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Journal Cover International Journal of Manpower
  [SJR: 0.354]   [H-I: 37]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0143-7720
   Published by Emerald Homepage  [335 journals]
  • The fair sex and unfair treatment in management of community-based
           organizations
    • Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 4, July 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of the article was to examine the influence of gender on the organizational commitments of managers in community-based organizations. Design/methodology/approach A total of 327 managers in community-based organizations were asked about their work attitudes. LISREL analysis was performed. The dependent variable was the intention to withdraw from the organization. The questionnaires were mailed to the sampled population. In all, 202 questionnaires were returned, representing a 62% response rate. Findings Findings show that for women, job involvement was related to affective organizational commitment and to career commitment, but not to continuance organizational commitment. The current research offers an alternative path structure to that of Randall and Cote’s (1991) original model, which does not relate job involvement to continuance organizational commitment. As for men, we found a significant relationship between job involvement, career commitment, and affective organizational commitment. Hence, men's work attitudes in this study are consistent with those elicited in the original research model.Regarding the factors influencing withdrawal intentions, among women – we found that career commitment influenced the initial intention to withdraw from the organization and thinking of quitting. We also found that affective organizational commitment influenced initial intention to withdraw, thinking of quitting, and search intentions. Among men, there was a significant relationship between job involvement, career commitment, and affective organizational commitment. Research limitations/implications Future research should use multiple informants for assessing the model as well as a longitudinal design. Another potential avenue of research is to examine whether our findings hold true across professions and sectors. Practical implications The findings are important for community-based organizations because they are not for-profit organizations; therefore, the provision of good service to the community is based on managers’ high levels of commitment. In addition, results could assist managers in developing a policy to bolster adequate work attitudes by considering the differences between men and women, in order to retain high-quality workers in the organization. Originality/value The findings are important for community-based organizations because they are not for-profit organizations and therefore good service to the community is based on high commitment of managers.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T11:16:16Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-08-2015-0122
       
  • The effects of longer commutes, unsolicited job offers, and working in the
           Seoul metropolitan area on the turnover intentions of Korean employees
    • Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 4, July 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of the study is to identify the importance of commuting time in the turnover intentions of Korean employees. This study also examines the impact of unsolicited job offers and working in the Seoul metropolitan area to elucidate the role of commuting time in determining turnover intentions. Design/methodology/approach The present study used two waves of the Graduates Occupational Mobility Survey (GOMS), a large-scale survey of Korean employees. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to test the research model on 11,469 and 11,587 Korean employees in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Findings The commuting time increases turnover intentions, as do unsolicited job offers and working in the Seoul metropolitan area. Unsolicited job offers increase the turnover intentions of Korean employees more when they suffer from longer commutes, especially if they work in the Seoul metropolitan region. Research limitations/implications Our study highlights the role of commuting time as resource loss that diminishes employees’ ability to cope with their job demands, which can be a predictive variable for turnover intentions. This study also considers unsolicited job offers and the Seoul metropolitan area as increasing ease of movement, elucidating the process through which commuting time is related to turnover intentions. Originality/value The present study adopts the resource conservation and ease-of-movement concepts to increase the understanding of the complexity of commuting time in determining turnover intentions.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T11:16:15Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-12-2015-0211
       
  • Do gender differences in career aspirations contribute to sticky
           floors?
    • Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 4, July 2017.
      Purpose This study tests hypotheses regarding the importance of employee preferences in explaining Sticky Floors, the pattern that women are, compared to men, less likely to start to climb the job ladder. Design/methodology/approach We use original data obtained using a survey and a vignette study in which participants had to score the likeliness with which they would accept job offers with different promotion characteristics. Findings The main findings are that female young professionals have a less pronounced preference for more demanding and less routinary jobs and that this effect is mediated by the greater risk aversion and anticipated gender discrimination among women. No gender differences were found in the relative likeliness to apply for jobs that involve a promotion in terms of job authority. Research limitations/implications The vignette method assumes that artificial settings with low stakes do not bias results. Another limitation follows from the focus on inter-organizational promotions among young professionals, which raises the question to what extent the results can be generalized to broader settings. Originality/value This article contributes to the literature on gender differences in careers by measuring the impact of employee preferences on gender differences in career decisions.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T11:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-10-2015-0171
       
