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Education + Training
Number of Followers: 28  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0040-0912 - ISSN (Online) 1758-6127
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  • A personal construct approach to employability: comparing
           stakeholders’ implicit theories
    • Pages: 390 - 412
      Abstract: Education + Training, Volume 61, Issue 4, Page 390-412, April 2019.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to adopt the perspective of personal construct theory to conceptualise employability. The study explores differences in the implicit employability theories of those involved in developing employability (educators) and those selecting and recruiting higher education (HE) students and graduates (employers). Design/methodology/approach A repertory grid technique (RGT) was employed to uncover the implicit theories of 22 employers and 14 educators across the UK. Findings A total of 717 constructs were elicited. A differential analysis of data gathered demonstrated several areas of consensus among employers and educators (including emotional management, confidence, professionalism), as well as divergence in representations of commitment, proactivity, interpersonal competencies and vision to the conceptualisation of employability. Practical implications Findings from this analysis indicate a need to integrate group process assessments within undergraduate programmes and recruitment procedures. Originality/value This study represents a personal construct approach to employability, utilising the unique value of RGT to further inform our understanding of employability within an HE context. This study contributes to an understanding of employability as a continually re-constructed concept. This study provides insights to its nature via two information rich cases that have extensive knowledge on the topic.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-04-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-08-2017-0112
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 4 (2019)
  • The role of practical assessment in the delivery of successful enterprise
    • Pages: 413 - 431
      Abstract: Education + Training, Volume 61, Issue 4, Page 413-431, April 2019.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to concentrate on how assessment is used to support the aims of enterprise education leading to recommendations for improvements to the current approach to the assessment of enterprise. Design/methodology/approach This paper presents a review of entrepreneurship education literature and a qualitative case study conducted on a sample of enterprise educators at University of the West of Scotland. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings Paradoxically, the traditional enterprise education paradigm harms that which it attempts to nurture: entrepreneurial thinking and activity. The rationalised approach to education conflicts with the aims of enterprise educators, and there is evidence of a visible and growing disconnect between academia (the theory) and industry (the practice). Research limitations/implications The work is limited as it concentrates on a single case study. The qualitative approach focusses on a specific social field and therefore the findings cannot be generalised to other settings. These limitations can be addressed in future research. Practical implications This work has resonance for enterprise educators delivering and assessing entrepreneurial learning in an academic setting and will also be of interest to decision makers within this sector concerned with ensuring academic practice remains aligned to policy and industry requirements. Originality/value Enterprise education is well researched; however, there is a gap in the area of enterprise assessment which is under researched and not well understood.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-04-02T12:53:23Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-10-2018-0216
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 4 (2019)
  • Articulating entrepreneurial competencies in the undergraduate curricular
    • Pages: 432 - 444
      Abstract: Education + Training, Volume 61, Issue 4, Page 432-444, April 2019.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the level enterprise language is articulated within programme level documentation, and then, using EntreComp (Bacigalupo et al., 2016) as a framework, investigate the extent by which curricula is underpinned by enterprise competencies. Design/methodology/approach This study adopted a qualitative approach firstly through a desk analysis of undergraduate programme documentation across one UK University (n=60), followed by face-to-face interviews with programme leaders (n=25). Findings Findings revealed a lack of reference to enterprise in programme documentation as well as a confusion of the language associated with enterprise and entrepreneurship. However, all participants in the study were able to articulate opportunities afforded to students within the programme to practise entrepreneurial competencies from the EntreComp framework. Originality/value Whilst the limitation of this study is that it has been carried out in just one university, the practical implication of these findings provide supporting evidence that the EntreComp framework can be used to build a whole programme approach to embedding enterprise. This remains to be tested in future research. As the EntreComp framework is relatively new, then this piece of research is original as it is amongst the first to report on the framework.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-03-28T12:32:13Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-09-2018-0197
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 4 (2019)
  • Can students be taught to articulate employability skills'
    • Pages: 445 - 460
      Abstract: Education + Training, Volume 61, Issue 4, Page 445-460, April 2019.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to report on research findings from a teaching and learning intervention that explored whether undergraduate university students can be taught to articulate their employability skills effectively to prospective employers and to retain this ability post-course. Design/methodology/approach The study included 3,400 students in 44 courses at a large Canadian university. Stage 1 involved a course-level teaching and learning intervention with the experimental student group, which received employability skills articulation instruction. Stage 2 involved an online survey administered six months post-course to the experimental group and the control group. Both groups responded to two randomly generated questions using the Situation/Task, Actions, Result (STAR) format, a format that employers commonly rely on to assess job candidates’ employability skills. The researchers compared the survey responses from the experimental and control groups. Findings Survey results demonstrate that previous exposure to the STAR format was the only significant factor affecting students’ skills articulation ability. Year of study and program (co-operative or non-co-operative) did not influence articulation. Practical implications The findings suggest that universities should integrate institution-wide, course-level employability skills articulation assignments for students in all years of study and programs (co-op and non-co-op). Originality/value This research is novel because its study design combines practical, instructional design with empirical research of significant scope (institution-wide) and participant size (3,400 students), contributing quantitative evidence to the employability skills articulation discussion. By surveying students six months post-course, the study captures whether articulation instruction can be recalled, an ability of particular relevance for career preparedness.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-04-05T09:26:28Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-08-2018-0186
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 4 (2019)
  • Entrepreneurial intentions: trust and network ties in online and
           face-to-face students
    • Pages: 461 - 479
      Abstract: Education + Training, Volume 61, Issue 4, Page 461-479, April 2019.
