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Journal Cover International Journal of Manpower
  [SJR: 0.354]   [H-I: 37]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0143-7720
   Published by Emerald Homepage  [335 journals]
  • Comparing the gender gap in gross and base wages
    • Pages: 646 - 660
      Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 5, Page 646-660, August 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the gender wage gap not only in gross wages, but also focussing on a specific salary component, the base wage, which is determined by collective bargaining for each occupational category. Design/methodology/approach The authors estimate a wage frontier to analyze the difference between workers’ observed wages and their potential wage, given human capital endowments, as well as firm characteristics. Next, the authors examine the distance to the frontier as a function of workers’ gender, in order to test whether women fail to achieve potential wages to any great extent. To do so, the authors use data from the 2010 Spanish Structure of Earnings Survey. Findings While men nearly achieve their potential base wage, females are systematically and significantly below the wage frontier (93 per cent on average). In other words, even when the authors limit the analysis to the base wage, the authors still find a significant wage differential between men and women. A detailed analysis of this result points to the existence of occupational segregation in the labour market. Within each occupational category, females tend to be concentrated in the lower ranking jobs, which entail lower wages. This result is consistent with the existence of a sticky floors phenomenon. Originality/value The authors contribute to the literature on gender discrimination that focusses on specific wage components. As far as the authors know, to date this is the first analysis to focus on a component that responds more to the characteristics of the job rather than to those of the worker.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:55:45Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-10-2015-0162
  • Exploring nurtured company resilience through human capital and human
           resource development
    • Pages: 661 - 674
      Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 5, Page 661-674, August 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the importance and contribution of human capital, combined with human resources and research and development (R&D) measures, to nurturing company resilience as new knowledge and human capital artifices to face challenges derived from globalization, competitiveness, and the knowledge-based economy. Design/methodology/approach By means of structural equation modeling with latent variables, a new type of synthetic index is developed, with which the evolution and incidence of human capital structure, human resources development, and R&D in the company’s accumulated resiliency can be tested. Findings The results indicate a remarkable contribution of human capital to company resilience (standardized path coefficient 0.8365; p
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:55:50Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-11-2015-0196
  • Gender inequalities in labour market outcomes
    • Pages: 675 - 695
      Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 5, Page 675-695, August 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to focus on the investigation of gender inequalities in the labour market at the regional level in Greece throughout the years preceding and following the economic crisis. Design/methodology/approach Utilising microdata from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) database from 2005 up to the most recent available, the authors construct the Total Earnings Gap Index, a composite index at the individual level which incorporates gender differentials in aspects related to employment, work intensity and earnings. This approach is further complemented by the results of the econometric analysis (a probit model for the probability of being in employment and a Heckman selection model for the determinants of hourly pay and hours worked), which portray the impact of gender on a set of labour-related characteristics. Findings The findings of the analysis indicate a widespread reduction of the gender gap; however, this appears to be mainly the result of a sharper fall in employment among men, hence pointing towards a “race to the bottom” process which presents few – if any – signs of an increase of women’s economic independence. The emerging picture points towards a trend of regional convergence in gender gaps, while also highlighting that similar gender equality outcomes are, in certain cases, shaped by radically different dynamics. Originality/value This paper uses an innovative composite index which provides a multi-dimensional depiction of gender inequality in the Greek labour market. This index has been introduced by Eurostat and has been applied at the country level, with this paper being the first – to the authors’ knowledge – to apply it at the regional level. Additionally, by examining years before and throughout the crisis, the present analysis adopts a dynamic perspective, offering valuable insight into the seismic shifts that Greece’s labour market structure has undergone during this period.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:55:55Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-11-2015-0198
  • The mediating role of organizational embeddedness on the relationship
           between quality of work life and turnover
    • Pages: 696 - 711
      Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 5, Page 696-711, August 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mediating effect of organizational embeddedness in the relationship between quality of work life (QWL) and turnover under a foundation of conservation of resources theory. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from 422 healthcare professionals through a questionnaire survey, and analyzed by means of a confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Findings The results indicate that organizational embeddedness has a negative impact on employees’ intention to leave, and on actual turnover. For QWL perception, career opportunities, work life balance, and job characteristics are positive and significant predictors of organizational embeddedness. In addition, organizational embeddedness plays an intermediary role that mediates the relationship between the three components of QWL mentioned earlier and turnover intention, and also between the factor of career opportunities and actual turnover. Research limitations/implications The current research took place within two healthcare organizations. Replicating the study in a variety of business sectors or professions with a larger sample of subjects would be useful for the generalizability of the findings. Practical implications Organizations may improve their retention of employees by offering intrinsic resources that can be obtained from the social contexts of the individual through human resource management system, e.g., growth opportunities, a healthy and caring work life quality. Such motivational resources then develop a sense of obligation toward their places of employment, which influences their intention to stay or leave. Originality/value This study examines the mediating role of organizational embeddedness between employees’ perception of their work life quality and their desire and behavior to withdraw, which is an area of inquiry that has not been fully investigated in the literature.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:55:48Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-12-2015-0205
  • Immigrants’ socio-economic achievements and cultural diversity
    • Pages: 712 - 728
      Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 5, Page 712-728, August 2017.
