Journal Cover
Eastern Economic Journal
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.291
Number of Followers: 5  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0094-5056 - ISSN (Online) 1939-4632
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2573 journals]
  • Skyscrapers and the Happiness of Cities
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper explores the drivers of high-rise and skyscraper construction and their impact on average happiness levels across 186 US metropolitan areas. Utilizing ordinary least squares and three-stage least squares, we find strong support that high-rise and skyscraper completion counts are a response to city economic fundamentals, but mixed results for their impact on happiness. On average, high-rises have a small negative effect, while skyscrapers exhibit a positive relationship. Further regressions suggest that skyscrapers improve sense of community and perceived health but that high-rises do not seem to positively affect any happiness subcategories. Tests on the effect of these buildings on general, mental, and physical health provide evidence of no harmful effects. The results suggest that the skyscraper benefits outweigh the possible negative externalities.
      PubDate: 2019-11-25
  • Do Vouchers Protect Low-Income Households from Rising Rents'
    • Abstract: Abstract Using restricted administrative data on the voucher program, we examine the experience of voucher holders in metropolitan areas with rising rents. While some of our models suggest that rising rents in metropolitan areas are associated with a slight increase in rent-to-income ratios among voucher holders, poor renters in general see significantly larger increases in rent-to-income ratios. We see little evidence that rising rents push voucher holders to worse neighborhoods, with voucher holders in central cities ending up in lower poverty neighborhoods as rents rise. It appears that vouchers may help low-income households remain in neighborhoods as they gentrify.
      PubDate: 2019-11-22
  • Explaining New Firm Survival: Is the Firm, Owner, or Agglomeration at
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper empirically estimates the effect of several sources of agglomeration on new firm survival while controlling for firm, entrepreneur, and regional variables using a discrete-time hazard model. We utilize the longitudinal Kauffman Firm Survey of almost 5000 US startups from 2004 to 2011. Unlike previous studies, we find that the overall hazard of entrepreneurs shutting down their new firms is not significantly affected by regional agglomeration factors, but instead firm and entrepreneur variables. However, we find suggestive evidence that location does matter for particular groups of entrepreneurs such as high-tech startups and those firms not based out of their homes.
      PubDate: 2019-11-21
  • Chinese Hukou Policy and Rural-to-Urban Migrants’ Health: Evidence
           from Matching Methods
    • Abstract: Abstract Internal migration and the provision of social benefits in China are restricted by the institutional policy, commonly called hukou. Hukou status is mainly determined by place of origin. It creates a two-tier system that exacerbates inequality across Chinese households—rural versus urban hukou. We apply coarsened exact matching methods and propensity score models to estimate the impact of obtaining an urban hukou on rural-to-urban migrants’ health outcomes. Our results indicate that migrants with urban hukou maintain lower levels of blood pressure and are less likely to develop hypertension or nutritional conditions compared to rural hukou migrants. We do not find significant results on self-rated health. Our findings show that, in the short-medium term, there are differences in health that are prevalent for migrants with different hukous.
      PubDate: 2019-11-20
  • Shadow Economies Around the World: Evidence from Metropolitan Areas
    • Abstract: Abstract In this paper, I use a calibrated two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model to construct annual estimates of shadow economy size (as a percentage of GDP) for 57 metropolitan areas from 31 countries throughout the world from 2001 to 2016. In addition to fully describing and characterizing the constructed dataset, I also provide some stylized facts regarding the trends of these estimates and some of their correlates. I also use the model to evaluate the effects of two policy tools: Changing the tax burden and tax enforcement.
      PubDate: 2019-11-18
  • Introduction to the Symposium on Urban Economics
    • PubDate: 2019-11-12
  • Comparing the Ethnicity Proxy and Residual Method: Applications to the
           State-level DREAM Acts and DACA
    • Abstract: Abstract Previous studies often use Hispanic non-citizens as a proxy to identify undocumented immigrants in survey data. This paper compares the ethnicity proxy with the residual method in identifying undocumented immigrants regarding two aspects: how closely they match official statistics and how they differ when evaluating the effects of the state-level DREAM Acts and DACA on college enrollment and labor market outcomes. This study finds that the residual method outperforms the Hispanic non-citizen proxy in matching the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services statistics of undocumented immigrants for a majority of variables. Consistent with the previous literature, results from both methods find that the state-level DREAM Acts increase college enrollment, while DACA decreases college enrollment and increases the probability of working. The residual method produces policy effect estimates in the same direction as does the Hispanic non-citizen proxy approach, but larger in magnitude for DACA.
