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Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.101
Number of Followers: 4  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0075-8744 - ISSN (Online) 1758-437X
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [396 journals]
  • Arnold Paucker 6 January 1921–13 October 2016
    • Authors: Pulzer P.
      Pages: 3 - 7
      Abstract: For the best part of half a century, Arnold Paucker represented the outward face of the London Leo Baeck Institute, both as its director and as editor of the Year Book. For much of this time he was also vice-president of the International Leo Baeck Institute. His path to these important and influential positions was, however, an implausible one.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
      DOI: 10.1093/leobaeck/ybx004
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
  • Speaking English with an Accent
    • Authors: Paucker A.
      Pages: 9 - 19
      Abstract: The essay which follows requires some introductory sentences in German.** In 1993 I was invited to give the opening speech at an international conference on exile in London, primarily dedicated to the many problems of integration which German-speaking emigrants encountered in Great Britain in the 1930s. In shared deliberations on shaping the programme of this conference, I noticed that the language problem had not received sufficient attention within the framework of exile studies to date. Therefore, I chose to examine this issue in my contribution. Refugees and emigrants arrive with their foreign pronunciation of English—the newcomer or the person who is new to a language is immediately confronted by the often uncomprehending natives, and if he even so much as begins to make Germanic guttural sounds, then the situation becomes yet more difficult. My topic certainly has a serious undertone, but it is simply inevitable that comedy prevails. Since I myself belonged to the group of which I speak here, my portrayal naturally also includes autobiographical elements. And finally, as my readers can see immediately, such a lecture must be reproduced the way it was originally held, even if its effect is somewhat weakened by the written form. It simply does not lend itself to transmission into German; in fact, it is not translatable.
      PubDate: 2017-08-31
      DOI: 10.1093/leobaeck/ybx005
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
  • Introduction
    • Authors: Spector S.
      Pages: 23 - 25
      Abstract: The origin of the two essays in this section was a workshop in Montreal in September 2014 on the topic ‘Jewish Conditions, Theories of Nationalism’. The event was organized by Till van Rahden and John A. Hall, and sponsored by McGill University and the Centre canadien d'études allemandes et européennes at the Université de Montréal. At the centre of the workshop was a provocative question regarding the conspicuous over-representation of thinkers of European Jewish origin in the contributions to classical nationalism theory (at one point there was even the preparation of a list—Ernest Gellner and Karl Deutsch, Hans Kohn and others, including the likes of Hannah Arendt, Otto Bauer, and Karl Polanyi). Even before we began, van Rahden and Hall put out a call for a ‘post-heroic’ approach, attending to the particular, local origins and characters of theories of nationalism that have then taken on lives of their own, and that require or deserve their own individual biographies. The two papers to make their way into this special section of the Year Book have likewise taken on trajectories of their own, albeit linked to their point of origin in that workshop. Chiefly, they do not concentrate directly on the production of nationalism theory as such, although some of the questions arising in that venue filter through in the essays published here.
      PubDate: 2017-08-16
      DOI: 10.1093/leobaeck/ybx016
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
  • Can Parallels Meet' Hannah Arendt and Isaiah Berlin on the Jewish
           Post-Emancipatory Quest for Political Freedom
    • Authors: Dubnov A.
      Pages: 27 - 51
      Abstract: ABSTRACTIs there a hidden dialogue that allows us to compare and connect Sir Isaiah Berlin’s liberal political philosophy and the civic-republican perspective developed by Hannah Arendt' These two anti-totalitarian cold war Jewish thinkers are conventionally read as representatives of mutually exclusive political philosophies. This paper argues that despite their personal animosity and their present-day iconic images, it would be wrong to see them as inhabiting two different intellectual universes. The political writings of both were informed by their interwar and wartime activities as Zionists and their ongoing obsession with dilemmas of excessive assimilation, which they both tended to interpret mainly as a question of the personal psychology of individual Jews in post-emancipatory Europe. The post-war political philosophies each developed would be better understood against the backdrop of their earlier political activities, not because they were constructed on similar grounds, but because both offered answers to similar dilemmas.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02
      DOI: 10.1093/leobaeck/ybx010
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
  • Nation and Empire in Modern Jewish European History
    • Authors: Hacohen M.