      Purpose Based on Azjen’s (1991) theory of planned behavior, the purpose of this paper is to complement the existing body of knowledge on entrepreneurial intentions (EIs) by comparing two different university environments in Spain (online and face-to-face) and their impact on EIs of university students using two components of social capital (SC), trust and network ties as variables with influence on the antecedents of EIs. Design/methodology/approach A survey was administered to online and face-to-face students yielding a total sample of 302 and 204, respectively. Partial least square–structural equation modeling is the technique employed to perform the analysis. Findings SC has a significant influence on EIs in both environments with greater effects online, as a consequence of the mediated role played by network ties between trust and the attitude toward the behavior, the subjective norm and consequently, EIs. Research limitations/implications The authors used a cross-sectional method. However, it would be interesting to obtain longitudinal data to provide a more valid support for the study. Practical implications This study provides insight into the important role played by network ties based on trust in the entrepreneurship process and in the university environment. Originality/value This study contributes to understanding the differential impact of SC (trust and network ties) on the antecedents of EIs between the students enrolled in different university environments using two non-parametric techniques Henseler’s multigroup analysis and the permutation test.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-03-22T10:21:42Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-05-2018-0126
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 4 (2019)
  • How does task-technology fit influence cloud-based e-learning continuance
           and impact'
    • Pages: 480 - 499
      Abstract: Education + Training, Volume 61, Issue 4, Page 480-499, April 2019.
      Purpose According to expectation–confirmation model (ECM) and task-technology fit (TTF) model, the purpose of this paper is to examine the role of TTF in students’ cloud-based e-learning continuance and evaluate whether TTF affects students’ perceived impact on learning of the cloud-based e-learning system within the educational institution. Design/methodology/approach Sample data for this study were collected from students enrolled in a comprehensive university in Taiwan. A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed in the campus, and 391 (78.2 percent) usable questionnaires were analyzed using structural equation modeling in this study. Findings This study’s results verified that both task characteristics and technology characteristics affected students’ perceived TTF, which significantly contributed to their perceived usefulness, confirmation and satisfaction with the cloud-based e-learning system, and these in turn directly or indirectly led to their continuance intention of the system and perceived impact on learning; essentially, the results strongly supported the research model integrating ECM and TTF model via positioning key constructs as the drivers with all hypothesized links being significant. Originality/value This study contributes to an understanding of the TTF in explaining students’ cloud-based e-learning continuance that is difficult to explain with only their utilitarian perception of the cloud-based e-learning system, and further places considerably more emphasis upon students’ perceived impact on learning greatly driven by their TTF in the system. Thus, this study’s empirical evidence on incorporating ECM and TTF model can shed light on the outcome for cloud-based e-learning continuance and enhance better understanding of a richer post-adoption model.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-05-15T10:19:38Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-09-2018-0203
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 4 (2019)
  • Students’ learning experience in a multidisciplinary innovation
    • Pages: 500 - 522
      Abstract: Education + Training, Volume 61, Issue 4, Page 500-522, April 2019.
      Purpose Collaboration between universities and industry is increasingly perceived as a vehicle to enhance innovation. Educational institutions are encouraged to build partnerships and multidisciplinary projects based around real-world open problems. Projects need to benefit student learning, not only the organisations looking for innovations. The context of this study is a multidisciplinary innovation project, as experienced by the students of an University of Applied Sciences in Finland. The purpose of this paper is to unfold students’ conceptions of the learning experience, to help teachers and curriculum designers to organise optimal conditions and processes, and support competence development. The research question was: How do students in higher professional education experience their learning in a multidisciplinary innovation project' Design/methodology/approach The study took a phenomenographic approach. The data were collected in the form of weekly diaries, maintained by the cultural management and social services students (n=74) in a mandatory multidisciplinary innovation project in professional higher education in Finland. The diary data were analysed using thematic inductive analysis. Findings The results of the study revealed that students’ understood the learning experience in relation to solvable conflicts and unusual situations they experienced during the project, while becoming aware of and claiming their collaborative agency and internalising phases of an innovation process. The competences as learning outcomes that students could name as developed related to content knowledge, different personal characteristics, social skills, emerging leadership skills, creativity, future orientation, social skills, technical, crafting and testing skills and innovation implementation-related skills, such as marketing, sales and entrepreneurship planning skills. However, future orientation and implementation planning skills showed more weakly than other variables in the data. Practical implications The findings suggest that curriculum design should enable networked, student-led and teacher supported pedagogical innovation processes that involve a whole path from future thinking and idea development through prototyping to implementation planning of the novel solution. Teachers promote deep comprehension of the innovation process, monitor and ease the pain of conflict if it threatens motivation, offer assessment tools and help in recognising gaps in individual competences and development needs, promote more future-oriented, concrete and implementable outcomes, and facilitate in bridging from innovation towards entrepreneurship planning. Originality/value The multidisciplinary innovation project described in this study provides a pedagogical way to connect higher education to the practises of society. These results provide encouraging findings for organising multidisciplinary project activities between education and working life. The paper, therefore, has significant value for teachers and entrepreneurship educators in designing curriculum and facilitating projects. The study promotes the dissemination of innovation development programmes in between education and work organisations also in other than technical and commercial fields.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-05-15T10:20:05Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-06-2018-0138
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 4 (2019)
  • Examining the impact of goal attainment and training goal on overall
           training satisfaction among vocational education and training completers
    • Pages: 523 - 532
