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Chemosphere
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.435
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 17  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0045-6535 - ISSN (Online) 1879-1298
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3206 journals]
  • Removal of hexabromocyclododecane by carboxymethyl cellulose stabilized Fe
           and Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles: The particle stability and reactivity
           in water
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Chih-ping Tso, Dave Ta Fu Kuo, Yang-hsin Shih
       
  • Performance evaluation of a biotrickling filter for the removal of
           gas-phase 1,2-dichlorobenzene: Influence of rhamnolipid and ferric ions
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Kang Li, Bairen Yang, Liping Wang
       
  • Inactivation of helminth eggs in an electro-Fenton reactor: Towards full
           electrochemical disinfection of human waste using activated carbon
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Irma Robles, Emmanuel Becerra, J.A. Barrios, C. Maya, B. Jiménez, Francisco J. Rodríguez-Valadez, Fernando Rivera, Josué D. García-Espinoza, Luis A. Godínez
       
  • Low permeability zone remediation of trichloroethene via coupling
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Bo Liu, Guanghe Li, Kevin G. Mumford, Bernard H. Kueper, Fang Zhang
       
  • Degradation of aqueous cefotaxime in electro-oxidation — electro-Fenton
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Jiawei Lei, Pingzhou Duan, Weijun Liu, Zhirong Sun, Xiang Hu
       
  • The profile of antibiotic resistance genes in pig manure composting shaped
           by composting stage: Mesophilic-thermophilic and cooling-maturation stages
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Rukun Cao, Jian Wang, Weiwei Ben, Zhimin Qiang
       
  • Differences in elemental composition of tailings, soils, and plant tissues
           following five decades of native plant colonization on a gold mine site in
           Northwestern Québec
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Vanessa Gagnon, Michaël Rodrigue-Morin, Antoine Tardif, Julie Beaudin, Charles W. Greer, Bill Shipley, Jean-Philippe Bellenger, Sébastien Roy
       
  • Extracellular enzyme and microbial activity in MSW landfills with
           different gas collection and leachate management practices
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Qiyong Xu, Jie Qin, Tugui Yuan, Jae Hac Ko
       
  • Modelization of anaerobic processes during co-digestion of slowly
           biodegradable substrates
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): J.A. Rubio, J.L. Garcia-Morales, L.I. Romero, F.J. Fernandez-Morales
       
  • Cosubstrate strategy for enhancing lignocellulose degradation during rumen
           fermentation in vitro: Characteristics and microorganism composition
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Bao-Shan Xing, Yule Han, Sifan Cao, Junwei Wen, Kaidi Zhang, Honglin Yuan, Xiaochang C. Wang
       
  • Application of metallic nanoparticle-biochars with ionic liquids for
           thermal transfer fluids
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Hsin-Liang Huang, Zi-Hao Huang, Yi-Cheng Chu, Hong-Ping Lin, Yun-Jung Chang
       
  • Treatment of typical antibiotics in constructed wetlands integrated with
           microbial fuel cells: Roles of plant and circuit operation mode
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Huiyang Wen, Hui Zhu, Baixing Yan, Yingying Xu, Brian Shutes
       
  • A review on the photoelectro-Fenton process as efficient electrochemical
           advanced oxidation for wastewater remediation. Treatment with UV light,
           sunlight, and coupling with conventional and other photo-assisted advanced
           technologies
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Enric Brillas
       
  • Comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of dyes adsorption by
           carbon-based adsorbent materials: Classification and analysis of last
           decade studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Ali Azari, Ramin Nabizadeh, Simin Nasseri, Amir Hossein Mahvi, Ali Reza Mesdaghinia
       
  • Effect of Fe–Mn–Ce modified biochar composite on microbial diversity
           and properties of arsenic-contaminated paddy soils
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Guogang Zhang, Xuewei Liu, Minling Gao, Zhengguo Song
       
  • How does continuous venovenous hemofiltration theoretically expose
           (ex-vivo models) inpatients to diethylhexyladipate, a plasticizer of PVC
           medical devices'
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Lise Bernard, Mélanie Bailleau, Teuta Eljezi, Philip Chennell, Bertrand Souweine, Alexandre Lautrette, Valérie Sautou
       
  • Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in foods from the Region of Valencia:
           Dietary exposure and risk assessment
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Olga Pardo, Sandra F. Fernández, Leyre Quijano, Silvia Marín, Pilar Villalba, Francisca Corpas-Burgos, Vicent Yusà
       
  • Application of a multiple lines of evidence approach to document natural
           attenuation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in
           groundwater
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Mark E. Fuller, Paul G. Koster van Groos, Michelle Jarrett, Katarzyna H. Kucharzyk, Angela Minard-Smith, Linnea J. Heraty, Neil C. Sturchio
       
  • Analysis of the complexation behaviors of Cu(II) with DOM from
           sludge-based biochars and agricultural soil: Effect of pyrolysis
           temperature
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Jia Xing, Guoren Xu, Guibai Li
       
  • One-pot synthesis of magnetic algal carbon/sulfidated nanoscale zerovalent
           iron composites for removal of bromated disinfection by-product
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Jian Lu, Cui Zhang, Jun Wu
       
  • Transfer and bioaccumulation of mercury from soil in cowpea in gold mining
           sites
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): José Marrugo-Negrete, José Durango-Hernández, Luis Díaz-Fernández, Iván Urango-Cárdenas, Hermes Araméndiz-Tatis, Vicente Vergara-Flórez, Andrea G. Bravo, Sergi Díez
       
  • Spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors of organic
           carbon in sediments of Tongshun River riparian zone
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Yueyong Ma, Zhiqiang Wang, Teng Ma, Shuxian Chen
       
  • Beyond carbon capture towards resource recovery and utilization:
           Fluidized-bed homogeneous granulation of calcium carbonate from captured
           CO2
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Yao-Hui Huang, Sergi Garcia-Segura, Mark Daniel G. de Luna, Arianne S. Sioson, Ming-Chun Lu
       
  • A facile one-step synthesized epsilon-MnO2 nanoflowers for effective
           removal of lead ions from wastewater
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Mei Lin, Zuliang Chen
       
  • Response of rice genotypes with differential nitrate reductase-dependent
           NO synthesis to melatonin under ZnO nanoparticles’ (NPs) stress
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Zhuoli Huang, Wenjun Xie, Meng Wang, Xuwei Liu, Umair Ashraf, Dejun Qin, Maosen Zhuang, Wu Li, Yuzhan Li, Shuli Wang, Hua Tian, Zhaowen Mo
       
  • Effective degradation of Di-n-butyl phthalate by reusable, magnetic Fe3O4
           nanoparticle-immobilized Pseudomonas sp. W1 and its application in
           simulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Qun Wang, Xiaogang Wu, Lanhui Jiang, Chengran Fang, Hua Wang, Liang Chen
       
  • Development and application of the thermodynamic database PRODATA
           dedicated to the monitoring of mining activities from exploration to
           remediation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Pascal E. Reiller, Michaël Descostes
       
  • Acute lethal and sublethal effects of four insecticides on the lacewing
           (Chrysoperla sinica Tjeder)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Yin-Xue Shan, Yang Zhu, Jing-Jing Li, Nian-Meng Wang, Qi-Tong Yu, Chao-Bin Xue
       
  • Indoor Occurrence and Health Risk of Formaldehyde, Toluene, Xylene and
           Total Volatile Organic Compounds Derived from an Extensive Monitoring
           Campaign in Harbin, a Megacity of China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Zi-Feng Zhang, Xue Zhang, Xian-ming Zhang, Li-Yan Liu, Yi-Fan Li, Wei Sun
       
  • A review and perspective of recent research in biological treatment
           applied in removal of chlorinated volatile organic compounds from waste
           air
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Tong Li, Hao Li, Chunli Li
       
  • Enzymatic transformation of aflatoxin B1 by Rh_DypB peroxidase and
           characterization of the reaction products
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Martina Loi, Justin B. Renaud, Elena Rosini, Loredano Pollegioni, Elisa Vignali, Miriam Haidukowski, Mark W. Sumarah, Antonio F. Logrieco, Giuseppina Mulè
       
  • Closely-related species of hyperaccumulating plants and their ability in
           accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Wumei Xu, Ping Xiang, Xue Liu, Lena Q. Ma
       
  • Portable dehumidifiers condensed water: A novel matrix for the screening
           of semi-volatile compounds in indoor air
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): M. Cobo, M. Ramil, R. Cela, I. Rodríguez
       
  • Effects of surfactants on the fractionation, vermiaccumulation, and
           removal of fluoranthene by earthworms in soil
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Zhiming Shi, Congying Wang, Yonghua Zhao
       
  • Development of a novel composite resin for dissolved divalent mercury
           measurement using diffusive gradients in thin films
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Heng Yao, Yujie Zhao, Che-Jen Lin, Fengjiao Yi, Xuefeng Liang, Xinbin Feng
       
  • A sensitive method for simultaneous determination of 12 classes of per-
           and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in groundwater by ultrahigh
           performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole orbitrap high
           resolution mass spectrometry
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Siqi Liu, Muhammad Junaid, Wei Zhong, Youchang Zhu, Nan Xu
       
  • Determination of the amine-catalyzed SO3 hydrolysis mechanism in the gas
           phase and at the air-water interface
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Xiaohui Ma, Xianwei Zhao, Zhezheng Ding, Wei Wang, Yuanyuan Wei, Fei Xu, Qingzhu Zhang, Wenxing Wang
       
  • Exploring the degradation capability of Trametes versicolor on selected
           hydrophobic pesticides through setting sights simultaneously on culture
           broth and biological matrix
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Kaidi Hu, Andrea Peris, Josefina Torán, Ethel Eljarrat, Montserrat Sarrà, Paqui Blánquez, Gloria Caminal
       
  • Hay-based activated biochars obtained using two different heating methods
           as effective low-cost sorbents: Solid surface characteristics, adsorptive
           properties and aggregation in the mixed Cu(II)/PAM system
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Katarzyna Szewczuk-Karpisz, Piotr Nowicki, Zofia Sokołowska, Robert Pietrzak
       
  • Mercury contamination in the recently described Brazilian white-tail
           dogfish Squalus albicaudus (Squalidae, Chondrichthyes)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Rachel Ann Hauser-Davis, Camila Ferreira Pereira, Fernando Pinto, João Paulo M. Torres, Olaf Malm, Marcelo Vianna
       
  • Hydration behavior and immobilization mechanism of MgO–SiO2–H2O
           cementitious system blended with MSWI fly ash
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Baomin Wang, Chengcheng Fan
       
  • Detoxification and reclamation of hydrometallurgical arsenic- and trace
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Xu Ma, Shuhua Yao, Zidan Yuan, Ran Bi, Xing Wu, Jiaxi Zhang, Shaofeng Wang, Xin Wang, Yongfeng Jia
       