      Pages: 53 - 65
      Abstract: ABSTRACTIn the past two decades, U.S. historians of Western colonialism and of central Europe have underlined empire’s normativity and the nation state’s exceptionalism. The implications of the imperial turn for Jewish European history are this essay’s subject. It focuses on the Jewish political experience of nation and empire in central Europe and, specifically, on its divergence in fin-de-siècle Germany and Austria. Both were nationalizing empires, but the former, at once a continental and overseas empire, abided by the nation state’s logic, which drove towards a uniformly ethnicized political culture, whereas the latter, a continental empire, nationalized against its will and experimented with federalism to attenuate nationalism and accommodate ethnocultural pluralism. The essay highlights the unique political opportunities which late imperial Austria opened for the Jews but projects them against a darker two-millennia-long Jewish engagement with empire. The imperial longue durée accounts both for liberal Jews’ enchantment with the nation state, the maker of Jewish emancipation, and for traditional Jews’ continued loyalty to imperial ideals.
      PubDate: 2017-05-06
      DOI: 10.1093/leobaeck/ybx002
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
  • Germans or Jews' German-Speaking Jews in Post-War Europe: An
    • Authors: Čapková K; Rechter D.
      Pages: 69 - 74
      Abstract: Historians have devoted increasing attention in the past decade to the aftermath of the Shoah, focusing in particular on the Displaced Persons (DP) camps in the American, British, and French occupation zones of Germany and Austria.11 A number of important studies have brought the crucial topic of migration to the fore, examining the flight of Jewish DPs and their frustration at being denied entry to their chosen destinations—mostly to Palestine, but also to the United States and elsewhere. For the most part these studies deal with Yiddish-speaking eastern European (primarily Polish) Jews who saw no future in a Europe awash with antisemitism; the overwhelming majority dreamt of joining the ranks of the Jewish state-in-the-making in Palestine. In this reading the DP camps constitute an important part both of European and Israeli history, and slot comfortably into Zionist and cold war narratives on Europe—and especially on eastern Europe—that rejected any future for Jews in post-war Europe and instead valorized Palestine as the appropriate national project.
      PubDate: 2017-08-16
      DOI: 10.1093/leobaeck/ybx014
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
  • Without a Home: German Jews as Displaced Persons in Post-War Germany
    • Authors: Feinstein M.
      Pages: 75 - 93
      Abstract: ABSTRACTAfter the Second World War, some German €Jews renounced their German heritage and proclaimed themselves stateless displaced persons (DPs). Unlike other DPs, they shared a common culture, history, and language with the perpetrators of the Holocaust. The language they spoke identified them as Germans, providing them with both opportunities and difficulties as they navigated the complex post-war world. German-language skills allowed for easier border crossings, since Jews could pose as ethnic Germans or as German prisoners of war. For those not wanting to live in displaced persons camps, their language ability facilitated interactions with the German authorities responsible for the housing and ration cards issued to free-living DPs. It also allowed them to seek retribution through assisting in the apprehension and prosecution of war criminals. The disadvantages of being German speakers were most evident outside of Germany’s borders and within the confines of the DP camps. In these locations German was the language of the oppressor, and it was all too easy to confuse German Jews with German perpetrators and to treat them as enemy nationals. Intending to leave Germany, German-Jewish DPs occupied an uncomfortable space between their former fellow countrymen and the predominantly eastern European Jewish DPs.
      PubDate: 2017-08-10
      DOI: 10.1093/leobaeck/ybx012
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
  • Experiences of Stigmatization, Discrimination, and Exclusion:
           German-Jewish Survivors in Wrocław, 1945–1947
    • Authors: Friedla K.