  • The case for sustained investment in state longitudinal integrated data
           systems: the value of extended time span coverage
    • Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 4, July 2017.
      Purpose This study illustrates the value of extended time span coverage of state longitudinal education and workforce data system to inform and improve the effectiveness of future high impact expenditure decisions. Design/methodology/approach It used an analytical 29-year data file created by the author that links seven already in-place education and workforce administrative record sources. Relying on the path dependency theory, multi-level mixed effect logistic and multi-level mixed effect linear regression models are used to test three hypotheses. Findings The findings are consistent with the hypotheses: inclusion of the multiple steps along a post-secondary education pathway and prior job histories are both critical to understanding workforce outcomes mechanisms; it takes time for the employment outcome effect to be evident and strong following education attainment. Practical implications The study concludes with research limitations and implications for decision makers to call for retaining and investing in administrative records with extended time span coverage, particularly for the already-in-place historical administrative records. Originality/value The paper is the one of the first to demonstrate the value of extended time-span coverage in a longitudinal state integrated data system through econometric modeling, using longitudinally integrated data linking 7 administrative records covering continuously for 29 years. No matter for prior education or employment pathway, it is only through extended time span coverage that employment outcomes can be well measured and the rich nuances interpreting the mechanisms of education return on investment can be revealed.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T11:16:13Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-02-2016-0037
       
  • Knowledge sharing and firm innovation capability in Croatian ICT companies
    • Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 4, July 2017.
      Purpose This study attempts to empirically distinguish the influence of the individual factors (enjoyment in helping others and knowledge self-efficacy), organizational factors (top management support and organizational rewards) and technology factors (information and communication technology use) on knowledge sharing processes. Design/methodology/approach Data was collected through a survey of 196 employees from large ICT companies in Croatia, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to investigate the research model. Findings Results of the empirical research indicate that enjoyment in helping others as an individual factor, top management support as an organizational factor, and ICT use as a technology factor significantly influence knowledge – sharing processes. The results also suggest that employee willingness to donate and collect knowledge enable the firm to improve innovation capability. No influence of the individual factor knowledge self-efficacy on the employee knowledge sharing behavior was found within this research. Research limitations/implications Subjectivity of respondents, Likert scale – perception, future research can include higher number of population and examine how personal traits (such as age, level of education, and working experience) and organizational characteristics (such as firm size) may moderate the relationships between knowledge enablers and processes. Practical implications From a practical perspective, the relationships among knowledge sharing enablers, processes, and firm innovation capability may provide a guide regarding how firms can promote knowledge sharing cultures to sustain their innovation performance. Originality/value This study identifies several factors essential to successful knowledge sharing, and discusses implications of these factors for developing organizational strategies that encourage and foster knowledge sharing.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T11:16:13Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-04-2016-0077
       
  • Who becomes a public sector employee?
    • Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 4, July 2017.
      Purpose This paper examines the extent to which individual characteristics are related to the decision to become a public sector employee using twin study data matched with register-based, individual-level panel data for the 1991-2009 period. Design/methodology/approach The probability of public sector entry is examined using fixed effects logit regression to control for shared environmental and genetic factors. Findings The results show that unobserved factors partially explain the well-documented relationships between many individual characteristics and public sector employment choice. However, the results also show that highly educated and more extraverted individuals are more likely to enter public sector employment, even when both shared environmental and genetic factors are controlled for. Workers also tend to exit the private sector to enter the public sector at lower wage levels. Originality/value The twin design used in this paper represents a contribution to the existing literature. This paper is also the first to examine the probability of entry into the public sector instead of comparing public sector workers with private sector workers.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T11:16:12Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-10-2015-0168
       
