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Journal Cover Journal of Affective Disorders
  [SJR: 1.927]   [H-I: 137]   [17 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0165-0327
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Bipolar disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder: The comorbidity does
           not further impair the neurocognitive profile
    • Authors: Renato de Filippis; Matteo Aloi; Antonella Bruni; Raffaele Gaetano; Cristina Segura-Garcia; Pasquale De Fazio
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Renato de Filippis, Matteo Aloi, Antonella Bruni, Raffaele Gaetano, Cristina Segura-Garcia, Pasquale De Fazio
      Background The comorbidity of bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has been widely described. Several studies have investigated the cognitive profiles of BD and OCD patients, but studies that compare BD, BD–OCD, and OCD patients in neuropsychological domains do not exist. The purpose of this study was to compare set-shifting, decision making, and central coherence among BD, BD–OCD, and OCD patients. Methods A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to 68 patients (22 BD, 26 BD–OCD, 20 OCD). The Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale were used to evaluate manic and depressive symptoms, and OCD severity was assessed with the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Results No significant differences emerged in decision-making and cognitive flexibility, whereas BD patients had lower scores in the Accuracy Index on Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure Test and poor response speed on Hayling Sentence Completion Test Part A than OCD patients. Limitations The small sample size with different BD patients, the cross-sectional design, and the study clinical nature. Conclusions The most striking result is that, contrary to our hypothesis, comorbidity does not further impair the neurocognitive profile. The clinical relevance of our work could be a shift from the current cognitive rehabilitation model focusing on individualized pathways towards a new overlapping model for all three patient groups. This could make the cognitive rehabilitation faster and less costly. Notwithstanding, these disorders do not only need cognitive training but also various psycho-educative approaches and treatment according to their different clinical profile.

      PubDate: 2018-04-19T00:53:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Social cognition moderates the relationship between neurocognition and
           community functioning in bipolar disorder
    • Authors: L.H. Ospina; G.C. Nitzburg; M. Shanahan; M.M. Perez-Rodriguez; E. Larsen; A. Latifoglu; K.E. Burdick
      Pages: 7 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): L.H. Ospina, G.C. Nitzburg, M. Shanahan, M.M. Perez-Rodriguez, E. Larsen, A. Latifoglu, K.E. Burdick
      Background Schizophrenia (SZ) studies suggest that neurocognition predicts functional outcome and that social cognition mediates this relationship. Bipolar disorder (BD) patients also have cognitive, social, and functional impairments but the relationship among these factors in BD is not well established. We assessed whether social cognition modulates the influence of neurocognition on community functioning in BD, as found in SZ. Methods 200 BD patients and 49 healthy controls (HC) were administered and compared on a battery of tests assessing neurocognition, social cognition, and community functioning. We conducted a series of regression analyses to investigate potential mediation or moderation of social cognition on the relationship between neurocognition and community functioning. Results BD patients performed worse on neurocognitive domains of processing speed, attention, verbal learning, and global neurocognition. Also, BD patients performed worse on theory of mind, the social cognition composite score, and community functioning. Neurocognition did not significantly predict functional outcome in our BD sample. However, we found a moderating effect of social cognition: among patients with poor social cognition, better neurocognition was associated with better community functioning, a relationship not seen in BD patients with good social cognition. Limitations The study was limited by a relatively small HC group and assessing one subtype of functioning status. Conclusions The relationship between neurocognition and community functioning in BD may be dependent on social cognition status, implying the presence of social cognitive heterogeneity. Results may be relevant to choosing proper treatment interventions depending on the patient's social cognitive level.

      PubDate: 2018-04-19T00:53:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.03.013
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Neurochemical differences between bipolar disorder type I and II in
           superior temporal cortices: A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study
           
    • Authors: Murat İlhan Atagün; Elif Muazzez Şıkoğlu; Serdar Süleyman Can; Görkem Karakaş Uğurlu; Semra Ulusoy Kaymak; Ali Çayköylü; Oktay Algın; Mary L Phillips; Constance M Moore; Dost Öngür
      Pages: 15 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Murat İlhan Atagün, Elif Muazzez Şıkoğlu, Serdar Süleyman Can, Görkem Karakaş Uğurlu, Semra Ulusoy Kaymak, Ali Çayköylü, Oktay Algın, Mary L Phillips, Constance M Moore, Dost Öngür
      Background Despite the diagnostic challenges in categorizing bipolar disorder subtypes, bipolar I and II disorders (BD-I and BD-II respectively) are valid indices for researchers. Subtle neurobiological differences may underlie clinical differences between mood disorder subtypes. The aims of this study were to investigate neurochemical differences between bipolar disorder subtypes. Methods Euthymic BD-II patients (n = 21) are compared with BD-I (n = 28) and healthy comparison subjects (HCs, n = 30). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and proton spectroscopy (1H MRS) were performed on a 3T Siemens Tim Trio system. MRS voxels were located in the left/right superior temporal cortices, and spectra acquired with the single voxel Point REsolved Spectroscopy Sequence (PRESS). The spectroscopic data were analyzed with LCModel (Version 6.3.0) software. Results There were significant differences between groups in terms of glutamate [F = 6.27, p = 0.003], glutamate + glutamine [F = 6.08, p = 0.004], inositol containing compounds (Ino) (F = 9.25, p < 0.001), NAA [F = 7.63, p = 0.001] and creatine + phosphocreatine [F = 11.06, p < 0.001] in the left hemisphere and Ino [F = 5.65, p = 0.005] in the right hemisphere. Post-hoc comparisons showed that the BD-I disorder group had significantly lower metabolite levels in comparison to the BD-II and the HC groups. Limitations This was a cross-sectional study with a small sample size. In addition, patients were on various psychotropic medications, which may have impacted the results. Conclusions Neurochemical levels, in the superior temporal cortices, measured with 1H-MRS discriminated between BD-II and BD-I. Although further studies are needed, one may speculate that the superior temporal cortices (particularly left hemispheric) play a critical role, whose pathology may be related to subtyping bipolar disorder.

      PubDate: 2018-04-19T00:53:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.010
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Cognitive outcomes of TMS treatment in bipolar depression: Safety data
           from a randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Martin L Myczkowski; Adriano Fernandes; Marina Moreno; Leandro Valiengo; Beny Lafer; Ricardo A Moreno; Frank Padberg; Wagner Gattaz; Andre R Brunoni
      Pages: 20 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Martin L Myczkowski, Adriano Fernandes, Marina Moreno, Leandro Valiengo, Beny Lafer, Ricardo A Moreno, Frank Padberg, Wagner Gattaz, Andre R Brunoni
      Background Bipolar depression (BD) is a highly prevalent condition associated with marked cognitive deficits that persist even in the euthymic phase of the illness. Pharmacological treatments for BD might further aggravate cognitive impairment, highlighting the need of developing interventions that present cognitive safety. In this study, we evaluated the cognitive effects of H1-coil (deep) transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in patients with treatment-resistant bipolar depression. Methods Fourty-three patients were randomized to receive 20 sessions of active (55 trains, 18 Hz, 120% resting motor threshold intensity) or sham rTMS within a double-blind, sham-controlled trial. A battery of 20 neuropsychological assessments, grouped in 6 domains (attention and processing speed, working memory and executive function, inhibitory control, language, immediate verbal memory, and long-term verbal memory) was performed at baseline and after 4 and 8 weeks of trial onset. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Results Cognitive improvement was shown for all cognitive domains. It occurred regardless of intervention group and depression improvement. For the language domain, greater improvement was observed in the sham group over time. No correlations between depression (at baseline or during treatment) and cognitive improvement were found. Limitations Absence of healthy control group. Conclusion The results of this exploratory study provide evidence on the cognitive safety of H1-coil TMS for BD patients. Putative pro-cognitive effects of rTMS in BD were not observed and thus should be further investigated.

      PubDate: 2018-04-19T00:53:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.022
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • A systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of
           Internet-delivered behavioral activation
    • Authors: Anna Huguet; Alyssa Miller; Steve Kisely; Sanjay Rao; Nelda Saadat; Patrick J. McGrath
      Pages: 27 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Anna Huguet, Alyssa Miller, Steve Kisely, Sanjay Rao, Nelda Saadat, Patrick J. McGrath
      Background Behavioral activation (BA) is an evidence-based treatment for depression which has attracted interest and started to accumulate evidence for other conditions when delivered face-to-face. Due to its parsimoniousness, it is suitable to be delivered via the Internet. The goal of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the efficacy of Internet-based BA and assess the quality of this evidence. Methods Studies were identified from electronic databases (EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, Medline, CINHAL, PsychINFO, Cochrane) and reference lists of included studies. Two reviewers independently screened articles for inclusion and extracted data. They assessed the quality of evidence for each outcome using The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework. Results Nine RCTs on different forms of depression were included with 2157 adult participants. Random effects meta-analyses showed that in non-clinical settings, guided Internet-based BA was non-inferior to other forms of behavioral therapy and mindfulness (mainly very low to low quality evidence) and superior to physical activity (very low quality evidence), psychoeducation/treatment as usual (moderate quality evidence) and waitlist (low quality evidence) at reducing depression and anxiety outcomes at post-treatment and short follow-up. Limitations The poor quality of some of the findings means that results should be cautiously interpreted. Conclusions Evidence for the efficacy of Internet-based BA as a treatment for depression is promising. However, high quality studies with longer follow-ups are needed to increase confidence in findings and determine its efficacy in clinical settings and other conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-04-19T00:53:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.02.073
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • The relationship between the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) and
           incident depressive symptoms: A longitudinal cohort study
    • Authors: Nitin Shivappa; James R. Hébert; Nicola Veronese; Maria Gabriella Caruso; Maria Notarnicola; Stefania Maggi; Brendon Stubbs; Joseph Firth; Michele Fornaro; Marco Solmi
      Pages: 39 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Nitin Shivappa, James R. Hébert, Nicola Veronese, Maria Gabriella Caruso, Maria Notarnicola, Stefania Maggi, Brendon Stubbs, Joseph Firth, Michele Fornaro, Marco Solmi
      Background Diet is a common source of inflammation, and inflammation is associated with depression. We examined the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII®), a validated measure of inflammatory potential of the diet, and risk of depression in a cohort of older North American adults. Methods This longitudinal study, with a follow-up of 8 years, included 3648 participants (1577 males, 2071 females; mean age: 60.6 years) with/at risk of knee osteoarthritis. DII® scores were calculated using the validated Block Brief 2000 Food-Frequency Questionnaire. Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression-20 scale was used to define depressive symptoms. The relationship between baseline DII® score and incident depression was assessed through Cox's regression analysis, adjusted for potential confounders, and reported as hazard ratios (HRs). Results In total, 837 individuals (310 men and 527 women) developed incident depressive symptoms over the course of 8 years. Participants in the most pro-inflammatory group (quartile 4) had approximately 24% higher risk of developing depressive symptoms compared to subjects with the most anti-inflammatory diet (HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.01–1.53; p = 0.04). Conclusion These results suggest that a pro-inflammatory diet may be associated with higher incidence of depressive symptoms in a cohort of older Americans. Transitioning to a more anti-inflammatory diet may reduce depression risk.

