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Journal Cover Journal of Affective Disorders
  [SJR: 1.927]   [H-I: 137]   [16 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0165-0327
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3123 journals]
  • The co-occurrence between depressive symptoms and paranoid ideation: A
           population-based longitudinal study
    • Authors: Aino Saarinen; Tom Rosenström; Mirka Hintsanen; Christian Hakulinen; Laura Pulkki-Råback; Terho Lehtimäki; Olli T. Raitakari; Claude Robert Cloninger; Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen
      Pages: 137 - 142
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 229
      Author(s): Aino Saarinen, Mirka Hintsanen, Christian Hakulinen, Laura Pulkki-Råback, Terho Lehtimäki, Olli Raitakari, Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen
      Background The aim of this study was to examine longitudinally in the general population (a) whether depressive symptoms co-occur with paranoid ideation from late adolescence to middle age (b) whether depressive subsymptoms are differently linked with paranoid ideation (c) whether depressive symptoms are associated with state-level or trait-level paranoid ideation. Methods Altogether 2109 subjects of the Young Finns study completed the Paranoid Ideation Scale of the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised and a modified version of the Beck Depression Inventory in 1992, 1997, 2001, 2007, and 2012, and the Beck Depression Inventory-II in 2007, 2011, and 2012. Results Higher self-rated depressive symptoms were associated with the course of more severe paranoid ideation over age, especially in late adolescence and early adulthood. Regarding depressive subsymptoms, the associations of negative attitude and performance difficulties with paranoid ideation were evident over age, whereas the influence of somatic symptoms (such as changes in sleep and appetite) was not significant until after early adulthood. Additionally, depressive symptoms were more evidently associated with the development of trait- than state-level paranoid ideation. Limitations Our study mostly captured mild depressive and paranoid symptoms. The results cannot be directly generalized to clinical populations. Conclusions Depressive symptoms were associated with the course of paranoid ideation from late adolescence to middle age. Patients with paranoid ideation might merit from evaluation of potential depressive symptoms, especially in late adolescence and early adulthood. Among patients with co-occurring depressive symptoms and paranoid ideation, there may be a substantial need for neurocognitive rehabilitation and community-based treatments.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T01:53:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.12.044
      Issue No: Vol. 261 (2018)
       
  • Insulin resistance as estimated by homeostasis model assessment predicts
           incident post-stroke depression in Chinese subjects from ischemic stroke
    • Authors: Han-Cheng Qiu; Hui-Zhen Liu; Xuemei Li; Xianwei Zeng; Ji-Zong Zhao
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 231
      Author(s): Han-Cheng Qiu, Hui-Zhen Liu, Xuemei Li, Xianwei Zeng, Ji-Zong Zhao
      Objective Previous studies suggested that insulin resistance (IR) may be a significant causal risk factor for cardiovascular events and depression independent of other risk factors. In this prospective, we assess the value of Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) at admission to predict post-stroke depression (PSD) later developed at 3 months follow-up. Methods This prospective, multicenter cohort study was conducted from January 2015 through December 2016 in China. Clinical information and HOMA-IR was assessed at admission. Neurological and neuropsychological evaluations were conducted at the 3-month follow-up. Results In the study population, 56.6% were male and the median age was 59 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 51–69). One hundred and eighty-six patients (26.6%) showed depression at 3 months after admission and in 53 patients (28.5%) this depression was classified as severe. For each 1-unit increase of HOMA-IR, the unadjusted and adjusted risk of PSD increased by 63% (odds ratios [OR]: 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.44–1.85; P < 0.001) and 27% (1.27; 1.13–1.39; P = 0.002). In a multivariate model using the fourth quartiles of HOMA-IR vs. quartiles 1 through 3 together with the clinical variables, the marker displayed prognostic information (PSD: OR for fourth quartile, 2.76 [95% CI, 1.66–3.73; P = 0.003]). Conclusions The data suggests that the HOMA-IR may be of potential clinical relevance in identifying stroke patients at risk of developing depression, independent of the well-established predictors.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.01.023
      Issue No: Vol. 231 (2018)
       
  • Ten-year prediction of suicide death using Cox regression and machine
           learning in a nationwide retrospective cohort study in South Korea
    • Authors: Soo Beom Choi; Wanhyung Lee; Jin-Ha Yoon; Jong-Uk Won; Deok Won Kim
      Pages: 8 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 231
      Author(s): Soo Beom Choi, Wanhyung Lee, Jin-Ha Yoon, Jong-Uk Won, Deok Won Kim
      Background Death by suicide is a preventable public health concern worldwide. The aim of this study is to investigate the probability of suicide death using baseline characteristics and simple medical facility visit history data using Cox regression, support vector machines (SVMs), and deep neural networks (DNNs). Method This study included 819,951 subjects in the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS)–Cohort Sample Database from 2004 to 2013. The dataset was divided randomly into two independent training and validation groups. To improve the performance of predicting suicide death, we applied SVM and DNN to the same training set as the Cox regression model. Results Among the study population, 2546 people died by intentional self-harm during the follow-up time. Sex, age, type of insurance, household income, disability, and medical records of eight ICD-10 codes (including mental and behavioural disorders) were selected by a Cox regression model with backward stepwise elimination. The area of under the curve (AUC) of Cox regression (0.688), SVM (0.687), and DNN (0.683) were approximately the same. The group with top .5% of predicted probability had hazard ratio of 26.21 compared to that with the lowest 10% of predicted probability. Limitations This study is limited by the lack of information on suicidal ideation and attempts, other potential covariates such as information of medication and subcategory ICD-10 codes. Moreover, predictors from the prior 12–24 months of the date of death could be expected to show better performances than predictors from up to 10 years ago. Conclusions We suggest a 10-year probability prediction model for suicide death using general characteristics and simple insurance data, which are annually conducted by the Korean government. Suicide death prevention might be enhanced by our prediction model.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.01.019
      Issue No: Vol. 231 (2018)
       
  • Course, risk factors, and mental health outcomes of excessive daytime
           sleepiness in rural Chinese adolescents: A one-year prospective study
    • Authors: Chunliu Luo; Jihui Zhang; Weijun Chen; Wanxian Lu; Jiyang Pan
      Pages: 15 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 231
      Author(s): Chunliu Luo, Jihui Zhang, Weijun Chen, Wanxian Lu, Jiyang Pan
      Background This study aimed to examine the one-year incidence and persistence of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in rural Chinese adolescents and their risk factors. In addition, we also aimed to explore the potential bidirectional associations of EDS with anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms. Methods A total of 3736 adolescents from 5 high schools from rural area in the south China were eligible for follow-up. Among them, 2787 responded to follow-up after one year. EDS was defined as having a total score of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale over 10. Results The one-year persistence rate and incidence rate of EDS were 27.6% and 9.3%, respectively. After controlling for age and sex, new incident EDS was significantly associated with perceived high study stress, depressive symptoms, insomnia symptoms, and high life events at baseline. Baseline EDS predicted new onsets of depression and anxiety at follow-up. Cross-lagged analyses further revealed that there were bidirectional associations between EDS and anxiety symptom and between EDS and depressive symptoms. Persistent EDS was only associated with eveningness chronotype. In particular, short sleep duration and obesity were associated with neither new incidence nor persistence of EDS in this population. Limitations All measures relied on self-reported questionnaires rather than objective assessments, which might have led to report bias. Conclusions We have identified a number of risk factors of the one-year incidence of EDS (such as perceived high study stress, depressive symptoms, insomnia symptoms, and high life events) and persistence of EDS (eveningness chronotype) in rural adolescents. There is a reciprocal relationship of EDS with anxiety and depression. In this population, sleep loss and obesity seem not related to the course of EDS.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:15:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 231 (2018)
       
  • A NATURALISTIC EXPLORATORY STUDY OF OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE BIPOLAR
           COMORBIDITY IN YOUTH
    • Authors: Gabriele Masi; Stefano Berloffa; Maria Mucci; Chiara Pfanner; Giulia D’Acunto; Francesca Lenzi; Francesca Liboni; Azzurra Manfredi; Annarita Milone
      Pages: 21 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 231
      Author(s): Gabriele Masi, Stefano Berloffa, Maria Mucci, Chiara Pfanner, Giulia D’Acunto, Francesca Lenzi, Francesca Liboni, Azzurra Manfredi, Annarita Milone
      Background Growing evidence supports the comorbidity between bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children and adolescents. Our aim is to further explore clinical and treatment implications of this comorbidity, as it appears in clinical practice. Method The sample included 429 consecutive patients with BD and/or OCD as primary diagnoses, followed for a mean period of 6 months (range 4–9 months), 172 with BD (102 males, mean age 13.7±2.9 years), 169 with OCD (118 males, mean age of 13.2±2.7 years) and 88 with comorbid BD+OCD (56 males, mean age 14.2±2.6 years, 52 with BD as the primary diagnosis), followed for a mean period of 6 months (range 4–9 months). The comorbid group was compared to pure BD and OCD groups, to explore differential clinical and treatment features. Results The BD-OCD comorbidity was found in 33.8% of the BD patients and in 34.2% of the OCD patients. Age at onset of BD and OCD were not different in pure and “comorbid” groups. The comorbid group presented a higher occurrence of BD type II and hoarding symptoms, and more frequently received a psychotherapy and second generation antipsychotics, but it presented the poorest outcome in terms of response to treatments. Severity at baseline (clinical severity and functional impairment), hoarding obsessions and compulsions, and conduct disorder comorbidity were associated with a treatment non-response. Limitations A selection bias may have increased the rate of comorbidity, as most of the patients were referred to our tertiary hospital for severe BD and/or OCD and pharmacological treatment. We have used CGI-I as an outcome measure, not a specific measure of BD or OCD symptoms’ severity and improvement. The short duration of the follow-up may limit our conclusions. Conclusions The timely identification of BD-OCD comorbidity may have relevant clinical implications in terms of symptomatology, course, treatment and outcome.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:15:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.01.020
      Issue No: Vol. 231 (2018)
       
  • Exploring the pathway from anxiety sensitivity intervention to suicide
           
    • Authors: Aaron M. Norr; Nicholas P. Allan; Greg M. Reger; Norman B. Schmidt
      Pages: 27 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 231
      Author(s): Aaron M. Norr, Nicholas P. Allan, Greg M. Reger, Norman B. Schmidt
      Background The suicide rate in the Unites States continues to increase suggesting novel intervention strategies are needed. Anxiety sensitivity (AS), or a fear of anxiety-related sensations, is a suicide risk factor that can be ameliorated via a single-session, computerized intervention called the Cognitive Anxiety Sensitivity Treatment (CAST). Results from randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that reductions in suicidal ideation (SI) due to CAST were mediated by AS reductions. However, a more detailed analysis of the mechanisms of SI reduction due to AS interventions is needed to further our understanding of theoretical models of AS and suicide, and to refine AS treatments. Methods Participants (N = 74) with co-occurring anxiety pathology and SI were randomized to a single-session computerized treatment (CAST + cognitive bias modification) or a control intervention. Assessments were conducted immediately post treatment, and at 1 month and 4 month follow-ups. Results Chained mediation models revealed significant reductions in SI (month 4 follow-up) through AS (post-treatment) and subsequently anxiety symptoms (month 1 follow-up), but not depressive symptoms. There were no direct mediation effects through either AS or anxiety or depressive symptoms. Limitations Limitations include self-report assessment of symptoms, a sample of only individuals with a diagnosed anxiety pathology, and exploratory nature of anxiety/depression dimension analyses. Conclusions Results of the current study help clarify the mechanistic pathways of SI reduction due to an AS intervention, and suggest future work attempting to increase the efficacy of AS interventions should consider the potentially important role of downstream mechanisms that follow AS reduction.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.01.015
      Issue No: Vol. 231 (2018)
       