      Abstract: Education + Training, Volume 61, Issue 4, Page 523-532, April 2019.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper was to examine whether there is a relationship between goal attainment and overall training satisfaction among vocational education and training (VET) completers, and in turn whether this relationship varies across the different goals for undertaking training in a VET course. Design/methodology/approach A request was made to the National Centre for Vocational Education Research in Australia for access to the unit record data from the 2016 Student Outcomes Survey. Approval was obtained. The final sample comprised 149,632 students who completed a VET course in 2016, where 55 per cent of the sample were women and the average age was 36.55 years (SD=13.17). Findings Students who achieved or did not yet know whether they had achieved their training goal were more satisfied with their overall training compared with those who partly achieved their goal, who in turn were more satisfied than those who did not attain their goal across the various training goals. However, participants who were training for personal reasons or reasons other than for employment or pursuing further study, and either partly achieved, did not achieve or did not know yet whether they had achieved their training goal reported the lowest levels of training satisfaction, although these participants were still satisfied overall with their training. Originality/value These results highlight the importance of understanding the impact of goals on achievement-related activities and should be used to inform learning and teaching approaches as well as the provision of support services in the VET sector.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-05-15T10:20:49Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-11-2018-0242
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 4 (2019)
  • Under the microscope – an examination of the supports for ethnic
           entrepreneurs in Ireland
    • Abstract: Education + Training, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Because entrepreneurs operate in a world of uncertainty, the ability to analyse a situation, extract the important and ignore the superfluous, compare potential outcomes, and extrapolate from other experiences to the current one is vital. Researchers have identified several skills an entrepreneur requires to operate their business and the purpose of this paper is to examine if the training and support necessary for entrepreneurship to occur within ethnic communities exists in Ireland. Design/methodology/approach This study was carried out among established ethnic entrepreneurs and representatives from support agencies in Ireland. A quantitative research methods approach was adopted using online surveys. Responses from 36 ethnic entrepreneurs and eight support organisations were received. Findings Targeted programmes offered by service providers included programmes in foreign languages; providing literature in foreign languages; and specially designed seminars for ethnic entrepreneurs. Of the established ethnic entrepreneurs, the majority indicated that, although they have deficiencies in their skillset they did not avail of programmes because they were unaware of them. Originality/value Irish service providers need to provide additional services to ethnic entrepreneurs to be on par with their EU counterparts. Irish service providers need to provide general and targeted training programmes through minority languages. If Ireland wants to continue being known as the “land of a hundred thousand welcomes” and be able to support the much-anticipated asylum seekers who may choose entrepreneurship as a career option, it needs to consider the adoption of the recommendations of this study and provide better tailored services for the ethnic entrepreneur.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-06-20T07:47:42Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-07-2018-0157
  • Enablers of entrepreneurial self-efficacy in a developing country
    • Abstract: Education + Training, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) in a developing country (Pakistan). The literature reports that entrepreneurship education does not enhance the level of ESE of the students. In the same vein, it is strongly emphasized that self-efficacy is the basic element in the entrepreneur’s undertakings. However, limited research has been conducted on the subject and the factors that impact ESE in the context of developing economies. Design/methodology/approach A quantitative approach was adopted, and data were collected from the 564 target respondents of different private and public universities of Pakistan. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the association between the variables of the conceptual model. Findings This study found a positive and significant impact of the predictors, entrepreneurial knowledge, entrepreneurial experiences, instrumental readiness and risk propensity on ESE among the students. Practical implications The findings of the study will help in developing self-efficacy for entrepreneurship in young potential entrepreneurs. They will also assist higher education management in developing and designing entrepreneurship academic curriculum and programs for the achievement of program learning outcomes. In addition, the findings will contribute to the literature of entrepreneurship and self-efficacy factors in the context of the developing country. Originality/value The results of the study confirm empirically tested factors that have a positive impact on ESE in a developing country setting.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-06-20T07:46:42Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-10-2018-0226
  • Internships and engineering: beliefs and behaviors of academics
    • Abstract: Education + Training, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Internships play an important role in the choices engineering students make about future career pathways though there is little research about the messaging students receive regarding internships from academics. This messaging is important because it can contribute to the expectations students set for internships which in turn influences the interpretation of the experience and sense of appropriateness of that particular career pathway. Situated in Expectancy X Value theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine the beliefs and behaviors of the academics with whom engineering students interact as related to internship experiences. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted and analyzed interviews with 13 career center employees and 14 academic advisers/faculty members across six demographically and geographically diverse schools. Interviews were coded, and within and across case patterns developed. Findings Across all six schools, interview participants believe internships are important for students with regard to three areas: enabling career discovery, providing opportunities for development of career skills and helping students with full-time job acquisition. However, participants describe few direct actions associated with these beliefs. The lack of recommended actions for making the most of the internship experience, despite a strong belief in their importance, is a major finding of this paper. Originality/value This study is original in that it examines an important perspective that is not often a focus of research related to internships: academic advisors, faculty or career center personnel. The multi-institution sample enhances the value of the study as commonalities were seen despite variation in schools, enabling recommendations useful to a variety of contexts.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-06-03T12:12:54Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-02-2017-0017