  • A survey of absenteeism on construction sites
    • Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 4, July 2017.
      Purpose The construction industry is dynamic and often unregulated due to its complex, project based nature. This makes the task of implementing human resource management (HRM) functions more difficult than in other economic sectors. This is particularly the case for developing countries which rely on a migrant, casual, and transient workforce. Despite offering flexibility, a transient workforce can lead to unpredictable rates of absenteeism and unsatisfactory productivity. This paper links HRM practices in the construction industry of the developing world to rates of absenteeism across three segments of the construction workforce – foremen, skilled workers, and unskilled workers. Design/methodology/approach A survey targeting 60 construction sites in Beirut, Lebanon form the basis of the analysis. Within each site, measures of absenteeism for foremen, skilled, and unskilled workers were solicited along with other data on human resource management on site. Findings The results suggest a regression model for worker absenteeism based on tenure of work as well as the absenteeism of workers at the next hierarchical level on-site. Originality/value This study is among the first to show a link between the mechanism by which construction workers are employed (contract based foremen versus daily/weekly labourers – both skilled and unskilled) and the rate of absenteeism seen on site. Given the role of absenteeism in construction productivity, having a good understanding of the underlying causes of absenteeism is critical to the design of mitigating policies.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T11:16:11Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-08-2015-0135
       
  • Flexible pay systems and labour productivity: evidence from manufacturing
           firms in Emilia-Romagna
    • Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 4, July 2017.
      Purpose The aim of this paper is to analyze the link between flexible pay systems (FPS) and labor productivity, also looking at which factors drive firms to adopt such wage schemes. Design/methodology/approach The analysis is conducted on an original sample extracted from a firm-level survey on manufacturing firms with at least 20 employees in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. A two-stage model is adopted to mitigate potential self-selection into FPS adoption. Findings Our results show that the adoption of a FPS is linked to the unions’ involvement and organizational changes within firms, supporting the idea that a FPS is not simply a risk-sharing mechanism, but part of a more complex strategy to increase workers’ flexibility and autonomy. The relationship between FPS and labor productivity concerns a traditional form of premiums intended for individual employees and linked simply to “effort improvement and control” motives and to the firm’s “ability to pay”. Productivity also increases after adopting ex-ante payment systems that focus on developing employees’ participation and competences. Research limitations/implications Our main findings have two important implications. In the personnel economics literature, we stress the complementarity among different organizational practices and their role in making firms more competitive. We also attribute an additional role to flexible payment systems, which can be seen not just as a way to make employees work harder, but also as the means by which the effect of organizational changes on labor productivity materializes. Originality/value The analysis has two elements of novelty: (i) the distinction between a broad array of HRM practices in both production and labor management; and (ii) the analysis of different types of flexible payment systems: ex-post, ex-ante, individual, team-based and mixed.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T11:16:10Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-09-2015-0152
       
  • The effects of (different types of) immigrants on labor market outcomes of
           (different groups of) natives
    • First page: 338
      Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 3, June 2017.
      Purpose This paper studies the effects of different types of immigrants on the labor market outcomes of different native groups. Design/methodology/approach The study uses a quasi-experimental approach, utilizing the border closures policy as well as political instability and economic conditions in the major countries of origin as exogenous sources of variation in the number of immigrants, to measure the effect of an immigrant-induced labor supply shock of each immigrant type (Palestinians and foreign guest workers) on the wage and employment of native workers (Israeli Arabs and Israeli Jews). Findings The effects of immigrants on local labor market outcomes vary with their origin. The different native groups, moreover, are affected differently by each type of immigrants. Specifically, a foreign-worker-induced increase in the labor supply negatively affects only the least skilled Jewish workers. In contrast, a 10% Palestinian-induced increase in the labor supply increases the wage of Israeli-Arabs by 3.4%, suggesting a net complementarity effect. Short-term slight employment adjustments occur at the intensive rather than the extensive margin. Originality/value The paper studies heterogeneous effects of immigrants by their type; also it studies heterogeneous effects experienced by different native groups. This paper informs the policy discussion about immigration and its effects on native workers.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T12:59:51Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-11-2014-0229
       