      Pages: 95 - 113
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe history of Breslau/Wrocław mirrors all the catastrophes of the twentieth century: racially based nationalism, the mass murder of Jews, the nonsense of war, flight, expulsion, displacement, and other consequences of totalitarianism. After the Second World War, the Polish Jews who survived the Holocaust were resettled in the region of Lower Silesia and in Wrocław especially. What deserves particular attention is the return of a group of more than sixteen hundred German-Jewish survivors from Breslau to post-war Polish Wrocław. For the German-Jewish survivors from Breslau, who had survived the National Socialist regime in hiding places, concentration or forced labour camps, May 1945 brought their long-awaited liberation. But the fact is that for this group of survivors, the following months were full of new traumatic experiences. They were treated by both the Soviet military and the Polish administration in the same way as the German citizens of the Third Reich. Parallel to the ongoing resettlement of German inhabitants from Breslau/Wrocław in the years 1945 to1948, German Jews suffered persecution, expropriation, and expulsion for the second time. On the basis of numerous witness testimonies and archival documents, I wish not only to reconstruct those events in the first post-war years in Wrocław and Lower Silesia but also to answer questions pertaining to social framework, concepts of identity and strategies of self-assertion, and, finally, to the rift between western and eastern European Jewry.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08
      DOI: 10.1093/leobaeck/ybx009
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
  • Between Liberation and Emigration: Jews from Bukovina in Romania after the
           Second World War
    • Authors: Fisher G.
      Pages: 115 - 132
      Abstract: ABSTRACTIn the immediate aftermath of the Second World War, Jewish survivors from Bukovina faced huge challenges. These included statelessness, economic hardship, physical illness, and a crisis of belonging. Indeed, whether they had been repatriated from deportations to Transnistria or had survived the war in Cernăuţi, families had been decimated, pre-war social and economic networks had been dismantled, and social trust destroyed. To add to this, in 1944, the north of the region with the capital, German Czernowitz, Romanian Cernăuţi, Russian Chernovtsy and Ukrainian Chernivtsi became part of the Soviet Union. Many Bukovina Jews therefore crossed the border into Romania—the country of which they had been citizens before the war. This article explores the fate of these ‘survivor-refugees’ from Bukovina in post-war Romania—between liberation and emigration—from the perspective of individuals. For this, it draws on official sources and contemporary ego-documents (letters and diaries). It asks about the options and choices Jewish Bukovinians faced as the war came to an end, the meaning of ‘liberation’, and the means of coming to terms with suffering and persecution. It highlights the specificity of their situation compared with and in relation to Jews in Romania and elsewhere who had survived the war under different circumstances. It thereby traces the evolution of their situation against the backdrop of the Romanian political transition from fascism to communism.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02
      DOI: 10.1093/leobaeck/ybx011
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
  • Science and the Rabbis: Haskamot, Haskalah, and the Boundaries of Jewish
           Knowledge in Scientific Hebrew Literature and Textbooks *
    • Authors: Kogman T.
      Pages: 135 - 149
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe present article will examine the rabbinical haskamot (approbations) given to maskilic scientific literature published in central Europe from the last decades of the eighteenth century and throughout the nineteenth century. These haskamot include valuable evidence of disputes between maskilim and traditionalists, as well as of important areas of agreement between them. They also shed light on the essential change that took place in rabbis’ attitudes towards the sciences and science books. At the beginning of the relevant period, Hebrew science books were considered by rabbis to be potentially dangerous. Rabbis sought to minimize the Haskalah movement’s impact by blocking its library. To this end, one of the main tools available to them was the rabbinical institution of haskamah. But this state of affairs changed gradually during the nineteenth century. Haskamot and recommendations that encouraged the reading of Hebrew science books became more common, illustrating the rabbis’ awareness of the changing times, as well as the manner in which they made use of the haskamah as a vehicle for achieving the goals they deemed essential at the time. Rabbis began perceiving Hebrew science books as a remedy of sorts for the worrying decline in Hebrew articulacy. Like the maskilim, they believed that reading about astronomy, physics, geography, and other sciences in Hebrew would bypass the need to acquire foreign languages and assist in preserving the Jews’ affinity with the Holy Tongue and the Jewish community.