  • Entrepreneurial intentions
    • Abstract: Education + Training, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Culture plays a vital role in shaping individuals’ intentions and behaviour. Influence of cultural values on entrepreneurship has been acknowledged widely by academics and practitioners. However, little in terms of empirical results is known. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of cultural values on entrepreneurial intentions (EI) of Pakistani students. Design/methodology/approach Cultural values of individualism and collectivism were incorporated into the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Smart-PLS software was used to run a structural equation modelling (SEM) technique to analyse the data. Findings SEM results showed that attitudes towards entrepreneurship and perceived behavioural controls (PBC) mediated the relationship between individualism and EI while subjective norms (SN) mediated the relationship between collectivism and EI. Originality/value The study confirms the applicability of the TPB for understanding the EI in a collectivist culture. Additionally, findings of this study displayed that external factors, such as cultural values, can impact EI through SN, attitude and PBC. Incorporation of cultural values in TPB contributed to the understating of antecedents of EI.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-05-15T10:50:19Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-09-2018-0194
  • Identification of entrepreneurial education contents using nominal group
    • Abstract: Education + Training, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify the elements of education and training intervention that facilitate occupational transition intentions of undergraduates and encourage them to opt for entrepreneurial pursuit. Design/methodology/approach The study, conducted in India, employed the nominal group technique (NGT) – A systems science technique – which considers that users are experts and they must participate in the decision-making process. The application of NGT involved a workshop format; 15 domain experts participated in the workshop. Throughout the process, a democratic process was followed to avoid individual dominance and premature focusing on a single idea. Findings The study obtained 63 responses from experts for effective entrepreneurship education in India. The responses were reduced to seven elements after a few thematic iterations. These elements were then segregated into content (knowledge, skills and attitude) and learning interaction on the basis of experts’ responses. An initial draft of the course based upon the elements identified through NGT is presented in this paper. Originality/value This study is unique and different from previous research on entrepreneurship education in several ways: It takes cognizance of multiple stakeholders; It provides a theoretical framework along with empirical groundwork; It suggests curriculum contents that have contextual as well as universal relevance. This paper contributes to the emerging dimensions of entrepreneurship literature, which implies a shift from understanding a well-established Western context of entrepreneurship research to transitional societies from the East.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-05-10T12:52:16Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-05-2018-0105
  • Perceived social norms, psychological capital and entrepreneurial
           intention among undergraduate students in Bukavu
    • Abstract: Education + Training, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Entrepreneurship is important for economic growth, through its role in the provision of employment. In the recent past, a number of African universities have developed entrepreneurship education courses to facilitate the growing demand for entrepreneurs in the market. An immediate outcome anticipated from entrepreneurship education is to increase entrepreneurial intention (EI) among the participants. Unfortunately, most of the entrepreneurship education in developing economies has not been linked to an increase in the EI of students. This paper thus proposes that it is when students possess high levels of psychological capital and perceive positive social norms that entrepreneurship education will lead to positive EI. The purpose of this paper is to establish the relationship between perceived social norms (PSN), psychological capital and EI of university students. Design/methodology/approach Quantitative data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire on a random sample of 196 final year entrepreneurship and business management students, from three universities in Bukavu (East of DRC). Structural equation modeling was used to test the research hypotheses. Findings The paper provides four main findings. First, PSN and psychological capital have a positive significant effect on EI. Second, PSN contribute more to this effect than psychological capital. Third, PSN make a positive and significant effect on psychological capital. Lastly, psychological capital positively mediates the relationship between PSN and EI. Research limitations/implications This study could have benefited from a qualitative approach to have a more in-depth explanation of these relationships. The study is conducted amongst students who operate in a controlled environment. This may not reflect the actual behavior of entrepreneurs. Practical implications This work provides cues of what entrepreneurship educators should consider as they recruit and train students. Specifically, the study highlights the importance of students’ psychological capital and positive social norms in transforming entrepreneurial education into intention. Originality/value This study adds value to knowledge by highlighting the mediating role of psychological capital on the relationship between PSN and EI.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-05-03T09:58:47Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-10-2018-0212
  • Creating a Win-Win
    • Abstract: Education + Training, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose It is well established that partnerships between universities and community organizations can serve to enhance student learning and employability (Anderson et al., 2011; Arantes do Amaral and Matsusaki, 2017; Jones and Sherr, 2014; Voss et al., 2015). Within this context, the purpose of this paper is to explore how one such partnership has resulted in the successful implementation of three pedagogical methodologies, which individually and collectively promote student-centered learning and employability skills through an experiential learning framework. Design/methodology/approach Using this methodological case study approach where the pedagogies of internships, service-learning opportunities, and project-based learning are critically evaluated, the research reveals only positive benefits for students, faculty, and the community organization(s). These benefits center on improved employability skills, the development of social skills and societal contribution for students. Findings Participating students also noted the development of their confidence and the importance of feedback from both peers and assigned staff. Members of faculty considered the opportunity for students to put theory into practice, enhanced employability skills and the collective nature of the methodologies as the main benefits with The center echoing the sentiments of other stakeholders. The center considered the workplace preparedness, the development of soft skills and confidence and the collective nature of the methodologies as the main benefits of the partnership. Originality/value The insight provided by the research contributes to existing literature through examining the relationship between an academic institution and its community, providing a practical framework and guidelines for the implementation of student-centered pedagogical methods.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-05-02T03:10:11Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-01-2018-0011