      PubDate: 2018-04-19T00:53:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.014
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Psychometric properties of the concise health risk tracking (CHRT) in
           adolescents with suicidality
    • Authors: Taryn L. Mayes; Betsy D. Kennard; Michael Killian; Thomas Carmody; Bruce D. Grannemann; A. John Rush; Manish K. Jha; Jennifer Hughes; Graham J. Emslie; Madhukar H. Trivedi
      Pages: 45 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Taryn L. Mayes, Betsy D. Kennard, Michael Killian, Thomas Carmody, Bruce D. Grannemann, A. John Rush, Manish K. Jha, Jennifer Hughes, Graham J. Emslie, Madhukar H. Trivedi
      Background Several self-report rating scales have been developed to assess suicidal ideation, yet few examine other factors related to increased suicidal risk, and even fewer have been validated in both adolescents and adults. We evaluate the 14-item Concise Health Risk Tracking – Self Report (CHRT-SR), a measure previously validated in adults, in a sample of adolescents at risk for suicide. Method Data are from a retrospective chart review of adolescents treated in an intensive outpatient program for youth with severe suicidality. Teens completed the CHRT-SR and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology – Adolescents (QIDS-A) at baseline and discharge. The CHRT-SR was evaluated to determine the factor validity, internal consistency, construct validity, and sensitivity to change. Results Adolescents (n = 271) completed the CHRT-SR prior to treatment, and 231 completed the CHRT-SR at discharge. Three factors were identified with excellent model fit: Propensity, Impulsivity, and Suicidal Thoughts. Internal consistency reliability coefficients were good-to-excellent for the total score and all three factors at baseline (a = 0.774–0.915) and exit (a = 0.849–0.941). The total score and all three factors significantly correlated with overall depression severity and suicidal ideation as rated by teens and parent (p = .704–0.756, all p < .001). The CHRT-SR was sensitive to change, with moderate to large effect sizes (Cohen's d = 0.599–1.062). Limitations Study limitations include generalizability, lack of a control group, and retrospective data from a sample of opportunity. Conclusions The CHRT-SR is a reliable and valid measure for examining severity of suicidal thoughts and associated risk factors, and is sensitive to change following an intervention in adolescents.

      PubDate: 2018-04-19T00:53:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • The interaction of BDNF Val66Met, PTSD, and child abuse on
           psychophysiological reactivity and HPA axis function in a sample of Gulf
           War Veterans
    • Authors: Dmitri A. Young; Thomas C. Neylan; Aoife O'Donovan; Thomas Metzler; Anne Richards; Jessica A. Ross; Sabra S. Inslicht
      Pages: 52 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Dmitri A. Young, Thomas C. Neylan, Aoife O'Donovan, Thomas Metzler, Anne Richards, Jessica A. Ross, Sabra S. Inslicht
      Introduction While the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism has been linked to various psychological disorders, limited focus has been on its relationship to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and early traumas such as child abuse. Therefore, we assessed whether Val66Met was associated with fear potentiated psychophysiological response and HPA axis dysfunction and whether PTSD status or child abuse history moderated these outcomes in a sample of Veterans. Methods 226 and 173 participants engaged in a fear potentiated acoustic startle paradigm and a dexamethasone suppression test (DST) respectively. Fear conditions included no, ambiguous, and high threat conditions. Psychophysiological response measures included electromyogram (EMG), skin conductance response (SCR), and heart rate. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and the Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ) were used to assess PTSD status and child abuse history respectively. Results Met allele carriers exhibited greater SCR magnitudes in the no and ambiguous threat conditions (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively). Met carriers with PTSD exhibited greater physiological response magnitudes in the ambiguous (SCR, p < 0.001) and high threat conditions (SCR and heart rate, both p ≤ 0.005). Met carrier survivors of child abuse exhibited blunted heart rate magnitudes in the high threat condition (p < 0.01). Met allele carries with PTSD also exhibited greater percent cortisol suppression (p < 0.005). Limitations Limitations included small sample size and the cross-sectional nature of the data. Conclusions The Val66met may impact PTSD susceptibility differentially via enhanced threat sensitivity and HPA axis dysregulation. Child abuse may moderate Val66Met's impact on threat reactivity. Future research should explore how neuronal mechanisms might mediate this risk.

      PubDate: 2018-04-19T00:53:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Feasibility of a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy group intervention as
           an adjunctive treatment for postpartum depression and anxiety
    • Authors: Barbara Shulman; Royce Dueck; Deirdre Ryan; Genevieve Breau; Isabel Sadowski; Shaila Misri
      Pages: 61 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Barbara Shulman, Royce Dueck, Deirdre Ryan, Genevieve Breau, Isabel Sadowski, Shaila Misri
      Background Many women experience moderate-to-severe depression and anxiety in the postpartum period for which pharmacotherapy is often the first-line treatment. Many breastfeeding mothers are reticent to increase their dose or consider additional medication, despite incomplete response, due to potential adverse effects on their newborn. These mothers are amenable to non-pharmacological intervention for complete symptom remission. The current study evaluated the feasibility of an eight-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) intervention as an adjunctive treatment for postpartum depression and anxiety. Methods Women were recruited at an outpatient reproductive mental health clinic based at a maternity hospital. Participants had a diagnosis of postpartum depression/anxiety within the first year following childbirth. They were enrolled in either the MBCT intervention group (n = 14) or the treatment-as-usual control group (n = 16), and completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) questionnaire, and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) at baseline and at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 3 months following baseline. Results Multivariate analyses demonstrated that depression and anxiety levels decreased, and mindfulness levels increased, in the MBCT group, but not in the control group. Many of the between-group and over time comparisons displayed trends towards significance, although these differences were not always statistically significant. Additionally, the effect sizes for anxiety, depression, and mindfulness were frequently large, indicating that the MBCT intervention may have had a clinically significant effect on participants. Limitations Limitations include small sample size and the non-equivalent control group design. Conclusions We demonstrated that MBCT has potential as an adjunctive, non-pharmacological treatment for postpartum depression/anxiety that does not wholly remit with pharmacotherapy. (249 words)

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.065
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Psychometric properties of the social anxiety subscale of the Youth
           Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5-I-SAD) in a clinical sample of
           Spanish-speaking adolescents
    • Authors: Gema Fuentes-Rodriguez; Antonio J. Saez-Castillo; Luis-Joaquin Garcia-Lopez
      Pages: 68 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Gema Fuentes-Rodriguez, Antonio J. Saez-Castillo, Luis-Joaquin Garcia-Lopez
      Background The Youth Anxiety Measure-I for DSM-5 has recently been developed to assess youth's anxiety symptomatology. As social anxiety is one of the most common disorders in adolescence, this scale includes a subscale measuring social anxiety. However, psychometric properties of the YAM-5-I social anxiety subscale (YAM-5-I-SAD) in clinical samples are lacking. This paper aims to bridge the gap. Methods The sample comprised 24 clinically diagnosed and 24 healthy control Spanish-speaking adolescents aged 14–17 years. Results Data revealed that the YAM-5- I-SAD yielded excellent sensitivity, which makes it particularly useful as a screening tool to early detect socially anxious adolescents. In addition, the YAM-5-I-SAD evidenced good internal consistency and construct validity. Limitations Data are limited to the social anxiety subscale. Conclusions The YAM-5-I-SAD is a sensitive and specific measure to screen for adolescents with social anxiety.