  • Association between habitual tryptophan intake and depressive symptoms in
           young and middle-aged women
    • Authors: Hitomi Suga; Keiko Asakura; Satomi Kobayashi; Masanori Nojima; Satoshi Sasaki
      Pages: 44 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 231
      Author(s): Hitomi Suga, Keiko Asakura, Satomi Kobayashi, Masanori Nojima, Satoshi Sasaki
      Background The intake of tryptophan, the precursor of serotonin, is assumed to affect serotonin availability and depression onset. Nevertheless, a definitive relationship between dietary tryptophan intake and depressive symptoms has not been established. We examined the association between tryptophan intake and depressive symptoms screened in a group of 4272 first-year female dietetic students and 3651 their mothers. Methods Dietary tryptophan intake during the preceding month was assessed with a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) using two cutoff scores: CES-D score ≥ 16 and CES-D score ≥ 19 (the optimal cutoff score for Japanese people). The multivariate adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for depressive symptoms were calculated using Poisson regression analysis. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥ 16) was 50.0% for young women and 26.5% for middle-aged women. The adjusted PR (95% CI) for depressive symptoms in the highest versus lowest quintile of tryptophan intake was 0.84 (0.75, 0.93) in young women (P for trend < 0.0001) and 0.83 (0.64, 1.01) in middle-aged women (P for trend < 0.0001). These associations were stable even when depressive symptoms were defined as a CES-D score ≥ 19. Limitations This is a cross-sectional study. Depressive symptoms were assessed using a self-reported questionnaire. Conclusions This cross-sectional study showed that a higher tryptophan intake was independently associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms in young Japanese women.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.01.029
      Issue No: Vol. 231 (2018)
       
  • Parsing the heterogeneity of depression: An exploratory factor analysis
           across commonly used depression rating scales
    • Authors: Elizabeth D. Ballard; Julia S. Yarrington; Cristan A. Farmer; Marc S. Lener; Bashkim Kadriu; Níall Lally; Deonte Williams; Rodrigo Machado-Vieira; Mark J. Niciu; Lawrence Park; Carlos A. Zarate
      Pages: 51 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 231
      Author(s): Elizabeth D. Ballard, Julia S. Yarrington, Cristan A. Farmer, Marc S. Lener, Bashkim Kadriu, Níall Lally, Deonte Williams, Rodrigo Machado-Vieira, Mark J. Niciu, Lawrence Park, Carlos A. Zarate
      Background Due to the heterogeneity of depressive symptoms—which can include depressed mood, anhedonia, negative cognitive biases, and altered activity levels—researchers often use a combination of depression rating scales to assess symptoms. This study sought to identify unidimensional constructs measured across rating scales for depression and to evaluate these constructs across clinical trials of a rapid-acting antidepressant (ketamine). Methods Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on baseline ratings from the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Rating Scale (SHAPS). Inpatients with major depressive disorder (n = 76) or bipolar depression (n = 43) were participating in clinical ketamine trials. The trajectories of the resulting unidimensional scores were evaluated in 41 subjects with bipolar depression who participated in clinical ketamine trials. Results The best solution, which exhibited excellent fit to the data, comprised eight factors: Depressed Mood, Tension, Negative Cognition, Impaired Sleep, Suicidal Thoughts, Reduced Appetite, Anhedonia, and Amotivation. Various response patterns were observed across the clinical trial data, both in treatment effect (ketamine versus placebo) and in degree of placebo response, suggesting that use of these unidimensional constructs may reveal patterns not observed with traditional scoring of individual instruments. Limitations Limitations include: 1) small sample (and related inability to confirm measurement invariance); 2) absence of an independent sample for confirmation of factor structure; and 3) the treatment-resistant nature of the population, which may limit generalizability. Conclusions The empirical identification of unidimensional constructs creates more refined scores that may elucidate the connection between specific symptoms and underlying pathophysiology.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.01.027
      Issue No: Vol. 231 (2018)
       
  • Qzone use and depression among Chinese adolescents: A moderated mediation
           model
    • Authors: Geng-feng Niu; Yi-jun Luo; Xiao-jun Sun; Zong-kui Zhou; Feng Yu; Shen-Long Yang; Liang Zhao
      Pages: 58 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 231
      Author(s): Geng-feng Niu, Yi-jun Luo, Xiao-jun Sun, Zong-kui Zhou, Feng Yu, Shen-Long Yang, Liang Zhao
      Background Social networking sites (SNSs), which provide abundant social comparison opportunities, are ubiquitous around the world, especially among adolescents. In China, Qzone stands out as the most popular SNS. Due to the opportunity it provides for meticulous self-presentation, SNS may give the impression that others are doing better, which is detrimental to individuals’ well-being. Based on social comparison theory, the current study aimed to investigate the association between Chinese adolescents’ SNS (Qzone) use and depression, as well as the mediating role of negative social comparison and the moderating role of self-esteem. Method A total of 764 adolescents (aged 12–18 years, M = 14.23, SD = 1.75), who had an active Qzone account, were recruited voluntarily to complete questionnaires on Qzone use intensity, negative social comparison on Qzone, self-esteem, and depression. Results More intense Qzone use was associated with higher level of negative social comparison on Qzone, which fully mediated the association between Qzone use and depression. Moreover, the mediating effect of negative social comparison on Qzone was moderated by self-esteem. The specific link between Qzone use and negative social comparison was weaker among adolescents with high self-esteem than those with low self-esteem. Limitations As all the data in this study were self-reported and cross-sectional, causal associations cannot be identified. Additionally, the specific activities on SNS were not identified. Conclusions Negative social comparison may be a key factor and mechanism accounting for the positive association between SNS use and depression, while self-esteem could protect adolescents from the adverse outcome of SNS use.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 231 (2018)
       
  • Pathways to depression by age 16 years: Examining trajectories for
           self-reported psychological and somatic phenotypes across adolescence
    • Authors: Jan Scott; Tracey A. Davenport; Richard Parker; Daniel F. Hermens; Penelope A. Lind; Sarah E. Medland; Margaret J. Wright; Nicholas G. Martin; Nathan A. Gillespie; Ian B. Hickie
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 230
      Author(s): Jan Scott, Tracey A. Davenport, Richard Parker, Daniel F. Hermens, Penelope A. Lind, Sarah E. Medland, Margaret J. Wright, Nicholas G. Martin, Nathan A. Gillespie, Ian B. Hickie
      Background Sex differences in rates of depression emerge during adolescence. However, it is unclear whether symptom patterns and trajectories differ significantly according to gender in youth. Barriers to research include the fact that most self-report tools are weighted towards psychological rather than somatic symptoms. Methods Data were collected on symptoms of depression in about 1800 individuals at ages 12, 14 and 16 years. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to examine the trajectory of psychological and somatic phenotypes and self-reported depression caseness over time. Results At age 12, 24% of participants met criteria for self-reported depression caseness. Although there was only a small incremental increase in the prevalence over time (about 5%), 57% of participants met criteria for self-reported depression caseness at least once. Generic symptoms at age 12 were associated with depression longitudinally, although early transition to caseness was reported in females only. Categorization as a psychological phenotype at age 12 predicted depression at age 14 and/or 16 years, especially in females. The somatic phenotype was more common in males, but showed a weaker association with self-reported depression caseness over time. Limitations Depression was assessed by self-report; only 30% of participants had ratings for age 12, 14 and 16. Conclusions Although sub-threshold psychological and somatic syndromes often co-occur in cases of self-reported depression in adolescence, longitudinally they may represent independent symptom trajectories. However, it is important to remember that self-reported depression is indicative of, but not confirmation of a depressive episode that meets diagnostic criteria.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:15:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2018)
       
  • Pre-disaster PTSD as a moderator of the relationship between natural
           disaster and suicidal ideation over time
    • Authors: Lily A. Brown; Cristina A. Fernandez; Robert Kohn; Sandra Saldivia; Benjamin Vicente
      Pages: 7 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 230
      Author(s): Lily A. Brown, Cristina A. Fernandez, Robert Kohn, Sandra Saldivia, Benjamin Vicente
      Background Natural disasters are associated with a variety of negative health consequences, including enhanced suicide risk. Factors that moderate the relationship between disaster exposure and enhanced suicide risk are unknown. The aim of the current study was to determine whether pre-disaster PTSD moderates the association between change over time in thoughts of death, suicidal ideation (SI), suicide plans, and suicide attempts (SA) from pre- to post-disaster. Methods Participants (n = 2832) were recruited from Chile as part of the larger PREDICT study and completed a measure of lifetime PTSD and panic disorder at baseline and a lifetime death/suicide measure at baseline in 2003 and again 6, 12, and 24 months later (i.e. “pre-disaster”). One year following a major earthquake and tsunami in 2010 (i.e., “post-disaster”), participants completed another death/suicide measure. Results Both those with and without pre-disaster PTSD experienced significant increases in SI from pre- to post-disaster. However, pre-disaster PTSD was associated with significantly accelerated increases in thoughts of death and SI from pre-to post-disaster. At nearly all time-points, pre-disaster PTSD was associated with higher thoughts of death and SI, suicide planning, and SA. In contrast, panic disorder did not moderate the association between time and changes in SI. Limitations There was a long time-gap between pre-disaster and post-disaster, with limited data about what occurred during this time. Conclusion Pre-disaster PTSD is an important predictor of increased SI following a natural disaster, and groups with pre-disaster PTSD should be prioritized for receipt of mental health resources following a natural disaster.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:15:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.096
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2018)
       
  • One-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of sertraline and
           cognitive behavior group therapy in depressed primary care patients (MIND
           study)
    • Authors: Roland Mergl; Antje-Kathrin Allgaier; Martin Hautzinger; James C. Coyne; Ulrich Hegerl; Verena Henkel
      Pages: 15 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 230
      Author(s): Roland Mergl, Antje-Kathrin Allgaier, Martin Hautzinger, James C. Coyne, Ulrich Hegerl, Verena Henkel
      Background The long-term course of symptoms in patients with mild-to-moderate depression is not well understood. A 12-month-follow-up analysis was performed on those participants from a randomized controlled 10-week trial (RCT, MIND-study), who had received either treatment with an antidepressant (sertraline) or a psychotherapeutic intervention (group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)). Methods The longitudinal interval follow-up evaluation (LIFE) was applied to 77 patients with mild-to moderate depression. The primary outcome was the number of weeks in the one-year follow-up period spent completely recovered from all depressive symptoms. Functional outcome was measured with the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale. Further outcomes were relapse and remission rates based on weekly psychiatric rating scales (PSR) and the number of weeks in the follow-up period during which patients had a depressive disorder or subthreshold symptoms of depression. Results Patients with acute treatment (10 weeks) with SSRI and those with acute treatment with CBT (also 10 weeks) did not differ significantly concerning the number of weeks in the follow-up period in which they were completely recovered (primary outcome) (SSRI: 31.6 weeks (standard deviation (SD): 23.7), CBT: 27.8 weeks (SD: 24.3)). Sertraline was superior to CBT regarding GAF scores by trend (p = 0.06). Limitations The generalizability of the findings is limited by the moderate sample size and missing values (LIFE). Conclusions Sertraline and group CBT have similar anti-depressive effects in the long-term course of mild-to-moderate depression. Regarding long-term global functioning, sertraline seems to be slightly superior to CBT.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:15:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.084
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2018)
       