  • Biochar effects on environmental qualities in multiple directions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Hailong Wang, Xinde Cao, Jörg Rinklebe
       
  • Effects of variable deoxygenation on trace element bioaccumulation and
           resulting metabolome profiles in the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Murat Belivermiş, Peter W. Swarzenski, François Oberhänsli, Steven D. Melvin, Marc Metian
       
  • The Phase out of and Restrictions on Per-and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances:
           Time for a Rethink
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Ishmail Sheriff, Sisay Abebe Debela, Osman Alhaji Kabia, Charles Evrard Ntoutoume, Matthew James Turay
       
  • Comparative metabolomic responses of low- and high-cadmium accumulating
           genotypes reveal the cadmium adaptive mechanism in Brassica napus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): T.M. Mwamba, F. Islam, B. Ali, J.L. Lwalaba, R.A. Gill, F. Zhang, M.A. Farooq, S. Ali, Z. Ulhassan, Q. Huang, W. Zhou, J. Wang
       
  • Challenges of aqueous per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and
           their foreseeable removal strategies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Bin Ji, Peiying Kang, Ting Wei, Yaqian Zhao
       
  • Adélie penguin colonies as indicators of brominated flame retardants
           (BFRs) in East Antarctica.
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Phoebe Lewis, Thomas J. McGrath, Louise Emmerson, Graeme Allinson, Jeff Shimeta
       
  • Possible effect of submarine groundwater discharge on the pollution of
           coastal water: Occurrence, source, and risks of endocrine disrupting
           chemicals in coastal groundwater and adjacent seawater influenced by
           reclaimed water irrigation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Jian Lu, Jun Wu, Cui Zhang, Yuxuan Zhang
       
  • Direct and residual impacts of zeolite on the remediation of harmful
           elements in multiple contaminated soils using cabbage in rotation with
           corn
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Altaf Hussain Lahori, Monika Mierzwa-Hersztek, Erdona Demiraj, Raja Umer Sajjad, Imran Ali, Hina Shehnaz, Ambreen Aziz, Mohammad Hashim Zuberi, Abdul Majeed Pirzada, Khalid Hassan, Zengqiang Zhang
       
  • Negative effects of a piscicide, rotenone, on the growth and metabolism of
           three submerged macophytes
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Ai-Ping Wu, Yu He, Shi-Yun Ye, Liang-Yu Qi, Li Liu, Wen Zhong, Yan-Hong Wang, Hui FuA piscicide, rotenone (RT), is frequently used for clear and management of aquatic systems such as fish pond, and even for illegal fishing throughout the world. The effects of RT on submerged macrophytes remain elusive although the effects of RT on many kinds of animals are well documented. We wanted to determine the effects of RT on the growth and metabolism of three submerged plants (Vallisneria natans, Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton maackianus) and try to find the reasons of these effects. The results showed that the shoot height, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, root:shoot ratios, contents of soluble protein and soluble carbohydrate of the three tested submerged plants were significantly negatively affected by RT and the effects were different among the studied species. Furthermore, pH rised a little and light transmission was greatly reduced in the water with RT treatment. We think that the negative effects of RT on the growth and metabolism of submerged species is partially attributing to the lower light caused by RT application. Accordingly, we highlight that submerged species may be greatly suppressed by RT, and we should apply RT in water ecosystems with great caution.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Conversion of MDF wastes into a char with remarkable potential to remove
           Food Red 17 dye from aqueous effluents
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): M.A. Zazycki, D. Perondi, M. Godinho, M.L.S. Oliveira, G.C. Collazzo, G.L. DottoAbstractMedium density fiberboard (MDF) wastes were converted into an efficient char able to uptake Food Red 17 dye (FR17) from colored effluents. The yield of the pyrolysis process, in terms of char, was 29%. The produced char presented micro and mesoporous, with surface area of 218.8 m2 g−1 and total pore volume of 0.122 cm3 g−1. Regarding to the FR17 adsorption, removal percentages of 90% were found at pH 2 and using 0.5 g L−1 of char. Pseudo–first and pseudo–second order models were adequate to represent the adsorption kinetic profile, being the equilibrium reached within 20 min. Freundlich model was selected to represent the equilibrium data. The maximum adsorption capacity was 210 mg g−1. The adsorption of FR17 on the char was endothermic and physical in nature. The char was efficient for 8 adsorption–desorption cycles, maintaining the same adsorption capacity. In brief, this work demonstrated a useful practice in terms of cleaner production. It was possible add value to MDF wastes, generating an efficient and reusable adsorbent to treat colored effluents containing FR 17 dye.
       
  • Chromium resistant microbes and melatonin reduced Cr uptake and toxicity,
           improved physio-biochemical traits and yield of wheat in contaminated soil
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Mahmoud F. Seleiman, Shafaqat Ali, Yahya Refay, Muhammad Rizwan, Bushra Ahmed Alhammad, Salah E. El-HendawyAbstractMelatonin and metal resistant microbes can enhance plant defense responses against various abiotic stresses, but little is known about the combined effects of melatonin and chromium (Cr) resistant microbes on reducing Cr toxicity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In current study, we examined the effects of combined application of melatonin (0, 1, 2 mM) and Bacillus subtilis (with and without inoculation) on wheat physio-biochemical responses and Cr uptake under different levels of Cr (0, 25, 50 and 100 mg Cr kg−1 DM soil). Chromium stress decreased the wheat growth, biomass, chlorophyll and relative water contents by causing oxidative damage in the form of overproduction of electrolyte leakage, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde. However, foliar application of melatonin enhanced the plant growth, biomass and photosynthesis by alleviating the oxidative damage and Cr accumulation by plants. Melatonin significantly increased the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activities as compared with respective control. Inoculation with microbes further enhanced the positive impacts of melatonin on wheat growth and reduced the Cr uptake by plants. Compared with non-inoculation and melatonin treatment, the inoculation with B. subtilis increased cholorophyll a by 27%, cholorophyll b by 49%, ascorbic acid in leaves by 50% and soluble proteins by 72% in wheat grwon with 50 mg Cr kg−1 DM soil. The application of B. subtilis reduced oxidative stress and Cr toxicity by transforming the Cr6+ to Cr3+ in shoots and roots of wheat. Furthermore, B. subtilis reduced the Cr6+ uptake by wheat plants. The result of the present study revealed that the combined application of melatonin and B. subtilis might be a feasible approach aiming to reduce the Cr toxicity and its accumulation by wheat and probably in other plants.
       
  • Inkjet printing assisted fabrication of polyphenol-based coating membranes
           for oil/water separation
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Renjie Li, Hangxu Fan, Liguo Shen, Linhua Rao, Jiayi Tang, Sufei Hu, Hongjun LinWhile polyphenol-based coating has been regarded as a promising alternative to functionalize membrane surface, it usually suffers from problems of low-efficient procedure and low utilization rate of the polyphenolic compounds, hindering its large-scale implementations. To solve these problems, this study provided a first report on inkjet printing of polyphenols (catechol (CA) or tannic acid (TA)) and sodium periodate (SP) on a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane to improve membrane performance. A series of analyses showed the efficient formation of homogenous films on the PVDF membrane surface and the improvement of hydrophilicity by the inkjet printing technique. The PVDF membranes decorated with the optimized polyphenolic coating exhibited a promising oil/water separation efficiency (higher than 99%) with a high average water permeation flux of 5.2 times higher than that of the pristine membrane. Meanwhile, the modified membranes illustrated a good stability under acidic conditions (pH = 2–7). The novel method proposed in this study is facile, cost-saving and environment-friendly. The advantages of the proposed method and the modified membranes demonstrated the great significance of the proposed method in practical applications.Graphical abstractImage 1079
       