  • Examining the business education curricula in South Africa
    • Abstract: Education + Training, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the business education curricula in South Africa in relation to social entrepreneurship and to ascertain pre-service teachers’ perspectives of the reasons for social entrepreneurship not being included in these curricula as observed in classroom teaching practices. Design/methodology/approach Through interpretivist inquiry, third-year pre-service teachers’ (n=92) comments on online group blogs were analysed to clarify a range of meanings and understandings of their responses. Findings Social entrepreneurship as a concept and as an ideal as well as certain fundamental concept is not adequately integrated in the business education curricula in secondary schools in South Africa. Furthermore, the schools where the pre-service teachers conducted their teaching practice were failing to integrate activities associated with social entrepreneurship in their business education curricula. Research limitations/implications The study was limited to a single tertiary institution. Similar studies in both developing and developed contexts in schools could be initiated as a means of teaching social entrepreneurship for social justice as a subject efficaciously. Practical implications The study recommends that social entrepreneurship should be implemented earlier in the secondary education system as a means of enhancing the social entrepreneurial capacities of school learners. Originality/value This is the first study examining the secondary education curricula in a developing economy, such as South Africa, in relation to the absence of the emerging concept of social entrepreneurship.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-03-28T12:29:32Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-05-2018-0115
  • Employers’ ratings of importance of skills and competencies college
           graduates need to get hired
    • Abstract: Education + Training, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Higher education institutions play an important role in the economic growth of any country, through skills and productivity of their graduates. Employers have some expectations about the skills the graduates possess when they graduate out of universities. The purpose of this paper is to examine the skills employers look for in graduates before they hire them. Design/methodology/approach Using a structured survey instrument, this paper gathered data from 50 organizations employing over 50 people. The data consisted of 21 skills the employers rate as important. These skills were categorized into four dimensions: analytical skills, career professional and readiness skills, communications skills, and personality, leadership skills and team/group work. After checking the reliability of the scale, χ2 test and rank correlation were used to analyze the importance of these skills. Findings The findings from a study of employers in the northeastern part of USA suggest that the top six skills and competencies rated with highest importance by employers were: interpersonal skills/works well with others; critical thinking/problem-solving skills; listening skills; oral/speech communication skills; professionalism; and personal motivation. Of all 21 skills, the highly ranked skills needed were interpersonal skills followed by critical thinking and problem solving and listening. Research limitations/implications The present research is based on self-report measures and, hence, the limitations of social desirability bias and common method bias are inherent. However, adequate care is taken to minimize these limitations. The research has implications for the higher educational institutions and researches in the field of education. Practical implications In addition to the employers, this study contributes to higher educational institutions. The study suggests that employers look for interpersonal skills and problem-solving skills before making hiring decisions. Educational institutions need to focus on enhancing these skills in classrooms by emphasizing the teamwork. The implications for both academicians and practitioners are discussed in the paper. Social implications The findings from the study help in creating a fruitful social environment in organizations. Originality/value This study provides new insights about the changing pattern of skills students need to secure before seeking employment.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-03-28T12:26:53Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-12-2018-0250
  • Enhancing the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education: the role of
           entrepreneurial lecturers
    • Abstract: Education + Training, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Despite the inclusion of entrepreneurship education (EE) in the curricula of tertiary education institutions in Nigeria, graduate unemployment is still an issue of serious concern. This calls into question the effectiveness of EE in influencing students’ entrepreneurial intentions (EIs) and behaviours. Perhaps, the issue is with the EE lecturers. The questions, which should be answered include: are the lecturers who teach EE entrepreneurially inclined' Can lecturers who are not entrepreneurially inclined teach students to become entrepreneurs' The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to empirically explore the role of entrepreneurial lecturers in the relationship between EE and students’ EIs. Design/methodology/approach This study adopted a quantitative approach. Thus, a self-reported questionnaire was administered to a randomly selected sample of 256 Higher National Diploma II students of the Federal Polytechnic, Idah, Nigeria, who were exposed to EE. To analyse the data collected, partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was performed using SmartPLS 2.0.M3 software. Findings Data analysis showed a significantly positive relationship between EE and students’ EIs on the one hand and between EE and perceived entrepreneurial lecturers (PELs) on the other hand. It was also found that PELs had a significantly positive link with students’ EIs. Further analysis indicated that PELs had a mediating effect on the relationship between EE and students’ EIs. Research limitations/implications This study was a single institutional study. Thus, the generalisability of its findings to other institutions is limited. Extending the research to other institutions and countries might be required to validate the findings presented. Practical implications This research work has some insightful implications for the teaching of EE. By implication, it provides an answer to the question: who should teach EE' To achieve greater impact of EE on students’ EIs and behaviours, entrepreneurial lecturers are required. It implies that EE lecturers should be entrepreneurially inclined. They should demonstrate sufficient entrepreneurial attitudes, intentions and behaviours. Social implications It has been argued that graduate unemployment constitutes a social problem to the society. In this regard, the suggestions made in this paper, if applied, would help resolve the problem of graduate unemployment in Nigeria and other countries. Originality/value This study is the first to provide empirical evidence of the role of entrepreneurial lecturers in the relationship between EE and students’ EIs. It has demonstrated that entrepreneurial lecturers could transfer the influence of EE to students’ EIs. Also, it has confirmed that EE lecturers are critical in the EE-students’ EIs relationship. Overall, this study makes a significant contribution to the discussion on how to enhance the effectiveness of EE in influencing students’ EIs and behaviours.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-03-28T12:23:32Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-06-2018-0127