      PubDate: 2017-01-07
      DOI: 10.1093/leobaeck/ybw021
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
  • Towards a Bookish History of German Jewish Culture: Travelling Images and
           Orientalist Knowledge in Philippson’s ‘Israelitische Bibel’
    • Authors: Wittler K.
      Pages: 151 - 177
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThis essay discusses the genesis of the liberal Rabbi Ludwig Philippson’s Israelitische Bibel (1839–1854) and its role in nineteenth-century German Jewish culture. Taking a bibliographical perspective, I analyse how this Bible edition—as a book—mediated the nineteenth-century transformation of Jewish traditions in an orientalist vein. In the first part, I sketch the Israelitische Bibel’s production against the backdrop of European book history and retrace its five hundred woodcuts to their direct source, the English Christian Pictorial Bible (1835–1838). In the second part, I compare in detail how the Song of Songs is treated and presented in these two Bible editions, thereby highlighting their diverging orientalist profiles. Through this analysis, Philippson’s Israelitische Bibel is revealed as an ambitious reworking of the Bible which makes visible the particular profile of German Jewish orientalism, namely its emphasis on notions of pastoral simplicity and moral integrity in evaluations of Hebrew poetry as opposed to other oriental literatures, and its interest in Sephardic Jewry as a model of oriental-occidental mediation. Based on this case study, I argue that book history may help us to better understand the historically specific dynamics of (German) Jewish orientalism which have received increased attention in recent years.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14
      DOI: 10.1093/leobaeck/ybx001
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
  • Proto-Zionism Reconsidered: Wilhelm Herzberg’s Early German-Jewish
           Nationalist Novel ‘Jewish Family Papers’ and the Discourse of
    • Authors: Herrmann M.
      Pages: 179 - 195
      Abstract: ABSTRACTWilhelm Herzberg’s novel Jüdische Familienpapiere. Briefe eines Missionairs (Jewish Family Papers; or, Letters of a Missionary) (1868) incorporates several important insights regarding our conception of early German-Jewish nationalist or proto-Zionist discourse, two of which will be central to this article. First of all, the analysis of this discourse is usually limited to Moses Hess (1812–1875) and his Rome and Jerusalem of 1862, which is generally understood to be the first manifestation of modern Zionist thought and secular nationalist Judaism in the German lands. The rediscovery of Herzberg’s fascinating Jewish nationalist novel represents an important additional source for this period. Secondly, and this will be the main focus of the article, the novel represents a rich text for better understanding the context of early German-Jewish nationalist concepts and ideas, especially with regard to that of authenticity. The idea of authenticity, which comprises the notion of self-fulfilment, both collective and individual, is central to national theory. Within the German-Jewish realm, a distinctive national Jewish authenticity was constructed using religious, cultural, and geocultural aspects. This formation process operates with binary concepts such as Modernity/Tradition, Judaism/Christianity, and Hebrews/Hellenes, and additionally produces geocultural spheres of authenticity, such as ‘eastern Europe’ and ‘the Orient’.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20
      DOI: 10.1093/leobaeck/ybx007
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
  • A Mediterranean Vienna: The Work of Viennese Architects and the Presence
           of Central European Culture in the Haifa of the 1930s and 1940s
    • Authors: Fainholtz T.
      Pages: 197 - 223
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe period of the British Mandate in Palestine (1917–1948) was a time of unprecedented prosperity and development for the Mediterranean city port of Haifa, as the building of the city’s refineries and harbour turned the sleepy town into British Palestine’s most important economic and industrial centre. The city’s growing economy attracted different communities, among them a community of Jewish immigrants from central Europe who were fleeing dire circumstances abroad. Many of these immigrants came from the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian empire and created in the city a vibrant German-speaking community and an elegant Viennese-style café society. These newcomers also brought with them a ‘preference’ for modernist architecture, which typified the city’s new buildings, some of the most striking of which were designed by Jewish émigré architects who had studied and worked in Vienna. This article explores the contribution of the Vienna-trained architects to the building of Haifa’s architectural image vis-à-vis the development of the city’s German-speaking Jewish community in the 1930s and 1940s. Telling the story of the city’s outstanding modernist heritage, the article presents how the work of these architects produced a unique ‘Vienna School’ of architecture, and how the arrival of the central European émigrés brought some of Vienna’s cultural lustre to the Mediterranean city of Haifa.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24
      DOI: 10.1093/leobaeck/ybx015
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
  • The Parochialism of Intellectual History: The Case of Günther Anders
    • Authors: Armon A.