      PubDate: 2018-04-19T00:53:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.02.035
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Kynurenine pathway changes in late-life depression
    • Authors: Yujie Wu; Xiaomei Zhong; Naikeng Mai; Yuguan Wen; Dewei Shang; Lijun Hu; Ben Chen; Min Zhang; Yuping Ning
      Pages: 76 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Yujie Wu, Xiaomei Zhong, Naikeng Mai, Yuguan Wen, Dewei Shang, Lijun Hu, Ben Chen, Min Zhang, Yuping Ning
      Background Kynurenine pathway (KP) activation is associated with several neuropsychiatric diseases, including major depression disorder (MDD). Although several investigations have been conducted on MDD, these have seldom shed light on KP changes in late-life depression (LLD). Objective We aimed to investigate whether tryptophan (TRP) metabolism and kynurenine (KYN) metabolism are imbalanced in LLD patients and to explore the differences in KP characteristics between early onset depression (EOD) and late onset depression (LOD) patients. Methods We investigated 170 LLD patients (EOD 90, LOD 80) and 135 normal controls. Serum concentrations of TRP, KYN and kynurenic acid (KYNA) were detected by the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD-17). Results LLD patients exhibited lower levels of TRP, KYN, KYNA and KYNA/KYN ratio and a higher level of KYN/TRY ratio than normal controls. The decrease in TRP and the increase in KYN/TRP ratio were found in LOD patients. A low TRP level without increased KYN/TRP ratio was found in EOD patients. The “Depression” factor, which was extracted from HAMD-17 by the principal component factor analysis, was correlated with the TRP level and KYNA/KYN ratio in the EOD group, but no such correlation was found in the LOD group. Conclusions KP changes were observed in LLD patients; LOD patients showed profound shifts in TRP metabolism, while EOD patients showed low TRP level and a shift in KYN metabolism.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.007
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Early maladaptive schemas in depression and somatization disorder
    • Authors: Elham Davoodi; Alainna Wen; Keith S. Dobson; Ahmad Ali Noorbala; Abolfazl Mohammadi; Zahra Farahmand
      Pages: 82 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Elham Davoodi, Alainna Wen, Keith S. Dobson, Ahmad Ali Noorbala, Abolfazl Mohammadi, Zahra Farahmand
      Cognitive theories of depression posit that early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) are key vulnerability factors for psychological disorders. In this study, we investigated specific EMSs as shared or distinct cognitive vulnerability factors for depression and somatization disorder. The sample consisted of patients with Major depressive disorder (N = 30) and Somatization disorder (N = 30) from a community hospital or a psychiatric clinic. Participants completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and the short form of the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-SF). Depressed patients exhibited significantly higher levels of all five schema domains and specific maladaptive schemas, including emotional deprivation, mistrust and abuse, social isolation and alienation, defectiveness and shame, failure, subjugation, emotional inhibition, and insufficient self-control or self-discipline. Moreover, depressed patients exhibited significantly higher levels of social isolation, emotional inhibition, as well as the overvigilance and inhibition domain when depressive symptom severity was controlled. Our results provide preliminary evidence that specific EMSs distinguish patients with depression and somatization. Suggestions for future research include the need to have a non-psychiatric control group, to evaluate the absolute role of EMSs in Somatization Disorder.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.017
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • The relationship between PTSD and suicidality among Wenchuan earthquake
           survivors: The role of PTG and social support
    • Authors: Jing Guo; Chengcheng Liu; Dexia Kong; Phyllis Solomon; Mingqi Fu
      Pages: 90 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Jing Guo, Chengcheng Liu, Dexia Kong, Phyllis Solomon, Mingqi Fu
      Background Previous studies have found that suicide rates are likely to increase after the occurrence of earthquakes. Most existing studies that examined the relationship between PTSD and suicidality focus on risk factors. It remains unclear whether protective factors, such as post-traumatic growth (PTG) and social support, play a role in this relationship. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PTG and social support in the association between PTSD and suicidality, using data from a cross-sectional study conducted in China. Methods 1,369 participants were recruited from two study sites that were severely affected by the Wenchuan earthquake. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between PTSD, PTG, social support, and suicidality. Results The results indicate that the prevalence of suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts among adult survivors were 9.06%, 2.97% and 3.31%, respectively, even after 8 years following the Wenchuan earthquake. Furthermore, the findings show that PTSD was significantly associated with suicidality (OR = 1.96; 95% CI = 1.53, 2.52). Additionally, individuals reporting lower levels of social support and the acquisition of PTSD (OR = 5.99; 95% CI = 1.66, 21.56) were significantly related to suicidality. Moreover, compared to individuals who reported no presence of PTSD and high PTG, those who lived with PTSD and lower levels of PTG (OR = 2.33; 95%CI = 1.00, 5.42) were more likely to report suicidality. Limitations The cross-sectional design of this study limits our ability to determine causal relationships. Effects of other related factors, such as cultural and life events, were not examined in this study. Conclusions Suicidality is a long-term health issue among survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake. PTG and social support play important roles on the association between PTSD and suicidality and are important contributing factors to understanding this relationship. These results contribute new knowledge of suicidal risk for a number of years after an earthquake and have implications for further mental health promotion following earthquakes.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.030
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • PI3K-AKT-GSK3β-CREB signaling pathway regulates anxiety-like behavior in
           rats following alcohol withdrawal
    • Authors: Xiaomeng Qiao; Haiyun Gai; Rui Su; Cuola Deji; Jingjing Cui; Jianghua Lai; Yongsheng Zhu
      Pages: 96 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Xiaomeng Qiao, Haiyun Gai, Rui Su, Cuola Deji, Jingjing Cui, Jianghua Lai, Yongsheng Zhu
      Background Alcohol abuse and anxiety disorders often occur concurrently, but their underlying cellular mechanisms remain unclear. Neuroadaptation within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) have been implicated in the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol drinking behavior and withdrawal. Methods A chronic alcohol exposure rat model (35 consecutive days of 10% alcohol intake and 48 h of withdrawal) was established, then, wortmannin (0.5 µg/side) was injected bilaterally into the mPFC. The elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT) were used to assess anxiety-like behavior. Western blot assays were used to assess protein levels. Results We found that anxiety-like behavior peaked approximately 6 h after alcohol withdrawal. However, wortmannin greatly decreased alcohol intake and attenuated anxiety-like behavior in the alcohol exposure rats. Moreover, the PI3K-AKT-GSK3β signaling pathway was activated after alcohol withdrawal, and phosphorylation of the downstream cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) was increased. Wortmannin uniformly reversed PI3K-AKT-GSK3β-CREB pathway phosphorylation. Limitations The downstream GSK3β activity was not intervened and a single dose level of wortmannin was used. Conclusion Our results suggest that activating the PI3K-AKT-GSK3β-CREB pathway in the mPFC is an important contributor to the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol withdrawal. PI3K signaling pathway inhibitors are thus potential candidates for treating alcohol abuse.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.039
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Development and external validation of a prediction rule for an
           unfavorable course of late-life depression: A multicenter cohort study
    • Authors: O.R. Maarsingh; M.W. Heymans; P.F. Verhaak; B.W.J.H. Penninx; H.C. Comijs
      Pages: 105 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): O.R. Maarsingh, M.W. Heymans, P.F. Verhaak, B.W.J.H. Penninx, H.C. Comijs
      Background Given the poor prognosis of late-life depression, it is crucial to identify those at risk. Our objective was to construct and validate a prediction rule for an unfavourable course of late-life depression. Methods For development and internal validation of the model, we used The Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO) data. We included participants with a major depressive disorder (MDD) at baseline (n = 270; 60–90 years), assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). For external validation of the model, we used The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) data (n = 197; 50–66 years). The outcome was MDD after 2 years of follow-up, assessed with the CIDI. Candidate predictors concerned sociodemographics, psychopathology, physical symptoms, medication, psychological determinants, and healthcare setting. Model performance was assessed by calculating calibration and discrimination. Results 111 subjects (41.1%) had MDD after 2 years of follow-up. Independent predictors of MDD after 2 years were (older) age, (early) onset of depression, severity of depression, anxiety symptoms, comorbid anxiety disorder, fatigue, and loneliness. The final model showed good calibration and reasonable discrimination (AUC of 0.75; 0.70 after external validation). The strongest individual predictor was severity of depression (AUC of 0.69; 0.68 after external validation). Limitations The model was developed and validated in The Netherlands, which could affect the cross-country generalizability. Conclusions Based on rather simple clinical indicators, it is possible to predict the 2-year course of MDD. The prediction rule can be used for monitoring MDD patients and identifying those at risk of an unfavourable outcome.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.026
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • EEG gamma synchronization is associated with response to paroxetine
           treatment
    • Authors: Mehmet Kemal Arikan; Baris Metin; Nevzat Tarhan
      Pages: 114 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Mehmet Kemal Arikan, Baris Metin, Nevzat Tarhan
      Background Resistance to medication is a significant problem in psychiatric practice, and effective methods for predicting response are needed to optimize treatment efficacy and limit morbidity. Gamma oscillations are considered as an index of the brain's general cognitive activity; however, the role of gamma oscillations in disease has not been studied sufficiently. Aim This study aimed to determine if gamma power during rest can be used to predict response to anti-depressant medication treatment. Method Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score and resting state gamma power was measured in 18 medication-free patients during an episode of major depression. After 6 weeks of paroxetine monotherapy HDRS was administered again. Results Baseline gamma power at frontal, central and temporal electrodes before treatment was significantly related to post-treatment change in HDRS scores. Conclusion The results indicate that gamma oscillations could be considered a marker of response to paroxetine treatment in patients with major depression.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.041
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • The course of anxiety in persons with dementia in Norwegian nursing homes:
           A 12-month follow-up study
    • Authors: Alka R. Goyal; Sverre Bergh; Knut Engedal; Marit Kirkevold; Øyvind Kirkevold
      Pages: 117 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Alka R. Goyal, Sverre Bergh, Knut Engedal, Marit Kirkevold, Øyvind Kirkevold
      Background Knowledge is scarce about the course of anxiety in persons with dementia (PWD) in nursing homes. This study aimed to describe the course of anxiety, anxiety symptoms, and the correlates of change in the Norwegian version of the Rating Anxiety in Dementia scale (RAID-N) score in PWD in nursing homes. Methods Using the RAID-N, anxiety was assessed in 298 PWD aged 65 years and above from 17 Norwegian nursing homes. The assessments were made at baseline and after a mean follow-up period of 350 days (SD 12.3). Associations between the change in RAID-N score and demographic and clinical characteristics were analyzed with multilevel regression models. Results At 12 months, 93 participants (31.2%) had died. There was no significant change in the proportion of participants with anxiety, defined as RAID-N score ≥12, from baseline (33.7%) to follow-up (31.2%) (McNemar, p = 0.597). “Motor tension”, “frightened and anxious”, and “irritability” were the most frequent anxiety symptoms among those with dementia and anxiety. A higher Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire (NPI-Q) sub-syndrome affective baseline score and more use of anxiolytics were associated with reduction in RAID-N score, whereas a higher NPI-Q sub-syndrome aroused baseline score and more use of antipsychotics were associated with an increase in RAID-N score at follow-up. Limitations The study did not control for ongoing treatment or changes of comorbidities. Conclusions Anxiety and anxiety symptoms are highly prevalent among PWD in nursing homes over a12-month period. The symptoms “motor tension”, “frightened and anxious”, and “irritability” require attention in screening for anxiety.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.015
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Neither all anti-inflammatory drugs nor all doses are effective in
           accelerating the antidepressant-like effect of fluoxetine in an animal
           model of depression
    • Authors: Silvia Alboni; Cristina Benatti; Giacomo Capone; Fabio Tascedda; Nicoletta Brunello
      Pages: 124 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Silvia Alboni, Cristina Benatti, Giacomo Capone, Fabio Tascedda, Nicoletta Brunello
      Introduction Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been studied as possible adjunctive therapy in the treatment of depression. However, administering NSAIDs to increase the effectiveness of antidepressant has yielded inconsistent results. Methods We evaluated the effect of the co-administration of fluoxetine (5 mg/kg) and flurbiprofen (5 mg/kg) or fluoxetine (5 mg/kg) and celecoxib (5 mg/kg) in the chronic escape deficit (CED) model of depression after 7 days of treatment. The co-administration of fluoxetine plus acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 45 mg/kg i.p.) was used as a positive control. Moreover, we tested the behavioral effect of different doses (45, 22.5, and 11.25 mg/Kg i.p.) of ASA as potentiating agent of the effect of fluoxetine in the same paradigm. Results Our study showed that only the co-administration of ASA with fluoxetine was able to revert the stress-induced condition of escape deficit after 7 days of treatment, and that the amplitude of the antidepressant-like effect of ASA was dose dependent. In the same experimental conditions, celecoxib with fluoxetine only partially resolved the stress-induced impaired behavior while flurbiprofen/fluoxetine cotreatment was ineffective. Limitations Our study is still exploratory, more doses, longer treatment regimens, and different behavioral outcomes must be investigated to draw a clear conclusion. Conclusion Our results further stress the importance of the type and dose when NSAIDs are associated with antidepressants to ameliorate a clinical response.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.063
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • The role of cognitive impairment in psychosocial functioning in remitted
           depression
    • Authors: Mattew J. Knight; Tracy Air; Bernhard T. Baune
      Pages: 129 - 134
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Mattew J. Knight, Tracy Air, Bernhard T. Baune
      Background Cognitive dysfunction is a prevalent and disabling symptom of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and is often retained in the remitted stage of illness. Emerging evidence suggests that cognitive impairment may be associated with dysfunction in a number of psychosocial domains (e.g., workplace productivity, social relationships). The current study explored the relationship between cognition and psychosocial functioning in remitted MDD and in healthy controls. Methods Data were obtained from 182 participants of the Cognitive Function and Mood Study (CoFaM-S), a cross-sectional study of cognition, mood, and social cognition in mood disorders. Participants’ (Remitted MDD n = 72, Healthy n = 110) cognition was assessed with a battery of cognitive tests including the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Function (RBANS) and other standard measures of cognition (e.g., The Tower of London task). Psychosocial functioning was clinically evaluated with the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST). Results The results indicated that executive functioning was the strongest independent predictor of functioning in remitted MDD patients, whereas various cognitive domains predicted psychosocial functioning in healthy individuals. Limitations Psychosocial functioning was measured with a clinical interview, and was therefore reliant on clinicians' judgement of impairment, as opposed to more objective measures of functioning. Conclusions These findings suggest that executive cognition plays an important role in functional recovery in remitted depression, and may be a crucial target in adjunctive treatment.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.051
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Prevalence, risk factors and clinical characteristics of suicidal ideation
           in Chinese patients with depression
    • Authors: Xinyu Fang; Chen Zhang; Zhiguo Wu; Daihui Peng; Weiping Xia; Jingjing Xu; Chenglei Wang; Lvchun Cui; Jia Huang; Yiru Fang
      Pages: 135 - 141
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Xinyu Fang, Chen Zhang, Zhiguo Wu, Daihui Peng, Weiping Xia, Jingjing Xu, Chenglei Wang, Lvchun Cui, Jia Huang, Yiru Fang
      Background Suicide risk is greatly increased in depression. Detection of those at risk is clinically important. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and identify independent risk factors associated with suicidal ideation (SI) in a widespread symptomatology within and outside DSM framework. Methods This study was part of the National Survey on Symptomatology of Depression (NSSD) which was designed to investigate the magnitude of symptoms of current major depressive episode in China. Stepwise multivariable logistic regression was performed to examine the independent risk factors for SI, including variables that are statistically significant in univariate analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was used to evaluate the performance of the regression model. Results A total of 3275 patients (1293 males and 1982 females) were included in our analysis. Of these, 1750 patients (53.4%) had SI. Independent risk predictors included crying (P = 0.000; odds ratio = 1.827), helplessness (P = 0.000; odds ratio = 1.514), worthlessness (P = 0.001; odds ratio = 1.359), hopelessness (P = 0.000; odds ratio = 1.805), unusually restless (P = 0.005; odds ratio = 1.276), self-harm (P = 0.000; odds ratio = 3.385), mood-incongruent psychosis (P = 0.000; odds ratio = 2.782), feeling losing control of oneself (P = 0.009; odds ratio = 1.352), hypersomnia (P = 0.000; odds ratio = 1.805), sensory system complaints (P = 0.000; odds ratio = 1.546), derealization (P = 0.006; odds ratio = 1.580), guilt (P = 0.002; odds ratio = 1.332), suicidal attempts (P = 0.000; odds ratio = 2.841), male gender (P = 0.001; odds ratio = 0.756), the total course of depression (P = 0.010; odds ratio = 1.003) in the regression model. In addition, the areas under the curve of the ROC and the accuracy for the regression model were 0.80 and 0.76, respectively. Conclusions This study provided an effective risk model for SI in MDD and indicated that all these factors in our model allow better the employment of preventative measures.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.027
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Towards a uniform specification of light therapy devices for the treatment
           of affective disorders and use for non-image forming effects: Radiant flux
           