  • Stressful life events and depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers of
           young children
    • Authors: Eirini Flouri; Martina K. Narayanan; Ane Nærde
      Pages: 22 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 230
      Author(s): Eirini Flouri, Martina K. Narayanan, Ane Nærde
      Background Parents of young children generally report more depressive symptoms than parents of adult children or people without children, mainly because the presence of young children increases exposure to significant stressors (such as stressful life events). However, most studies on the depressogenic role of stressful life events in parents of young children have focussed on mothers. Methods Using data from 1138 families with young children in Norway, we investigated gender differences in the effect of stressful life events after a child's birth on the development of parental depressive symptoms in 3 follow-ups at child's ages 3–6 years. We also explored if gender differences in disposition (personality) may explain any gender differences in the depressogenic effect of life events. Results Nesting parents within families, we found a female gender bias for both neuroticism and depressive symptoms but no gender difference in the number of life events reported. Importantly, the number of stressful life events predicted the level and course of depressive symptoms similarly for mothers and fathers. Personality traits did not change the association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms in either mothers or fathers. Limitations Given the study design, causality cannot be inferred. Conclusions There was no gender difference in the depressogenic effect of stressful life events in our sample. There was no evidence for a female dispositional sensitivity to the depressogenic effect of stressful life events, either. Stressful life events put both mothers and fathers of young children at risk of depression.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:15:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.098
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2018)
       
  • Test-retest reliability of the diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder in
           childhood and adolescence – A systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Sarah Salamon; Hanno Santelmann; Jeremy Franklin; Christopher Baethge
      Pages: 28 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 230
      Author(s): Sarah Salamon, Hanno Santelmann, Jeremy Franklin, Christopher Baethge
      Objectives Reliability of schizoaffective disorder (SAD) diagnoses is low in adults but unclear in children and adolescents (CAD). We estimate the test-retest reliability of SAD and its key differential diagnoses (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar depression). Methods Systematic literature search of Medline, Embase, and PsycInfo for studies on test-retest reliability of SAD, in CAD. Cohen's kappa was extracted from studies. We performed meta-analysis for kappa, including subgroup and sensitivity analysis (PROSPERO protocol: CRD42013006713). Results Out of > 4000 records screened, seven studies were included. We estimated kappa values of 0.27 [95%-CI: 0.07 0.47] for SAD, 0.56 [0.29; 0.83] for schizophrenia, 0.64 [0.55; 0.74] for bipolar disorder, and 0.66 [0.52; 0.81] for unipolar depression. In 5/7 studies kappa of SAD was lower than that of schizophrenia; similar trends emerged for bipolar disorder (4/5) and unipolar depression (2/3). Estimates of positive agreement of SAD diagnoses supported these results. Limitations The number of studies and patients included is low. Conclusions The point-estimate of the test-retest reliability of schizoaffective disorder is only fair, and lower than that of its main differential diagnoses. All kappa values under study were lower in children and adolescents samples than those reported for adults. Clinically, schizoaffective disorder should be diagnosed in strict adherence to the operationalized criteria and ought to be re-evaluated regularly. Should larger studies confirm the insufficient reliability of schizoaffective disorder in children and adolescents, the clinical value of the diagnosis is highly doubtful.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.070
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2018)
       
  • Differential associations between patterns of child maltreatment and
           comorbidity in adult depressed patients
    • Authors: Jeannette Brodbeck; Eva Fassbinder; Ulrich Schweiger; Antje Fehr; Christina Späth; Jan Philipp Klein
      Pages: 34 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 230
      Author(s): Jeannette Brodbeck, Eva Fassbinder, Ulrich Schweiger, Antje Fehr, Christina Späth, Jan Philipp Klein
      Background Types of maltreatment often co-occur and it is unclear how maltreatment patterns impact on comorbidity in depressed patients. Methods We analysed associations of maltreatment patterns with a broad range of comorbidities assessed with diagnostic interviews in 311 treatment-seeking depressed outpatients. Results Latent class analyses identified a “no maltreatment class” (39%), a “mild to moderate abuse and neglect class” (34%), a “severe abuse and neglect class” (14%) and a “severe neglect class” (13%). We found a dose-response association for the first three classes with comorbid disorders, a general psychopathology factor and an interpersonal insecurity factor. Patients in the “severe abuse and neglect” class had increased odds ratios (OR) of suffering from an anxiety disorder (OR 3.58), PTSD (OR 7.09), Borderline personality disorder (OR 7.97) and suicidality (OR 10.04) compared to those without child maltreatment. Patients in the “severe neglect” class did not have a higher risk for comorbidity than those in the “no maltreatment” class. Limitations Class sizes in the “severe abuse and neglect” and the “severe neglect” classes were small and findings should be replicated with other clinical and population samples. Conclusions A higher severity rather than the constellation of types of child abuse and neglect was associated with more comorbid disorders. An exception were patients reporting solely severe emotional and physical neglect who had a similar risk for comorbidity as patients without a history of child maltreatment. This may be associated with distinct learning experiences and may inform treatment decisions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.077
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2018)
       
  • Loneliness is closely associated with depression outcomes and suicidal
           ideation among military veterans in primary care
    • Authors: Alan R. Teo; Heather E. Marsh; Christopher W. Forsberg; Christina Nicolaidis; Jason I. Chen; Jason Newsom; Somnath Saha; Steven K. Dobscha
      Pages: 42 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 230
      Author(s): Alan R. Teo, Heather E. Marsh, Christopher W. Forsberg, Christina Nicolaidis, Jason I. Chen, Jason Newsom, Somnath Saha, Steven K. Dobscha
      Background Although the substantial influence of social relationships on health is well-known, studies that concurrently examine the influence of varying dimensions of social connectedness on major depression are more limited. This study's aim was to determine to what degree several facets of social connectedness (number of confidants, social support, interpersonal conflict, social norms, and loneliness) are correlated with depression-related outcomes. Methods Participants were primary care patients (n = 301) with probable major depression at a Veterans Health Administration hospital and its satellite clinics. Social connectedness was primarily measured using multi-item instruments from the NIH Toolbox of Adult Social Relationship Scales. Primary outcomes were clinical symptoms (depression and suicidal ideation) and secondary outcomes were self-reported health-related behaviors (medication adherence, patient activation, and help-seeking intentions). Results In multivariate models adjusting for potential confounders and other facets of connectedness, loneliness was associated with higher levels of depression and suicidal ideation, as well as lower patient activation and help-seeking intentions. Social support and social norms about depression treatment were each associated with higher patient activation and help-seeking intentions. Social connectedness was not associated with medication adherence. Limitations The limitations of this study are primarily related to its cross-sectional survey design and study population. Conclusions Multiple aspects of social connectedness are associated with depression outcomes among military veterans with depression. Loneliness may represent the most important component of connectedness, as it is associated with depression severity, suicidality, and health-related behaviors.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2018)
       
  • Measurement of depression treatment among patients receiving HIV primary
           care: Whither the truth'
    • Authors: Bethany L. DiPrete; Brian W. Pence; David J. Grelotti; Bradley N. Gaynes
      Pages: 50 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 230
      Author(s): Bethany L. DiPrete, Brian W. Pence, David J. Grelotti, Bradley N. Gaynes
      Background Prescription records, manual chart review, and patient self-report are each imperfect measures of depression treatment in HIV-infected adults. Methods We compared antidepressant prescription records in an electronic data warehouse with antidepressant treatment and psychotherapy identified via manual chart review and self-report for patients at 6 academic HIV treatment centers. We examined concordance among these three sources, and used latent class analysis (LCA) to estimate sensitivity and specificity of each measure. Results In our charts sample (n = 586), 59% had chart indication of “any depression treatment” and 46% had a warehouse prescription record. Antidepressant use was concordant between charts and data warehouse for 77% of the sample. In our self-report sample (n = 677), 52% reported any depression treatment and 43% had a warehouse prescription record. Self-report of antidepressant treatment was consistent with prescription records for 71% of the sample. LCA estimates of sensitivity and specificity for “any depression treatment” were 67% and 90% (warehouse), 87% and 75% (self-report), and 96% and 77% (chart). Limitations There is no gold standard to measure depression treatment. Antidepressants may be prescribed to patients for conditions other than depression. The results may not be generalizable to patient populations in non-academic HIV clinics. Regarding LCA, dependence of errors may have led to overestimation of sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions Prescription records were largely concordant with self-report and chart review, but there were discrepancies. Studies of depression in HIV-infected patients would benefit from using multiple measures of depression treatment or correcting for exposure misclassification.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.068
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2018)
       
  • A pilot study of minocycline for the treatment of bipolar depression:
           Effects on cortical glutathione and oxidative stress in vivo
    • Authors: James W. Murrough; Kathryn M. Huryk; Xiangling Mao; Brian Iacoviello; Katherine Collins; Andrew A. Nierenberg; Guoxin Kang; Dikoma C. Shungu; Dan V. Iosifescu
      Pages: 56 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 230
      Author(s): James W. Murrough, Kathryn M. Huryk, Xiangling Mao, Brian Iacoviello, Katherine Collins, Andrew A. Nierenberg, Guoxin Kang, Dikoma C. Shungu, Dan V. Iosifescu
      Background The antibiotic minocycline appears to promote neuroprotection through antioxidant and other mechanisms that may be relevant to the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. The present study assessed the efficacy of minocycline in bipolar depression and examined the association between minocycline treatment and brain glutathione (GSH), an essential regulator of oxidative stress. Method Twenty patients with bipolar disorder experiencing acute depressive symptoms enrolled in an 8-week, open-label trial of adjuvant minocycline. Depression was assessed using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) measures of cortical GSH within a voxel prescribed in the precuneus and aspects of the occipital cortex were obtained from a subset of patients (n=12) before and after treatment. Results The daily dose of minocycline at study end was 256mg (SD: 71mg). Treatment was associated with improvements in depression severity [MADRS score change: –14.6 (95% CI: –7.8 to –21.3)]. Ten patients (50%) were classified as responders based on a ≥50% reduction in MADRS score and 8 patients (40%) were classified as remitters (MADRS score ≤ 9). Higher baseline GSH levels were associated with greater improvement in MADRS score following treatment (ρ=0.51, p=0.05). Increases in GSH levels at study end were higher in non-responders than in responders (p=0.04). Limitations Small sample size, lack of a placebo group. Conclusion Minocycline may be an effective adjuvant treatment for bipolar depression, particularly in patients with high baseline GSH levels. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential of minocycline in this population.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.067
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2018)
       
