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Journal Cover International Journal of Manpower
  [SJR: 0.354]   [H-I: 37]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0143-7720
   Published by Emerald Homepage  [335 journals]
  • Adjustments in EU labor markets and the Euro area during the Great
           Recession: a foreword
    • Pages: 910 - 912
      Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 7, Page 910-912, October 2017.

      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T08:54:35Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-08-2017-0188
  • Labour market fluctuations in GIPS – shocks vs adjustments
    • Pages: 913 - 939
      Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 7, Page 913-939, October 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify factors behind cyclical fluctuations and differences in adjustments to shocks in Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain (GIPS) and a reference country – Germany. The authors try to answer the question whether the GIPS countries could have fared differently in the Great Recession if they reacted to shocks affecting them like a resilient German economy would have. Design/methodology/approach The authors use a DSGE model of real open economy with search and matching on the labour market and endogenous job destruction, estimated separately for each country. The authors calculate impulse response functions, historical decompositions and perform counterfactual simulations of the response of the German model to the sequence of shocks identified for each of GIPS. Findings The authors find that all GIPS countries were more vulnerable to productivity and foreign demand shocks than Germany. They would have experienced lower macroeconomic volatility if they reacted to their shocks like Germany. Employment (unemployment) rates in GIPS would have been less volatile and higher (lower) during the Great Recession, especially in Spain and Greece. Real wage volatility would have been higher, especially in Spain and Portugal. Originality/value The trade-off between unemployment and wage adjustments vis-à-vis Germany was the largest in Spain, which also would have experienced lower variability of job separations and hirings. The evolution of the labour market in Greece and Portugal was driven rather by its higher responsiveness to GDP fluctuations than in Germany, whereas Italy emerges as the least responsive labour market within GIPS.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T08:54:39Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-04-2017-0080
  • Some surprising facts about working time accounts and the business cycle
           in Germany
    • Pages: 940 - 953
      Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 7, Page 940-953, October 2017.
      Purpose Working time accounts (WTAs) allow firms to smooth hours worked over time. The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether this increase in flexibility has also affected how firms adjust employment in Germany over the business cycle. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses rich microeconomic panel data and fixed effects estimations to compare the employment adjustment of firms with and without WTAs. Findings The authors show that firms with WTAs show a similar separation and hiring behavior in response to revenue changes as firms without WTAs. One possible explanation is that firms without WTAs used short-time work (STW) to adjust hours worked instead. However, the authors find that firms with WTAs use STW more than firms without WTAs. Originality/value These findings call into question the popular hypothesis that WTAs were the key driver of the unusually small increase in German unemployment in the Great Recession.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T08:54:28Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-05-2017-0100
  • European labor market integration: what the experts think
    • Pages: 954 - 974
      Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 7, Page 954-974, October 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the current state of the single European labor market (SELM), its related risks and opportunities, and identify useful measures for reaching the goal of increased European labor mobility. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted an online survey among European labor market experts (IZA research and policy fellows) on the current state of the SELM, its determinants, and the role of the Great Recession. The authors evaluate the data using descriptive and regression-based methods. Findings The experts agree on the SELM’s importance, especially for larger economic welfare, but are not convinced that it has been achieved. To enhance labor mobility across Europe, the respondents identify key factors such as recognizing professional qualifications more efficiently, harmonizing social security systems, and knowing several languages. Moreover, at least 50 percent of the respondents consider positive attitudes – by policy makers and citizens alike – toward free mobility to be important to enhance labor mobility. Originality/value The IZA Expert Opinion Survey presents a unique opportunity to learn how numerous experts think about the important issue of European labor market integration and moreover constitutes a valuable extension to public opinion surveys on related topics. This survey’s findings provide a sophisticated basis for a discussion about policy options regarding the SELM.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T08:54:32Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-05-2017-0101
  • New job matches and their stability before and during the crisis
    • Pages: 975 - 995
      Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 7, Page 975-995, October 2017.
      Purpose Using administrative data from the Spanish Social Security Administration, the purpose of this paper is to analyse the nature and stability of job matches starting during the economic boom in 2005 and during the recession in 2009. Design/methodology/approach The authors compare the individual, job, and firm characteristics in the two samples and estimate a competing risk model distinguishing job-to-job, job-to-unemployment, and other transitions. Findings The authors find that job-to-job transitions are pro-cyclical, while unemployment transitions are counter-cyclical. Individuals most affected by the economic crisis tend to be young males, living in regions with high unemployment rates, with low qualifications and working in manual occupations (particularly construction), and (especially Spanish speaking) immigrants. Originality/value The positive relation between job stability and firm size is stronger during the recession than during the boom.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T08:54:30Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-05-2017-0104
  • How immigrants helped EU labor markets to adjust during the Great
    • Pages: 996 - 1015
      Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 7, Page 996-1015, October 2017.