  • Graduate readiness for the employment market of the 4th industrial
    • Abstract: Education + Training, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is, first, to examine student perspectives of their university experience in terms of the soft employability skills they develop; second, how prepared those students feel for the future employment market and finally investigate whether there are differences in perceptions between Chinese and Malaysian students given their different educational experience. Design/methodology/approach In this study, 361 predominantly Chinese undergraduate students at two universities, one in China and the other in Malaysia completed the 15-item Goldsmiths soft skills inventory using an online survey. Findings The results, analysed using factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, indicated that the university curriculum develops student soft skills, particularly in the Malaysian university and supports the relationship between soft skill and student preparedness for employment. The results also indicate that compared with the respondents from the Chinese university, the Malaysian university respondents were more likely to be positive to statements concerning their respective university’s ability to develop their soft skills. Research limitations/implications Such findings have implications for education providers and business in that it is important for universities to embed soft skills into the curriculum in order to develop graduate work readiness. Originality/value What this research contributes is not only consolidation of existing research in the contemporary context of a disruptive jobs market, it takes research forward through analysing student perceptions from two universities, one in Malaysia and the other in China, of the skills they develop at university and the importance of soft skills to them and their perceptions of future employment and employability. Such research will provide insight, in particular, into the role of education providers, the phenomena of underemployment among graduates in China, and be of practical significance to employers and their perception that graduates lack the necessary soft skills for the workplace (Anonymous, 2017a; Stapleton, 2017; British Council, 2015; Chan, 2015).
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-03-19T04:12:03Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-07-2018-0154
  • Training effects on subsistence entrepreneurs’ hope and goal
    • Abstract: Education + Training, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent to which hope and perceived goal attainment can be developed in subsistence entrepreneurs through the right training tools. Design/methodology/approach A longitudinal study of a subsistence entrepreneurship training program in three Central American countries was carried out. Participants were divided on the basis of their exposure to training (yes, no), and of the type of training received (none, business plan, business model). The authors carried out three assessments (just before the program, six months and one year after the program) of participants’ business goals and their hope of attaining them. Information was analyzed using linear regression. Findings Participants exposed to training reported significant increases in perceived goal attainment and in their hope levels. Training based on the business plan affected hope agency in the short term, as predicted by the logic of causation theory. Training based on the business canvas affected hope pathways, as predicted by the logic of effectuation theory. Research limitations/implications Given the data collection process (a non-random sample and selection of participants), the findings are not generalizable without stringent procedures and further replication. Practical implications If hope is a reliable predictor of goal attainment, it should be promoted and measured. Given the limited means of gathering data and making reliable projections that most entrepreneurs endure, the business canvas’ contribution to entrepreneurs’ “emotional equipment” ceteris paribus should be more valuable for subsistence entrepreneurs. Originality/value This is the first study comparing the short- and long-term effects of two entrepreneurial learning devices on entrepreneurs’ hope and business goal attainment.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-03-19T04:01:25Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-08-2018-0172
  • The contribution of emotional intelligence and spirituality in
           understanding creativity and entrepreneurial intention of higher education
    • Abstract: Education + Training, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyse the role of spirituality and emotional intelligence in understanding creativity, attitudes towards entrepreneurship, perceived behavioural control (PBC) and entrepreneurial intention of students of a Portuguese higher education institution. A conceptual model is proposed representing direct and indirect relationships among these constructs. Design/methodology/approach A quantitative approach was adopted in the form of a survey questionnaire applied to a sample of 345 university students. To test the hypothesised relationships between the constructs, the authors used the path analysis technique. Findings Results show that personal attitudes towards entrepreneurship and PBC have a positive effect on entrepreneurial intention, and mediate the effect of emotional intelligence on entrepreneurial intention. Emotional intelligence has a direct positive effect on creativity. The results reveal no or a tenuous influence of spirituality in the various concepts studied. Practical implications It is expected that the model can serve as a support for facilitating and promoting entrepreneurship in higher education environments. It could be of valuable use to furthering our understanding of the role of individual/psychological characteristics, motivational and attitudinal factors in fostering entrepreneurial intention of university students. Originality/value Some studies suggest that psychological factors play an essential role in developing alternative models to the entrepreneurial process. However, the studies that directly explore how individual differences in emotional intelligence, spirituality and creativity relate to entrepreneurial intention are relatively few.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-02-25T03:24:50Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-01-2018-0026
  • Entrepreneurial competences in a higher education business plan course