  • Physical exercise for late-life depression: Effects on symptom dimensions
           and time course
    • Authors: Martino Belvederi Murri; Pantaleimon Ekkekakis; Marco Menchetti; Francesca Neviani; Fausto Trevisani; Stefano Tedeschi; Pasqualino Maietta Latessa; Erika Nerozzi; Giuliano Ermini; Donato Zocchi; Salvatore Squatrito; Giulio Toni; Aderville Cabassi; Mirco Neri; Stamatula Zanetidou; Mario Amore
      Pages: 65 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 230
      Author(s): Martino Belvederi Murri, Pantaleimon Ekkekakis, Marco Menchetti, Francesca Neviani, Fausto Trevisani, Stefano Tedeschi, Pasqualino Maietta Latessa, Erika Nerozzi, Giuliano Ermini, Donato Zocchi, Salvatore Squatrito, Giulio Toni, Aderville Cabassi, Mirco Neri, Stamatula Zanetidou, Mario Amore
      Background Physical exercise is increasingly recognized as a treatment for major depression, even among older patients. However, it is still unknown which depressive symptoms exercise affects most, (e.g. somatic vs. affective) and the timing of its effects. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the changes of depressive symptoms after treatment with exercise. Methods We analyzed data from the SEEDS study, a trial comparing the antidepressant effectiveness of sertraline (S) and sertraline plus exercise (S+EX). Exercise was delivered thrice weekly in small groups and monitored by heart rate meters. Patients with late life depression (n=121) were assessed at baseline, 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks with the Hamilton Depression Scale. Scores of affective, vegetative, anxiety and agitation/insight factors were analyzed using Multilevel Growth Curve Models and sensitivity analyses (multiple imputation). Results Compared with the S group, patients in the S+EX group displayed significantly greater improvements of the affective symptom dimension (total effect size = 0.79) with largest changes in the first 4 weeks and last 12 weeks. Improvements were mainly driven by depressed mood and psychomotor retardation. Limitations Sample size; lack of an exercise only treatment arm Conclusions Adding exercise to antidepressant drug treatment may offer significant advantages over affective symptoms of depression, rather than somatic symptoms or other dimensions of depression. Compared with standard antidepressant treatment, clinical advantages should be expected both at an early (first 4 weeks) and later stage (after 12 weeks).

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2018)
       
  • Unique trajectories of anxiety among Chinese-Canadian women across the
           first postpartum year: A longitudinal cohort study
    • Authors: Cindy-Lee Dennis; Sarah Brennenstuhl; Susitha Wanigaratne; Hilary K. Brown; Sophie Grigoriadis; Flavia C. Marini; Simone N. Vigod
      Pages: 71 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 230
      Author(s): Cindy-Lee Dennis, Sarah Brennenstuhl, Susitha Wanigaratne, Hilary K. Brown, Sophie Grigoriadis, Flavia C. Marini, Simone N. Vigod
      Background Our objectives were to identify subtypes of Chinese-Canadian women with unique trajectories of anxiety symptomatology over the first postpartum year, investigate covariates associated with group membership, and determine if mental healthcare utilization varies by group membership. Methods This was a longitudinal cohort study of 570 Chinese immigrant and Canadian-born women in Toronto, Canada with live births in 2010–2014. Covariates were age, immigrant status, income, fatigue, social support, acculturative stress, and depression. Mental healthcare utilization included visits at 4–24 weeks postpartum. Anxiety symptomatology was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify latent classes corresponding to trajectories of anxiety symptomology at 4–52 weeks. Results Three groups were identified: “consistently non-anxious” (74%, stable low levels of anxiety), “consistently anxious” (19.5%, clinically meaningful anxiety at baseline and across time), and “anxious-improving” (6.5%, high anxiety at baseline followed by decline). Compared to consistently non-anxious women, consistently anxious women were more likely to report baseline fatigue, depression, and acculturative stress; anxious-improving women were more likely to report baseline fatigue, depression, and history of depression before pregnancy. At 12–24 weeks, 13.8% of anxious-improving women sought mental healthcare compared to 8.6% of consistently-anxious women and 4.7% of non-anxious women (p = .06). Limitations Our sample comprised Chinese immigrant and Canadian-born women; results should be replicated in other groups. Conclusions We identified three subtypes of postpartum anxiety trajectories. These groups of women may respond differently to interventions due to exposure to various combinations of risk factors.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2018)
       
  • Effects of emotion regulation strategy use in response to stressors on
           PTSD symptoms: An ecological momentary assessment study
    • Authors: Nicole A. Short; Joseph W. Boffa; Kevin Clancy; Norman B. Schmidt
      Pages: 77 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 230
      Author(s): Nicole A. Short, Joseph W. Boffa, Kevin Clancy, Norman B. Schmidt
      Background Although a burgeoning line of research identifies emotion regulation difficulties as a potential maintenance factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little is known in regard to what emotion regulation strategies individuals with PTSD use in their daily lives, their predictors, and their consequences on later PTSD symptoms. Method The current study utilized ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to explore prospective relationships between maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation strategy use and PTSD symptoms in participants with PTSD (N = 30). Participants completed 4 EMAs per day over 8 days, assessing stressors, emotional response, and emotion regulation strategy use. Results Individuals with PTSD most commonly used avoidance as an emotion regulation strategy. Multilevel modeling indicated that baseline PTSD symptoms predicted maladaptive emotion regulation strategy use. After covarying for morning PTSD symptoms, maladaptive emotion regulation prospectively predicted increased PTSD symptoms later in the day. Adaptive emotion regulation strategies did not uniquely predict later PTSD symptoms. Conclusion In line with conceptualizations of difficulties in emotion regulation as a transdiagnostic maintenance factor in PTSD, findings indicate that maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in response to stressors exacerbate PTSD symptoms. The use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies had no positive or negative impact on subsequent PTSD symptoms. Limitations Future studies should utilize longer-term prospective designs.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.063
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2018)
       
  • Natural speech algorithm applied to baseline interview data can predict
           which patients will respond to psilocybin for treatment-resistant
           depression
    • Authors: Facundo Carrillo; Mariano Sigman; Diego Fernández Slezak; Philip Ashton; Lily Fitzgerald; Jack Stroud; David J. Nutt; Robin L. Carhart-Harris
      Pages: 84 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 230
      Author(s): Facundo Carrillo, Mariano Sigman, Diego Fernández Slezak, Philip Ashton, Lily Fitzgerald, Jack Stroud, David J. Nutt, Robin L. Carhart-Harris
      Background Natural speech analytics has seen some improvements over recent years, and this has opened a window for objective and quantitative diagnosis in psychiatry. Here, we used a machine learning algorithm applied to natural speech to ask whether language properties measured before psilocybin for treatment-resistant can predict for which patients it will be effective and for which it will not. Methods A baseline autobiographical memory interview was conducted and transcribed. Patients with treatment-resistant depression received 2 doses of psilocybin, 10 mg and 25 mg, 7 days apart. Psychological support was provided before, during and after all dosing sessions. Quantitative speech measures were applied to the interview data from 17 patients and 18 untreated age-matched healthy control subjects. A machine learning algorithm was used to classify between controls and patients and predict treatment response. Results Speech analytics and machine learning successfully differentiated depressed patients from healthy controls and identified treatment responders from non-responders with a significant level of 85% of accuracy (75% precision). Conclusions Automatic natural language analysis was used to predict effective response to treatment with psilocybin, suggesting that these tools offer a highly cost-effective facility for screening individuals for treatment suitability and sensitivity. Limitations The sample size was small and replication is required to strengthen inferences on these results.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2018)
       
  • Toward subtyping of suicidality: Brief suicidal ideation is associated
           with greater stress response
    • Authors: Mina M. Rizk; Hanga Galfalvy; Tanya Singh; John G. Keilp; M. Elizabeth Sublette; Maria A. Oquendo; J. John Mann; Barbara Stanley
      Pages: 87 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 230
      Author(s): Mina M. Rizk, Hanga Galfalvy, Tanya Singh, John G. Keilp, M. Elizabeth Sublette, Maria A. Oquendo, J. John Mann, Barbara Stanley
      Background Suicide is a heterogeneous phenomenon, and thus defining more homogeneous subgroups may help in understanding its underlying biology and ultimately in its prevention. Suicidal ideation is far more common than suicidal behavior and predicts future suicide attempts. Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA)-axis reactivity has been implicated in individuals with suicidal ideation but findings are mixed with some studies showing increased and others demonstrating decreased reactivity. This suggests that dysregulation of HPA-axis is related to a specific character of suicidal ideation. We hypothesized that individuals with brief suicidal ideation are more stress responsive than those with longer/continuous ideation. Methods Thirty-five individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 23 healthy volunteers (HVs), aged 18–65 years, underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Salivary cortisol was measured at 6 time-points before and during TSST. Total severity and duration of current suicidal ideation were assessed using the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI). Brief suicidal ideators (N = 18), longer/continuous ideators (N = 17) and HVs were compared regarding cortisol response, baseline cortisol and total output. Results Participants with brief suicidal ideation had greater cortisol response compared to those with longer/continuous ideation and HVs, even after controlling for relevant covariates. However, total SSI score was not associated with cortisol response. Baseline cortisol and total output were not related to overall severity or duration of suicidal ideation. Limitations The cross-sectional design and modest sample limit generalizability of the results. Conclusions Hyper-responsiveness of HPA-axis to social stress is associated with brief suicidal ideation, possibly defining a pathway for exploring the biological subtyping of suicidal individuals.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2018)
       
  • Exploring cross-lagged associations between spiritual struggles and risk
           for suicidal behavior in a community sample of military veterans
    • Authors: Joseph M. Currier; Ryon C. McDermott; Wesley H. McCormick; Marc C. Churchwell; Lori Milkeris
      Pages: 93 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 230
      Author(s): Joseph M. Currier, Ryon C. McDermott, Wesley H. McCormick, Marc C. Churchwell, Lori Milkeris
      Background There is consensus that struggles with religious faith and/or spirituality likely contribute to risk for suicidal behavior in military populations. However, a lack of longitudinal information has limited the ability to clarify the temporal associations between these variables. Methods This study examined cross-lagged associations between key types of spiritual struggles (divine, morality, ultimate meaning, interpersonal relations, and doubting) and indices of risk for suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation and probability of future attempt) in a community sample of veterans who completed assessments spaced apart by six months. Results Greater severity of all forms of spiritual struggles was generally concurrently associated with indices of suicidal behavior at both time points. Of the possible models for predicting suicide risk, structural equation modeling analyses revealed that a cross-lagged option with spiritual struggles predicting risk provided the best-fitting solution for veterans’ responses on study measures. In addition to PTSD and MDD symptomatology, issues with ultimate meaning at Time 1 were uniquely predictive of veterans’ perceived likelihood of making a suicide attempt beyond the second assessment, after accounting for autoregressive effects and other variables in this model. Limitations This sample was recruited from a single geographic region with disproportionate ties to Christian religious traditions. In addition, reliance on self-report instrumentation potentially limited the accuracy of gauging suicide risk in some cases. Conclusions Findings highlight the prognostic value of spiritually integrated models for assessing suicide risk in military veterans that account for mental health conditions along with possible expressions of suffering in the spiritual domain.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2018)
       
