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Endeavour
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.198
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0160-9327
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3168 journals]
  • In My Tribe: What the Snouters (and Other Jokes) Reveal About Tribes in
           Science
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 January 2019Source: EndeavourAuthor(s): Joe CainAbstractThis paper tells the history of this famous joke in science: Gerolf Steiner’s invention of the Rhinogradentia using the pseudonym Harald Stümpke. It follows this story from this joke’s creation in the 1940s, to the relabelling of Rhinogradentia as “snouters” in the 1960s, to later use as an inside joke within zoology and taxonomy. Steiner’s original monograph for these imaginary creatures followed standard conventions in taxonomy and did not disclose its fictitious nature. It was a tall tale for specialists to cherish. Later, Steiner’s joke took on a life of its own as his monograph functioned to identify communities of shared understanding and to spot lapses in expertise. This study places Steiner’s story within “jokelore,” arguing the rhinograde narrative has been repeated, shared, extended, and mimicked by diverse groups so they may accomplish either social work or intellectual work within the context of particular tribes and intellectual traditions.
       
  • Solid State Physics as a Social Practice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2018Source: EndeavourAuthor(s): Lillian Hoddeson
       
  • Books through space and time
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 December 2018Source: EndeavourAuthor(s): Richard W. Tait
       
  • Reading the past by firelight
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Endeavour, Volume 42, Issue 4Author(s): Stephen J. Pyne
       
  • Polar expeditions and the quest for celebrity
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Endeavour, Volume 42, Issue 4Author(s): Layne Karafantis
       
  • Between republicans and freemasons: A lost zoological collection found in
           a very particular school
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Endeavour, Volume 42, Issue 4Author(s): João Lourenço MonteiroA lost zoological collection was found in an old school in Lisbon, Portugal. Taxidermied animals, fauna preserved in glass jars, skeletons, and fossilized shells were all part of this collection. The research showed that those animals were used by libertarian teachers in science classes in a school created by republicans and freemasons in the transition from the 19th to the 20th century.
       
  • The Parliament that Science Built: Credibility, Architecture, and
           Britain’s Palace of Westminster
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Endeavour, Volume 42, Issue 4Author(s): Edward J. GillinBetween 1834 and 1860 the British government mobilised the latest scientific knowledge in the construction of the new Palace of Westminster, home to the nation's Houses of Parliament. Built in a Gothic style, this legislative building embodied the latest experimental techniques and expertise from geology, mathematics, engineering, chemistry, and optics. By exploring the narrative of this architectural project, it becomes clear just how central scientific values were to Victorian politics. At the same time, this article shows how the experience of constructing Britain's nineteenth-century parliament building has implications and lessons for parliamentary architecture today.
       
  • The Multiple and Lively Souls of Space Science in the Arab World
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Endeavour, Volume 42, Issue 4Author(s): Stefano Bigliardi
       
  • Cook’s Voyages to the Pacific after 250 years. Exhibition review of
           James Cook: The Voyages, at the British Library, London. April–August
           2018. British Library, £14.00
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Endeavour, Volume 42, Issue 4Author(s): Edwin D. Rose
       
  • A Portrait of the Naturalist as a Young Man
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Endeavour, Volume 42, Issue 4Author(s): Penelope K. Hardy
       
  • On the Stories Told by Indicator Diagrams and Carnot Diagrams
    • Abstract: Publication date: June–September 2018Source: Endeavour, Volume 42, Issues 2–3Author(s): M. Norton WiseAbstractThe “Carnot Diagram,” so prevalent in conveying the Second Law of Thermodynamics, had a prehistory in the indicator diagrams used by some practical engineers to diagnose the ailments of steam engines and to improve their operation. These diagnoses can be understood in narrative terms, analogous to the case reports of physicians. A different narrative understanding can be extended to the series of theoretical works on the maximum power obtainable from heat engines by mathematical engineers and physicists: Sadi Carnot, Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron, Rudolf Clausius, and William Thomson (Lord Kelvin). The narrative interpretation is important for understanding how versions of the Carnot Diagram functioned in their analytic reasoning and in their perspective on the directionality of natural processes, such as heat passing on its own from hot to cold and never the reverse.
       
  • Audacious Psyche: Visualizing Evolution in John Pringle Nichol’s
           Romantic Universe
    • Abstract: Publication date: June–September 2018Source: Endeavour, Volume 42, Issues 2–3Author(s): J.P. DalyJohn Pringle Nichol (1804–1859), a Scottish Romantic astronomer, educator, and social reformer, used visual representations to develop and communicate key elements of his theory of evolution as a universal principle. Examining four of the diverse representations that appeared in Nichol’s popular science books between 1846 and 1850 reveals the rich possibilities of evolutionary imagery prior to the emergence of more dominant forms of representation in the wake of Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species (1859). The abstract and schematic nature of many of Nichol’s visual representations—which included line diagrams and imaginative, mythic imagery (the latter developed in collaboration with the Scottish Romantic artist David Scott)—made them apt vessels for his Romantic evolutionary concepts, because a single image could simultaneously represent features of evolution across multiple domains, reflecting the Romantic concept of the unity of nature and the myriad analogies between its constituent parts. All of the images embodied narrative in one form or another and required use of the imagination in the act of interpretation. Many of the images facilitated the viewer’s ability to conceptualize unobservable or only partially observable features of evolutionary change. Even as these visual representations acted as tools of perspective, insight, and clarity, they also helped to generate new ambiguities, such as a fundamental tension between teleology and contingency.
       