  • Fenton reaction induced in-situ redox and re-complexation of polyphenol-Cr
           complex and their products
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Hongrui Ma, Qing Wang, Yongyong Hao, Chao Zhu, Xiangping Chen, Chuanyi Wang, Yonglin YangIn this study, in-situ Fenton oxidation was used for the de-complexation and degradation of tannin-Cr(III) complexes. Cr(III) can be oxidized into free Cr(VI) under the effect of ·OH and oxidation products of tannin can be used as reductant for Cr(VI) to establish a redox cycle of Cr(III)–Cr(VI)–Cr(III). Thus, it is crucial to investigate the interactions of Cr(III) with tannin derived oxidation products due to negligible accumulation of Cr(VI) during Fenton oxidation treatment. Here, sequential filtration/ultrafiltration was applied to reveal the distribution characteristics of TOC and Cr fractions during the oxidation of tannin-Cr(III). As the increase of colloidal size of tannic acid products, residual TOC and Cr mainly distribute in larger size range after the oxidation of tannin-Cr(III) which can be ascribed to re-complexation between oxidation products and Cr(III). Besides, analytical results indicate that carboxyl group and hydroxyl group in oxidation products may cause the re-complexation of Cr(III), resulting in the formation of highly conjugated materials containing Cr(III). It can be concluded that due attention should be paid to the efficient removal technology and mechanism for polymer-Cr complexes, as well as the oxidation intermediates in the role of conversion and removal of Cr species.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Integration of homogeneous and heterogeneous advanced oxidation processes:
           Confined iron dancing with cyclodextrin polymer
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Fengxia Chen, Daojian Tang, Ya Wang, Tuo Li, Jiahai MaA novel catalyst which integrates heterogeneous and homogenous Fenton reactions is designed and fabricated by encapsulating 2,5-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone (2,5-DBQ) in ECDP-Fe3O4, a composite of Fe3O4 nanoparticles immobilized on a β-cyclodextrin polymer (ECDP) with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) as cross-linking agent. The 2,5-DBQ@ECDP-Fe3O4 has superior catalytic performance for 4-nitrophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol degradation compared with control systems. Mechanism study revealed that although the initial active site is Fe3O4 loaded on ECDP, the actually catalyst is the iron ions released from Fe3O4 but confined within the composite. EDTA in β-cyclodextrin polymer can improve both the solubility and adsorption capacity to H2O2 of Fe3O4. The quinone molecules 2,5-DBQ in the β-cyclodextrin cavity can accelerate Fe3+/Fe2+ cycle adjacent to the cavity, thus in favor of the decomposition of H2O2 into OH as main reactive oxidizing species. The current catalyst integrates the advantages of homogeneous and heterogeneous advanced oxidation processes and is promising in practical applications.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Degradation of chloramphenicol by α-FeOOH-activated two different
           double-oxidant systems with hydroxylamine assistance
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Fu He, Wencheng Ma, Dan Zhong, Yixing YuanThe pipe deposits from water distribution network are iron-wastes, which could be used as a catalyst of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). This paper prepared one main composition (α-FeOOH) of pipe deposits and compared the difference of chloramphenicol (CAP) degradation by α-FeOOH-activated hydrogen peroxide/persulfate and α-FeOOH-activated hydrogen peroxide/peroxymonosulfate with hydroxylamine assistance. Several key affecting factors were investigated. The results revealed that the double-oxidant system has a synergy effect in CAP degradation process. The hydroxyl radicals were identified as the predominant radicals in two different degradation processes via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. The possible degradation pathways and products were confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). This study provided a theoretic research for pollutant removal by taking full advantage of pipe deposits and advance the development of water quality security in water distribution network in future.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Morphological and biochemical traits and mortality in Physalaemus gracilis
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Camila F. Rutkoski, Natani Macagnan, Alexandre Folador, Vrandrieli J. Skovronski, Aline M.B. do Amaral, Jossiele Leitemperger, Maiara D. Costa, Paulo A. Hartmann, Caroline Müller, Vania L. Loro, Marilia T. HartmannOrganophosphate insecticides such as chlorpyrifos are commonly detected in surface waters around the world, where they are highly toxic to many organisms. The frog Physalaemus gracilis uses water sources located in open fields as reproductive sites, where it is exposed to insecticides. The study aimed to evaluate the lethal and sublethal effect of a commercial chlorpyrifos formulation on P. gracilis tadpoles (Anura: Leptodactylidae). In acute toxicity tests, five chlorpyrifos concentrations between 750 and 2,000 μg L−1 were tested. Chronic toxicity, swimming activity, morphological and enzymatic changes, as well as levels of non-protein thiols (NPSH), carbonyl proteins and lipid peroxidation were evaluated at five insecticide concentrations between 11 and 500 μg L−1. The highest mortality rate of P. gracilis tadpoles occurred at 24 and 48 h, with an LC50 of 893.59 μg L−1. At all chlorpyrifos concentrations, tadpoles displayed reduced mobility and spasms. Morphological anomalies were observed in the mouth and intestine, especially at the highest concentrations used. Acetylcholinesterase activity decreased at 250 and 500 μg L−1, catalase activity increased at all concentrations, and superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase increased from 90 μg L−1 to 30 μg L−1, respectively. We also observed increases in NPSH levels at chlorpyrifos concentration starting at 30 μg L−1 and increases in carbonyl proteins from 90 μg L−1 of pesticide. Taken together, these data suggest that the insecticide chlorpyrifos presents acute and chronic risks for P. gracilis, causing neurotoxic effects and oxidative damage, culminating in high risk for this species.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Dose and time-dependent response of single and combined artificial
           contamination of sulfamethazine and copper on soil enzymatic activities
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Rui Yang, Xiaoming Xia, Jinhua Wang, Lusheng Zhu, Jun Wang, Zulfiqar Ahmad, Lili Yang, Shushuai Mao, Yangyang ChenThe widespread contamination of antibiotics and heavy metals results in imbalance in the ecosystem. However, the effect of the interaction between sulfamethazine (SM2) and copper (Cu) on soil enzymatic activities is unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of single and combined artificial contamination of SM2 and Cu (0, 1.6 mmol kg−1 Cu and 0, 0.05, 0.2, 0.8 mmol kg−1 SM2) on soil enzymatic activities (urease, sucrose, phosphatase, and RubisCO). A single application of Cu at a concentration of 1.6 mmol kg−1 inhibited the urease, phosphatase and sucrase activities, while a stimulating effect on RubisCO activity was observed on day 7, 21, and 28 of incubation. The individual application of SM2 at higher concentration exhibited significant inhibition of sucrase, phosphatase, and urease activities while a stimulatory effect on RubisCO activity was observed on day 14 and 21 of incubation. The combined contamination of SM2 and Cu significantly inhibited the activities of urease, sucrase, and phosphatase. The effect of combined contamination of SM2 and Cu on the activity of RubisCO was different. The analysis results of interaction types show that there are synergistic or antagonistic effects between Cu and SM2, and these effects can amplify or reduce the effect of Cu or SM2 on soil enzyme activities. Integrated biological responses version 2 (IBRv2) analysis showed that the combined contamination of Cu and SM2 had a greater inhibitory or stimulatory effect on soil enzyme activities than the single contamination of Cu and SM2, depending upon dose and time.Graphical abstractImage 107
       
  • Application of a human mesoderm tissue elongation system in vitro derived
           from human induced pluripotent stem cells to risk assessment for
           teratogenic chemicals
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Hiromasa Ninomiya, Atsushi Intoh, Hisako Ishimine, Yasuko Onuma, Yuzuru Ito, Tatsuo Michiue, Akira Tazaki, Masashi KatoToxic compounds from the mother’s diet and medication in addition to genetic factors and infection during pregnancy remain risks for various congenital disorders and misbirth. To ensure the safety of food and drugs for pregnant women, establishment of an in vitro system that morphologically resembles human tissues has been long desired. In this study, we focused on dorsal mesoderm elongation, one of the critical early development events for trunk formation, and we established in vitro autonomous elongating tissues from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). This artificial tissue elongation is regulated by MYOSIN II and FGF signaling, and is diminished by methylmercury or retinoic acid (RA), similar to in vivo human developmental disabilities. Moreover, our method for differentiation of hiPSCs requires only a short culture period, and the elongation is cell number-independent. Therefore, our in vitro human tissue elongation system is a potential tool for risk assessment assays for identification of teratogenic chemicals via human tissue morphogenesis.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Transcriptional regulation and expression network responding to cadmium
           stress in a Cd-tolerant perennial grass Poa Pratensis
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Jingping Xian, Yong Wang, Kuiju Niu, Huiling Ma, Xiang MaAbstractKentucky bluegrass has good capability to absorb and accumulate cadmium (Cd) through developed root system, thus having potential phytoremediation function in Cd contaminated soils. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of Cd tolerance and accumulation in this species will be crucial to generating novel Cd-tolerance cultivars through genetic improvement, while it has not well documented yet. In the present study, comparative transcriptome analysis was performed for the seedlings of high Cd-tolerant genotype (M) and low Cd-tolerant genotype (R) under Cd stress. A total of 7022 up-regulated and 1033 down-regulated transcripts were identified in M genotype, whereas, only 850 up-regulated and 846 down-regulated transcripts were detected in R. Further transcriptional regulation analysis in M genotype showed that Dof, MADS25, BBR-BPC, B3, bZIP23 and MYB30 might be the hub transcription factors in response to Cd stress due to the orchestrated multiple functional genes associated with carbohydrate, lipid and secondary metabolism, as well as signal transduction. Differential expressed genes involved in auxin, ethylene, brassinosteroid and ABA signalling formed signal transduction cascades, which interacted with hub transcription factors, thereby finally orchestrated the expression of multiple genes associated with cell wall and membrane stability, cell elongation and Cd tolerance, including IAAs, ARFs, SnRK2, PP2C, PIFs, BES1/BZR1, CCR, CAD, FATB, fabF and HACD. Additionally, post-transcriptional modification of CIPKs, MAPKs, WAXs, UBCs, and E3 ubiquitin ligases were identified and also involved in plant signalling pathways and abiotic resistance. The study could contribute to our understanding the transcriptional regulation and complex internal network associated with Cd tolerance in Kentucky bluegrass.
       
  • Survey of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium microbial community
           at national wetland of Shanghai, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Yiyi Zhao, Cuina Bu, Houling Yang, Zhuangming Qiao, Shaowu Ding, Shou-Qing NiDissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA) process is an important nitrate reduction pathway in the environment. Numerous studies focused on the DNRA, especially in various natural habitats. However, little is known about the envrionmental parameters driving the DNRA process in anthropogenic ecosystem. Human activities put forward significant influence on nitrogen cycle and bacterial communities of sediment. This study aimed to assess the DNRA potential rates, nrfA gene abundance, DNRA bacterial community’s diversity and influencing factors in a national wetland park near the Yangtze River estuary, Shanghai. The results of 15N isotope tracer experiments showed that DNRA potential rates from 0.13 to 0.44 μmol N/kg/h and contribution of nitrate reduction varied from 1.56% to 7.47%. The quantitative real-time PCR results showed that DNRA functional gene nrfA abundances ranged from 9.87E+10 to 1.98E+11 copies/g dry weight. The results of nrfA gene pyrosequencing analysis showed that Lacunisphaera (10.4–13.4%), Sorangium (7.1–10.7%), Aeromonas (4.2–6.8%), Corallococcus (1.8–6.9%), and Geobacter (3.3–6.6%) showed higher relative abundances in their genus levels. Combined with environmental parameters of sediments, redundancy analysis indicated that the nrfA functional gene was positively correlated with moisture content, the concentration of NO2−-N and NO3−N; the DNRA rates was positively correlated with sediment organic carbon (SOC), C/NO3− ratio and salinity (ranked by explains %). This study is the first simultaneous determination of nitrate reduction pathways including denitrification, anammox and DNRA rates to assess the role of DNRA in a national wetland park and revealed the community abundance, diversity of DNRA bacteria and its relationship with environmental factors.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Quantitative contribution study and comparison between electrocoagulation,
           anode-electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation using polymer-flooding
           sewage
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Yi-mei Chen, Wen-ming Jiang, Yang Liu, Ya KangAbstractThis work aimed to quantify the contribution of electrocoagulation(EC) mechanisms on emulsified oil removal from polymer-flooding sewage (PFS), and also to quantitatively compare the performance of EC, anode-electrocoagulation(AEC) and chemical coagulation(CC) on PFS treatment. An apparatus which introduced the salt bridge was proposed to help separate the anode and cathode. To quantify the contribution of coagulation and oxidation individually, the EDTA, a chemical addictive which can inhibit the ability of Al3+ was added to shield the effect of coagulation. The experimental results show that in the PFS treatment by EC method, about 80% of emulsified oil in anode zone was removed by coagulation while only 11%–13% was oxidized; In cathode zone, about 13%–14% of the oil was removed by flotation. Besides, the results suggest that the separation of anode and cathode not only result in the low demulsification efficiency but also generated the fragile flocs. During the comparison and contrast of purification performance of EC, AEC and CC, the effects of treatment time and current densities(aluminum doses) on oil removal was investigated, the pH and absorption spectra evolution over time were also analyzed. The results showed that under all conditions studied, the EC performance outperforms AEC and far beyond CC.
       