  • Are affective temperaments determinants of quality of life in euthymic
           patients with bipolar disorder'
    • Authors: Julio Costa; Ana García-Blanco; Yolanda Cañada; María P. García-Portilla; Gemma Safont; Belén Arranz; Mónica Sanchez-Autet; Lorenzo Livianos; Victoria Fornés-Ferrer; Pilar Sierra
      Pages: 101 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 230
      Author(s): Julio Costa, Ana García-Blanco, Yolanda Cañada, María P. García-Portilla, Gemma Safont, Belén Arranz, Mónica Sanchez-Autet, Lorenzo Livianos, Victoria Fornés-Ferrer, Pilar Sierra
      Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is a disabling illness that is associated with low quality of life (QoL). This low QoL goes further than mood episodes, which suggests that stable traits, such as affective temperaments, can cause functional impairment. Objective Our study analyses the impact of affective temperaments on the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) of QoL in euthymic BD patients. Methods A multicentre study was conducted in 180 euthymic BD patients and 95 healthy controls. Firstly, statistical analyses were performed to compare QoL and affective temperaments between the two groups. Secondly, Adaptive Lasso Analysis was carried out to identify the potential confounding variables and select the affective temperaments as potential predictors on the PCS and MCS of QoL in BD patients, as well as the control group. Results QoL scores in terms of PCS and MCS in BD patients were significantly lower than in healthy individuals. Whereas anxious temperament, anxiety disorder comorbidity, and age were the best predictors of PCS impairment in BD patients, anxious temperament, subclinical depressive symptoms, and age were the best predictors of MCS impairment. Limitations Further longitudinal studies with unaffected high-risk relatives are needed to examine the potential interaction between affective temperament and psychopathology. Conclusions Anxious temperament has an impact on QoL in BD in terms of both the physical component and the mental component. Systematic screening of temperament in BD would give clinicians better knowledge of QoL predictors. Further research should allow more individualized treatment of BD patients based on temperamental factors.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2018)
       
  • Social and academic functioning in adolescents with anxiety disorders: A
           systematic review
    • Authors: Jasmijn M. de Lijster; Gwen C. Dieleman; Elisabeth M.W.J. Utens; Bram Dierckx; Milou Wierenga; Frank C. Verhulst; Jeroen S. Legerstee
      Pages: 108 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 230
      Author(s): Jasmijn M. de Lijster, Gwen C. Dieleman, Elisabeth M.W.J. Utens, Bram Dierckx, Milou Wierenga, Frank C. Verhulst, Jeroen S. Legerstee
      Background Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent during adolescence. Although literature points out that anxiety symptoms are related to problems in social and academic functioning, the extent of these problems among adolescents with clinical anxiety disorders has not been systematically reviewed before. Methods Electronic databases were searched up to October 2017, with keywords representing anxiety disorders, adolescents, and social or academic functioning. The inclusion criteria were studies with a sample of adolescents (10–19 years) with anxiety disorders that provided data regarding their social or academic functioning. 3431 studies were examined, of which 19 met the inclusion criteria. Results Adolescents with anxiety disorders had a lower social competence relative to their healthy peers. They reported more negativity within interpersonal relationships, higher levels of loneliness, and victimization. Most adolescents with anxiety disorders felt impaired at school, however, findings of their average school results, compared to peers, were mixed. In addition, they had a higher risk for school refusal and entered higher education less often. Impairments in social and academic functioning differed across type and the number of anxiety disorders. Limitations Most studies examined social phobia or anxiety disorders in general and methodological approaches varied widely between studies. Conclusions This systematic review indicates that adolescents with anxiety disorders experience a range of significant problems in both social and academic functioning. These findings suggest that the assessment and treatment of anxiety disorders in adolescence should focus on improving functioning across domains.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2018)
       
  • Change in 1-year hospitalization of overall and older patients with major
           depressive disorder after second-generation antipsychotics augmentation
           treatment
    • Authors: Chun-Yuan Lin; Te-Jen Lai; Yu-Hsin Wu; Ping-Kun Chen; Yuan-Fu Lin; I.-Chia Chien
      Pages: 118 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 230
      Author(s): Chun-Yuan Lin, Te-Jen Lai, Yu-Hsin Wu, Ping-Kun Chen, Yuan-Fu Lin, I.-Chia Chien
      Background Studies on second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) augmentation treatment for older adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) remain limited. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of SGA augmentation for overall and older patients with MDD inpatient history by assessing the change in 1-year hospitalization before and after SGA augmentation using the latest National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan. Methods The samples were MDD patients (ICD-9 CM code: 296.2 and 296.3) who had psychiatric inpatient history. A total of 2602 MDD patients including 430 elderly subjects (age ≥ 60 years) who received SGA augmentation for 8 weeks between January 1998 and December 2012 were included in this 1-year mirror-image study. Outcome measures included number and length of psychiatric and all-cause hospitalizations. Results After 8-week continuous SGA augmentation in the study subjects, the total number and days of psychiatric hospitalizations among overall patients reduced by 33.57% (p < .0001) and 18.24% (p < .0001), respectively; the total number and days of psychiatric hospitalizations among older patients (age ≥ 60) reduced by 44.52% (p < .0001) and 27.95% (p < .0001), respectively. Similarly, the total number and days of all-cause hospitalizations were significantly reduced. Limitations MDD patients without inpatient history were not included due to data limitation; hence, the results may not be generalized to all patients. Conclusions The results support that SGA may be effective in reducing psychiatric and all-cause hospitalization among overall and elderly MDD patients. More studies focusing on the safety of SGA among older MDD patients is warranted.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2018)
       
  • Neurobiology of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in GAD: Aberrant
           neurometabolic correlation to hippocampus and relationship to anxiety
           sensitivity and IQ
    • Authors: Jeremy D. Coplan; Ryan Webler; Srinath Gopinath; Chadi G. Abdallah; Sanjay J. Mathew
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 229
      Author(s): Jeremy D. Coplan, Ryan Webler, Srinath Gopinath, Chadi G. Abdallah, Sanjay J. Mathew
      Introduction The neurometabolism underlying the cognitive and affective symptoms associated with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) remain poorly understood. After we have linked worry to intelligence in patients with GAD, we hypothesized that aberrant neurometabolic correlations between hippocampus and neocortical regions may underlie a shared substrate in GAD patients for both anxiety sensitivity and intelligence. Methods GAD patients (n = 16; F = 11) and healthy volunteers (n = 16; F = 10) were assessed using 1H-MRSI. Co-axial planes I [hippocampus (HIPP)] and co-axial plane III [dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), central gyrus (CG)] were examined. Using general linear models, we examined resting metabolite concentrations using HIPP as a hub to CG and DLPFC. Neocortical ROIs were related to Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI) and Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) in GAD patients versus controls. Results Right hippocampal Cho/Cr directly predicted left DLPFC Cho/Cr in GAD (r = 0.75), an effect distinguishable (p = 0.0004) from controls. Left HIPP Cho/Cr positively predicted left CG Cho/Cr in GAD, an effect distinguishable from controls. In patients, both left and right DLPFC Cho/Cr positively predicted ASI but only left DLPFC Cho/Cr inversely predicted IQ. By contrast, IQ in controls correlated directly with left CG Cho/Cr. Limitations Small sample size precluded us from investigating how gender and FSIQ subscales related to neurochemical correlations in the ROIs examined. Conclusions Aberrant resting state neurochemical correlation between left DLPFC and right HIPP may contribute to GAD symptomatology. Unlike controls, in GAD, IQ and worry may share a common yet inverse neurometabolic substrate in left DLPFC.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T01:53:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
       
  • The mediating effects of depressive symptoms on the association of
           childhood maltreatment with non-medical use of prescription drugs
    • Authors: Lan Guo; Yeen Huang; Yan Xu; Guoliang Huang; Xue Gao; Yiling Lei; Min Luo; Chuhao Xi; Ciyong Lu
      Pages: 14 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 229
      Author(s): Lan Guo, Yeen Huang, Yan Xu, Guoliang Huang, Xue Gao, Yiling Lei, Min Luo, Chuhao Xi, Ciyong Lu
      Background Childhood maltreatment might increase the risk of subsequent drug use behavior, and depressive symptoms have been reported to be associated both childhood maltreatment and non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD). This large-scale study aimed to test the mediating effects of depressive symptoms on the association of childhood maltreatment with NMUPD among Chinese adolescents. Methods A secondary analysis of the cross-sectional data collected from 7th to 12th graders who were sampled using a multistage, stratified cluster, random sampling method in the 2015 School-based Chinese Adolescents Health Survey. There were 24,457 students who were invited to participate and 23,039 students’ questionnaires were completed and qualified for our survey (response rate: 94.2%). Results In the adjusted models without mediation, the results showed that students who reported that they had experienced emotional abuse were at a higher risk of past year use and past month use of opioids (past year: Adjusted OR [AOR] = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.05–1.10; past month: AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.06–1.10) and sedatives (past year: AOR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.03–1.08; past month: AOR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.13–1.16). The results of mediation analyses demonstrated that there were significant standardized indirect effects of emotional abuse on opioids use and sedatives use through depressive symptoms, respectively (P < 0.001). Limitations Our study sample only included school students, and causal inference could not be examined due to the cross-sectional design. Conclusions Depressive symptoms play a significant mediator role on the association of childhood maltreatment with NMUPD. Interventions targeted at adolescents who are involved in NMUPD should pay attention to their histories of childhood maltreatment.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.029
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
       
  • The neurobiology of self face recognition among depressed adolescents
    • Authors: Karina Quevedo; Madeline Harms; Mitchell Sauder; Hannah Scott; Sumaya Mohamed; Kathleen M. Thomas; Michael-Paul Schallmo; Garry Smyda
      Pages: 22 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 229
      Author(s): Karina Quevedo, Madeline Harms, Mitchell Sauder, Hannah Scott, Sumaya Mohamed, Kathleen M. Thomas, Michael-Paul Schallmo, Garry Smyda
      Objective Depression is linked to alterations in both emotion and self-processing. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess neural activation in healthy and depressed youth to a novel task that combined emotion processing with self-face recognition. Methods An fMRI study involving 81 adolescents (50.6% females; M age=14.61, SD=1.65) comprised of depressed (DEP, n=43), and healthy controls (HC, n=38). Participants completed a clinical interview and self-report measures during an initial assessment. In the scanner, adolescents completed a face recognition task, viewing emotional (happy, sad, neutral) images of their own face (self) or the face of another youth (other). Results DEP youth showed higher activity in the cuneus (F=26.29) and post and precentral gyri (F=20.76), across all conditions compared to HC. Sad faces elicited higher posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus (F=10.36) and inferior parietal cortex activity (F=11.0), and self faces elicited higher precuneus, fusiform (F=16.39), insula and putamen (F=16.82) activity in all youth. DEP showed higher middle temporal activity to neutral faces but lower activity to sad faces compared to HC, who showed the opposite pattern (F=12.86). DEP also showed hypoactive mid-temporal limbic activity relative to controls when identifying their self happy face vs. neutral face, yet showed hyperactivity when identifying the other happy face vs. neutral face, and HC showed the opposite pattern (F=10.94). Conclusions The neurophysiology of self-face recognition is altered in adolescent depression. Specifically, depression was associated with decreased activity in neural areas that support emotional and associative processing for positive self-faces and increased processing for neutral self-faces. These results suggest that depression in adolescents is associated with hypoactive emotional processing and encoding of positive self-related visual information. This abnormal neural activity at the intersection of reward and self-processing among depressed youth might have long lasting impact in self-formation and future adult self-representations, given that adolescence is a sensitive period for self-development.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T01:53:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.023
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
       
  • Subclinical maternal depressive symptoms modulate right inferior frontal
           response to inferring affective mental states of adults but not of infants
           