    • Authors: M.P.J. Aarts; A.L.P. Rosemann
      Pages: 142 - 149
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): M.P.J. Aarts, A.L.P. Rosemann
      Background For treating affective disorders like SAD, light therapy is used although the underlying mechanism explaining this success remains unclear. To accelerate the research on defining the light characteristics responsible for inducing a specific effect a uniform manner for specifying the irradiance at the eye should be defined. This allows a genuine comparison between light-affect studies. An important factor impacting the irradiance at the eye are the radiant characteristics of the used light therapy device. Method In this study the radiant fluxes of five different light therapy devices were measured. The values were weighted against the spectral sensitivity of the five photopigments present in the human eye. A measurement was taken every five minutes to control for a potential stabilizing effect. Results The results show that all five devices show large differences in radiant flux. The devices equipped with blue LED lights have a much lower spectral radiant flux than the devices equipped with a fluorescent light source or a white LED. The devices with fluorescent lamps needed 30 min to stabilize to a constant radiant flux. Limitations In this study only five devices were measured. Radiant flux is just the first step to identify uniform specifications for light therapy devices. Conclusions It is recommended to provide all five α-opic radiant fluxes. Preferably, the devices should come with a spectral power distribution of the radiant flux. For the devices equipped with a fluorescent lamp it is recommended to provide information on the stabilization time.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.020
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Increased coherence-based regional homogeneity in resting-state patients
           with first-episode, drug-naive somatization disorder
    • Authors: Yangpan Ou; Feng Liu; Jindong Chen; Pan Pan; Renrong Wu; Qinji Su; Zhikun Zhang; Jingping Zhao; Wenbin Guo
      Pages: 150 - 154
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Yangpan Ou, Feng Liu, Jindong Chen, Pan Pan, Renrong Wu, Qinji Su, Zhikun Zhang, Jingping Zhao, Wenbin Guo
      Background Abnormal neural activity has been observed in patients with somatization disorder (SD), especially in brain regions of the default-mode network (DMN). In this study, a coherence-based regional homogeneity (Cohe-ReHo) approach was used to detect abnormal regional synchronization in patients with SD, which might be used to differentiate the patients from the controls. Methods We recruited 25 patients with SD and 28 healthy controls. The imaging data of the participants were analyzed using the Cohe-ReHo approach. LIBSVM (a library for support vector machines) was utilized to verify whether abnormal Cohe-ReHo values could be applied to separate patients with SD from healthy controls. Results Compared with healthy controls, patients with SD showed an increased Cohe-ReHo in the left medial prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate cortex (MPFC/ACC) (t = 5.5017, p < 0.001). No correlations were detected between the increased Cohe-ReHo values and clinical variables of the patients. The Cohe-ReHo values in the left MPFC/ACC could be applied to distinguish patients from controls with a sensitivity and a specificity of 84.00% and 85.71%, respectively. Conclusions An increased Cohe-ReHo was observed in the anterior DMN of the patients and could be applied as a marker to distinguish patients from healthy controls. These results highlighted the importance of the DMN in the pathophysiology of SD.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.036
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Racial/ethnic differences in the treatment of adolescent major depressive
           disorders (MDD) across healthcare providers participating in the medicaid
           program
    • Authors: Aylin Yucel; Ekere J. Essien; Swarnava Sanyal; Osaro Mgbere; Rajender R. Aparasu; Vinod S. Bhatara; Joy P. Alonzo; Hua Chen
      Pages: 155 - 161
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Aylin Yucel, Ekere J. Essien, Swarnava Sanyal, Osaro Mgbere, Rajender R. Aparasu, Vinod S. Bhatara, Joy P. Alonzo, Hua Chen
      Background To examine whether racial/ethnic differences in receipt of MDD treatment could be explained by the specialty of provider diagnosing the adolescent. Method Adolescents (10–20 years-old) with ≥2 MDD diagnoses were identified using 2005–2007 Medicaid data from Texas. Patients were categorized based on the types of provider who gave the initial MDD diagnosis (psychiatrist (PSY-I), social worker/psychologist (SWP-I), and primary care physician (PCP-I)). Within the sub-cohorts identified by each type of provider, patients were further divided by racial/ethnic groups. Results Of the 13,234-new pediatric MDD cases diagnosed, 61% were SWP-I, 33% PSY-I and 6% PCP-I. Results of the analysis using general linear multi-level model showed that being first diagnosed by a psychiatrist was associated with higher chance of receiving MDD related treatment (PCP-I vs. PSY-I (OR: 0.54, 95%CI: 0.4–0.7) and SWP-I vs. PSY-I (OR: 0.17, 95%CI: 0.1–0.2)). Specifically, regarding the receipt of pharmacotherapy, an interaction effect was detected between types of identifying providers and patients’ race/ethnicity. The analysis stratified by race/ethnicity found Whites received comparable treatment regardless being PCP-Is or PSY-Is, while for Hispanics, being first identified by a PCP was associated with lower likelihood of receiving treatment as compared to being first identified by a psychiatrist. Further analysis stratified by provider types showed that a significant racial/ethnic variation in medication utilization was observed in PCP-Is, but not in PSY-Is. Conclusion For adolescents with MDD, being first diagnosed by a psychiatrist was associated with higher treatment rate and reduced racial/ethnic variation in the utilization of pharmacotherapy.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.045
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Early improvement as a predictor of final remission in major depressive
           disorder: New insights in electroconvulsive therapy
    • Authors: Erika Martínez-Amorós; Ximena Goldberg; Verònica Gálvez; Aida de Arriba- Arnau; Virginia Soria; José M. Menchón; Diego J. Palao; Mikel Urretavizcaya; Narcís Cardoner
      Pages: 169 - 175
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Erika Martínez-Amorós, Ximena Goldberg, Verònica Gálvez, Aida de Arriba- Arnau, Virginia Soria, José M. Menchón, Diego J. Palao, Mikel Urretavizcaya, Narcís Cardoner
      Background Early improvement to antidepressant drugs predicts remission, but the predictive value of early improvement to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is still unclear. The main aim of this study was to determine the optimal definition of early improvement in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) with ECT, by analyzing its value as a predictor of remission. Methods A naturalistic study was conducted in 87 adult MDD patients treated with acute ECT. ROC curves were generated to identify the best time point (week 1 or 2 of treatment) predicted remission. Sensibility, specificity, and predictive values were calculated for several definitions of early improvement previously proposed in the literature (20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%). Complementary, time to remission was analyzed and a logistic regression model was performed to further characterize the impact of the optimal definition of early improvement on remission while adjusting for other clinically relevant variables. Results A 30% reduction in the HAM-D score after 2 weeks was identified as the optimal definition of early improvement, with acceptable sensitivity (76%), and specificity (67%). Complementary analyses provided further support for this definition showing a shorter time to remission and a significant effect adjusted for the rest of variables. Limitations Relatively small sample size, ECT restricted to brief bilateral treatment. Conclusions Early improvement, defined as a 30% of reduction in the HAM-D21 score at week 2, is a good predictor of remission in MDD patients treated with bilateral ECT, with potential clinical impact. Lack of early improvement could indicate a need for further changes in treatment strategies.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.03.014
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Prospective predictors of first-onset depressive disorders in adolescent
           females with anxiety disorders
    • Authors: Estee M. Hausman; Roman Kotov; Greg Perlman; Greg Hajcak; Ellen M. Kessel; Daniel N. Klein
      Pages: 176 - 183
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Estee M. Hausman, Roman Kotov, Greg Perlman, Greg Hajcak, Ellen M. Kessel, Daniel N. Klein
      Background Anxious youth are at increased risk for later depressive disorders, but not all anxious youth develop depression. Sequential comorbidity models emphasize shared risk factors and anxiety sequelae, but some anxious youth who later develop depression may have risk factors that are relatively specific to depression, in addition to a liability to anxiety. We examined several variables that appear relatively specific to risk for depression—the personality traits of low positive affectivity and high sadness, and an electrophysiological measure of blunted response to reward - in predicting first-onset depressive disorders and depressive symptoms in clinically anxious adolescent girls. Methods A sample of 114 adolescents with baseline anxiety disorders completed personality and psychopathology measures, psychophysiology tasks, and diagnostic interviews. Interviews and a measure of depressive symptoms were re-administered over 27 months. Results After controlling for baseline depressive symptoms, blunted reward sensitivity uniquely predicted first-onset depressive disorders and depressive symptoms 27 months later. Post-hoc analyses indicated that blunted reward sensitivity only predicted first-onset depressive disorders and depressive symptoms in girls with high social anxiety symptoms. Limitations Analyses were unable to account for concurrent anxiety symptoms and disorders. Conclusions The depression-specific risk factor, blunted reward sensitivity, may comprise one pathway to subsequent depressive disorders and symptoms in anxious youth and indicate which anxious youth need intervention to prevent later depression, particularly in socially anxious girls.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Cortical and subcortical changes in patients with premenstrual syndrome
    • Authors: Peng Liu; Ying Wei; Yingying Fan; Hai Liao; Geliang Wang; Ru Li; Gaoxiong Duan; Demao Deng; Wei Qin
      Pages: 191 - 197
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Peng Liu, Ying Wei, Yingying Fan, Hai Liao, Geliang Wang, Ru Li, Gaoxiong Duan, Demao Deng, Wei Qin
      Background Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is characterized by a series of emotional, physical and behavioral symptoms. Although PMS is related to dysfunctions of the central nervous system, the neuropathological mechanism of PMS still has not been clearly established. The aim of this study is to evaluate potential differences in both cortical thickness and subcortical volumes in PMS patients compared to healthy controls (HCs). Methods Twenty PMS patients and twenty HCs underwent a structural magnetic resonance imaging scan and clinical assessment. Cortical thickness and subcortical volumes were computed using the FreeSurfer image analysis suite. Relationships between cortical thickness/subcortical volumes and the daily rating of severity of problems (DRSP) score were then measured in patients. Results Compared to HCs, PMS patients exhibited reduced cortical thickness in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and insula, and increased subcortical volumes of the amygdala, thalamus and pallidum. Furthermore, negative correlations were detected between the DRSP and cortical thickness in the anterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. Limitations The study is limited by a small sample size and narrow age range of participants. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the abnormal morphological changes are mainly implicated in emotional regulation and visceral perception in PMS patients. We hope that our study may contribute to a better understanding of PMS.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.046
