivanka Savic, Jari Tiihonen, Sheilagh HodginsAbstractAmong females, conduct disorder (CD) before age 15 is associated with multiple adverse outcomes in adulthood. The few existing structural neuroimaging studies of females with CD report abnormalities of gray matter volumes. The present study compared cortical thickness and surface area of young women with childhood/adolescent CD and healthy women to determine whether cortical abnormalities were present in adulthood and whether they were related to prior CD. Structural brain images from 31 women with CD and 25 healthy women were analyzed using FreeSurfer. Group differences between cortical thickness and surface area were assessed using cluster-wise corrections with Monte Carlo simulations. Women with prior CD, relative to healthy women, showed: (1) reduced cortical thickness in left fusiform gyrus extending up to entorhinal cortex and lingual gyrus; (2) reduced surface area in right superior parietal cortex; (3) increased surface area in left superior temporal gyrus, and right precentral gyrus. These differences remained significant after adjusting for past comorbid disorders, current symptoms of anxiety and depression, current substance use as well as maltreatment. The study suggests that among females, CD prior to age 15 is associated with cortical structure abnormalities in brain regions involved in emotion processing and social interaction.
  • Neural correlates of taste reward value across eating disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2018Source: Psychiatry Research: NeuroimagingAuthor(s): Aviva K. Olsavsky, Megan E. Shott, Marisa C. DeGuzman, Guido K.W. FrankAbstractIndividuals with eating disorders (ED) make extreme food choices, raising the possibility of altered food-value computation. We utilized an associative taste reward learning paradigm to test whether value signaling differs between participants with EDs vs. healthy controls (HC). We followed up on previous work examining prediction error (PE) signaling, which is a brain response to violation of a learned reward contingency. Expected value (EV) signal is a trial-by-trial assessment of reward significance accounting for error signaling, reward-likelihood, and learning rate. Adult female participants (N = 111) performed a temporal difference (TD) fMRI taste task, which is a specific type of associative reward learning paradigm, to determine EV signal: Anorexia Nervosa-ill (N = 28), Anorexia Nervosa-recovered (N = 20), Bulimia Nervosa (BN) (N = 20), and HC (N= 43). Anatomical region-of-interest (ROI) analyses were performed utilizing EV regressors derived via algorithm, with ROIs based on prior EV analyses: orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate (ACC), amygdala, and striatum. EV signal was elevated in the bilateral ACC in AN-ill vs. HC and BN. Intolerance of uncertainty negatively correlated with EV in AN-ill. BMI and EV were negatively-correlated across groups. Altered ACC EV computation in response to food stimuli could contribute to food restriction in AN-ill.
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