    • Authors: Koji Shimada; Ryoko Kasaba; Takashi X. Fujisawa; Nobuko Sakakibara; Shinichiro Takiguchi; Akemi Tomoda
      Pages: 32 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 229
      Author(s): Koji Shimada, Ryoko Kasaba, Takashi X. Fujisawa, Nobuko Sakakibara, Shinichiro Takiguchi, Akemi Tomoda
      Background Being a mother of young children increases the risk of depression characterised by deficits in inferring what a person is feeling, i.e., affective theory of mind (aToM). Despite the adverse consequences for mothers, children, families, and society as a whole, little is known of how the brain functions underlying aToM ability are affected by subclinical maternal depressive symptoms, and act as a risk indicator for major depressive disorders (MDD). Methods Thirty healthy mothers with varying levels of depressive symptoms underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing mind-reading tasks based on the emotional expressions of adult eyes and infant faces. Results In the adult eyes-based mind-reading task, mothers with more severe depressive symptoms showed less activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a central part of the putative mirror neuron system (pMNS). This was unrelated to behavioural performance decline in the task. However, brain activation involved in the infant face-based mind-reading task was not affected by depressive symptoms. Limitations Although aToM ability, assessed by mind-reading tasks, can be distinguished from empathy, these can be interacting functions of the pMNS, wherein they could mutually affect each other. Conclusion These findings suggest that functional activation of the right IFG, which underlies aToM ability, has variable vulnerability to maternal depressive symptoms according to the type of social signal. This functional decline of the right IFG may be a risk indicator for clinical maternal depression, which is associated with impaired social functioning and communication conflicts with family members and other social supporters.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T01:53:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.031
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
       
  • The effects of omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation on parameters of
           mental health and gene expression related to insulin and inflammation in
           subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome
    • Authors: Mehri Jamilian; Azadeh Shojaei; Mansooreh Samimi; Faraneh Afshar Ebrahimi; Esmat Aghadavod; Maryam Karamali; Mohsen Taghizadeh; Hamidreza Jamilian; Somayeh Alaeinasab; Sadegh Jafarnejad; Zatollah Asemi
      Pages: 41 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 229
      Author(s): Mehri Jamilian, Azadeh Shojaei, Mansooreh Samimi, Faraneh Afshar Ebrahimi, Esmat Aghadavod, Maryam Karamali, Mohsen Taghizadeh, Hamidreza Jamilian, Somayeh Alaeinasab, Sadegh Jafarnejad, Zatollah Asemi
      Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation on parameters of mental health and gene expression related to insulin and inflammation in subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods Forty PCOS women were allocated into two groups and treated with 1000mg omega-3 fatty acids plus 400 IU vitamin E supplements (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) per day for 12 weeks. Parameters of mental health were recorded at baseline and after the 12-week intervention. Gene expression related to insulin and inflammation were measured in blood samples of PCOS women. Results After the 12-week intervention, compared with the placebo, omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation led to significant improvements in beck depression inventory total score (− 2.2 ± 2.0 vs. − 0.2 ± 1.3, P = 0.001), general health questionnaire scores (− 5.5 ± 4.6 vs. − 1.0 ± 2.3, P < 0.001) and depression anxiety and stress scale scores (− 7.2 ± 5.2 vs. − 1.3 ± 1.3, P < 0.001). Compared with the placebo, omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation could up-regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) expression (P = 0.04) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of PCOS women. In addition, compared with the placebo, omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation down-regulated interleukin-8 (IL-8) (P = 0.003) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression (P = 0.001) in PBMC of PCOS women. There were no significant difference between-group changes in glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1), IL-6 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in PBMC of PCOS women. Conclusion Omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation was effective in improving parameters of mental health, and gene expression of PPAR-γ, IL-8 and TNF-α of women with PCOS.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T01:53:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.049
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
       
  • The Iraqi national study of suicide: Report on suicide data in Iraq in
           2015 and 2016
    • Authors: Mohammed J. Abbas; Nesif Alhemiary; Emad Abdul Razaq; Shakir Naosh; Louis Appleby
      Pages: 56 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 229
      Author(s): Mohammed J. Abbas, Nesif Alhemiary, Emad Abdul Razaq, Shakir Naosh, Louis Appleby
      Background Very little is known regarding the epidemiology of suicides in Iraq, given the lack of a national surveillance system. Therefore, the government initiated this project “The Iraqi National Study of Suicide Methods The study covered 13 (out of 18) provinces in Iraq. A data collection form was designed by the researchers. The forms were completed by police stations in the 13 provinces. Data were extracted from the legal investigation (which include police investigation, family reports and postmortem reports) of cases of when there was no clear cause of death and where there was final verdict of suicide made by judge after examining these reports. Results There were 647 cases of suicide. The crude rate of suicide per 100 000 population was 1.09 (1.21 for males, 0.97 for females) in 2015 and 1.31 (1.54 for males and 1.07 for females) in 2016. The majority of cases (67.9%) were aged 29 years or below. The most common method was hanging (41%) followed by firearms (31.4%) and self-burning (19.2%). 24.1% of cases were reported to have psychiatric disorders, of which the most common diagnosis was depression (53.9%). In the majority of cases (82.1%) there were no previous attempts. Only a small minority were reported to have had psychological trauma (15.5%), financial problems (12.4%) or childhood abuse (2.2%). Limitations The study covered only 13 provinces in Iraq. We were able to calculate age-standardized rates for year 2016 only. Data are based on official police records and under-reporting and under-recognition of psychiatric disorders are possible. Conclusion On the basis of data available to this study, the suicide rate in Iraq is lower than the global rate. Suicide is more common in young people, where the gender distribution is almost equal. Social and cultural factors might have played a role in these patterns. The findings underscore the need of a national registry with a comprehensive and multipronged surveillance approach to correctly identify suicide events. This study aims to be the first step in this process.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.037
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
       
  • Evaluating the stability of DSM-5 PTSD symptom network structure in a
           national sample of U.S. military veterans
    • Authors: Sophia H.H. von Stockert; Eiko I. Fried; Cherie Armour; Robert H. Pietrzak
      Pages: 63 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 229
      Author(s): Sophia H.H. von Stockert, Eiko I. Fried, Cherie Armour, Robert H. Pietrzak
      Background Previous studies have used network models to investigate how PTSD symptoms associate with each other. However, analyses examining the degree to which these networks are stable over time, which are critical to identifying symptoms that may contribute to the chronicity of this disorder, are scarce. In the current study, we evaluated the temporal stability of DSM-5 PTSD symptom networks over a three-year period in a nationally representative sample of trauma-exposed U.S. military veterans. Methods Data were analyzed from 611 trauma-exposed U.S. military veterans who participated in the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS). We estimated regularized partial correlation networks of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms at baseline (Time 1) and at three-year follow-up (Time 2), and examined their temporal stability. Results Evaluation of the network structure of PTSD symptoms at Time 1 and Time 2 using a formal network comparison indicated that the Time 1 network did not differ significantly from the Time 2 network with regard to network structure (p = 0.12) or global strength (sum of all absolute associations, i.e. connectivity; p = 0.25). Centrality estimates of both networks (r = 0.86) and adjacency matrices (r = 0.69) were highly correlated. In both networks, avoidance, intrusive, and negative cognition and mood symptoms were among the more central nodes. Limitations This study is limited by the use of a self-report instrument to assess PTSD symptoms and recruitment of a relatively homogeneous sample of predominantly older, Caucasian veterans. Conclusion Results of this study demonstrate the three-year stability of DSM-5 PTSD symptom network structure in a nationally representative sample of trauma-exposed U.S. military veterans. They further suggest that trauma-related avoidance, intrusive, and dysphoric symptoms may contribute to the chronicity of PTSD symptoms in this population.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T01:53:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.043
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
       
  • Intimate partner violence and mental disorders: Co-occurrence and gender
           differences in a large cross-sectional population based study in Spain
    • Authors: Isabel Ruiz-Pérez; Miguel Rodríguez-Barranco; Jorge A. Cervilla; Ignacio Ricci-Cabello
      Pages: 69 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 229
      Author(s): Isabel Ruiz-Pérez, Miguel Rodríguez-Barranco, Jorge A. Cervilla, Ignacio Ricci-Cabello
      Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental disorders (MD) are important public health problems disproportionally affecting women. We aimed to study the epidemiology of IPV victimization, MD, and co-occurring IPV-MD in Spanish men and women in terms of i) prevalence, ii) association between IPV and MD, and iii) sociodemographic and clinical characteristics associated with IPV, MD, and co-occurring IPV-MD. Methods Community-based cross-sectional study with 4507 randomly selected participants. Measurement instruments (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and set of validated questions about IPV during the last 12 months) were administered by trained interviewers in participants’ households. Statistical analyses included multivariate logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of IPV was 9.4%, of MD 22.3%, and of co-occurring MD-IPV 4.4%. MD was associated with higher odds of experiencing IPV (OR = 3.6; p < 0.05). Lack of social support, neuroticism, impulsivity, and family history of MD were associated with higher odds of IPV, MD, and co-occurring IPV-MD in men and women. Poor health status was associated with MD and with co-occurring IPV-MD in men and women. In women, not being married was associated with MD and with co-occurring IPV-MD; having a non-Spanish nationality was associated with IPV and co-occurring IPV-MD; and older age with IPV. In men, younger age was associated with MD. Limitations The cross-sectional nature of this study limited our ability to examine causal inferences. Conclusions MD and IPV are strongly associated. Although less frequently than in women, IPV in men is also associated with depression, post-traumatic and mood disorders, which has relevant implications for healthcare delivery.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T01:53:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.032
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
       
  • Evaluating clinical risk factors for suicide attempts in patients with
           epilepsy
    • Authors: Tomor Harnod; Cheng-Li Lin; Chia-Hung Kao
      Pages: 79 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 229
      Author(s): Tomor Harnod, Cheng-Li Lin, Chia-Hung Kao
      Objective We would like to exam whether epilepsy patients in Taiwan have a high risk of attempted and completed suicide. Methods In this study, we used a subset of the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. Inpatients (≥ 18 years) who received a new diagnosis of epilepsy between 2000 and 2011 were enrolled in the epilepsy cohort. The epilepsy and comparison cohorts included 68,543 patients and 2-fold controls respectively. We calculated the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for suicide attempts after adjustment for age, sex, monthly income, the urbanization level, occupation, and comorbidity. Results The epilepsy cohort had a 2.06-fold risk of suicide attempts (95% CI = 1.65–2.56) compared with the control cohort. The suicide attempt risk did not significantly differ between men and women and between patients with and without psychiatric comorbidity. The mortality risk after a suicide attempt was higher in the epilepsy cohort than in the comparison cohort (aHR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.02–2.69). Conclusion Epilepsy is an independent and predisposing factor for suicide attempt. These results provide important information for clinicians and governments to prevent suicide in epilepsy patients in Asian countries.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T01:53:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.048
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
       
  • Current sleep disturbance in older people with a lifetime history of
           depression is associated with increased connectivity in the Default Mode
           Network
    • Authors: Andrew C. McKinnon; Ian B. Hickie; Jan Scott; Shantel L. Duffy; Louisa Norrie; Zoe Terpening; Ron R. Grunstein; Jim Lagopoulos; Jennifer Batchelor; Simon J.G. Lewis; James M. Shine; Sharon L. Naismith
      Pages: 85 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 229
      Author(s): Andrew C. McKinnon, Ian B. Hickie, Jan Scott, Shantel L. Duffy, Louisa Norrie, Zoe Terpening, Ron R. Grunstein, Jim Lagopoulos, Jennifer Batchelor, Simon J.G. Lewis, James M. Shine, Sharon L. Naismith
      Background The present study investigated Default Mode Network (DMN) functional connectivity in subjects with a lifetime history of major depression, comparing those with and without current sleep disturbance. Controls were included to assess DMN abnormalities specific to depression. Methods A total of 93 adults aged 50 years and over were recruited from the Healthy Brain Ageing Clinic at the Brain and Mind Centre, Sydney, Australia. The sample comprised two groups, including 22 controls and 71 participants with a lifetime history of DSM-IV major depression (with depressive episode current or remitted). 52 of those with a lifetime history of depression also met criteria for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Participants underwent resting-state fMRI along with comprehensive psychiatric, neuropsychological, and medical assessment. Subjective sleep quality was assessed via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Sleep disturbance was defined as a PSQI score > 5. A total of 68% (n = 48) of cases with a lifetime history of depression met criteria for sleep-disturbance. DMN functional connectivity was assessed via ROI-to-ROI analyses. Results Relative to controls, those with lifetime major depression demonstrated significantly increased functional connectivity between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the temporal pole. Within the depression group (n = 48), those with current sleep disturbance had significantly increased connectivity between the anterior medial prefrontal cortex and both the parahippocampal cortex and the hippocampal formation, relative to those without sleep disturbance (n = 23). These results were present after controlling for MCI diagnosis. Conclusions Current sleep disturbance together with depression is associated with distinct abnormalities in DMN functioning incorporating regions responsible for self-reflection and declarative memory processes. Impaired sleep is associated with increased connectivity between these regions. Future studies may augment these findings with complementary imaging techniques including cortical thickness and diffusion tensor imaging, as well as high density electroencephalogram recording.