  • Impact of seasonality, redox conditions, travel distances and initial
           concentrations on micropollutant removal during riverbank filtration at
           four sites
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Daniela Oberleitner, Wolfgang Schulz, Axel Bergmann, Christine AchtenRiverbank filtration (RBF) is a reliable water purification technique that has proven to be suitable for the removal of organic micropollutants. Its removal efficiency and dependency on a variety of factors such as redox conditions, temperatures, geology, travel times, level of initial micropollutant concentrations and seasonality were investigated during three seasonal sampling campaigns. Two anoxic (silty sand, Ems river) and two oxic (gravel, Ruhr river) RBF sites in Germany with different travel distances (42–633 m) were studied. Micropollutant concentrations were examined using a large-volume direct injection liquid chromatography method coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. Seasonal differences in micropollutant concentrations in the rivers were observed for chlorotolurone, diclofenac, terbuthylazine, mecoprop-P, MCPA (2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid) and propyphenazone. Redox dependencies in RBF were only found for sulfamethoxazole, propyphenazone, terbuthylazine and carbamazepine. Data for oxazepam, tramadol, N-desmethyl-tramadol, tilidin-desmethyl, carbamazepine and carbendazim indicate a required minimum travel distance of e.g. 100–200 m for the complete removal. Notably, travel time did not seem to be a substantial factor for their removal. High conductivity aquifers are also well suited for micropollutant removal. Seasonal initial concentration level variations showed no impact on the resulting abstraction well concentrations. Although the calculated removal efficiencies varied, they proved to be improper for seasonal raw water quality comparison. Knowledge of micropollutant behavior in riverbank filtration was broadened and RBF proved to be well suited for effective micropollutant reduction throughout the year, yet for a complete removal long travel distances or further technical purification steps are required.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Distribution patterns of arsenic species in a lichen biomonitor
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): E.M. Kroukamp, T.W. Godeto, P.B.C. ForbesAbstractAs stand-alone approaches, chromatographic separations of arsenic in lichen using HPLC-ICP-MS or the use of sequential extractions have historically been shown to have low analyte recoveries and poor analyte selectivity respectively. This study modifies the first step of a sequential extraction with a chromatographic separation of five arsenic species using HPLC-ICP-MS, followed by a three-step sequential extraction and analysis with ICP-MS. The method was applied to lichens from a rural and urban site to demonstrate the applicability thereof, and the sum of arsenic concentrations from the extraction steps were compared to the total arsenic concentrations. Short term species stability of the As species in the lichen matrix was also evaluated over 1 month in the water-extractable fraction, where As species concentrations changed week by week, providing insight into biotransformation mechanisms. In the modified extraction step, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and arsenobetaine and an unknown As species (AsB + U1) were statistically (p  reducible > water-extractable > residual. Concentrations of total As in the oxidizable and non-bioavailable fraction were statistically lower (p 
       
  • Modeling chlordecone toxicokinetics data in growing pigs using a nonlinear
           mixed-effects approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): A. Fourcot, C. Feidt, A. Bousquet-Mélou, A.A. Ferran, J.L. Gourdine, M. Bructer, C. Joaquim-Justo, G. Rychen, A. FournierAbstractThe use of chlordecone (CLD), a chlorinated polycyclic pesticide used in the French West Indies banana fields between 1972 and 1993, resulted in a long-term pollution of agricultural areas. It has been observed that this persistent organic pollutant (POP) can transfer from contaminated soils to food chain. Indeed, CLD is considered almost fully absorbed after involuntary ingestion of contaminated soil by outdoor reared animals. The aim of this study was to model toxicokinetics (TKs) of CLD in growing pigs using both non-compartmental and nonlinear mixed-effects approaches (NLME). In this study, CLD dissolved in cremophor was intravenously administrated to 7 Creole growing pigs and 7 Large White growing pigs (1 mg kg−1 body weight). Blood samples were collected from time t = 0 to time t = 84 days. CLD concentrations in serum were measured by GCMS/MS. Data obtained were modeled using Monolix (2019R). Results demonstrated that a bicompartmental model best described CLD kinetics in serum. The influence of covariates (breed, initial weight and average daily gain) was simultaneously evaluated and showed that average daily gain is the main covariate explaining inter-individual TKs parameters variability. Body clearance was of 76.7 mL kg−1 d−1 and steady-state volume of distribution was of 6 L kg−1. This modeling approach constitutes the first application of NLME to study CLD TKs in farm animals and will be further used for rearing management practices in contaminated areas.
       
  • Methane emission suppression in flooded soil from Amazonia
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Gabriele V.M. Gabriel, Luciana C. Oliveira, Dayane J. Barros, Marília S. Bento, Vania Neu, Rogério H. Toppa, Janaina B. Carmo, Acacio A. NavarreteThe coupling between ferrous iron and methane production has important global implications, with iron ions acting as electron acceptors for anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) and inhibitors of methanogenesis in different environments, including floodplain soils. In this sense, we analyzed the relationship between Fe(II) concentration and methane production in soil layers collected at 0–15 cm and 15–30 cm from flooded-forest and -agroforestry in Amazonian clear water floodplain incubated in anaerobic batch reactors using acetate, formate and glucose as organic sources. High throughput sequencing of archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes was employed to assess the abundance and composition of the active methanogenic and methanotrophic microbial groups potentially involved in Fe(III)-dependent AOM in the soil used as inoculum. Positive correlation was revealed between Fe(II) concentration and methane production, with higher accumulation of Fe(II) in incubated soil layer collected at 0–15 cm in both forest and agroforestry sites for all the three organic sources. The accumulation of Fe(II) in the incubated soil evidenced the oxidation of Fe(III) potentially by Methanobacterium, Desulfobulbus and ‘Candidatus methanoperedens nitroreducens’ living in anaerobic condition at this soil layer. The results point out to the microbial ferric iron reduction as an important potential pathway for anaerobic organic matter decomposition in Amazonian floodplain, evidencing methanogenesis suppression by Fe(III) reduction in flooded-forest and -agroforestry in Amazonian clear water river floodplain.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Effect of tungsten and selenium on C1 gas bioconversion by an enriched
           anaerobic sludge and microbial community analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): Samayita Chakraborty, Eldon R. Rene, Piet N.L. Lens, Jukka Rintala, María C. Veiga, Christian KennesThe effect of trace metals, namely tungsten and selenium, on the production of acids and alcohols through gas fermentation by a CO-enriched anaerobic sludge in a continuous gas-fed bioreactor was investigated. The CO-enriched sludge was first supplied with a tungsten-deficient medium (containing selenium) and in a next assay, a selenium-deficient medium (containing tungsten) was fed to the bioreactor, at a CO gas flow rate of 10 mL/min. In the absence of tungsten (tungstate), an initial pH of 6.2 followed by a pH decrease to 4.9 yielded 7.34 g/L acetic acid as the major acid during the high pH period. Subsequently, bioconversion of the acids at a lower pH of 4.9 yielded only 1.85 g/L ethanol and 1.2 g/L butanol in the absence of tungsten (tungstate). A similar follow up assay in the same bioreactor with two consecutive periods at different pH values (i.e., 6.2 and 4.9) with a selenium deficient medium yielded 6.6 g/L acetic acid at pH 6.2 and 4 g/L ethanol as well as 1.88 g/L butanol at pH 4.9. The results from the microbial community analysis showed that the only known CO fixing microorganism able to produce alcohols detected in the bioreactor was Clostridium autoethanogenum, both in the tungsten and the selenium deprived media, although that species has so far not been reported to be able to produce butanol. No other solventogenic acetogen was detected.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • The remarkable effect of alkali earth metal ion on the catalytic activity
           of OMS-2 for benzene oxidation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Chunlan Ni, Jingtao Hou, Lei Li, Yuanzhi Li, Mingxia Wang, Hui Yin, Wenfeng TanCryptomelane-type octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) is one of the most promising catalysts for VOCs oxidation, and introduction of metal ions in OMS-2 tunnel is widely used for tailoring its catalytic activity. Here, different types of alkali earth metal ions with the same X/Mn atomic ratio of approximately 0.012 (X represents Mg2+, Ca2+, and Sr2+) were successfully introduced into OMS-2 tunnel by a one-step redox reaction. The catalytic test showed that introducing alkali earth metal ions into tunnels had a considerable effect on the catalytic performance of OMS-2 for benzene oxidation. The Sr2+ doped OMS-2 catalyst exhibited the better catalytic activity compared with those of Mg-OMS-2 and Ca-OMS-2 samples, and was also superior to a commercial 0.5% Pt/Al2O3 catalyst, as evidenced by its low reaction temperatures of T50 = 200 °C and T90 = 223 °C (corresponding to benzene conversions at 50% and 90%, respectively). The origin of the considerable effect of alkali earth metal doping on the catalytic activity of OMS-2 catalysts was experimentally and theoretically investigated by an 18O2 isotopic labeling experiment, CO temperature-programmed reduction, O2 temperature-programmed oxidation, and density functional theory calculations. The greatest catalytic activity of Sr-OMS-2 compared with those of Mg-OMS-2 and Ca-OMS-2 samples was attributed to its highest lattice oxygen activity as well as its largest surface area. By introducing alkali earth metal ions into the OMS-2 tunnel, we developed a low-cost and highly efficient catalyst that could be used as alternative to noble metal catalysts.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Sex differences in the effects of lead exposure on growth and development
           in young children
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Can-Can Zhou, Yu-Qiong He, Zhen-Yan Gao, Mei-Qin Wu, Chong-Huai YanAbstractThe adverse effects of lead exposure on children’s health have been widely investigated. Physical growth is a central indicator of health in early childhood. However, studies on the associations between lead exposure and the physical growth of young children are still equivocal. This study aimed to investigate the effects of lead exposure on young children’s growth. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, and a total of 1678 young children were recruited. Blood lead levels were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry and anthropometric measurements were obtained by nurses. The weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ), height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) and BMI for-age Z-score (BMIZ) of the children were calculated according to World Health Organization standards. Multivariable linear models after adjustment for potential confounders were used to evaluate the associations between lead exposure and childhood anthropometric characteristics. Meanwhile, the sex differences in these associations were also examined. The median blood lead levels in total subjects, in boys and in girls were 46.44, 49.00 and 43.27 μg/L, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, a significantly negative association of blood lead levels with WAZ and HAZ was observed. After stratification by sex, the blood lead levels in children were negatively associated with WAZ and HAZ in boys but not in girls. Meanwhile, we further provide evidence that blood lead levels below 50 μg/L may also have adverse effects on young children's HAZ. Our findings suggest that lead exposure may have sex-specific effects on physical growth in young children and that blood lead level in a low levels may also have adverse effects on children's physical growth and development.
       