      PubDate: 2019-10-31
  • Estimating the Determinants of Remittances Originating from US Households
           Using CPS Data
    • Abstract: Abstract The USA is the largest source country of worldwide remittances. This paper is the first to use Current Population Survey data to estimate the determinants of remittances originating from the USA for a diverse set of approximately 3800 households with at least one foreign-born worker. We employ a gravity model examining the role of various push, pull, and distance factors. Most notably, higher household earnings push monetary transfers abroad: We estimate an average earnings elasticity in the range of 0.20–0.30. Remittances are more responsive to earnings in households with more adult women relative to men.
      PubDate: 2019-10-27
  • When Social Norms Influence the Employment of Women: The Case of Japan
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper provides a simple model of social norms and performs cohort analyses to test its theoretical predictions with Heckman’s sample selection model using the 1993–2014 Japanese Panel Survey of Consumers data. Our results suggest that obedience to the society’s code of behavior is fairly prevalent among Japanese women, but the degree of adherence varies by birth cohort and also is influenced by educational quality and standards. Estimates further show an inverse relationship between adherence to social norms and labor force participation among Japanese women, and the effect of obedience to social norms on wages varies by birth cohort.
      PubDate: 2019-10-23
  • Immigrant and Minority Homeownership Experience: Evidence from the 2009
           American Housing Survey
    • Abstract: Abstract Using the 2009 American Housing Survey data and hazard model of homeownership and exit from homeownership, this paper finds that immigrants were worse off during the housing boom of 2000 compared to natives, both in terms of lower first homeownership and higher exit from homeownership. However, naturalized immigrants fared better than the non-naturalized immigrants. Among minorities, blacks had the lowest gain in their first homeownership during the boom and the highest loss from homeownership during the bust and the hazard of exit from homeownership was significantly higher compared to whites if the mortgage was obtained during 2001–2003. Hispanics, on the other hand, did not experience significant increase in homeownership nor did they face a higher exit from homeownership during the recent bust compared to whites. However, Hispanic immigrants were worse off in the recent housing market than Hispanic natives.
      PubDate: 2019-10-22
  • Pathways Between Minimum Wages and Health: The Roles of Health Insurance,
           Health Care Access and Health Care Utilization
    • Abstract: Abstract This study contributes to recent work on the relationship between minimum wages and health by examining potential underlying mechanisms. Specifically, the roles of health insurance, health care access and utilization are explored. By analyzing Current Population Survey data for the years 1989–2009 and by estimating DD models, I find that higher minimum wages increase health insurance coverage, in particular individually purchased insurance, among low-educated individuals. By estimating data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for the same period, I furthermore provide evidence for improvements in health care access/affordability and increased health care utilization following minimum wage increases.
      PubDate: 2019-10-11
  • Exploring the Social-Architecture Model
    • Abstract: Abstract Microfoundations proposed for macroeconomics often include strong counterfactual assumptions about the knowledge and foresight of agents and about the pervasiveness of equilibrium exchange. This paper explores and improves the social-architecture model, an agent-based macromodel that discards such assumptions. In this monetary exchange economy, individuals transact at disequilibrium prices in shopping-based goods markets and search-based labor markets. GDP and unemployment distributions are emergent outcomes of the individual-level interactions. These distributions expose some problems in the original model. Modest model amendments largely address these problems. Some apparently central ingredients of the model prove to have little influence on the simulation results.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Marriage and Citizenship Among U.S. Immigrants: Who Marries Whom and Who
           Becomes a Citizen'
    • Abstract: Abstract The existing assimilation literature shows that having a U.S.-born spouse, relative to a foreign-born spouse, is associated with a higher probability of becoming a U.S. citizen (naturalization). However, the foreign-born spouses are a heterogeneous group. I disaggregate them by identifying their citizenship status in the U.S. and document that it plays a larger role than simply their place of birth. The relative hazard of naturalization among immigrants with a citizen spouse, U.S.-born or foreign-born, is more than double the hazard of immigrants married to a noncitizen spouse. In fact, the largest increase in the naturalization hazard among immigrants in the U.S. is associated with foreign-born citizen spouses.
      PubDate: 2019-09-16
  • Second-Generation Immigrants’ Entry into Higher Education: Students’
           Enrollment Choices at Different Types of Universities
    • Abstract: Abstract We examine the relationship between immigrant status and institutional choice in the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). The EHEA addresses employability of graduates as a key area for action. In practice, universities vary in the degree to which they embed employability into their curricula. Using these differences as a basis for university-type classification, we examine whether institutional choices differ between native and second-generation immigrant students. The results of a survey of first-semester students reveal that more than half of the institutions with a strong professional profile are challenged by heterogeneous entry cohorts. One quarter of students enroll at these universities.