    • Abstract: Education + Training, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to study which perceived and attained entrepreneurial competences acquired by students while developing a business plan are rated most highly; and second, to analyse the differences observed in entrepreneurial competences, depending on whether the business plan developed is real or fictitious. Design/methodology/approach To analyse the role played by business plans in perceptions and attainment of competence, data were collected from students enrolled on a final project course of a bachelor’s degree, specifically the Bachelor’s Degree in Business Administration and Management at the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya. The course in question focussed on entrepreneurship and business plans. The data on perceived and attained competences were obtained through questionnaires and assessment rubrics, respectively. Mean comparison analyses were conducted to investigate any differences in entrepreneurial competences existing between students developing real or fictitious business plans. Findings The paper finds evidence that the process of creating a business plan results in entrepreneurial competence being highly rated and that whether the business plan is real or fictitious does not affect the level of entrepreneurial competence. Research limitations/implications A longitudinal study will be required to analyse how entrepreneurial competences evolve during the business plan creation process. Originality/value This paper finds that few studies have been conducted to explore entrepreneurial competences in relation to business plan development and shows that more complete research is required. Moreover, both perceived and achieved competences are considered, an analysis not previously carried out.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-02-25T03:20:49Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-04-2018-0090
  • The effectiveness of problem-based learning in technical and vocational
           education in Malaysia
    • Abstract: Education + Training, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the use of problem-based learning (PBL) with engineering students at a technical university in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach The setting provided a unique opportunity to evaluate the impact of PBL, since Universiti Kuala Lumpur offers both the traditional, predominantly classroom-focussed approach to engineering and the more hands-on approach referred to as Higher Technical and Vocational Education and Training (HTVET). The study sample consisted of 453 third-year students’ enroled in both programmes at Universiti Kuala Lumpur. Findings Students in the HTVET programme responded better to PBL teaching methods, as evidenced by improved performance on written as well as lab-based assessments. This result indicates that students using the hands-on approach advocated by HTVET tend to obtain the greatest benefit from experiential, student-centred learning approaches. The analysis suggests the possibility that the PBL approach is a moderator of student performance in HTVET programmes. This possibility merits further investigation. Research limitations/implications The sample included students from only one institution of higher learning, which was chosen because both types of programmes are offered there. In addition, the current study does not consider potential mediating or moderating variables. Originality/value The findings provide an empirical basis for implementing PBL as a form of experiential learning at higher education institutions, especially those using the HTVET model. Furthermore, they provide a justification for designing curriculum structures and student learning time with an emphasis on active and experiential learning, thereby maximising the effectiveness of a hands-on approach, rather than the “minds-on” theoretical approach advocated by traditional engineering programmes in enhancing the teaching and learning experience.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-02-25T03:09:09Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-06-2018-0129
  • Work-readiness integrated competence model
    • Abstract: Education + Training, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to conceptualise graduate work-readiness (GWR) and to develop a scale to measure it. Design/methodology/approach The methodology entailed the compilation of a literature review and the conduct of qualitative interviews and a focus group to generate items. This study used the “resource-based view” approach to conceptualise a multi-dimensional–“work-readiness integrated competence model (WRICM)”–consisting of four main factors (namely, intellectual, personality, meta-skill and job-specific resources), with a further ten sub-dimensions. Further, a series of tests were performed to assess its reliability and validity. Findings A final 53-item WRICM scale covering four dimensions and ten sub-dimensions of GWR was developed based on the perceptions of 362 HR professionals and managers from seven Asia-Pacific countries. The ten sub-dimensions covering 53 work-readiness skills reflect the perceptions of stakeholders regarding the work-readiness of graduates. The scale was found to be psychometrically sound for measuring GWR. Research limitations/implications Though the WRICM model is based on the inputs of different stakeholders of GWR (employers, educators, policy makers and graduates), the development of the WRICM scale is based on the perspectives of industry/employers only. Practical implications The WRICM model has implications for education, industry, professional associations, policy makers and for graduates. These stakeholders can adapt this scale in assessing the work-readiness of graduates in different streams of education. Originality/value The authors believe that the WRICM model is the first multi-dimensional construct that is based on a sound theory and from the inputs from graduate work-readiness stakeholders from seven Asia-Pacific countries.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-02-21T10:07:21Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-05-2018-0114
  • Classroom interdisciplinary diversity and entrepreneurial intentions
    • Abstract: Education + Training, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of classroom interdisciplinary diversity, a type of classroom diversity that has been under-examined by previous literature, on the formation of university students’ entrepreneurial intentions (EI). Design/methodology/approach Based on Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour and the interactionist model of creative behaviour by Woodman et al. (1993), this paper provides empirical evidence demonstrating that classroom interdisciplinary diversity is important in the formation of university students’ EI at early educational stages using a cross-sectional study design and survey data on first-year business school students and partial least squares analysis. Findings Classroom interdisciplinary diversity is important in the formation of university students’ EI through its positive impact on entrepreneurial perceived behavioural control (PBC) (self-efficacy), a key antecedent of EI. Practical implications The results have important implications for educational practice as well as for both public and private organisations willing to promote entrepreneurial activity, in particular, the positive effects of combining people with different profiles and career fields of interest on entrepreneurial PBC (self-efficacy). Originality/value This study contributes to the scant literature on early university experiences in entrepreneurship education and their influence on EI. It studies the impact of an under-examined dimension of diversity (classroom interdisciplinary diversity) on the formation of students’ EI.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-02-13T02:55:29Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-06-2018-0136
  • “Walking on egg shells”: Brexit, British values and
           educational space