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • A naturalistic examination of the perceived effects of cannabis on
           negative affect
    • Authors: Carrie Cuttler; Alexander Spradlin; Ryan J. McLaughlin
      Pages: 198 - 205
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Carrie Cuttler, Alexander Spradlin, Ryan J. McLaughlin
      Background Cannabis is commonly used to alleviate symptoms of negative affect. However, a paucity of research has examined the acute effects of cannabis on negative affect in everyday life. The current study provides a naturalistic account of perceived changes in symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress as a function of dose and concentration of Δ9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Method Data from the app StrainprintTM (which provides medical cannabis users a means of tracking changes in symptoms as a function of different doses and chemotypes of cannabis) were analyzed using multilevel modeling. In total, 11,953 tracked sessions were analyzed (3,151 for depression, 5,085 for anxiety, and 3,717 for stress). Results Medical cannabis users perceived a 50% reduction in depression and a 58% reduction in anxiety and stress following cannabis use. Two puffs were sufficient to reduce ratings of depression and anxiety, while 10+ puffs produced the greatest perceived reductions in stress. High CBD (>9.5%)/low THC (<5.5%) cannabis was associated with the largest changes in depression ratings, while high CBD (>11%)/high THC (>26.5%) cannabis produced the largest perceived changes in stress. No changes in the perceived efficacy of cannabis were detected across time. However, baseline symptoms of depression (but not anxiety or stress) appeared to be exacerbated across time/tracked sessions. Limitations The primary limitations are the self-selected nature of the sample and the inability to control for expectancy effects. Conclusions Cannabis reduces perceived symptoms of negative affect in the short-term, but continued use may exacerbate baseline symptoms of depression over time.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.054
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • The development and validation of a short version of the 33-item Hypomania
           Checklist (HCL-33)
    • Authors: Yuan-Yuan Wang; Yuan Feng; Dan-Dan Xu; Wei Huang; Ines H.I. Chow; Chee H. Ng; Gabor S. Ungvari; Zhen Yuan; Gang Wang; Yu-Tao Xiang
      Pages: 206 - 210
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Yuan-Yuan Wang, Yuan Feng, Dan-Dan Xu, Wei Huang, Ines H.I. Chow, Chee H. Ng, Gabor S. Ungvari, Zhen Yuan, Gang Wang, Yu-Tao Xiang
      Background The misdiagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD) as major depressive disorder (MDD) is common in clinical practice and may result in inappropriate treatment. The 33-item Hypomania Checklist (HCL-33) is a newly developed screening scale for BD with satisfactory psychometric properties. In this study, a short version of the HCL-33 was developed and validated to discriminate between BD and MDD. Method All interviews were conducted in a major psychiatric hospital in China. The short version of HCL-33 (the HCL-23) was initially developed using a sample of 186 patients (MDD = 84, BD-I = 46, BD-II = 56) and its performance was tested in a separate sample of 164 patients (MDD = 77, BD-I = 44, BD-II = 43). Results The HCL-23 showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.906) with two-factorial dimensions. Compared to the HCL-33, the HCL-23 demonstrated a marginally weaker performance in terms of sensitivity+specificity (1.38 vs 1.36 for BD vs MDD, 1.33 vs 1.32 for BD-I vs MDD, and 1.44 vs 1.42 for BD-II vs MDD). For discriminating BD, BD-I, and BD-II from MDD, the HCL-23 showed better sensitivity (0.82 vs 0.67, 0.77 vs 0.68, and 0.86 vs 0.72, respectively) than the HCL-33, while the HCL-33 showed better specificity (0.71 vs 0.55, 0.65 vs 0.55, and 0.71 vs 0.56, respectively) than the HCL-23. Conclusion Both HCL-33 and HCl-23 have comparable psychometric properties and screening ability for BD. The HCL-23 is an effective screening tool for detecting BD in clinical settings. The HCL-23 was developed in China, therefore its psychometric properties need to be confirmed in different socio-cultural contexts.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.019
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Task-positive and task-negative networks in major depressive disorder: A
           combined fMRI and EEG study
    • Authors: Gennady G. Knyazev; Alexander N. Savostyanov; Andrey V. Bocharov; Ivan V. Brak; Evgeny A. Osipov; Elena A. Filimonova; Alexander E. Saprigyn; Lyubomir I. Aftanas
      Pages: 211 - 219
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Gennady G. Knyazev, Alexander N. Savostyanov, Andrey V. Bocharov, Ivan V. Brak, Evgeny A. Osipov, Elena A. Filimonova, Alexander E. Saprigyn, Lyubomir I. Aftanas
      Background The study of intrinsic connectivity networks, i.e., sets of brain regions that show a high degree of interconnectedness even in the absence of a task, showed that major depressive disorder (MDD) patients demonstrate an increased connectivity within the default mode network (DMN), which is active in a resting state and is implicated in self-referential processing, and a decreased connectivity in task-positive networks (TPNs), which increase their activity in attention tasks. Cortical localization of this ‘dominance’ of the DMN over the TPN in MDD patients is not fully understood. Besides, this effect has been investigated using fMRI and its electrophysiological underpinning is not known. Method In this study, we tested the dominance hypothesis using seed-based connectivity analysis of resting-state fMRI and EEG data obtained in 41 MDD patients and 23 controls. Results In MDD patients, as compared to controls, insula, pallidum/putamen, amygdala, and left dorso- and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex are more strongly connected with DMN than with TPN seeds. In EEG, all significant effects were obtained in the delta frequency band. Limitations fMRI and EEG data were not obtained simultaneously during the same session. Conclusions In MDD patients, major emotion and attention regulation circuits are more strongly connected with DMN than with TPN implying they are more prepared to respond to internally generated self-related thoughts than to environmental challenges.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Reduced integrity of the uncinate fasciculus and cingulum in depression: A
           stem-by-stem analysis
    • Authors: Kartik D. Bhatia; Luke A. Henderson; Eugene Hsu; Mark Yim
      Pages: 220 - 228
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Kartik D. Bhatia, Luke A. Henderson, Eugene Hsu, Mark Yim
      Introduction The subgenual cingulate gyrus (Brodmann's Area 25: BA25) is hypermetabolic in depression and has been targeted successfully with deep brain stimulation. Two of the white matter tracts that play a role in treatment response are the uncinate fasciculus (UF) and the cingulum bundle. The UF has three prefrontal stems, the most medial of which extends from BA25 (which deals with mood regulation) and the most lateral of which extends from the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (concerned with executive function). The cingulum bundle has numerous fibers connecting the lobes of the cerebrum, with the longest fibers extending from BA25 to the amygdala. We hypothesize that there is reduced integrity in the UF, specific to the medial prefrontal stems, as well as in the subgenual and amygdaloid fibers of the cingulum bundle. Our secondary hypothesis is that these changes are present from the early stages of depression. Objective Compare the white matter integrity of stems of the UF and components of the cingulum bundle in first-onset depressed, recurrent/chronic depressed, and non-depressed control subjects. Methods Depressed patients (n = 103, first-onset = 57, chronic = 46) and non-depressed control subjects (n = 74) underwent MRI with 32-directional DTI sequences. The uncinate fasciculi and cingulum bundles were seeded, and the fractional anisotropy (FA) measured in each of the three prefrontal stems and the body of the UF, as well as the subgenual, body, and amygdaloid fiber components of the cingulum bundle. FA measurements were compared between groups using ANOVA testing with post-hoc Tukey analysis. Results There were significant reductions in FA in the subgenual and polar stems of the UF bilaterally, as well as the subgenual and amygdaloid fibers of the cingulum bundle, in depressed patients compared with controls (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference seen in the lateral UF stem or the main body of the cingulum. No significant difference was demonstrated in any of the tracts between first-onset and chronic depression patients. Conclusion Depressed patients have reduced white matter integrity in the subgenual and polar stems of the uncinate fasciculi but not the lateral stems, as well as in the subgenual and amygdaloid cingulum fibers. These changes are present from the first-onset of the disease.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.055
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Regional homogeneity and functional connectivity patterns in major
           depressive disorder, cognitive vulnerability to depression and healthy
           subjects
    • Authors: Hui Sun; Lizhu Luo; Xinru Yuan; Lu Zhang; Yini He; Shuqiao Yao; Jiaojian Wang; Jing Xiao
      Pages: 229 - 235
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Hui Sun, Lizhu Luo, Xinru Yuan, Lu Zhang, Yini He, Shuqiao Yao, Jiaojian Wang, Jing Xiao
      Background Cognitive vulnerability to depression (CVD) is a high risk for depressive disorder. Recent studies focus on individuals with CVD to determine the neural basis of major depressive disorder (MDD) neuropathology. However, whether CVD showed specific or similar brain functional activity and connectivity patterns, compared to MDD, remain largely unknown. Methods Here, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in subjects with CVD, healthy controls (HC) and MDD, regional homogeneity (ReHo) and resting-state functional connectivity (R-FC) analyses were conducted to assess local synchronization and changes in functional connectivity patterns. Results Significant ReHo differences were found in right posterior lobe of cerebellum (PLC), left lingual gyrus (LG) and precuneus. Compared to HC, CVD subjects showed increased ReHo in the PLC, which was similar to the difference found between MDD and HC. Compared to MDD patients, CVD subjects showed decreased ReHo in PLC, LG, and precuneus. R-FC analyses found increased functional connections between LG and left inferior parietal lobule, posterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in CVD compared to both HC and MDD. Moreover, Regional mean ReHo values were positively correlated with Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores. Conclusion These analyses revealed that PLC and functional connections between LG and left inferior parietal lobule, posterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be a potential marker for CVD.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.061
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Does oral administration of ketamine accelerate response to treatment in
           