  • Projecting Nature: Agostino Scilla’s Seventeenth-Century Fossil
           Drawings
    • Abstract: Publication date: June–September 2018Source: Endeavour, Volume 42, Issues 2–3Author(s): Paula FindlenIn 1670 the Sicilian painter Agostino Scilla (1629–1700) devised an entirely new way of depicting fossils when he wrote and illustrated his Vain Speculation Undeceived by Sense (1670–1671), which argued that fossils were the remains of once living creatures and not mimetic stones. This essay explores the nature of Scilla’s graphic innovations, comparing his fossils drawings and Pietro Santi Bartoli’s engravings of them to earlier and contemporary images of fossils. Scilla captured the effect of time on nature by infusing his style of drawing with his philosophical understanding of what it means to see and to know. He made his drawing less rich in detail to focus on those which served his purpose. In particular, he made the first use of dotted lines in paleontological illustration to render his images dynamic theoretical interpretations rather than static depictions.
       
  • Let the Diagram Speak: Compass Arcs and Visual Auxiliaries in Printed
           Diagrams of Euclid’s Elements
    • Abstract: Publication date: June–September 2018Source: Endeavour, Volume 42, Issues 2–3Author(s): Eunsoo LeeAbstractThe printed Elements in the sixteenth century presented more practical and functional diagrams than those of previous manuscripts. Whereas conventional diagrams were limited to implementing the description of the text, the new diagrams introduced more concise constructions and visual auxiliaries. This change toward more practical and functional diagrams reflects the increased emphasis on the pedagogical value of the diagram. As is evident from the compass arcs upon the diagram, readers of the Elements were invited to draw their own diagrams, deviating from tradition and also from the text. Also, the increased visual auxiliaries such as correspondence markers, dotted lines, and stereoscopic presentations enabled the reader to read diagrams more easily. This backdrop of increased engagement with the diagram made it easier for mathematical novices (tyrones) to learn the Elements. These tool-based and auxiliaries-laden diagrams were more effective for teaching beginners than the earlier, less-functional diagrams. This paper explores the function of these new visual vocabularies and how they were circulated. This survey comprises a brief history of how diagrams began to have their say.
       
  • The Proof Is in the Diagram: Liu Yi and the Graphical Writing of Algebraic
           Equations in Eleventh-Century China
    • Abstract: Publication date: June–September 2018Source: Endeavour, Volume 42, Issues 2–3Author(s): Karine ChemlaAbstractIn a specific tradition of dealing with algebraic equations in China, eleventh to thirteenth century writings on the topic combine problems, algorithms, and diagrams of several types. This article focuses on the geometrical diagrams that some of them contain. The argument holds that the captions in these diagrams establish a specific connection with the algorithms in relation to which they are given. Accordingly, I claim that these diagrams constitute the proof of the correctness of the algorithms. Reading the diagrams as assertions is thus in my view essential to capture what is at stake in them. These diagrams disappear from another tradition of dealing with algebraic equations in China, to which writings from the second half of the thirteenth century and the early fourteenth century attest. I suggest that these diagrams are replaced by a form of algebraic proof in an algorithmic context, which is also expressed in specific ways.
       
  • Tools of Reason: The Practice of Scientific Diagramming from Antiquity to
           the Present
    • Abstract: Publication date: June–September 2018Source: Endeavour, Volume 42, Issues 2–3Author(s): Greg Priest, Silvia De Toffoli, Paula Findlen
       
  • Tools for Thought: The Case of Mathematics
    • Abstract: Publication date: June–September 2018Source: Endeavour, Volume 42, Issues 2–3Author(s): Valeria GiardinoThe objective of this article is to take into account the functioning of representational cognitive tools, and in particular of notations and visualizations in mathematics. In order to explain their functioning, formulas in algebra and logic and diagrams in topology will be presented as case studies and the notion of manipulative imagination as proposed in previous work will be discussed. To better characterize the analysis, the notions of material anchor and representational affordance will be introduced.
       
  • Graph-algebras—Faithful representations and mediating objects in
           mathematics
    • Abstract: Publication date: June–September 2018Source: Endeavour, Volume 42, Issues 2–3Author(s): Jessica CarterAbstractI consider the role of diagrams in contemporary mathematics. More specifically the role of certain diagrams—so-called directed graphs—will be investigated. I propose that these graphs act as mediating objects. This means that they link certain objects, that is, a C*-algebra and its associated K-groups, and that this link yields an epistemic gain. I explain that the link is possible because a graph represents as a metaphor in two distinct ways. In addition, the diagrammatic presentation of a directed graph becomes an object that can be manipulated. As such, it becomes what I will denote a “faithful representation.” The notion of a faithful representation tries to capture the fruitfulness of the combination of metaphorical representation with the possibility of controlled manipulation.
       
  • Diagramming Evolution: The Case of Darwin’s Trees
    • Abstract: Publication date: June–September 2018Source: Endeavour, Volume 42, Issues 2–3Author(s): Greg PriestAbstractFrom his earliest student days through the writing of his last book, Charles Darwin drew diagrams. In developing his evolutionary ideas, his preferred form of diagram was the tree. An examination of several of Darwin’s trees—from sketches in a private notebook from the late 1830s through the diagram published in the Origin—opens a window onto the role of diagramming in Darwin’s scientific practice. In his diagrams, Darwin simultaneously represented both observable patterns in nature and conjectural narratives of evolutionary history. He then brought these natural patterns and narratives into dialogue, allowing him to explore whether the narratives could explain the patterns. But Darwin’s diagrams did not reveal their meaning directly to passive readers; they required readers to engage dynamically with them in order to understand the connections they disclosed between patterns and narratives. Moreover, the narratives Darwin depicted in his diagrams did not represent past sequences of events that he claimed had actually occurred; the narratives were conjectural, schematic, and probabilistic. Instead of depicting actual histories in all their particularity, Darwin depicted narratives in his diagrams in order to make general claims about how nature works. The conjunction of these features of Darwin’s diagrams is central to how they do their epistemic work.
       
 
 
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