      Purpose An interest in social transmission as a source of welfare and income inequality in a society has re-emerged recently with new vigour in leading economic research (see Piketty, 2014). This paper presents a mixed Bourdieu-Mincer (B-M) type micro-economic model which provides a testable mechanism for culturally biased socio-economic inter-generational transmission. In particular, the operationalisation of this mixed B-M type model seeks to find evidence for individual and local cultural capital effects on the economic achievements, in addition to the human capital effect, for both migrants and locals in the Netherlands. The purpose of this paper is to examine two sources of wage differential in the local labour market, namely: individual cultural capital (approximated by immigrant background), which affects schooling results; and the local cultural capital (approximated with the cultural milieu), which directly biases the selection of employees. Design/methodology/approach The study utilises the 2007-2009 data set for higher professional education (in Dutch termed HBO) graduates registered in the Maastricht database. The Mincer-type equation is augmented with a control variable for the local cultural milieu. The authors cope with this model empirically by means of 2SLS and 3SLS methods. Findings The authors find convincing evidence for the existence of both an individual cultural capital and a local cultural capital effect on schooling and wage differentials. This can be interpreted as a migrant background effect leading to a disadvantaged position on the labour market due to less frequently attending high-quality secondary schools. Originality/value More importantly, the authors find evidence for a classical Myrdalian effect of self-fulfilling prophecy, in which graduates with second-generation migrant background have a disadvantaged position due to access only to poorer quality of schooling.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:56:04Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-12-2015-0232
  • Effect of information quality of employment website on attitude toward the
    • Pages: 729 - 745
      Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 5, Page 729-745, August 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate an empirical model examining the job seekers’ perception about information quality of corporate employment websites and its impact on their attitude toward the websites through perceived playfulness and usefulness. Furthermore, the study also examines the job seekers’ e-trust as condition under which these mechanisms generate website attitude. Design/methodology/approach A sample of 385 active job seekers was selected through systematic random sampling. A web-based questionnaire was used to elicit responses for the study. Structural equation modeling was used to validate the proposed model. Findings Results indicate that the information quality dimensions positively influence perceived playfulness and perceived usefulness, which in turn evoke the website attitude. Furthermore, e-trust was found to moderate the above said relationships. Originality/value The study contribution lies in an empirical validation of a model showing the mechanisms and the condition through which the relationship exists between perceived information quality of e-recruitment websites and job seekers’ website attitude, and thus responds to the call for additional research that generalizes the influence of information characteristics of websites on job seekers’ behavioral outcomes.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:55:57Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-12-2015-0235
  • Do high school graduates benefit from intensive vocational training'
    • Pages: 746 - 764
      Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 5, Page 746-764, August 2017.
      Purpose Decades of impact evaluation of vocational training have produced very heterogeneous findings. If heterogeneity can be ascribed to the diversity in contents and target population, it can be reduced analyzing specific subprograms. The purpose of this paper is to focus on Italian “Post Diploma” training, which consists of intensive courses for unemployed holding a high school degree. Evidence on the benefits for different types of workers is provided, distinguishing in particular between common unemployed and those who attend training as a further investment in human capital after finishing their schooling. Design/methodology/approach The evaluation is based on a non-experimental control group design. Exploiting extremely rich administrative data, impact estimates are obtained via propensity score matching. The robustness of results is checked through extensive sensitivity analysis. Findings The results suggest a positive impact on the employment probability, also in the long run. Training is particularly effective for people who attend it just after finishing high school. Cost-benefit analysis yields a positive rate return on public investment only after more than five years. Originality/value The study focuses on a limited and homogeneous segment of training in order to provide more exploitable evidence for program design purposes. Due to its specific characteristics and aims, Post Diploma training represents an example of intervention which, unlike many programs for unemployed, works better for the youngest. The conclusions stress the general need for evaluations that properly account for the cost of an intervention and its effectiveness in the long run.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:56:06Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-01-2016-0008
  • Decomposing the structure of wages into firm and worker effects
    • Pages: 765 - 787
      Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 5, Page 765-787, August 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to show that for some key topics on labour economics such as the effect of seniority and job mobility in wages, it is important to explicitly consider firm fixed effects. The author also wants to test whether the importance of firm in explaining wage dispersion is higher or lower in Spain than in other European countries. Design/methodology/approach The author estimates an individual wage equation where firm and workers effects are considered and the estimation process control for censored wages. This exercise is performed for the Spanish economy over the course of a whole business cycle, i.e., 2000-2015. Findings The author demonstrates that Spanish firms contribute to explain around 27 per cent of the individual wage heterogeneity but more importantly around 74 per cent of inter-industry wage differentials. In both cases, this contribution is mainly related to large dispersion in firm’s wage policies. The process of positive sorting of workers across firms or industries does not play an important role. Interestingly, the importance of firm’s wage policies in explaining individual wage dispersion has increased over the current Big Recession. Practical implications The results confirm that firms set wages and, henceforth, are partially responsible for individual wage heterogeneity but more importantly for inter-industrial wage dispersion. Originality/value The exercise is performed under optimal conditions because the author uses a longitudinal matched employer-employee data set, observed wages are at a monthly frequency, and implements an estimation method suitable for censored models with two high-dimensional fixed effects. This is the first study that looks deeply into the role of firms in explaining wage heterogeneity at the individual and industry level in Spain and along the current Big Recession.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:55:44Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-04-2016-0082
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