      PubDate: 2018-01-15T13:48:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.052
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
       
  • Gender differences in C-reactive protein and homocysteine modulation of
           cognitive performance and real-world functioning in bipolar disorder
    • Authors: M. Sanchez-Autet; B. Arranz; G. Safont; P. Sierra; A. Garcia-Blanco; L. de la Fuente; M. Garriga; M.P. García-Portilla
      Pages: 95 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 229
      Author(s): M. Sanchez-Autet, B. Arranz, G. Safont, P. Sierra, A. Garcia-Blanco, L. de la Fuente, M. Garriga, M.P. García-Portilla
      Background Cognitive and psychosocial impairment has been associated with increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and homocysteine in bipolar disorder, but gender differences have seldom been studied. Methods Two hundred and twenty-four bipolar outpatients were included. Cognitive performance was assessed through the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP). Psychosocial functioning was evaluated using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST) and the General Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Homocysteine and CRP levels were determined. Separate analyses were performed by gender. Partial correlations were calculated to test for associations between biomarkers and cognitive and psychosocial functioning. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to assess factors predicting cognitive and psychosocial functioning. Covariates were: age, education, duration of illness, hospital admissions, depressive symptoms, tobacco consumption, and BMI. Results A better performance was noted in women in delayed verbal learning (p = 0.010), along with better occupational functioning (p = 0.027) and greater leisure time impairment (p = 0.034). In men, CRP and homocysteine levels were associated with psychosocial dysfunction (interpersonal relationships and financial functioning, respectively). In women, CRP levels correlated with cognitive performance (SCIP total raw score, immediate and delayed verbal learning, and verbal fluency). CRP was a predictor of cognitive performance in women only. Limitations The choice of the cognitive scale and covariates and the lack of a control group may be the main limitations. Conclusions A gender difference was found in biomarker modulation of cognition and psychosocial functioning. A gender-based approach to cognition and real-world functioning should be considered in bipolar disorder to ensure an optimal outcome.

      PubDate: 2018-01-15T13:48:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.038
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
       
  • Genetic variants in oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and childhood physical
           
    • Authors: Yanmei Zhang; Chunxia Wu; Hongjuan Chang; Qiuge Yan; Linguo Wu; Shanshan Yuan; Jingjing Xiang; Wen Hao; Yizhen Yu
      Pages: 105 - 110
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 229
      Author(s): Yanmei Zhang, Chunxia Wu, Hongjuan Chang, Qiuge Yan, Linguo Wu, Shanshan Yuan, Jingjing Xiang, Wen Hao, Yizhen Yu
      Background Accumulating evidence suggests that genetic and environmental factors may influence aggression susceptibility. However, the etiology of aggressive behavior remains unknown. Compared to some extensively studied candidate genes of aggression, very little is known about the OXTR gene. The objective of this study was to determine whether OXTR genetic variants were associated with aggression risk and whether these polymorphisms showed interactive effects with childhood maltreatment on aggression in Chinese adolescents. Methods A total of 996 participants including 488 cases and 488 controls were selected in our study. Aggression, childhood maltreatment were measured by self-reported questionnaire. Buccal cells were collected. Genotyping was performed using SNPscan. Logistic regressions were used to estimate both main effects of OXTR polymorphisms and the interactive effects with childhood maltreatment on aggressive behavior. Results Participants who carried the rs237885 TT genotypes in OXTR had a higher risk of aggression compared to those who carried GG or GT genotypes under the recessive model (OR=1.40, 95% CI, 1.04–1.89) after controlling for potential confounders. In addition, we also found that the polymorphism had a synergic additive interaction with childhood physical abuse on the aggression risk. Limitations The subjects in the present study were only males, thus our findings and conclusions could not be generalized to females. Conclusions The present study provides evidence that OXTR genetic variants may contribute to aggression susceptibility. Moreover, this is the first study reporting significant interactive effects of OXTR polymorphism and childhood physical abuse on aggressive behavior in Chinese adolescents.

      PubDate: 2018-01-15T13:48:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.024
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
       
  • Differential change on depressive symptom factors with antidepressant
           medication and cognitive behavior therapy for major depressive disorder
    • Authors: Boadie W. Dunlop; Steven P. Cole; Charles B. Nemeroff; Helen S. Mayberg; W. Edward Craighead
      Pages: 111 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 229
      Author(s): Boadie W. Dunlop, Steven P. Cole, Charles B. Nemeroff, Helen S. Mayberg, W. Edward Craighead
      Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a heterogeneous condition and individual patients are likely to be differentially responsive to specific treatments. In an exploratory factor analysis of three rating scales, the Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) trial identified three factors that were differentially associated with outcome to nortriptyline and escitalopram. However, this factor analysis has neither been replicated or applied to a psychotherapy treatment. Methods We replicated the GENDEP analytic method in the Emory Predictors of Remission to Individual and Combined Treatments (PReDICT) study. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory were administered to 306 MDD patients in the PReDICT study, which randomized previously untreated adults to 12 weeks of treatment with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), escitalopram, or duloxetine. Utilizing Item Response Theory methodologies, factor scores were derived from the three scales and the efficacy of the three treatments was compared for the identified factor scores. Results Four factors were identified: “Despair,” “Mood and Interest,” “Sleep,” and “Appetite.” These factors closely aligned with the factors identified in GENDEP. Compared to CBT, escitalopram and duloxetine produced more rapid but ultimately similar improvement on the Despair and Mood and Interest factors; no significant differences between treatments emerged on the other factors. Limitations The scales contained differing numbers of items pertaining to specific depressive symptoms. Conclusion The heterogeneity of MDD can be parsed into a consistent factor structure, with the factors showing differential rapidity, but ultimately similar, improvement across treatments.

      PubDate: 2018-01-15T13:48:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.035
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
       
  • Sleep behavior and depression: Findings from the China Kadoorie Biobank of
           0.5 million Chinese adults
    • Authors: Xiaoyan Sun; Bang Zheng; Jun Lv; Yu Guo; Zheng Bian; Ling Yang; Yiping Chen; Zhenwang Fu; Hong Guo; Peng Liang; Zhengming Chen; Junshi Chen; Canqing YU; Liming Li
      Pages: 120 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 229
      Author(s): Xiaoyan Sun, Bang Zheng, Jun Lv, Yu Guo, Zheng Bian, Ling Yang, Yiping Chen, Zhenwang Fu, Hong Guo, Peng Liang, Zhengming Chen, Junshi Chen, Canqing YU, Liming Li
      Background Mixed results have shown the association between sleep behavior and depression, but evidence relating the joint effect of sleep duration and sleep disturbances is limited, especially in Chinese population. Methods A total of 512,891 adults aged 30–79 years from China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) were included. Depression was defined by Composite International Diagnostic Inventory-short form (CIDI-SF). Sleep duration and sleep disturbances, including difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS), early morning awakening (EMA), daytime dysfunction (DDF) and any sleep disturbances (ASD), were obtained by a self-reported questionnaire. Logistic regression was applied to examine the association between sleep behavior and depression. Results About 23.1% of participants reported short sleep duration (≤ 6h), and 5.1% reported long sleep duration (> 9h). Compared with normal sleep duration (7–9h), both groups were associated greater likelihood of having depression (short sleep: OR = 2.32, 95%CI: 2.14–2.51; long sleep: OR = 1.56, 96%CI: 1.34–1.81). Participants reported sleep disturbances were significantly associated with depression (odds ratios ranged from 3.31 to 4.17). Moreover, the associations tended to be stronger for those who reported both abnormal sleep duration and sleep disturbances (p for interactions < 0.05), especially for those who slept long. Limitations The cross-sectional nature of the study design limits the interpretation of the results. Conclusions Abnormal sleep duration and sleep disturbances were associated with depression. The associations were stronger for abnormal sleep duration accompanied with sleep disturbances, especially for a long duration. More attention should be paid on these persons in clinical practice.

      PubDate: 2018-01-15T13:48:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.058
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
       
  • Neurocognitive features in clinical subgroups of bipolar disorder: A
           meta-analysis
    • Authors: Emre Bora
      Pages: 125 - 134
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 229
      Author(s): Emre Bora
      Objective There is a significant cognitive heterogeneity in bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of this systematic review was to examine the potential distinctive neuropsychological of features of clinical subgroups of BD. A literature search investigating cognitive differences between potential subtypes of BD was conducted. Methods It was possible to conduct a meta-analysis of studies investigating the relationship between cognitive deficits and subgroups of DSM-IV BD (type I (BD-I) and type II (BD-II)), subgroups based on history of psychosis (PBD and NPBD). The cognitive domains investigated in this meta-analysis included verbal memory, visual memory, processing speed, executive functions speed (EF-speed), EF-accuracy, attention, working memory, social cognition. Current meta-analysis included 48 reports and compared cognitive performances of 1211 BD-I and 836 BD-II patients. It also compared cognitive functioning in 1017 PBD and 744 NPBD patients. Results Both history of psychosis (d = 0.19) and BD-I (d = 0.17) diagnosis were associated with modestly more pronounced global cognitive impairment. In specific domains, BD-I significantly underperformed BD-II in verbal memory, processing speed, EF-speed, EF-accuracy (d = 0.15–0.26). PBD was associated with significantly impaired cognition compared to NPBD in verbal memory, processing speed, EF-speed, EF-accuracy, working memory and social cognition (d = 0.12–0.28). Conclusion In BD, history of psychosis and full-manic episode are modestly associated with increased cognitive deficits. Neurocognitive differences between clinical subtypes of BD are quite subtle and are not distinctive. Furthermore, other factors reflecting differences in illness severity can explain observed between-group differences. Most of the cognitive heterogeneity in BD cannot be explained by proposed subtypes of BD.