  • HRM practices and innovation performance: a panel-data approach
    • First page: 354
      Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 3, June 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between Human Resource Management (HRM) practices and innovation performance in Spanish manufacturing firms. We focus on the number of existing patents, analyzing the extent to which this variable is favored by HRM practices. It will also assess the extent to which patents explain firm performance and mediate in the relationship between the latter and HRM practices. Design/methodology/approach The objective is to assess these relationships using the Spanish Survey of Industrial Strategic Behavior. The longitudinal analysis focuses on the years between 2001 and 2008, a period of great economic growth in Spain. Findings Findings show that the most innovative firms were also the most competitive ones. Furthermore, employment security positively affects innovations over time and training on new technologies is associated with the number of patents, when overall compensation practices are high. Practical implications This study demonstrated the existence of two objectives that HR managers should be aiming at. On the one hand, the development of patents should be a priority for obtaining better results over time. On the other hand, management should invest in HRM practices because they favor innovation and are neither a waste of time nor resources Originality/value This study contributes to the literature, surpassing the limitations of previous research, by assessing the role of HRM practices in innovation and company outcomes and by using a longitudinal study design.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T12:59:50Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-02-2015-0028
       
  • A neglected input to production: the role of ICT-schooled employees in
           firm performance
    • First page: 373
      Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 3, June 2017.
      Purpose This study is a first attempt to broaden the perspective on how information and communication technology (ICT) relates to productivity by introducing a novel ICT variable: the share of ICT-schooled employees in firms, an intangible input often neglected or difficult to measure. Design/methodology/approach Based on a Cobb-Douglas production function specification the association between the share of ICT-schooled employees and firm productivity is estimated by the use of unique comparable multi-linked firm-level datasets from statistical offices in six European countries for the period 2001-2009. Findings There are indications that the share of ICT-schooled employees significantly and positively relates to productivity, and that this relationship is generally more persistent than that of ICT intensity of firms, measured as the proportion of broadband internet-enabled employees. However, the strength of the association varies across countries and demonstrates that underlying factors, such as industry structure and institutional settings might be of importance too. Research limitations/implications Data features and the way to access harmonised firm-level data across countries affect the choice of econometric approach and output variable. Practical implications The results emphasise the importance of specific ICT skills in firms independently of where in the organisation the employee works. Originality/value Studies on associations between employees with specific (higher) education based on formal credentials and productivity are rare. Even more uncommon is the cross-country setting with harmonised data including general ICT intensity of firms.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T12:59:50Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-05-2015-0073
       
  • To claim or to retire: the social security claiming decision of employed
           and unemployed workers
    • First page: 392
      Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 3, June 2017.
      Purpose This paper uses the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to examine the Social Security claiming decision of older Americans, with a focus on the behavior of the unemployed. Design/methodology/approach Using a duration model first, and a bivariate probit framework then, I investigate whether older unemployed individuals lacking liquidity use Social Security benefits as a safety net in order to finance consumption during an unemployment episode, even if they do not retire at the same time. In this way, Social Security might be thought as a form of unemployment insurance which would allow them to maintain their standard of living during their job search. Findings I find evidence of a claiming pattern specific to the unemployed: they claim sooner than full-time workers, even when they do not retire at the same time. They also seem to discontinue this behavior when their access to unemployment insurance is extended, which gives support to my hypothesis that the unemployed workers who lack liquidity claim their SS benefits even if they do not wish to retire, as a source of alternative unemployment benefits. Originality/value By focusing of the Social Security claiming behavior of the unemployed rather than on their retirement patterns, this paper sheds light on the social insurance role of SS retirement benefits for unemployed workers who are not willing to retire, but need a new source of income while they continue looking for a job.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T12:59:51Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-08-2015-0127
       