    • Authors: Somaye Arabzadeh; Elham Hakkikazazi; Nazila Shahmansouri; Abbas Tafakhori; Alireza Ghajar; Morteza Jafarinia; Shahin Akhondzadeh
      Pages: 236 - 241
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Somaye Arabzadeh, Elham Hakkikazazi, Nazila Shahmansouri, Abbas Tafakhori, Alireza Ghajar, Morteza Jafarinia, Shahin Akhondzadeh
      Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) exerts a high health and financial burden on society. The conventional pharmacotherapies for MDD are partially effective and the response to medication often starts with some delay. There are recent reports of antidepressant effects for oral ketamine. Methods We employed a double-blind controlled trial to examine the time course of the therapeutic effect of ketamine when combined with the conventional administration of sertraline. A total of 81 patients participated in the study and were scored with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) at baseline and at 2, 4 and 6 weeks after the start of the trial Results General linear model repeated measures demonstrated significant effect for time × treatment interaction on the HDRS scores, with significant difference at all time points post treatment. Early improvement was significantly greater in the ketamine group (85.4%) compared to the placebo group (42.5%). We did not observe any side effects for ketamine administration. Limitations: Our follow up was limited to 6 weeks post initiation of treatment and cannot reveal the potential long-term adverse effects of oral ketamine and the sustainability of its benefit. Conclusion Altogether, our results suggest that oral ketamine may be considered as suitable adjuvant to sertraline in relieving depressive symptoms.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.02.056
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Heterogeneity of sleep quality in relation to circadian preferences and
           depressive symptomatology among major depressive patients
    • Authors: Yavuz Selvi; Murat Boysan; Ali Kandeger; Omer F. Uygur; Ayca A. Sayin; Nursel Akbaba; Basak Koc
      Pages: 242 - 249
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Yavuz Selvi, Murat Boysan, Ali Kandeger, Omer F. Uygur, Ayca A. Sayin, Nursel Akbaba, Basak Koc
      Background The current study aimed at investigating the latent dimensional structure of sleep quality as indexed by the seven components of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), as well as latent covariance structure between sleep quality, circadian preferences and depressive symptoms. Methods Two hundred twenty-five patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), with an average age of 29.92 ± 10.49 years (aged between 17 and 63), participated in the study. The PSQI, Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered to participants. Four sets of latent class analyses were subsequently run to obtain optimal number of latent classes best fit to the data. Results Mixture models revealed that sleep quality is multifaceted in MDD. The data best fit to four-latent-class model: Poor Habitual Sleep Quality (PHSQ), Poor Subjective Sleep Quality (PSSQ), Intermediate Sleep Quality (ISQ), and Good Sleep Quality (GSQ). MDD patients classified into GSQ latent class (23.6%) reported the lowest depressive symptoms and were more prone to morningness diurnal preferences compared to other three homogenous sub-groups. Finally, the significant association between eveningness diurnal preferences and depressive symptomatology was significantly mediated by poor sleep quality. Limitation The cross-sectional nature of the study and the lack of an objective measurement of sleep such as polysomnography recordings was the most striking limitation of the study. Conclusions We concluded sleep quality in relation to circadian preferences and depressive symptoms has a heterogeneous nature in MDD.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.02.018
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Elevated tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor subtype 1 and the
           association with abnormal brain function in treatment-resistant depression
           