  • Using wood flour waste to produce biochar as the support to enhance the
           visible-light photocatalytic performance of BiOBr for organic and
           inorganic contaminants removal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Aobo Geng, Lijie Xu, Lu Gan, Changtong Mei, Linjie Wang, Xingyu Fang, Meirun Li, Mingzhu Pan, Shuguang Han, Juqing CuiIn the present study, industrial wood flour waste was selected for the first time as the precursor to produce biochar (WFB). The WFB was then used to prepare WFB/BiOBr visible-light photocatalysts, in which WFB acted as the carbon support to enhance the photocatalytic performance of BiOBr. Specifically, the impact of WFB pyrolysis temperature on the visible-light photo-removal performance of WFB/BiOBr was studied through degrading rhodamine B and reducing Cr(VI). The results indicated that when the pyrolysis temperature was 600 °C, the prepared WFB (600-WFB) had the highest graphitization degree, which afterwards significantly enhanced the visible-light photocatalysis performance of the BiOBr. Having higher graphitization degree, 600-WFB/BiOBr exhibited the highest photocatalytic capability. With a dosage of 0.5 g/L, the 600-WFB/BiOBr could completely remove to 20 mg/L of RhB and 5 mg/L of Cr(VI) within 90 min. Since wood flour is an abundantly existed industrial bioresource waste and easily pyrolyzed to prepare biochar, WFB is a promising alternative to replace traditional carbonaceous materials for the design of green and high-efficient visible-light photocatalysts for environmental remediation.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Distribution, source apportionment and ecological risks of organophosphate
           esters in surface sediments from the Liao River, Northeast China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Qing Luo, Leiyan Gu, Zhongping Wu, Yue Shan, Hui Wang, Li-na SunA total of 24 surface sediment samples were collected from Liao River, Northeast China. The concentration, spatial distribution, potential source, and ecological risk of 13 organophosphate esters (OPEs) flame retardants and plasticizers were analyzed. The total concentrations of OPEs varied considerably, ranging from 19.7 to 234 ng g−1 dry weight (dw), with the mean concentrations of 64.2 ± 52.2 ng g−1 dw. The OPEs pollution was increasing from upstream to downstream of Liao River. Compared with other sediments of rivers and lakes all over the world, Liao River has been seriously contaminated by OPEs, especially tributyl phosphate (TNBP) and tri-butoxyethyl phosphate (TBOEP). TNBP was the most abundant OPEs, followed by TBOEP and triphenylphosphine oxide. Their mean relative contributions were 26.3%, 12.4% and 11.6%, respectively. Positive matrix factorization indicated that OPEs in sediments from Liao River might be derived from plastic, textile, and polyurethane foam, anti-foam agent, hydraulic fluids, and coatings, indoor release, and chemical process emission. The risk of potential adverse effects of each individually OPEs on aquatic organisms were low (risk quotient less than 0.1). 2-Ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate was the main substance causing risk.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Stability and toxicity of differently coated selenium nanoparticles under
           model environmental exposure settings
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Atiđa Selmani, Lea Ulm, Kaja Kasemets, Imbi Kurvet, Ina Erceg, Rinea Barbir, Barbara Pem, Paula Santini, Ida Delač Marion, Tomislav Vinković, Adela Krivohlavek, Maja Dutour Sikirić, Anne Kahru, Ivana Vinković VrčekThis study, motivated to fill the knowledge gap on environmental safety of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs), provides information on the stability and environmental safety of four differently coated SeNPs rendering both positive and negative surface charges. The stability and dissolution behaviour of SeNPs were determined in an aquatic model media of different ionic strength to provide information regarding the environmental fate of SeNPs in different environmental conditions. The environmental safety of SeNPs was evaluated by acute regulatory toxicity tests using Daphina magna and Vibrio fischeri as model organisms.Agglomeration was observed for all studied SeNPs in test media with higher ionic strength caused by the disruption of surface charge leading to electrostatic instability. Toxicity of SeNPs on both aquatic species was dose-dependent and increased with exposure time. The obtained data indicated that all of the tested SeNPs could be classified as harmful to the natural bacteria V. fischeri and harmful to toxic to crustaceans D. magna, but dependent on the coating agent used for SeNPs stabilization. Although SeNPs have attracted great interest for use in biomedicine, this study demonstrated that their ecotoxicological effects should be considered during the design of new of SeNPs-based products.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Phase distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their
           oxygenated and nitrated derivatives in the ambient air of a Brazilian
           urban area
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Rosimeire Resende dos Santos, Zenilda de Lourdes Cardeal, Helvécio Costa MenezesAir quality in large cities has worsened in recent years as a consequence people's health is directly affected. Among the toxic compounds released to environmental air are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs (nitro-PAHs), and oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs). Performant methods to analyze these compounds is necessary to enable adequate monitoring of air quality. Thus, this manuscript presents the development of a highly sensitive method to analyze PAHs, nitro-PAHs, and oxy-PAHs collected from ambient air (PM2.5) and the gas phase for a period of one year in the urban area of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. PAHs and their derivatives were extracted by cold fiber solid phase microextraction (CF-SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The proposed method allows simultaneous analysis of 16 PAHs, nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs, presenting very good limits of detection and quantification, as well as appropriate precision and recovery. The results obtained for the period of one year allowed different studies. The compounds collected simultaneously from gas and particulate phase showed that total concentration of 16 PAHs were higher in the gas phase than in the particulate. On the other hand, nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs presented similar concentration in gas and particulate phases. The potential carcinogenicity of PAHs relative to benzo[a]pyrene showed benzo[a]pyrene equivalents of 0.49 ng m−3. The estimated risk of lifetime lung cancer was 5 × 10−5. Principal component analysis and diagnostic ratio was applied for source distribution indicating that burning of gasoline, diesel and biomass accounted for the PAHs profile in ambient air samples.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Au/SBA-15 catalyst prepared by ozone treatment and importance of
           negatively charged gold in CO oxidation by DRIFTS
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Xiaoqing Feng, Dan Meng, Yong Yang, Zhaoyi Tan, Jinhu Liang, Chao XiaoThere is a lack of consensus on the charge state of active gold species in catalytic CO oxidation reaction. Herein, Au/SBA-15 catalyst was prepared by room temperature ozone treatment. Through diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFT), two different gold species, Au0 and Auδ− with CO adsorption at about 2112 cm−1 and 2077 cm−1, were observed on Au/SBA-15. In CO oxidation mixture, the 2077 cm−1 band is completely attenuated while the 2112 cm−1 band retains some intensity. CO–Auδ- bonding is weaker than that of CO–Au0, but CO–Auδ- exhibits higher reactivity towards oxygen. Ozone treatment produces AuOx nanoparticles that is not stable and decomposes to metallic Au gradually. To our best knowledge, this is the first time to identify the presence and importance of Auδ− species for “inert” SiO2 supported gold catalyst.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Spectroscopic identification and catalytic relevance of NH4 +
           intermediates in selective NOx reduction over Cu-SSZ-13 zeolites
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Valentina Rizzotto, Dongdong Chen, Björn Martin Tabak, Jia-Yue Yang, Daiqi Ye, Ulrich Simon, Peirong ChenReduction of harmful nitrogen oxides (NOx) from diesel engine exhausts is one of the key challenges in environmental protection, and can be achieved by NH3-assisted selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR) using copper-exchanged chabazite zeolites (i.e. Cu-CHA, including Cu-SSZ-13 and Cu-SAPO-34) as catalysts. Understanding the redox chemistry of Cu-CHA in NH3-SCR catalysis is crucial for further improving the NOx reduction efficiency. Here, a series of Cu-SSZ-13 catalysts with different Cu ion exchange levels were prepared, thoroughly characterized by different techniques such as X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy and temperature-programmed desorption using NH3 as a probe molecule, etc., and tested in NH3-SCR reactions under steady-state conditions. In situ studies by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), supplemented with density-functional theory calculations, provided solid evidence for the formation of ammonium ion (NH4+) intermediates resulting from the reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ by co-adsorbed NH3 and NO molecules on Cu-SSZ-13. Catalytic relevance of the NH4+ intermediates, as demonstrated by an increase of NO conversion over Cu-SSZ-13 pre-treated in NH3/NO atmosphere, can be attributed to the formation of closely coupled Cu+/NH4+ pairs promoting the Cu+ re-oxidation and, consequently, the overall NH3-SCR process. This study thus paves a new route for improving the NH3-SCR efficiency over Cu-CHA zeolite catalyst.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Coagulation of organo-mineral colloids and formation of low molecular
           weight organic and metal complexes in boreal humic river water under
           UV-irradiation
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 250Author(s): O.Yu. Drozdova, A.R. Aleshina, V.V. Tikhonov, S.A. Lapitskiy, O.S. PokrovskyPhotodegradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is highly important in humic waters of peatland regions, yet the coupling between organic and organo-mineral colloids, trace metals and bioavailability of photodegraded products is poorly known. Here we studied photo-destruction of organo-mineral colloids induced by UV-irradiation of sterile-filtered mire water. We revealed two simultaneously occurring processes of transformation of DOM and trace elements speciation: (i) disintegration of high molecular weight organo-mineral colloids into lower molecular weight (0.22 μm) aggregates of metals and organic matter. Over 26 days of UV-irradiation, up to 20% of dissolved organic carbon from peat waters was transformed into CO2. In addition to transformation of organic compounds, sizeable change in speciation and size fractionation of many trace metals such as Fe, Pb, Cd, Co, Zn, Cu, V, La, Ni and Cr occurred. Although short-term (1 day) UV-irradiation of mire water stimulated growth of cultivable Pseudomonas sp. bacterium, the long-term exposure (26 days) of organic substrate had a negative effect on bacterial development. Therefore, while sizeable transformation of the organic and metal colloidal load of peat water may occur over first 10 days of UV-irradiation, the enhanced bioavailability of UV-treated substrate is achieved after first day of exposure. The present study demonstrates the importance of even short-term UV-irradiation on colloidal transformation and potential bioavailability of humic waters from temperate mires and highlights the need for more detailed study of coupled metal-organic matter transformation induced by sunlight exposure of mire waters.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Wormcasts produced by three earthworm species (Alma millsoni, Eudrilus
           eugeniae and Libyodrilus violaceus) exposed to a glyphosate-based
           herbicide reduce growth, fruit yield and quality of tomato (Lycopersicon
           esculentum)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Folarin Owagboriaye, Gabriel Dedeke, Julius Bamidele, Abimbola Bankole, Adeyinka Aladesida, Roseline Feyisola, Mistura Adeleke, Oladunni AdekunleAbstractIt remains unknown if casts produced by earthworms exposed to a glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) will retain their agricultural benefit. This study investigated the agricultural importance of surface casts produced by three earthworm species (Alma millsoni, Eudrilus eugeniae and Libyodrilus violaceus) exposed to a GBH on growth, fruit yield and quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). We sprayed 60 buckets (i.e 20 buckets/earthworm species) containing 20 adult earthworms of each species with 115.49 ml/m2 of Roundup® Alphée (Exposed) while another 60 buckets with earthworm species were sprayed with water (Control). Surface casts produced by the earthworms were collected for 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th week post herbicide application. Tomato planting experiment on soil treated with the casts, NPK fertilizer and normal soil were grouped into 32 treatments. Tomato growth performance, yield and quality were evaluated with standard methods. Only the tomatoes planted with the casts of the exposed earthworms were unable to set fruit. There was no significant difference (p 
       