      Pages: 225 - 241
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe name of Günther Anders, who was one of the first philosophers to try to contend with the meaning of Being, ethics, and philosophy in the atomic age, was absent from Anglo-Saxon discourse during his own lifetime and has continued to be so since his death in 1992. He frequently wrote about the Holocaust and Hiroshima, about evil, the Vietnam War, Heidegger and the effects of technology, and its inherent destructive potential. However, the bulk of his writings has not yet been translated into English, and the studies that focus on him in the United States pale by comparison with those on other thinkers of his time.The reason he was marginalized is not only a matter of style or circumstances but also of language, location, and historical context—it is embedded in the text and content of his writings, which placed Auschwitz alongside Hiroshima and located signs of totalitarianism in the West as well. The purpose of this study is twofold: to locate Anders alongside other German-Jewish thinkers of the twentieth century and to provide an answer to the question of why historians, philosophers, and many scholars in the humanities and the social sciences in the United States have ignored his existence for so long.
      PubDate: 2017-01-12
      DOI: 10.1093/leobaeck/ybw022
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
  • Fighting Back! How to Deal with Antisemitism: A Historical Perspective
    • Authors: Schüler-Springorum S.
      Pages: 245 - 262
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThis article offers a fresh analysis of the history of the German-Jewish Abwehrkampf (defensive action) in order to illustrate possible strategies for the fight against anti-Jewish resentment, strategies typical of comparable processes in almost all European countries. As the huge amount of research in the field has shown, key examples of different, yet often interlaced options for action were numerous: Jews fought back with physical force, both individually and collectively; they wrote back in the form of scholarly confrontation with antisemitism, its documentation and analysis (thus laying the foundation for present-day research on antisemitism); they banded together for the purpose of Gegenwehr (resistance); they sued, fighting legal battles against anti-Jewish discrimination, insults, and violence; they tried to educate by producing for and distributing to a non-Jewish public various types of anti-antisemitic information; and they built coalitions with allies and political comrades-in-arms outside the Jewish sphere. Judging by German-Jewish history as of 1933, the Abwehrkampf in all its facets has failed. Antisemitism, however, cannot be judged solely as one prejudice among others but as coinciding with other factors endangering liberalism and democracy. Present-day antisemitism must be confronted with these same strategies used by earlier generations, but they must not be limited to an identity-oriented end in themselves, designed to confirm one’s own political opinion. Instead, these strategies should open up critical dialogue and argument.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      DOI: 10.1093/leobaeck/ybx003
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
  • Introduction: Steven Schwarzschild’s Rabbinical Reports from
           Post-War Berlin
    • Authors: Schwarzschild M.
      Pages: 265 - 270
      Abstract: My father, Steven S. Schwarzschild, was rabbi of the Berlin Jewish Community and of the Federation of Jewish Communities in the Russian Occupation Zone from September 1948 until May 1950. His work in Berlin was sponsored by the World Union for Progressive Judaism in London. He submitted a series of confidential reports to the World Union, more or less monthly, on his activities and on Jewish conditions in Germany at the time. These reports are now being published for the first time, in three annual instalments: the first instalment, together with a biographical note on Steven Schwarzschild, appeared in the LBI Year Book 2015. This is the final instalment.11
      PubDate: 2017-07-28
      DOI: 10.1093/leobaeck/ybx008
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
  • Occupation Policies in Germany and The Jews
    • Authors: Schwarzschild R.