    • Abstract: Education + Training, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to critically explore and foreground secondary religious education (RE) student teachers’ accounts of the dilemmas they experienced in their classrooms and schools in a highly racialised post referendum environment. Teacher narratives are analysed in order to suggest ways in which a transformative teaching and learning agenda drawing from a pluralistic human rights framework can be reasserted in place of government requirements to promote fundamental British values (FBV). Design/methodology/approach Qualitative data were collected in focus group interviews to gain insights into how the referendum environment was experienced phenomenologically in localised school settings. Findings The interview data reveals the complex ways in which the discourses circulating in the post referendum milieu play out in highly contingent, diverse secondary school settings. These schools operate in a high stakes policy context, shaped by the new civic nationalism of FBV, the Prevent security agenda and government disavowal of “multiculturalism” in defence of “our way of life” (Cameron, 2011). A key finding to emerge from the teachers’ narratives is that some of the ways in which Prevent and FBV have been imposed in their schools has reduced the transformative potentials of the critical, pluralistic RE approaches to teaching and learning that is promoted within the context of their university initial teacher education programme. Research limitations/implications The findings suggest that existing frameworks associated with security and civic nationalism are not sufficient to ensure that young citizens receive an education that prepares them for engagement with a post truth, post Brexit racial and political environment. Transformative teaching and learning approaches (Duckworth and Smith, 2018), drawing upon pluralistic, critical RE and human rights education are presented as more effective alternatives which recognise the dignity and agency of both teachers and students. Originality/value This paper is an original investigation of the impact of the Brexit referendum environment on student teachers in a university setting. In the racialised aftermath of the referendum the need for transformative pluralistic and critical educational practice has never been more urgent. The data and analysis presented in this paper offer a compelling argument for a root and branch reformulation of current government security agendas in education.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-02-08T02:47:11Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-12-2018-0248
  • Time management: skills to learn and put into practice
    • Abstract: Education + Training, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The knowledge society determines a work scenario in which it is essential to manage time efficiently; a non-innate skill that should be learned at the university. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach This research analyzes the attitude, habits and time management of the Economics and Business students of the UPV/EHU, in order to propose/design/specific activities for its achievement. Through a self-administered questionnaire, the sample data are obtained, which are analyzed at a descriptive and multivariate level. Findings The decisive factor is not the amount of time available but the management that is made of it. In general, students pay attention to short-term planning and lack habits and attitudes in the long term. Practical implications Unaware of the advantages of a correct use of time, students do not develop skills such as self-organization, prioritization of objectives and activities, etc., which is why the intervention of the educational system is necessary in order to develop this skill. Originality/value This study focuses on the importance of developing skills, beyond the strictly technical, essential in professional performance regardless of the function assigned in the organizational chart/organization. It is about assessing time management as an integral part of higher education, competition expressed on paper, but not developed in practice. The originality and novelty of this research consists of defining new dimensions of time management and proposing some specific actions to be implemented to get a better time management.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-02-08T02:33:16Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-01-2018-0027
  • Predicting entrepreneurial intention across the university
    • Abstract: Education + Training, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to quantify the relative importance of four key entrepreneurial characteristics identified in the literature (proactiveness, attitude to risk, innovativeness and self-efficacy) in predicting students’ entrepreneurial intention (EI) across a range of faculties offering different subjects at a UK higher education institution (HEI). This approach will help to identify whether there are variations across the faculties in the predictors of EI. This enables recommendations to be made with regard to the development of educational delivery and support to encourage and develop the specific predictors of EI within the different subject areas. Design/methodology/approach This research uses a 40-item questionnaire to obtain information on students’ demographics, entrepreneurial characteristics and EI, based on a five-point Likert-type scale. Principle component analysis, correlation analysis and multiple hierarchical regression analysis are used to analyse the data from 1,185 students to develop models which predict EI for each of the six faculties. Findings Individual models which predict EI are developed for each of the six faculties showing variations in the makeup of the predictors across faculties in the HEI. Attitude to risk was the strongest predictor in five of the six faculties and the second strongest predictor in the sixth. The differences, together with the implications, for educational approaches and pedagogy are considered. Originality/value This research breaks down the level of analysis of EI to the individual faculty level in order to investigate whether different entrepreneurial characteristics predict EI in different academic disciplines across a UK HEI. This enables entrepreneurship educational approaches to be considered at a faculty level rather than a one size fits all approach.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-01-07T04:08:38Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-05-2018-0117
  • Gender and university degree: a new analysis of entrepreneurial intention
    • Abstract: Education + Training, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine how and why differences in gender affect entrepreneurial intention (EI). Although there are many studies in this area, scholars have yet to reach a consensus. Design/methodology/approach This study uses a survey of students at Malaga University in two stages to introduce a new perspective that links gender and university degree subject with the predisposition towards business creation. Structural equation modelling (SEM) is applied. Findings Comparing the explanatory power of an additive model and a multiplicative model, this paper confirms that socialisation conditions both men and women in their choice of university studies. Consequently, gender and university degree subject choice are shown to be linked and both affect EI. Research limitations/implications These findings provide a starting point for closing the information gap in the literature, but deeper analysis is required to combine other factors, such as international variations and the influence of different education systems on entrepreneurship. Practical implications These results are of special value to universities interested in fomenting entrepreneurship in their graduates, allowing them to better propose educational policies and communication campaigns reducing the effect of gender on degree choice. Originality/value The contribution of this research is the development of introducing university degree subjects as tied to gender. The study forms one construct together, and not a descriptive variable of the sample selected or as two independent exogenous variables, as is the case in most of the literature in this area.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2019-01-04T02:56:28Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-04-2018-0085
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