  • The tale of a versatile enzyme: Alpha-amylase evolution, structure, and
           potential biotechnological applications for the bioremediation of
           n-alkanes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Éderson Sales Moreira Pinto, Márcio Dorn, Bruno César FeltesAbstractAs the primary source of a wide range of industrial products, the study of petroleum-derived compounds is of pivotal importance. However, the process of oil extraction and refinement is among the most environmentally hazardous practices, impacting almost all levels of the ecological chain. So far, the most appropriate strategy to overcome such an issue is through bioremediation, which revolves around the employment of different microorganisms to degrade hazardous compounds, generating less environmental impact and lower monetary costs. In this sense, a myriad of organisms and enzymes are considered possible candidates for the bioremediation process. Amidst the potential candidates is α-amylase, an evolutionary conserved starch-degrading enzyme. Notably, α-amylase was not only seen to degrade n-alkanes, a subclass of alkanes considered the most abundant petroleum-derived compounds but also low-density polyethylene, a dangerous pollutant produced from petroleum. Thus, due to its high conservation in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic lineages, in addition to the capability to degrade different types of hazardous compounds, the study of α-amylase becomes a rising interest. Nevertheless, there are no studies that review all biotechnological applications of α-amylase for bioremediation. In this work, we critically review the potential biotechnological applications of α-amylase, focusing on the biodegradation of petroleum-derived compounds. Evolutionary aspects are discussed, as well for all structural information and all features that could impact on the employment of this protein in the biotechnological industry, such as pH, temperature, and medium conditions. New perspectives and critical assessments are conducted regarding the application of α-amylase in the bioremediation of n-alkanes.
       
  • P-aminophenol catalysed production on supported nano-magnetite particles
           in fixed-bed reactor: Kinetic modelling and scale-up
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Giorgio VilardiThe aim of this work was to investigate on the possibility to use nano-magnetite particles supported on waste biomass as heterogeneous catalyst for the production of p-aminophenol starting from a well-known pollutant, p-nitrophenol, in fixed-bed reactors. The kinetic and the thermodynamic of the process was firstly studied in batch system, subsequently a first scale-up was performed using a glass column packed with the supported catalyst. The experimental data obtained with the column were interpreted in light of a suitable dynamic model. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism well described the process, obtaining from the data fitting a surface rate kinetic constant k = 2.68 × 10−6 mol/m2·h, an adsorption equilibrium constants for PNP and BH4− species equal to 20.07 l/mol and 1.83 l/mol, at 25 °C. The Eyring equation was used to fit the apparent kintic constant variation with the temperature, to estimate thermodynamic parameters, obtaining a ΔH = −1145.68 kJ/mol and ΔS = −315.02 kJ/K·mol. The process was then simulated in PROII environment, investigating the influence of initial PNP flowrate, NaBH4/PNP and reactor length/diameter ratios on PNP conversion, on required duty to maintain isothermal conditions and on pressure drops in the reactor.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Effluent recirculation enables near-complete oxidation of organics during
           supercritical water oxidation at mild conditions: A proof of principle
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Dongdong Zhang, Stef Ghysels, Frederik RonsseAbstractThis work presents a continuous set-up for SCWO, which was operated at mild conditions (380 °C, 25 MPa, oxidant equivalence ratio of 2.0 and residence time of 26 s) to oxidize cellulose, lignin, and acetic acid as model compounds. The aim was to oxidize different organics consecutively to near completion in the same mild reaction conditions and set-up. These conditions can overcome some drawbacks associated to SCWO. To combine near complete oxidation with the applied mild process conditions, aqueous effluent from SCWO, containing intermediates from incomplete oxidation, was recycled for consecutive oxidation. Meanwhile, fresh feedstock was continuously fed to retain the process capacity. Upon recycling the aqueous effluent three to four times, depending on the feedstock, the oxidation efficiency increased from 63.9%, 45.3% and 28.3% in a single pass for cellulose, lignin, and acetic acid, respectively, to near 100%. The principle of effluent recirculation should allow a compact set-up to perform almost complete oxidation of different organics at mild conditions. The principles and effects of effluent recirculation are outlined, as well as practical consequences and perspectives of this novel principle to SCWO.
       
  • Combined effects of soil particle size with washing time and soil-to-water
           ratio on removal of total petroleum hydrocarbon from fuel contaminated
           soil
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Prakash Gautam, Rishikesh Bajagain, Seung-Woo JeongAbstractIn this study, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal from fuel-contaminated field soil was investigated. The influence of the washing method (washing before/after sieving), washing time, soil-to-water ratio, and soil particle size on TPH removal efficiency was evaluated under constant stirring speed. Washing the whole contaminated soil is more efficient than separating the soils into particle size fractions and separately washing the fractions. Particles with differing diameters would be more in contact with each other resulting in detachment of contaminants from the soil particle surface. Effects of soil washing time and soil-to-water ratio on TPH removal were not significant in coarse soil particles (greater than 0.15 mm diameter) but significantly affected TPH removal in fine particles (less than 0.15 mm diameter). This study suggests a threshold washing time of 1 h and a threshold soil-to-water ratio of 1:6 for the whole soil in soil washing. However, soil particles less than 0.075 mm (
       
  • Biodegradation of slop oil by endophytic Bacillus cereus EN18 coupled with
           lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (Palatase®)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Olga Marchut-Mikolajczyk, Piotr Drożdżyński, Katarzyna Struszczyk-ŚwitaAbstractRemoval of slop oil, a by-product of oil refining, also obtained in cleaning up of oil tanks and filters is a difficult issue. High content of hydrocarbons (C3–C40) and other organic compounds makes this waste difficult to eliminate from the environment. The purpose of this investigation was to combine bacterial degradation by endophytic Bacillus cereus EN18 with biotransformation performed using lipase enzyme preparation (Palatase®) to remove recalcitrant compounds present in slop oil from the environment. Endophytic B. cereus EN18 was able to biodegrade up to 40% of slop oil while supplementation with lipase improved the efficiency of contamination removal in about one third. Also the use of lipase enzyme preparation resulted in higher microbial activity of B. cereus EN18 bacterial strain, as well as higher concentration of fatty acids in the culture medium, which indicates higher degradation efficiency. Obtained results suggest that lipase preparation from Rhizomucor miehei (Palatase®) may be a useful agent to improve microbial degradation of recalcitrant pollutants, like slop oil in water environments. GC and spectrometric analysis revealed that hydrocarbons from slop oil were effectively degraded while using both microbial degradation and lipase catalysis.
       
  • Uranium (234U, 238U) and thorium (230Th, 232Th) in mushrooms of genus
           Leccinum and Leccinellum and the potential effective ionizing radiation
           dose assessment for human
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Karolina Szymańska, Dagmara Strumińska-Parulska, Jerzy FalandyszEvaluated has been bioconcentration potential by fungi and risk to human consumers from exposure to natural long-lived radioactive uranium (234U, 238U) and thorium (230Th, 232Th) sequestered in stems, caps and the whole fruiting bodies by mushrooms of the genus Leccinum and Leccinellum. Edible species in the study were collected from boreal forests in the northern regions of Poland and investigated: red-capped scaber (Leccinum aurantiacum), orange oak bolete (Leccinum aurantiacum var. quercinum), foxy bolete (Leccinum vulpinum), slate bolete (Leccinum aurantiacum var. duriusculum) and hazel bolete (Leccinellum pseudoscabrum). The study showed the species accumulated uranium (234U, 238U) and thorium (230Th, 232Th) form soil to some degree but the calculated values of the bioconcentration factor were below 1. The evaluation showed that Leccinum and Leccinellum mushrooms can contribute to annual effective radiation dose maximally at about 0.9 μSv. Hence, consumption of these mushrooms might increase the annual effective ionizing radiation dose received by a human, while the exposure is considered low from the toxicological point of view even if eaten at elevated amounts.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Auxiliary voltage enhanced microbial methane oxidation co-driven by
           nitrite and sulfate reduction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Fengguang Chai, Lin Li, Song Xue, Junxin LiuIn this study, single-chamber bioelectrochemical reactors (EMNS) were used to investigate the methane oxidation driven by sulfate and nitrite reduction with the auxiliary voltage. Results showed that the methane oxidation was simultaneously driven by sulfate and nitrite reduction, with more methane being converted using the auxiliary voltage. When the voltage was 1.6 V, the maximum removal rate was achieved at 8.05 mg L−1 d−1. Carbon dioxide and methanol were the main products of methane oxidation. Simultaneously, nitrogen, nitrous oxide, sulfur ions, and hydrogen sulfide were detected as products of sulfate and nitrite reduction. Microbial populations were analyzed by qPCR and high-throughput sequencing. The detected methanotrophs included Methylocaldum sp., Methylocystis sp., Methylobacter sp. and M. oxyfera. The highest abundance of M. oxyfera was (3.97 ± 0.32) × 106 copies L−1 in the EMNS-1.6. The dominant nitrite-reducing bacteria were Ignavibacterium sp., Hyphomicrobium sp., Alicycliphilus sp., and Anammox bacteria. Desulfovibrio sp., Desulfosporosinus sp. and Thiobacillus sp. were related to the sulfur cycle. Ignavibacterium sp., Thiobacillus sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. may transfer electrons with electrodes using humic acids as the electronic shuttle. The possible pathways included (1) Methane was mainly oxidized to carbon dioxide and dissolved organic matters by methanotrophs utilizing the oxygen produced by the disproportionation in the cells of M. oxyfera. (2) Nitrite was reduced to nitrogen by heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria with dissolved organic compounds. (3) Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. reduced sulfate to sulfur ions. Thiobacillus sp. oxidized sulfur ions to sulfur or sulfate using nitrite as the electron acceptor.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Soil-air exchange of mercury from agricultural fields in Zhejiang, East
           China: Seasonal variations, influence factors, and models of fluxes
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 249Author(s): Taoran Shi, Yiwei Gong, Jin Ma, Haiwen Wu, Shuhui Yang, Tienan Ju, Yajing Qu, Lingling LiuMercury exchange between soil and air is an important processe governing the biogeochemical cycling of Hg. This study investigated the in situ soil-air Hg fluxes in agricultural soils of Quzhou, Zhejiang Province, China, using a dynamic flux chamber coupled with a Hg vapor analyzer. Soil-air Hg exchange fluxes were overall emission for all seasons, indicating that agricultural soil was a Hg source for the atmosphere. Seasonal variations in soil-air Hg flux were observed, with low values in winter, elevated values in spring, peak values in summer, and a decline in autumn. Mercury emissions from soils showed a clear diurnal pattern where Hg released into the atmosphere reached a maximum at 11 a.m. and declined to a minimum at 2:00 and 20:00 in spring and summer, respectively. Meanwhile, soil-air Hg flux peaked at 1 p.m. and declined to a minimum at 6:00 and 23:00 in autumn and winter, respectively. The impact of each factor on the Hg exchange between soil and air varied in different seasons. Soil temperature was the major variable controlling the Hg flux in winter and spring; soil temperature and total gaseous Hg evidently affected the Hg flux in summer, and ozone (O3) played a dominant role in influencing the Hg flux in autumn. Models for estimating the Hg evasive flux from soils were developed, and the atmospheric O3 concentration was used for the first time as a parameter in these models. The measured and modeled Hg fluxes showed significant linear correlations (R2 = 0.61; P 
       