      PubDate: 2019-09-13
  • Variations in Naturalization Premiums by Country of Origin
    • Abstract: Abstract This study uses the 2013–2017 American Community Survey to explore differences in the returns to obtaining US citizenship for immigrants from the four largest source countries relative to all other immigrants. We find that Chinese, Mexican, and Filipino immigrants face a wage penalty prior to naturalization, while Indian immigrants experience higher wages than other immigrants. Naturalization more than offsets the wage penalty for Chinese and Filipino immigrants and partially offsets the wage penalty for Mexican immigrants. However, naturalized Indian immigrants earn less than non-naturalized Indian immigrants. We find only limited evidence of a naturalization premium for immigrants from other countries.
      PubDate: 2019-09-12
  • Technology Gap and International Knowledge Transfer: New Evidence from the
           Operations of Multinational Corporations
    • Abstract: Abstract Multinational corporations have long been recognized as both major creators of technology and as conduits of technology transfer. Technology transfer can happen directly, when the affiliate licenses the technology from the parent, or indirectly, when the affiliate imports intermediate goods with embodied technology. This paper estimates the effect of the affiliates’ productivity relative to the frontier—the technology gap—on the choice of licensing the technology or importing it through intermediate goods. A novel measure of multinational technology transfer is employed using data on technology licensing payments versus imports from U.S. multinationals across many countries and industries. The main finding of this paper is that a large technology gap of an affiliate favors indirect knowledge transfer through imports. On average, a 10% increase in the technology gap decreases the share of licensing versus importing inputs embodying the technology by 1.5%. Considering that access to ideas and generation of new ones are crucial for long-run economic growth, and convergence of a country, this study highlights the policy implications for countries to raise their productivity levels.
      PubDate: 2019-08-20
  • The Macroeconomics of Pascal’s Wager
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper explores the determinants of religiosity in a growth model. Religion reduces the time available for labor and the perceived likelihood of hell. A genetic algorithm selects agents’ discount factors based on their parents’ wealth. A higher discount factor increases savings, encouraging wealth accumulation, but also increases the discounted disutility of eternal damnation, incentivizing religion. The model converges to intermediate levels of the discount factor and religion where wealth is maximized. The genetic process selects agents’ level of patience, and the impact on religion is a side effect. Religion thus exists in equilibrium, even if it reduces genetic fitness.
      PubDate: 2019-08-19
  • Destabilizing Balance Sheet Effects in the New Consensus Model
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper proposes a simple modification of an otherwise standard New Consensus open economy model. We include an endogenous risk premium to show that a Taylor Rule that satisfies the Taylor Principle may lead to instability if exchange rate depreciations worsen the balance sheet of firms, exerting a negative effect on output and employment. Thus, the adoption of Inflation Targeting and a flexible exchange rate regime introduces destabilizing forces in economies that are exposed to liability dollarization, and this helps to rationalize central bank interventions in the foreign exchange market to avoid large exchange rate fluctuations.
      PubDate: 2019-08-12
  • Long-Run Expectations, Learning and the US Housing Market
    • Abstract: Abstract In the US housing market, the price-to-rent ratio is volatile and autocorrelated. Returns on housing are positively autocorrelated. The price-to-rent ratio is negatively correlated with future returns and rent growth. Housing returns exhibit time-varying volatility. A benchmark asset pricing model is inconsistent with these facts. A model where prices adjust slowly to their fundamental value and where the agent does not know whether housing fundamentals are trend or difference stationary so has changing beliefs over time, increases the volatility of prices and the autocorrelation of returns. The price-to-rent ratio negatively forecasts returns and rent growth. This model generates time-varying volatility.
      PubDate: 2019-08-06
  • The Effect of Foreign Direct Investment on Economic Growth
    • Abstract: Abstract We develop a theoretical model that studies the effects of FDI on growth in the absence of channels through which the spillover effects of FDI operate. By isolating the effects of FDI, we examine how FDI affects growth through its primary function of capital accumulation. Untangling the growth effects of FDI operating through capital accumulation from the spillover effects of FDI can help explain the ambiguity in the empirical evidence on the subject. The transitional dynamics are characterized by the interdependence of the variables of the source and recipient countries. We study the dynamic system through the model calibration analysis.
      PubDate: 2019-05-14
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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