  • Team-member exchange, voice behavior, and creative work involvement
    • First page: 417
      Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 3, June 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this study is to conceptualize the links among team-member exchange (TMX), voice behavior, and creative work involvement. Design/methodology/approach A total of 260 employees were participants in this study. All were alumni of a Business School in Indonesia. Data were gathered at two time points four months apart. Hierarchical regression and bootstrapping analyses were conducted to find the effects of TMX on voice behavior and creative work involvement. Findings Results from the analyses showed positive effects of TMX on both voice behavior and creative work involvement. A positive effect of voice behavior on creative work involvement was found. The results also exhibited a partial mediating effect of voice behavior on the relationship between TMX and creative work involvement. Practical implications Our findings point to the importance of maintaining TMX quality in work teams for enhancing employee voice and creativity. Organizations may need to develop members’ reciprocal relationship skill in teams and maintain the roles of team leaders to develop the quality of TMX. It is also suggested that the practice of self-management teams may enhance the quality of TMX and voice behavior of employees. Originality/value This paper offers new insight on how levels of TMX may impact on members’ voice behavior and creative work involvement. Longitudinal data may provide a more accurate prediction of the links among TMX, voice behavior, and creative work involvement.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T12:56:47Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-09-2015-0139
       
  • Commitment-based HR systems and organizational outcomes in services
    • First page: 432
      Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 3, June 2017.
      Purpose This research paper examines the implementation of a set of commitment-based HR practices and explores their impact on three categories of organizational outcomes. Design/methodology/approach Cross-sectional study based on a survey. Multiple regression analysis was applied to test the hypotheses proposed. Findings The results show that commitment-based HR practices make up a system that presents internal consistency and favours HR performance and operational outcomes, as well as contributing to financial outcomes through the mediator role of innovation. Research limitations/implications The HR practices were measured based on the perception of only one informant per company, normally the manager. Practical implications This study makes it possible to draw relevant conclusions in a sector (hotel industry) that lacks references about the role of a system of commitment-based HR practices in achieving organizational outcomes. The use of a sample of homogeneous firms provides managers with valuable and specific information about the sector that can foster the adoption of commitment-based HR practices by hotel firms. Originality/value This papers contributes to better know how HR practices based on commitment foster employees’ willingness to engage in the strategic objectives established by the organization from the systems perspective. Furthermore the research contributes to the understanding of these practices in an important economic industry, such as it is the hospitality sector, in which research had traditionally placed little emphasis on this kind of analysis.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T11:16:57Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-09-2015-0144
       
  • Full- and part-time wage differences in Spain: an analysis along the wage
           distribution
    • First page: 449
      Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 3, June 2017.
      Purpose This article examines wage differences between part- and full-time workers distinguishing by gender by using a large Spanish matched employer-employee dataset and an econometric decomposition that permits to decompose wage differences by quantiles of the wage distribution. Design/methodology/approach The research is based on cross-section matched employer-employee microdata from a large representative survey (the Encuesta de Estructura Salarial) which is carried out with a harmonised methodology common to all European Union member countries and that has been designed specifically to provide reliable evidence about characteristics of the wage distribution such us wage differentials associated with the type of working time. From a methodological point of view, the econometric decomposition technique proposed recently by Fortin, Lemieux, and Firpo (2011) to decompose wage differences between part-time and full-time workers by quantiles of the wage distribution is applied. This methodology has the advantage over similar techniques that provides a detailed decomposition of wage differentials and has not been used before to examine the wage impact of part-time jobs. Findings Our results show that the significant raw wage gap that part-time workers experience in Spain differs substantially along the wage distribution. In the case of part-time females, the wage disadvantage is mostly explained by their relative endowments of characteristics (and particularly by their lower endowments of human capital and their segregation into low-wage sectors) but a significant wage penalty still persists, increasing along the wage distribution. In the case of males the wage disadvantage is only found in the lower part of the distribution and it is due both to their worst endowments of characteristics and a significant wage penalty. Research limitations/implications Our evidence for Spain shows that part-time work tends to affect differently to the wages of males and females, with a higher part-time penalty for males, as predicted by the ‘flexibility stigma’ hypothesis, and penalising low-qualified men in the lower part of the wage distribution and high-qualified women in the upper part of the distribution the most. Originality/value Our analysis contributes to the literature by examining wage differences along the wage distribution for both genders using econometric decomposition methods, an aspect that to our knowledge has been examined only scarcely in the international literature with non-conclusive evidence and has not been examined in previous studies for the Spanish case. In this vein, Spain is a particularly interesting analysis case from an international perspective of the wage consequences of part-time jobs, given that in contrast with most other advanced countries a majority of part-time employment in this country is involuntary and this phenomenon is especially affecting disadvantaged groups.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T11:16:54Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-09-2015-0151
       