      Purpose The economic literature starting with Borjas (2001) suggests that immigrants are more flexible than natives in responding to changing sectoral, occupational and spatial shortages in the labor market. The purpose of this paper is to study the relative responsiveness to labor shortages by immigrants from various origins, skills and tenure in the country vis-à-vis the natives, and how it varied over the business cycle during the Great Recession. Design/methodology/approach Using data primarily from the EU Labor Force Survey and the EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions, the authors calculate a wage-based measure of labor shortages in the first stage while in the second stage the authors use them in a first-differences fixed-effects model as a regressor to explain changes in immigrants’ distribution across sectors, occupations and countries vis-à-vis the natives. Findings The authors show that immigrants have responded to changing labor shortages across EU member states, occupations and sectors at least as much and in many cases more flexibly than natives. This effect is especially significant for low-skilled immigrants from the new member states or with the medium number of years since migration, as well as with high-skilled immigrants with relatively few (one to five) or many (11+) years since migration. The relative responsiveness of some immigrant groups declined during the crisis years (those from Europe outside the EU or with 11 or more years since migration), whereas other groups of immigrants became particularly fluid during the Great Recession, such as those from new member states. Research limitations/implications The results suggest that immigrants may play an important role in labor adjustment during times of asymmetric economic shocks, and support the case for well-designed immigration policy and free movement of workers within the EU. Some limitations include alternative interpretations of the wage premium as our measure of shortage, as well as possible endogeneity of this measure in the model. Originality/value The results provide new insights into the functioning of the European Single Market and the roles various immigrant groups play for its stabilization through labor adjustment during the times of uneven economic development across sectors, occupations and countries.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T08:54:37Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-08-2017-0205
  • Great Recession impact on European labor markets integration: cluster
    • Pages: 1016 - 1035
      Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 7, Page 1016-1035, October 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of the Great Recession (2008-2014) on the labor market profiles and integration process in the European Union (EU26) and in the 12 historical Eurozone countries. Design/methodology/approach This study assesses the impact of the crisis, and applies multivariate statistical methods containing a principal component analysis and an agglomerative hierarchical clustering. Two non-overlapping sub-periods are established: a pre-crisis (1999-2007) period and a crisis (2008-2014) period, and eight European indicators are considered. Findings The results are threefold. First, they bring strong evidence of a significant impact of the crisis on the process of integration. Second, they interestingly reveal more heterogeneity in the aftermath of the crisis across the EU countries, while more homogeneity across the Eurozone countries. Third, this apparent homogenization is accompanied by a polarization process into two main groups of countries including Spain, Portugal, Finland and the Netherlands in one group while the rest of the Eurozone in the other. Originality/value This study is unique as it does not only present a snapshot of the challenges posed by the Great Recession to the European Union and Eurozone labor market profiles, but it also assesses its impact on their integration process. In addition, using the, suitable yet ignored, multivariate statistical methods on the latest data to study such an impact is another contribution of this paper.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T08:54:26Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-03-2016-0059
  • Job separation rates of immigrants and natives in the UK during the Great
    • Pages: 1036 - 1054
      Abstract: International Journal of Manpower, Volume 38, Issue 7, Page 1036-1054, October 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the probability of job separations of immigrants and natives in the UK before and during the economic crisis of 2008. Design/methodology/approach A mixed proportional hazard duration model with a semi-parametric piecewise constant baseline hazard is used on a data sample of inflows into employment. Findings It is found that the crisis increased the probability of exits to unemployment for all groups, while immigrants from the new countries of the European Union seemed to have the lowest hazard towards unemployment even after controlling for their demographic and labour market characteristics. More specifically, even when we account for the fact that they tend to cluster in jobs that are most vulnerable to the business cycle, they are still less likely to exit dependent employment than natives. However, this migrant group is adversely affected by the crisis the most. Research limitations/implications Possible implications of out-migration of the lower performers are discussed. Originality/value This paper makes use of the panel element of the UK Quarterly Labour Force Survey, and uses duration analysis on the individual level to assess the labour market outcomes of natives and immigrants in the UK.
      Citation: International Journal of Manpower
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T08:54:34Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJM-08-2017-0187
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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