  • Health impact of odor from on-situ sewage sludge aerobic composting
           throughout different seasons and during anaerobic digestion with
           hydrolysis pretreatment
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 249Author(s): Zhangliang Han, Fei Qi, Ruoyu Li, Hui Wang, Dezhi SunAerobic composting and anaerobic digestion with hydrolysis pretreatment are two mainstream methods used to recycle and reclaim sewage sludge. However, during these sludge treatment processes, many odors are emitted that may cause severe emotional disturbance and health risks to those exposed. This study identified odor pollution (i.e. sensory influence, odor contribution, and human risks) from samples collected during sludge aerobic composting throughout different seasons as well as during anaerobic digestion with hydrolysis pretreatment. Odor intensity, odor active values, and permissible concentration-time weighted averages for ammonia and five volatile sulfur compounds were assessed. The results revealed serious odor pollution from all sampling sites during aerobic composting, especially in winter. Excessively strong odors were identified in the composting workshop, with total odor active values between 997 and 8980 which accounted for 78.45%–96.18% of the total sludge aerobic composting plant. Levels of ammonia and dimethyl disulfide in the ambient air were high enough to harm employees’ health. During anaerobic digestion, excessively strong odors were identified in dehydration workshop 2, and the total odor active values of six odors reached 32,268, with ammonia and hydrogen sulfide levels significant enough to harm human health.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Evaluation of the BCR sequential extraction scheme for trace metal
           fractionation of alkaline municipal solid waste incineration fly ash
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 249Author(s): Lizhi Tong, Jinyong He, Feng Wang, Yan Wang, Lei Wang, Daniel C.W. Tsang, Qing Hu, Bin Hu, Yi TangThe BCR sequential extraction scheme (SES), initially developed for soils and sediments, is frequently adopted to evaluate the environmental risks of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash. Within the procedure, metals are liberated from the matrix hosting them relying on the selectivity of the chosen chemical reagents or operation conditions. However, the effect of the high content of alkaline substances in MSWI fly ash on the selectivity of acetic acid to acid-soluble fraction metals was ignored. In this study, the feasibility of the BCR SES for evaluating MSWI fly ash was assessed by adjusting the acetic acid washing times in the acid-soluble extraction step. The metal fractionation, as well as mineralogy, morphology, and surface chemistry of the residues after three successive acid washing processes, were analyzed. The results reveal that only easily soluble salts, but not hydroxides, are entirely extracted after the first acid washing (pH∼12.0). Importantly, carbonates (generally reported as an indicator of the complete release of acid-soluble metals) are mostly decomposed only after the third acid washing (pH∼3.8). The incomplete dissolution of calcium carbonates in a single-step acid washing may convey misleading results of metal fractionation and underestimates the environmental risk of potentially toxic elements. Therefore, complete removal of carbonates should be employed as the endpoint of the acid-soluble fraction extraction step in the evaluation of MSWI fly ash. This work can help in selecting proper strategies for fly ash management and developing proper sequential extraction schemes for similar high-alkalinity hazardous waste risk assessment.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Enhanced removal of bisphenol A from contaminated soil by coupling
           Bacillus subtilis HV-3 with electrochemical system
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 249Author(s): Harshavardhan Mohan, Jeong-Muk Lim, Se-Won Lee, Min Cho, Yool-Jin Park, Kamala-Kannan Seralathan, Byung-Taek OhExposure to endocrine disruptors interferes with the synthesis, release, transport and metabolic activities of hormones, thus impairing human health significantly. Bisphenol A (BpA), an endocrine disruptor, commonly released into the environment by industrial activities and needs immediate attention. This study aims at investigating the process and prospects of deploying bio-electrochemical systems (BES) for the removal of BpA from artificially contaminated soil using Bacillus subtilis HV-3. The BES was setup with desired operating conditions: initial concentration of BpA (80–150 mg/L), pH (3–11) and applied potential voltage (0.6–1.4 V). Under optimized conditions (initial BpA concentration, 100 mg/L; pH 7; and applied voltage 1.0 V), close to 98% degradation of BpA was achieved. The intermediates produced during degradation were analysed using High performance liquid chromatography–Mass spectrometry and the possible degradation pathway was elucidated. Phytotoxicity studies in the remediated soil with Phaseolus mungo confirmed the environmental applicability of the BES system.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • DEHP degradation and dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride waste in
           subcritical water with alkali and ethanol: A comparative study
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 249Author(s): Fu-Rong Xiu, Yongwei Lu, Yingying QiIn this study, subcritical water-NaOH (CW–NaOH) and subcritical water-C2H5OH (CW–C2H5OH) processes were developed for diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) degradation and dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) waste. The introduction of NaOH or C2H5OH in subcritical water had a noticeable influence on the mechanism of DEHP degradation and dechlorination. For both CW-NaOH and CW-C2H5OH treatments, the increase in temperature could increase dechlorination efficiency (DE) of PVC. The DE of CW-NaOH is much higher than that of CW-C2H5OH under the same conditions. The DE of CW-NaOH could exceed 95% at 300 °C. Hydroxyl nucleophilic substitution was the main dechlorination mechanism in CW-NaOH, while nucleophilic substitution and direct dehydrochlorination were equally important in CW-C2H5OH. In CW-NaOH treatment, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, benzaldehyde, and toluene were obtained by hydrolysis and reduction reactions of DEHP. Acetophenone was produced by the further cyclization, dehydrogenation and rearrangement reactions of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. Transesterification was the main degradation pathway of DEHP in CW-C2H5OH at 300 °C. The cyclization and dehydration of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol resulted in producing a high level of ethyl-cyclohexane and 1-ethyl-cyclohexene in CW-C2H5OH at 350 °C. Furthermore, high concentration of ethyl palmitate and ethyl stearate could be prepared in CW-C2H5OH system by the strong reactivity of C2H5OH with the lubricants in PVC.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Interaction between SO2 and NO in their adsorption and photocatalytic
           conversion on TiO2
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 249Author(s): Haiming Wang, Hanzi Liu, Zhen Chen, Andrei Veksha, Grzegorz Lisak, Changfu YouAbstractThe simultaneous adsorption and photocatalytic conversion of SO2 and NO on P25–TiO2 were studied. In particular, the interaction of SO2 and NO on each other’s adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation was discussed. The adsorption of NO on P25 was negligible when comparing to that of SO2, while with the coexistence of NO and SO2 in flue gas, both the adsorption of SO2 and NO were improved. In the presence of water and oxygen, the photocatalytic oxidation efficiency of NO with an efficiency of>69% was observed on irradiated TiO2 surface, which lasted for at least 1000 min. Oxygen was found to have much more important effect than water on the photocatalytic oxidation of NO. In the presence of SO2 however, the photocatalytic process of NO was largely reshaped. The whole process was controlled by the photocatalytic oxidation of SO2. A dramatic efficiency decease (breakthrough of the catalyst bed) was observed for both NO and SO2 due to the catalyst deactivation caused by the poisoning of SO2 oxidation products. Before the breakthrough, the photocatalytic conversion efficiency of NO increased with increasing the SO2 concentration, which was mainly due to the improved NO adsorption in the presence of SO2.
       
  • Synergistic degradation of acid orange 7 dye by using non-thermal plasma
           and g-C3N4/TiO2: Performance, degradation pathways and catalytic mechanism
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 249Author(s): Xuewen Liu, Wenqiang Li, Rui Hu, Yang Wei, Weiyang Yun, Peng Nian, Jingwei Feng, Aiyong ZhangAbstractIn order to harness the full capability of ultraviolet and visible light in the dielectric barrier discharge induced non-thermal plasma (DBD-NTP) process, g-C3N4/TiO2 catalysts were prepared and utilized in this process. Synergistic degradation of acid orange 7 (AO7) dye by DBD-NTP and g-C3N4/TiO2 was conducted, and the performance, degradation pathways and synergistic catalytic mechanism were investigated. The results showed that the degradation rate of AO7 in the DBD-NTP and g–C3N4–15/TiO2 process increased by 39.1% compared with that in the single DBD-NTP process at 12 min discharge time. At 20 W input power, initial concentration of AO7 was 5 mg/L, catalytic dosage was 0.5 g/L, initial pH value was 10.0 and air flow rate was 52 L/h, the degradation rate of AO7 reached 100.0% after 12 min discharge time. Higher discharge power and initial concentration of AO7 inhibited AO7 degradation, whereas increasing the air flow rate and initial pH value of the solution promoted AO7 degradation. The degradation pathways of AO7 consisted of azo structure destruction, ring opening reaction, hydroxylation, carboxylation and mineralization reaction. The results of radical trapping experiment showed that O2−, h+, OH, O3 and H2O2 were the main reactive species for AO7 degradation in the DBD-NTP and g–C3N4–15/TiO2 process. The Z-scheme photocatalytic mechanism for the g-C3N4/TiO2 catalyst was proposed.
       