      Pages: 271 - 275
      Abstract: Presumably one of the aims that was to be achieved by the winning of the war was to abolish inside Germany the racial and religious discrimination that had been promulgated by Hitler. This very fact, however, is the cause of one of the first and most enduring dilemmas in which the occupation authorities in Germany found themselves with regard to their policies toward the Jews. The Nazi discriminatory laws effected a state where, for example, the German Jews were no longer considered rightful citizens of Germany and therefore, to begin with, deprived of the rights and privileges appertaining to that status. The elimination of this discrimination, therefore, could result only in a policy which declared that, to the contrary, Jews were after all German citizens, and attitudes and regulations had to be formulated accordingly. Thus, after the end of the war, Jews found themselves in the ambiguous situation where now that it constituted a disadvantage they were considered Germans, which they no longer felt themselves to be, whereas previously when it would have been to their advantage and when they, to a large extent, regarded themselves as Germans, they were excluded from that class. The foreign Jew who comes to Germany for the first time after the war is thus likely to land in Hamburg and to be taken straight away to the Atlantic Hotel, which is a British Club, and there notices the first signs of his presence in a country which is under military occupation: at the door a larger poster warns that no Germans are admitted, even as guests. Having come to Germany in order to meet Jews he would like to be able to invite them to his hotel but, German Jews now being considered German, he cannot offer them such an invitation. His first reminder of the pre-war Jewish situation in Germany is that Jews may not enter those premises, formerly because they were not Germans and now because they are. The end effect, however, is the same.
      PubDate: 2017-06-12
      DOI: 10.1093/leobaeck/ybw038
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
  • Report by Rabbi Steven S. Schwarzschild for The World Union for
           Progressive Judaism
    • Authors: Schwarzschild R.
      Pages: 277 - 280
      PubDate: 2017-06-12
      DOI: 10.1093/leobaeck/ybw036
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
  • Report to The World Union for Progressive Judaism
    • Authors: Schwarzschild R.
      Pages: 281 - 284
      PubDate: 2017-06-12
      DOI: 10.1093/leobaeck/ybw035
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
  • ‘Mixed Marriage’ – Admission and Readmission – Report to the
           Jewish Community of Berlin Translated from the German by Dr. Naomi Shulman
    • Authors: Schwarzschild R.
      Pages: 285 - 293
      Abstract: After the end of the war, the Jewish Community of Berlin, like other Jewish communities in Germany, discussed the problem of mixed marriages extensively. I want to point out that according to Jewish law and to Jewish perspectives of all religious directions, that is to say, of orthodox, conservative, and liberal circles, no mixed-marriage problem exists, and in fact, it cannot exist either. The term ‘mixed marriage’ refers to the marriage of a Jewish man to a non-Jewish woman or a Jewish woman to a non-Jewish man, following civil laws and the regulations of the country in which the ceremony has been performed. It is well-known, however, that the laws of the countries do not concern themselves — as is to be expected and to be hoped — with the religious affiliation of two persons applying to be regarded as a married couple under state law. Therefore, then, there can be no so-called mixed marriages from the perspective of state law, since, as already noted, civil law does not take the religious affiliation of the married couple into account. Of course, the perspective of National Socialist law, which is no longer applied and which we have always rejected in any event, is exempt from these findings of the facts.
      PubDate: 2017-06-12
      DOI: 10.1093/leobaeck/ybw037
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
  • List of Contributors
    • Pages: 295 - 298
      Abstract: ARMON, Adi, PhD, b. in Jerusalem, Israel, is Postdoctoral Fellow at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. His research focuses on European Jewish intellectuals in the twentieth century and on Zionist thought from the nineteenth century to the establishment of the State of Israel.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1093/leobaeck/ybx017
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
  • Without a Home: German Jews as Displaced Persons in Post-War Germany
    • Authors: Myers Feinstein M.
      Pages: 299 - 299
      Abstract: The Leo Baeck Institute Year Book, 2017.
      DOI :, published on 10 August 2017.
      PubDate: 2017-10-07
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
  • Index to Leo Baeck Institute Year Book 2017
    • Pages: 301 - 309
      Abstract: Note: all German names containing the preposition ‘von’ have been filed under that particle. Locators in italic refer to illustrations.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1093/leobaeck/ybx019
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
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