      PubDate: 2018-01-15T13:48:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.057
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
       
  • Social support predicts reductions in PTSD symptoms when substances are
           not used to cope: A longitudinal study of sexual assault survivors
    • Authors: Emily R. Dworkin; Heidi Ojalehto; Michele A. Bedard-Gilligan; Jennifer M. Cadigan; Debra Kaysen
      Pages: 135 - 140
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 229
      Author(s): Emily R. Dworkin, Heidi Ojalehto, Michele A. Bedard-Gilligan, Jennifer M. Cadigan, Debra Kaysen
      Background After sexual assault, many college women develop symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and those who engage in substance use coping are at heightened risk for this outcome. Positively-perceived social support has been identified as an important protective factor against the development of PTSD, but received social support could involve problematic behaviors—like the encouragement of coping through use of alcohol and/or drugs—that could worsen symptoms. Methods In the current study, 147 undergraduate women with a lifetime history of sexual assault completed two waves of self-report measures assessing their symptoms. We test main and interaction effects for social support and substance use coping at baseline on PTSD symptoms one month later. Results Results suggest that social support is longitudinally associated with decreases in PTSD. Although substance use coping did not evidence a direct association with PTSD, the relationship between social support and PTSD was significantly weaker as substance use coping increased. Only support from friends (but not family members or a “special person”) was associated with later PTSD, and this relationship was moderated by substance use coping. Limitations Substance use coping was assessed via a brief measure, and peer encouragement of coping by using alcohol and/or drugs was not directly assessed. Conclusions Clinicians should consider ways to increase access to social support from friends in patients with PTSD and evaluate ways that substance use coping may interfere with social support's benefits.

      PubDate: 2018-01-15T13:48:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.042
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
       
  • Are infectious agents involved in the pathogenesis of postpartum
           psychosis'
    • Authors: Lot D. de Witte; Gijsje Snijders; Manja Litjens; Astrid M. Kamperman; Steven A. Kushner; René S. Kahn; Veerle Bergink
      Pages: 141 - 144
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 229
      Author(s): Lot D. de Witte, Gijsje Snijders, Manja Litjens, Astrid M. Kamperman, Steven A. Kushner, René S. Kahn, Veerle Bergink
      Background Since postpartum psychosis has been linked to activation of the immune system, it has been hypothesized that infectious agents may be involved in the pathogenesis of this disorder. We therefore investigated whether exposure to pathogens that can infect the central nervous system is increased in patients with postpartum psychosis. Methods We measured the prevalence and titers of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Toxoplasma Gondii (TG) in a cohort of patients with postpartum psychosis (n = 81) and compared these to matched postpartum controls. Results We did not find significant differences in seroprevalence or antibody titers for any of these pathogens. Limitations Limitations of this study include the indirect measurement of infectious disease and the cross-sectional design. Conclusion Our results do not support the hypothesis that exposure to these neurotropic pathogens is involved in postpartum psychosis.

      PubDate: 2018-01-15T13:48:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.069
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
       
  • Global arginine bioavailability ratio is decreased in patients with major
           depressive disorder
    • Authors: Toni Ali-Sisto; Tommi Tolmunen; Heimo Viinamäki; Pekka Mäntyselkä; Minna Valkonen-Korhonen; Heli Koivumaa-Honkanen; Kirsi Honkalampi; Anu Ruusunen; Jatin Nandania; Vidya Velagapudi; Soili M. Lehto
      Pages: 145 - 151
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 229
      Author(s): Toni Ali-Sisto, Tommi Tolmunen, Heimo Viinamäki, Pekka Mäntyselkä, Minna Valkonen-Korhonen, Heli Koivumaa-Honkanen, Kirsi Honkalampi, Anu Ruusunen, Jatin Nandania, Vidya Velagapudi, Soili M. Lehto
      Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by increased oxidative and nitrosative stress. We compared nitric oxide metabolism, i.e., the global arginine bioavailability ratio (GABR) and related serum amino acids, between MDD patients and non-depressed controls, and between remitted and non-remitted MDD patients. Methods Ninety-nine MDD patients and 253 non-depressed controls, aged 20–71 years, provided background data via questionnaires. Fasting serum samples were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to determine the serum levels of ornithine, arginine, citrulline, and symmetric and asymmetric dimethylarginine. GABR was calculated as arginine divided by the sum of ornithine plus citrulline. We compared the above measures between: 1) MDD patients and controls, 2) remitted (n=33) and non-remitted (n = 45) MDD patients, and 3) baseline and follow-up within the remitted and non-remitted groups. Results Lower arginine levels (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97–0.99) and lower GABR (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03–0.50) were associated with the MDD vs. the non-depressed group after adjustments for potential confounders. The remitted group showed a decrease in GABR, arginine, and symmetric dimethylarginine, and an increase in ornithine after the follow-up compared with within-group baseline values. The non-remitted group displayed an increase in arginine and ornithine levels and a decrease in GABR. No significant differences were recorded between the remitted and non-remitted groups. Limitations The MDD group was not medication-free. Conclusions Arginine bioavailability may be decreased in MDD. This could impair the production of nitric oxide, and thus add to oxidative stress in the central nervous system.

      PubDate: 2018-01-15T13:48:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.030
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
       
  • The prevalence and correlates of self-harm ideation trajectories in
           Australian women from pregnancy to 4-years postpartum
    • Authors: Rebecca Giallo; Pamela Pilkington; Rohan Borschmann; Monique Seymour; Melissa Dunning; Stephanie Brown
      Pages: 152 - 158
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 229
      Author(s): Rebecca Giallo, Pamela Pilkington, Rohan Borschmann, Monique Seymour, Melissa Dunning, Stephanie Brown
      Objectives Women in the perinatal period are at increased risk of experiencing self-harm ideation. The current study longitudinally examines the prevalence, trajectories, and correlates of self-harm ideation in a population-based sample of Australian women from pregnancy through to the early years of parenting. Methods Drawing on data from 1507 women participating in a prospective pregnancy cohort study, data were collected during pregnancy, at 3-, 6-, 12-, and 18-months postpartum, and 4-years postpartum. Longitudinal Latent Class Analysis was conducted to identify groups of women based on their responses to thoughts of self-harm at each time-point. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with group membership. Results Approximately 4–5% of women reported experiencing self-harm ideation at each time-point from pregnancy to 4-years postpartum. Cross-sectional analyses revealed that self-harm ideation was most frequently endorsed in the first 12-months postpartum (4.6%), and approximately 15% of women reported self-harm ideation at least once during the study period. Longitudinally, approximately 7% of women had an enduring pattern of self-harm ideation from pregnancy to 4-years postpartum. Women who had experienced a range of preconception and current social health issues and disadvantage were at increased risk of self-harm ideation over time. Limitations Limitations included use of brief measures, along with an underrepresentation of participants with particular socio-demographic characteristics. Conclusions A proportion of women are at increased risk of experiencing self-harm ideation during the perinatal period and in the early years of parenting, underscoring the need for early identification during pregnancy and early postpartum to facilitate timely early intervention.

      PubDate: 2018-01-15T13:48:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.064
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
       
  • Adverse childhood experiences and intimate partner violence during
           pregnancy and their association to postpartum depression
    • Authors: Bathsheba Mahenge; Heidi Stöckl; Mucho Mizinduko; Jacob Mazalale; Albrecht Jahn
      Pages: 159 - 163
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 229
      Author(s): Bathsheba Mahenge, Heidi Stöckl, Mucho Mizinduko, Jacob Mazalale, Albrecht Jahn
      Background Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and intimate partner violence (IPV) are recognized global health problems. Both ACEs and IPV have been linked to adverse physical and mental health problems for both mothers and infants. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical and/or sexual ACEs and IPV and their association to symptoms of postpartum depression among postpartum women in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three health centers in the three districts of Dar es Salaam, comprising Ilala, Kinondoni and Temeke. A total of 500 women were interviewed by two trained midwife nurses during their routine postnatal care. The women were asked about their experiences of adverse childhood experiences, intimate partner violence and symptoms of postpartum depression. Results Of the 500 women who were interviewed, 39.4% (n = 197) reported to have experienced physical and/or sexual ACE and 18.8% (n = 94) experienced physical and/or sexual IPV during their index pregnancy. Physical ACE (AOR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.50–4.57), sexual ACE (AOR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.35–5.41), physical IPV (AOR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.98–11.43) and Sexual IPV (AOR 5.5, 95%CI: 2.51, 12.09) were significantly associated with symptoms of postpartum depression. Conclusion Four out of ten women reported to have experienced ACEs and two out of ten women reported IPV in the index pregnancy which was significantly associated with symptoms of postpartum depression. These results are alarming and call upon the attention of health workers and the community at large in prevention, screening and early intervention of ACEs, IPV and symptoms of postpartum depression.

      PubDate: 2018-01-15T13:48:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.036
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
       
  • Is recurrence in major depressive disorder related to bipolarity and mixed
           features' Results from the BRIDGE-II-Mix study
    • Authors: Lorenzo Mazzarini; Georgios D. Kotzalidis; Daria Piacentino; Salvatore Rizzato; Jules Angst; Jean-Michel Azorin; Charles L. Bowden; Sergey Mosolov; Allan H. Young; Eduard Vieta; Paolo Girardi; Giulio Perugi
      Pages: 164 - 170
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 229
      Author(s): Lorenzo Mazzarini, Georgios D. Kotzalidis, Daria Piacentino, Salvatore Rizzato, Jules Angst, Jean-Michel Azorin, Charles L. Bowden, Sergey Mosolov, Allan H. Young, Eduard Vieta, Paolo Girardi, Giulio Perugi
      Background Current classifications separate Bipolar (BD) from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) based on polarity rather than recurrence. We aimed to determine bipolar/mixed feature frequency in a large MDD multinational sample with (High-Rec) and without (Low-Rec) >3 recurrences, comparing the two subsamples. Methods We measured frequency of bipolarity/hypomanic features during current depressive episodes (MDEs) in 2347 MDD patients from the BRIDGE-II-mix database, comparing High-Rec with Low-Rec. We used Bonferroni-corrected Student's t-test for continuous, and chi-squared test, for categorical variables. Logistic regression estimated the size of the association between clinical characteristics and High-Rec MDD. Results Compared to Low-Rec (n = 1084, 46.2%), High-Rec patients (n = 1263, 53.8%) were older, with earlier depressive onset, had more family history of BD, more atypical features, suicide attempts, hospitalisations, and treatment resistance and (hypo)manic switches when treated with antidepressants, higher comorbidity with borderline personality disorder, and more hypomanic symptoms during current MDE, resulting in higher rates of mixed depression according to both DSM-5 and research-based diagnostic (RBDC) criteria. Logistic regression showed age at first symptoms < 30 years, current MDE duration ≤ 1 month, hypomania/mania among first-degree relatives, past suicide attempts, treatment-resistance, antidepressant-induced swings, and atypical, mixed, or psychotic features during MDE to associate with High-Rec. Limitations Number of MDEs for defining recurrence was arbitrary; cross-sectionality did not allow assessment of conversion from MDD to BD. Conclusions High-Rec MDD differed from Low-Rec group for several clinical/epidemiological variables, including bipolar/mixed features. Bipolarity specifier and RBDC were more sensitive than DSM-5 criteria in detecting bipolar and mixed features in MDD.

      PubDate: 2018-01-15T13:48:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.062
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
       
 
 
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