  • Lanthanum modified bentonite behaviour and efficiency in adsorbing
           phosphate in saline waters
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 249Author(s): Maíra Mucci, Grant Douglas, Miquel LürlingLanthanum-modified bentonite (LMB, commercially called Phoslock®) has been widely applied in freshwater systems to manage eutrophication. Little is known, however, about its behaviour and efficiency in binding filterable reactive phosphorus (FRP) in saline environments. We assessed if LMB would adsorb phosphate over a range of salinities (0–32 ppth) comparing the behaviour in seawater salts and equivalent concentrations of NaCl. Lanthanum release from the bentonite matrix was measured and the La species prevailing in saline environments were evaluated through chemical equilibrium modelling. We demonstrated that LMB was able to adsorb FRP in all the salinities tested. Filterable lanthanum (FLa) concentrations were similarly low (2000 times greater in equivalent NaCl salinities. Mineralogical analysis indicates that La present in the clay interlayer was (partially) replaced by Na/Ca/Mg present in the seawater and a possible secondary P-reactive phase was formed, such as kozoite (LaCO3OH) or lanthanite (La2(CO3)3·8H2O) that may be physically dissociated from the LMB. Geochemical modelling also indicates that most FLa dissociated from LMB would be precipitated as a carbonate complex. In light of the identification of reactive intermediate phases, further studies including ecotoxicologial assays are required to assess any deleterious effects from the application of LMB to saline waters.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • The impact of tourism on extremely visited volcanic island: Link between
           environmental pollution and transportation modes
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 249Author(s): Martin Brtnický, Václav Pecina, Michaela Vašinová Galiová, Lubomír Prokeš, Ondřej Zvěřina, David Juřička, Martin Klimánek, Jindřich KynickýThe enormous tourism boom raises concern about possible negative environmental impacts worldwide. One of the risks posed by tourism may be heavy metal pollution. On the example of the volcanic island of Santorini, a popular tourist destination, pollution of soils categorized according to the tourism load was monitored. Significant anthropogenic contamination by heavy metals, especially Cu, Cr and Pb, was found out. This contamination may constitute a moderate ecological risk to the island ecosystems. Tourism has been shown to be a significant pollution factor as evidenced by the contaminated soils near the airport. Simultaneously, airport traffic has been proved to be an important emitter of Co, Cr and especially Zn. The comparison with other volcanic islands has shown that on Santorini the content of heavy metals in soils is significantly lower, despite frequently higher tourism intensity. On this basis, it can be concluded that in case of volcanic islands the dominant factor determining the content of heavy metals in the soil is the parent rock. Given high and ever-increasing intensity of tourism on the island, it can be assumed that soil contamination will continue to rise rapidly. Therefore, without proper steps reducing tourism, increase in soil degradation, growing negative impacts on local ecosystems as well as on the quality of produced wine can be expected on Santorini.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Age-dependent effective ingestion dose estimations and lifetime risk
           assessment for selected radionuclides (40K and 3H) in bottled waters
           marketed in United Arab Emirates
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 249Author(s): Lucy Semerjian, Hadya Alrajaby, Nimra Naaz, Rim Kasfah, Entesar Z. Dalah, Eithar Waheed, Amal Nabulssi, Walid A. MetwallyAbstractMonitoring drinking water, including bottled water, is imperative to safeguarding public health especially where bottled water consumption is high like in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In this study, radionuclide activity levels of Tritium (3H) and Potassium (40K) were assessed in various brands of bottled water marketed in UAE. Activity level data was used to calculate the annual effective doses (Ed) for different age groups, and the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) for adult males and females in the UAE population. Activity levels for both radionuclides were below the allowable maximum guideline values specified by local and international standards. Calculated total age dependent ingestion doses revealed that adults and lactation age groups received the highest effective ingestion doses. Adult males exhibited a higher ELCR for both isotopes, compared to females. Nonetheless, total radioactive dose for each water brand (0.91–1.47 μSv/yr) as well as for each population group were well below the recommended annual reference dose level of 100 μSv set by World Health Organization. Therefore, bottled water in the UAE is safe from the radiological aspect for investigated radionuclides, and poses no significant radiological exposure and health risk to the public.
       
  • Acute toxicity, oxidative stress and DNA damage of three task-specific
           ionic liquids ([C2NH2MIm]BF4, [MOEMIm]BF4, and [HOEMIm]BF4) to zebrafish
           (Danio rerio)
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 249Author(s): Wenxiu Li, Lei Zhu, Zhongkun Du, Bing Li, Jinhua Wang, Jun Wang, Cheng Zhang, Lusheng ZhuThe addition of different functional groups to ionic liquid anions or cations to synthesize task-specific ionic liquids (TSILs) according to specific needs has become a research hotspot. However, there are few studies on the toxicity of TSILs. We selected zebrafish (Danio rerio) to assess the toxicity of three TSILs 1-aminoethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C2NH2MIm]BF4), 1-methoxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([MOEMIm]BF4) and 1-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([HOEMIm]BF4). The 96 h median lethal concentration (96 h LC50) of the three TSILs [C2NH2MIm]BF4, [MOEMIm]BF4 and [HOEMIm]BF4 on zebrafish determined by an acute toxicity test were 143.8 mg/L, 2492.5 mg/L and 3086.7 mg/L, respectively. In the oxidative damage and DNA damage research experiments, zebrafish were exposed to [C2NH2MIm]BF4 (0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/L), [MOEMIm]BF4 and [HOEMIm]BF4 (0, 1, 10, 50 and 100 mg/L) for 28 days, and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), malondialdehyde (MDA) and olive tail moment (OTM) in zebrafish liver were tested on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 after the exposure test. During the experiment, increased contents of ROS and MDA were detected; enzymatic activities especially SOD were inhibited; and DNA damage occurred in zebrafish. The toxicity of the three TSILs was compared by the integrated biomarker response (IBR). The toxicity order of three TSILs was: [MOEMIm]BF4 > [HOEMIm]BF4 > [C2NH2MIm]BF4. In addition, this study can provide a toxicological basis for application research and the evaluation of functionalized ionic liquids with low toxicity in the future.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Non-polar organic compounds, volatility and oxidation reactivity of
           particulate matter emitted from diesel engine fueled with ternary fuels in
           blended and fumigation modes
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 249Author(s): Meisam Ahmadi Ghadikolaei, Ka-Fu Yung, Chun Shun Cheung, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Pak Kin WongThe present experimental study aims to examine the impacts of various fueling modes of operation on the particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-alkanes (C16–C30), and volatility and oxidation reactivity of particulate matter (PM) emitted from a diesel engine fueled with a ternary fuel (80% diesel, 5% biodiesel and 15% ethanol (D80B5E15, volume %)) under four engine operating conditions. Four fueling modes, including diesel, blended, fumigation and combined fumigation + blended (F + B) modes were tested using pure diesel fuel for diesel mode and a constant fuel content of D80B5E15 for the blended, fumigation and F + B modes to create the same condition for comparing their impacts on the parameters investigated. The average results illustrate that both blended and fumigation modes can reduce the PAHs (−78.4% and −31.3%), benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (−81.7% and −38.9%), n-alkanes (−46.5% and −21.5%) and non-volatile substance fraction (−25.1% and −11.1%), but increase the high-volatile substance fraction (12.8% and 6.9%) and oxidation reactivity rate (34.0% and 4.9%), respectively compared to those of the diesel mode. While the effect of the blended mode on the parameters investigated is stronger than the fumigation mode. And the F + B mode has the effects in between the results of the blended and fumigation modes.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Biochar sorption of PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS and PFHxA in two soils with
           contrasting texture
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 249Author(s): Matthew Askeland, Bradley O. Clarke, Sardar Alam Cheema, Ana Mendez, Gabriel Gasco, Jorge Paz-FerreiroAbstractThe ability to immobilise PFAS in soil may be an essential interim tool while technologies are developed for effective long-term treatment of PFAS contaminated soils. Serial sorption experiments were undertaken using a pine derived biochar produced at 750 °C (P750). All experiments were carried out either in individual mode (solution with one PFAS at 5 μg/L) or mix mode (solution with 5 μg/L of each: PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS and PFHxA), and carried out in 2:1 water to soil solutions. Soils had biochar added in the range 0–5% w/w. Kinetic data were fitted to the pseudo-second order model for both amended soils, with equilibrium times ranging 0.5–96 h for all congeners. PFOS sorption was 11.1 ± 4.5% in the loamy sand compared to 69.8 ± 4.9% in the sandy clay loam. While total sorption was higher in the unamended loamy sand than sandy clay loam for PFHxA, PFOA and PFOS, the effect of biochar amendment for each compound was found to be significantly higher in amended sandy clay loam than in amended loamy sand. Application of biochar reduced the desorbed PFAS fraction of all soils. Soil type and experimental mode played a significant role in influencing desorption. Overall, the relationship between sorbent and congener was demonstrated to be highly impacted by soil type, however the unique physiochemical properties of each PFAS congener greatly influenced its unique equilibrium, sorption and desorption behaviour for each amended soil and mode tested.
       
  • Kinetics of biocathodic electron transfer in a bioelectrochemical system
           coupled with chemical absorption for NO removal
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2020Source: Chemosphere, Volume 249Author(s): Jingkai Zhao, Ke Feng, Shu-Hui Liu, Chi-Wen Lin, Shihan Zhang, Sujing Li, Wei Li, Jianmeng ChenA microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) has been developing for enhanced absorbent regeneration in a chemical absorption-biological reduction integrated process for NO removal. In this work, the kinetics of electron transfer involved in the biocathodes along Fe(III)EDTA and Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction was analyzed simultaneously. A modified Nernst-Monod kinetics considering the Faraday efficiency was applied to describe the electron transfer kinetics of Fe(III)EDTA reduction. The effects of substrate concentration, biocathodic potential on current density predicted by the model have been validated by the experimental results. Furthermore, extended from the kinetics of Fe(III)EDTA reduction, the electron transfer kinetics of Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction was developed with a semi-experimental method, while both direct electrochemical and bioelectrochemical processes were taken into consideration at the same time. It was revealed that the developed model could simulate the electron transfer kinetics well. This work could not only help advance the biocathodic reduction ability and the utilization efficiency of electric power, but also provide insights into the industrial scale-up and application of the system.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Heterogeneous Fenton oxidation of trichloroethylene catalyzed by sewage
           sludge biochar: Experimental study and life cycle assessment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2020Source: ChemosphereAuthor(s): Yu-Fong Huang, Yu-Yang Huang, Pei-Te Chiueh, Shang-Lien LoHeterogeneous Fenton oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) catalyzed by sewage sludge biochar was studied. The highest TCE removal efficiency was 83% at pH 3.1, catalyzed by 300 W biochar. The biochars produced at higher microwave power levels provided better catalytic effect, due to higher iron contents and specific surface areas. Reactivity of sewage sludge biochar maintained after several uses, which provides an advantage for using as a permeable reactive barrier to remediate groundwater pollution. Chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc were found in the leachate generated from sewage sludge biochar, and most of the concentrations were lower than the standards for non-drinking water use. Besides, copper, zinc, and iron were found in the reaction solutions of Fenton oxidation. Because of the highest dosage required for Fenton oxidation, the environmental impact caused by 200 W biochar is highest. The environmental impact caused by 300 W biochar is lowest. Among the four endpoint impact categories in the life cycle assessment (LCA), human health is the highest concern, whereas ecosystem quality is the least. According to experimental and LCA results, the optimum microwave power level would be 300 W. The primary impact source is microwave pyrolysis because of high energy usage.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
 
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