    • Authors: Mao-Hsuan Huang; Mu-Hong Chen; Pei-Chi Tu; Ya Mei Bai; Tung-Ping Su; Bang-Hung Yang; Ren-Shyan Liu; Cheng-Ta Li
      Pages: 250 - 256
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Mao-Hsuan Huang, Mu-Hong Chen, Pei-Chi Tu, Ya Mei Bai, Tung-Ping Su, Bang-Hung Yang, Ren-Shyan Liu, Cheng-Ta Li
      Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) patients have shown elevated plasma levels of pro-inflammatory biomarkers compared to healthy controls. We hypothesized increased serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor subtype 1 (TNF-α R1) is more associated with impaired brain function in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) than those without TRD. Methods 34 MDD patients and 34 healthy subjects were recruited and we separated MDD patients to TRD group (n = 20) and non-TRD (n = 14) group. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. A standardized uptake values (SUV) of glucose metabolism measured by 18F-FDG positron-emission-tomography (PET) was applied to all subjects for subsequent region-of- interest analyses and whole-brain voxel-wise analyses. 18F-FDG-PET measures glucose uptake into astrocytes in response to glutamate release from neuronal cells, and was thus used as a proxy measure to quantify glutamatergic neurotransmission in the human brain. Results Post-hoc analysis revealed that TRD group had higher serum concentrations of TNF-α R1 compared to healthy control or non-TRD group. In the MDD group, higher serum concentrations of TNF-α R1 significantly correlated with decreased SUV in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and bilateral caudate nucleus. The ROI analysis further supported the negative correlations of plasma TNF-α R1 and SUV in the ACC and caudate nucleus. Such correlation is more consistent in TRD group than in non-TRD and HC groups. Limitation Glutamate neurotransmission and the effect of chronic stress on glutamate release in the brain were not measured directly. Conclusions Increased TNF-α R1 was associated with impaired glutamatergic neurotransmission of caudate nucleus and ACC in MDD patients, particularly in the TRD.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.037
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Parity and bipolar disorder: Additional considerations
    • Authors: Verinder Sharma
      First page: 257
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Verinder Sharma