  • Happiness at Work and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Is
           Organizational Learning a Missing Link?
    • First page: 470
      Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 3, June 2017.
      Purpose The aim of this research is to examine the relationship between happiness at work, organizational learning capability and organizational citizenship behavior Design/methodology/approach Through structural equation models, a sample of 167 allergists of public health services was analyzed. Findings Results suggest that the relationship between happiness at work and organizational citizenship behavior, is fully mediated by organizational learning capability. Hence, organizational learning capability has a critical role to describe how happiness at work improves organizational citizenship behavior. Basically, happiness at work promotes motivation for learning, and a better quality of the interactions between employees, that results in pro-social behaviors Research limitations/implications The sample is focused in a knowledge-intensive context. Future research might consider other service sectors, such as private business sector. In addition it would be interesting to examine a longitudinal perspective of the model. Practical implications Our results confirm the direct and positive effect of happiness at work on organizational citizenship behavior. Nevertheless, showing positive attitudes as happiness at work does not assure to achieve perceived service quality. It is needed to take into account certain conditions that promote learning. Originality/value Current attitudinal theories do not contemplate environments that promote learning to explain pro-social attitudes. Our research offers a theoretical model and provides evidence that the attitudes-behaviors relationship needs to be explained bearing in mind organizational learning capability.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T11:16:56Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-10-2015-0163
       
  • Evaluating the relationship between social exclusion and participation in
           the informal sector in the European Union
    • First page: 489
      Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 3, June 2017.
      Purpose This paper evaluates who engages in informal work. The intention in doing so is to analyse whether important causal factors of social exclusion such as age, education, gender and employment status, influence participation in informal work in the European Union. Design/methodology/approach To do this, a 2013 Eurobarometer survey of who participates in undeclared work in 28 European member states is reported. Findings Using multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analysis, the finding is that although some marginalised groups (the unemployed, those having difficulties paying their household bills, the working class and younger age groups) are significantly more likely to participate in the informal sector, others are not (those with less formal education and living in rural areas) and yet others (women and people in deprived European regions) are significantly less likely to participate. Research limitations/implications The outcome is a call for a nuanced and variegated understanding of the relationship between participation in the informal sector and social exclusion. Practical implications These results display the specific populations that need targeting when seeking to tackle informal work, revealing for example that the current the allocation of European funds for tackling informal work in poorer EU regions is mistaken, but that the targeting of the unemployed is not and current policy initiatives such as smoothing the transition from unemployment to self-employment worthwhile. Originality/value This is the first extensive evaluation of the relationship between participation in the informal sector and social exclusion at the level of the European Union
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T11:17:04Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-10-2015-0179
       
  • Gender wage gap and education: a stochastic frontier approach
    • First page: 504
      Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 3, June 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this article is to get deeper insight into the measurement of gender wage gap. A proper method to identify which part of gender wage differences are due to discrimination against women is provided, and the relationship between wage differences and education is studied. Design/methodology/approach The stochastic frontier approach is employed to measure wage discrimination against women using Spanish data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU‐SILC). Said technique allows us to split the gender wage gap of workers displaying the same characteristics into two components: The first measures inefficiency in the job search process caused by imperfect information or gender differences concerning preferences regarding working conditions, whilst the second takes account of discrimination. Findings A significant level of discrimination is found in the Spanish labor market in all educational levels, but this problem is quantitatively more important when low educated workers are studied, and gender discrimination is lower for highly educated women. Originality/value In this paper, workers’ potential wage is estimated, and gender discrimination is measured by the gender potential wage gap, since it is not depending on other wage determinants such as diverse preferences, unmeasured working abilities or imperfect information.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T11:17:06Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-11-2015-0186
       
 
 
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