      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.050
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Improvement of postpartum depression and psychosis after electroconvulsive
           therapy: A population-based study with a matched comparison group
    • Authors: Sara Rundgren; Ole Brus; Ullvi Båve; Mikael Landén; Johan Lundberg; Pia Nordanskog; Axel Nordenskjöld
      Pages: 258 - 264
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Sara Rundgren, Ole Brus, Ullvi Båve, Mikael Landén, Johan Lundberg, Pia Nordanskog, Axel Nordenskjöld
      Introduction Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used to treat postpartum depression and psychosis based on clinical experience and small observational studies. Aims The primary aim was to test the hypothesis that the response rate to ECT for depression and psychosis is higher during the postpartum period than outside this period. The secondary aim was to identify predictors of a response to ECT during the postpartum period. Materials and methods Cases with postpartum depression and/or psychosis received ECT within 6 months of delivery. A matched comparison group with depression and/or psychosis (not within the postpartum period) was identified from the Swedish National Quality Register for ECT. The improvement 1 week after ECT was classified according to the Clinical Global Impressions Scale – Improvement scale (CGI-I) as responder (CGI-I score 1–2) or non-responder (CGI-I score 3–7). Results 185 cases and 185 comparison group subjects were included (46% with psychosis in each groups). More cases (87.0%) than comparison group subjects (73.5%) responded to ECT (p = 0.001). Adjusted binary regression analysis revealed that more severe symptoms prior to treatment were the only statistically significant predictor of response. Limitations There was no control group without ECT treatment. Conclusion The response rate of those with postpartum depression and/or psychosis to ECT was high. The response rate of patients with psychosis or depression was higher during the postpartum period than outside it. This study supports the use of ECT for severe forms of postpartum depression and/or psychosis.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.043
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Mindfulness-based interventions and their effects on emotional clarity: A
           systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: David Cooper; Keong Yap; Luisa Batalha
      Pages: 265 - 276
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): David Cooper, Keong Yap, Luisa Batalha
      Background An inability to identify or describe internal emotional experience has been linked to a range of affective disorders. Despite burgeoning research on mindfulness-based interventions and their possible effects on emotion regulation, the effects of such interventions on emotional clarity is unclear. This review examines the evidence for the effect of mindfulness-based interventions on self-reported emotional clarity. Method Published studies indexed by PsycINFO, PubMed and Scopus, as available in April 2017, were systematically reviewed. Interventions that included mindfulness practice or philosophy, and reported a suitable measure of emotional clarity at pre- and post-intervention were selected. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed. Subgroup comparisons were also conducted to test for differences between clinical and non-clinical samples, between specific and approximate measures of emotional clarity, and between controlled and uncontrolled trials. Results Seventeen studies met the criteria for inclusion. The overall estimated effect size for pre- to post-intervention was small to moderate, Hedges’ g = 0.42, 95% CI [0.25, 0.59] and for between groups results was small to large, Hedges’ g = 0.52, 95% CI [0.15, 0.90]. Limitations Studies varied substantially in design quality and study characteristics. Furthermore, while interventions in the reviewed studies all had mindfulness components, many had other components in addition to mindfulness. Consequently, this review is limited by the heterogeneity of studies and results should be interpreted with caution. Conclusions There is preliminary evidence to suggest that mindfulness-based interventions may increase emotional clarity. However, more homogenous and targeted experiments are required to confirm these initial findings.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.018
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Gender-specific associations of depression and anxiety symptoms with
           mental rotation
    • Authors: Chiaki Oshiyama; Chihiro Sutoh; Hiroyasu Miwa; Satoshi Okabayashi; Hiroyuki Hamada; Daisuke Matsuzawa; Yoshiyuki Hirano; Tetsuya Takahashi; Shin-ichi Niwa; Manabu Honda; Kazuyuki Sakatsume; Takuichi Nishimura; Eiji Shimizu
      Pages: 277 - 284
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Chiaki Oshiyama, Chihiro Sutoh, Hiroyasu Miwa, Satoshi Okabayashi, Hiroyuki Hamada, Daisuke Matsuzawa, Yoshiyuki Hirano, Tetsuya Takahashi, Shin-ichi Niwa, Manabu Honda, Kazuyuki Sakatsume, Takuichi Nishimura, Eiji Shimizu
      Background Men score higher on mental rotation tasks compared to women and suffer from depression and anxiety at half the rate of women. The objective of this study was to confirm the gender-specific effects of depression and anxiety on mental rotation performance. Methods We collected data in non-experimental conditions from 325 university students at three universities. Participants completed rating scales of depressive and anxiety symptoms, and then simultaneously performed a mental rotation task using tablet devices. Results We observed no significant difference between men and women in the depressive and anxiety symptoms and task response time. Men had a significantly higher correct answer rate compared with women. The scores of depression and anxiety of all participants were positively correlated. Task response time correlated positively with intensity of depressive symptoms and anxiety in women, but not in men. Women with high depressive symptoms had significantly longer response times than did women with low depressive symptoms, while men had no differences due to depressive symptoms. Limitations We did not directly examine brain functions; therefore, the underlying neurobiological results are only based on previous knowledge and action data. Conclusions The pathology of depression and anxiety was reflected in the correct answer rate and response time in relation to the gender difference of brain function used in mental rotation.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.006
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Scared and surrounded by clutter: The influence of emotional reactivity
    • Authors: Cassandra Crone; Melissa M. Norberg
      Pages: 285 - 292
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Cassandra Crone, Melissa M. Norberg
      Background Home visits can improve treatment outcomes for hoarding disorder, but factors influencing the success of home visits remain unknown. As home visits expose individuals to clutter and fear, the present study examined the effect that fear and emotional reactivity have on the relationship between clutter and discarding behaviour. Methods Participants with at least subclinical discarding problems (n = 143) were asked to save or discard personal possessions of varying value following an emotional induction that took place in either a tidy or cluttered context. Participants also completed questionnaires assessing hoarding severity, emotional state, and emotional reactivity, as defined by one's sensitivity, persistence, and intensity of reactions to emotional stimuli. Results As expected, participants discarded more items in the presence of clutter and when feeling fearful. However, emotional reactivity moderated the relations between environmental context, acute emotional state, and discarding. Low sensitivity, low persistence, and high emotional intensity negatively influenced discarding in the cluttered context. When feeling fearful, low dispositional emotional intensity negatively influenced discarding in the tidy context. Limitations Individuals in the tidy environment reported higher levels of fear and anxiety than individuals in the cluttered environment after the fear induction. These differences could have contributed to the difference noted between the two contexts when examining the effect of emotional intensity tendencies. Conclusions Providing treatment in an environment more representative of the cluttered home can improve discarding or at the very least give therapists a more accurate picture of what clients do in the context that matters most.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.066
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • The association between severity of depression and prescription opioid
           misuse among chronic pain patients with and without anxiety: A
           cross-sectional study
    • Authors: Daniel Feingold; Silviu Brill; Itay Goor-Aryeh; Yael Delayahu; Shaul Lev-Ran
      Pages: 293 - 302
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Daniel Feingold, Silviu Brill, Itay Goor-Aryeh, Yael Delayahu, Shaul Lev-Ran
      Background In light of the increased rates of Prescription Opioid (PO) misuse and associated mortality in several developed countries in recent years, efforts have been made to identify populations who may be at increased risk for misuse of POs. Though the association between depression and PO misuse among pain patients is well documented, little is known regarding the effects of severity of depression on rates of misuse. In this study we explored rates of PO misuse among chronic pain patients screening positive for depression according to level of severity. Methods Participants included chronic pain patients receiving POs (N = 554). All participants were screened for depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9; cut-off scores of 5, 10, 15, and 20 for mild, moderate, moderate-severe and severe depression, respectively) and for opioid misuse using the Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM). Logistic regression analyses controlling for additional sociodemographic and clinical factors were conducted. Results Participants who screened positive for depression were at significantly increased odds to screen positive for opioid misuse (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 3.63; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.71–7.7) compared to those without depression. Severity of depression was significantly associated with increased odds for opioid misuse for moderate (AOR = 3.71; 95% CI = 1.01–13.76), moderate-severe (AOR = 6.28; 95% CI = 1.6–24.57) and severe (AOR = 14.66; 95% CI = 3.28–65.52) depression but not among those who screened positive for mild depression (AOR = 1.49; 95% CI = 0.39–5.68). Limitations Cross-sectional study. Conclusions Our results highlight the need to properly asses and address level of severity of co-morbid depression among chronic pain patients receiving POs.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.058
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorders among adolescents in the
           area worst-hit by the Wenchuan earthquake
    • Authors: Xiao Zhou; Xinchun Wu; Rui Zhen; Wenchao Wang; Yuxin Tian
      Pages: 303 - 307
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Xiao Zhou, Xinchun Wu, Rui Zhen, Wenchao Wang, Yuxin Tian
      Background This study examined the trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among adolescents in the area worst-hit by the Wenchuan earthquake, and assessed the role of trauma exposure in differentiating distinct PTSD trajectories. Methods In total, 391 adolescents were selected from the Wenchuan and Maoxian counties in Sichuan province (the area worst-hit by the earthquake). Participants completed a trauma exposure questionnaire at 1 year, and the Child PTSD Symptom Scale at 1 year, 1.5 years, 2 years, and 2.5 years after the earthquake. Results Three latent PTSD trajectories were found in adolescents: moderate-stable (81.6%), decreasing (8.7%), and increasing trajectories (9.7%). T1 trauma exposure was more likely to be related to the decreasing trajectory group. Limitations All variables were measured by self-report scales. There was high non-random dropout. Conclusion The course of PTSD was heterogeneous among adolescents following the same natural disaster.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.032
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Levels of depression in transgender people and its predictors: Results of
           a large matched control study with transgender people accessing clinical
           services
    • Authors: Gemma L. Witcomb; Walter Pierre Bouman; Laurence Claes; Nicola Brewin; John R. Crawford; Jon Arcelus
      Pages: 308 - 315
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Gemma L. Witcomb, Walter Pierre Bouman, Laurence Claes, Nicola Brewin, John R. Crawford, Jon Arcelus
      Background Depression is a serious disorder which significantly impacts wellbeing and quality of life. Studies exploring mental wellbeing in the transgender population are mostly limited by small, non-homogenous samples and lack of matched controls. This study aimed to address these limitations and explore depression rates in a large sample of transgender people, compared with matched controls from the general population, as well as factors predicting depression in those taking cross-sex hormone treatment (CHT) compared to those not. Methods Transgender individuals (n = 913) completed a measure of depression, measures which predict psychopathology (self-esteem, victimization, social support, interpersonal problems), and information regarding CHT use. Participants were matched by age and experienced gender with adults from the general population who had completed the measure of depression. Results Individuals were categorized as having no, possible or probable depressive disorder. Transgender individuals not on CHT had a nearly four-fold increased risk of probable depressive disorder, compared to controls. Older age, lower self-esteem, poorer interpersonal function and less social support predicted depressive disorder. Use of CHT was associated with less depression. Limitations Participants were attending a national gender identity service and therefore represent only a sub-group of transgender people. Due to the cross-sectional design, longitudinal research is required to fully confirm the finding that CHT use reduces depression. Conclusion This study confirms that non-treated transgender individuals have an increased risk of a depressive disorder. Interventions offered alongside gender affirming treatment to develop interpersonal skills, increase self-esteem and improve social support may reduce depression and prepare individuals for a more successful transition.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.02.051
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Parsing positivity in the bipolar spectrum: The effect of context on
           social decision-making
    • Authors: Timothy R. Campellone; Andrew D. Peckham; Sheri L. Johnson
      Pages: 316 - 322
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Timothy R. Campellone, Andrew D. Peckham, Sheri L. Johnson
      Introduction People with bipolar disorder often show more approach-related behavior and positive appraisals of others during social interactions. This may be due to an increased sensitivity to positive contexts or to tendencies toward positive affectivity. In this study, we investigated the influence of reward versus prosocial positive contexts on social decision-making in people at high (n = 21) and low (n = 111) risk for bipolar disorder. Methods Participants completed a computerized task consisting of two blocks. In the No Context block, participants were presented with a face and asked to make decisions related to approach, appraisal, and trust behavior toward that person. In the Context block, designed to assess the influence of contextual information on decision-making, each face was preceded by a written statement describing a positive or neutral context. Results Compared to the low risk group, the high-risk group made significantly higher approach and appraisal ratings, regardless of the context condition. Effects were sustained controlling for positive affect. We did not find any effect of bipolar risk on trust ratings. Limitations The study was conducted in an analogue sample. Discussion Taken together, these results suggest risk for bipolar disorder is associated with greater positive social approach and appraisal tendencies, and that these effects are not secondary to social context or positive affect. Implications for understanding social decision-making in the bipolar spectrum are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.02.020
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • A naturalistic longitudinal study of extended inpatient treatment for
           adults with borderline personality disorder: An examination of treatment
           response, remission and deterioration
    • Authors: J. Christopher Fowler; Joshua D. Clapp; Alok Madan; Jon G. Allen; B. Christopher Frueh; Peter Fonagy; John M. Oldham
      Pages: 323 - 331
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): J. Christopher Fowler, Joshua D. Clapp, Alok Madan, Jon G. Allen, B. Christopher Frueh, Peter Fonagy, John M. Oldham
      Background Experts express reluctance to hospitalize patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) for more than a few days, arguing that extended inpatient care leads to deterioration and adverse events. To date, there is no empirical support for these assertions. Aims The current study examined the assumption of iatrogenic effects among BPD adults. Methods Clinically significant and reliable change in symptoms, functional capacities, and adverse events were quantified for both inpatients with BPD (n = 245) and a well-matched inpatient reference (n = 220) sample. Latent growth curve (LGC) models were used to evaluate moderators of the trajectory of PHQ-9 depression scores over the course of hospitalization. Results Large effect size improvements were observed in depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation and functional disability among patients with BPD (Cohen's d ≥ 1.0) and those in the reference sample (Cohen's d ≥ .80). Clinical deterioration and adverse events were rare (occurring in no more than 1.1% of BPD and reference patients on any outcome) with no difference across patient cohorts. BPD diagnosis failed to influence the trajectory of continuous depression severity. Rather, trait emotion dysregulation was associated with initial depression severity. Conclusions Twenty-five years ago it was assumed that adults with BPD could not benefit from psychiatric treatment. Today there are a number of effective evidence-based outpatient treatments for BPD, but beliefs about extended inpatient treatment have changed little. Current results indicate that extended inpatient treatment can result in significant and clinically meaningful symptomatic and functional improvement in BPD patients without iatrogenic effects.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.054
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • ‘Cool’ and ‘Hot’ executive functions in suicide attempters with
           major depressive disorder
    • Authors: Ming-Chou Ho; Yi-Chieh Hsu; Mong-Liang Lu; Michael Gossop; Vincent Chin-Hung Chen
      Pages: 332 - 340
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Ming-Chou Ho, Yi-Chieh Hsu, Mong-Liang Lu, Michael Gossop, Vincent Chin-Hung Chen
      Rationale The World Health Organization reports that, by 2030, depression is expected to be the largest contributor to disease burden. Only small proportion of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) achieves remission and the majority of them do not achieve long-term functional recovery. One of the neuropsychological domains that have been shown to be particularly impaired in depression, is that of executive function (EF). Objectives We examined whether the patients with MDD with and without suicide attempts had deteriorated ‘cool’ EF and ‘hot’ EF. Methods The study population comprised 34 MDD attempters, 36 MDD non-attempters, and 55 healthy controls. We adopted the symmetry span task (SSPAN) to measure the updating and the affective shifting task (AST) to measure the inhibition and set-shifting in general and in response to emotional material. The Iowa gambling task (IGT) was used to examine the affective decision-making ability. Results After controlling for PHQ-9, Anxiety (HADS), suicidal ideation, education year and gender, we reported that (1) the MDD non-attempters had worse updating than the healthy controls and the MDD attempters; (2) the MDD attempters had worse general inhibition (GI) than the healthy controls and the MDD non-attempters; (3) the MDD non-attempters had worse general set-shifting (GS) than the healthy controls and the MDD attempters; (4) there was no between-group difference in the ‘hot’ EFs; and (5) MDD attempters with longer durations (over 5 years) since last attempt had worse general inhibition. Conclusions The disrupted ‘cool’ EFs patients with MDD are consistent with previous review and meta-analytic studies. On the other hand, the two groups with MDD performed similarly to the healthy controls in the ‘hot’ EF.

      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.057
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2018)
       
  • Corrigendum to “Post-traumatic stress symptoms are associated with
           physical multimorbidity: Findings from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity
           Survey 2007” [Journal of Affective Disorders 232 (2018) 385–392]
    • Authors: Louis Jacob; Josep Maria Haro; Ai Koyanagi
      Pages: 385 - 392
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 235
      Author(s): Louis Jacob, Josep Maria Haro, Ai Koyanagi


      PubDate: 2018-04-26T01:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.02.063
      Issue No: Vol. 232 (2018)
       
 
 
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