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Legal Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.678
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 350  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1344-6223
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Environmental microbiology: perspectives for legal and occupational
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Saverio Giampaoli, Federica Alessandrini, Giovanni Vanni Frajese, Giovanni Guglielmi, Adriano Tagliabracci, Andrea BertiAbstractThe analysis of microorganism population is crucial in several medical fields. This is especially true in legal and occupational medicine, where the specialist can be asked to perform an evaluation of several environmental matrices. In these two medical fields an accurate microbiological analysis is part of a wide process aimed to the definition of the interactions between human beings and environment.In legal medicine it is important to deserve attention to the identification of microbiological traces in order to better understand past events, while in occupational and preventive medicine the microbiological evaluation of environmental samples is crucial for an effective risk management and the definition of safety procedures. The achievement of these objectives requires the comprehension of microbial biodiversity and not only the identification of few biomarkers. In the present paper, the complexity of this process is highlighted through the presentation of typical scenarios where microorganism population analyses are relevant in legal medicine and occupational medicine.The similarities between the microbiological approach in legal and occupational medicine lead to the sharing of laboratory approaches. A description of technological evolution shows how new protocols and procedures are supporting a wider microbiological comprehension of specimens. The development of molecular tools has opened new opportunities, but it has underlined the need for the implementation of new standardized procedures dedicated to these medical fields, where science and medicine interact with the law. In addition, the rapid evolution of massive parallel sequencing technologies requires the implementation of new bioinformatic tools with a user-friendly interface.
  • Two loci concurrent mutations in non-exclusion parentage cases using 19
           STR profiles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Qiu-Ling Liu, Ye-Fei Chen, Yu Zang, Kai-Yan Liu, Hu Zhao, De-Jian LuAbstractTwo loci concurrent mutations in non-exclusion paternity case were reported based on 19 STR loci available from Goldeneye™ DNA ID System 20A (Peoplespot, Beijing, China). When 9508 family trios with Paternity index (PI) threshold of>10,000 was analyzed, 14 families show mutations at two loci. The paternity was confirmed by using an additional 19 STR markers. When probability of occurrence of two mutations was compared with the expected probability deduced from binomial model, the observed mutational probability was significantly larger than the expectation. However, the characteristics of mutations agree with those reported previously. Our result indicates that larger samples is still need to estimate mutation rates accurately and reveal the relationship between mutations with multiple loci and the characterization of human mutation based on microsatellites.
  • Left cerebral hemisphere hydrophilic polymer embolism associated with
           endovascular WEB treatment of a ruptured aneurysm of the anterior cerebral
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Julius Tikka, Maria Gardberg, Riitta Rautio, Philippe LunettaAbstractHydrophilic polymer embolism (HPE) is a rare, likely under-recognized iatrogenic complication, caused by fragmentation of surface materials used on endovascular medical devices. The organs most often involved in HPE are the brain and lungs, resulting in both local and systemic reactions. We present the case of a cerebral HPE associated with WEB treatment of a ruptured aneurysm of the anterior cerebral artery, and involving diffusely the left cerebral hemisphere. The patient developed pneumonia and status epilepticus, and died 24 days after the endovascular procedure, most likely as a result of the sequelae of the aneurysm rupture. The precise role of HPE in the sequence of events leading to death can remain, as in this case, a matter for speculation. However, the potential role of HPE in the events leading to death following diagnostic and therapeutic procedures should be appropriately assessed, especially when recovery does not progress as expected.
  • DNA Analysis of Hairs in a Suspected Case of Child Abuse
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Hiroshi Ohira, Yoko Sakamoto, Isao Yamamoto, Yoshihiro YamadaAbstractHairs are often used for DNA analysis in criminal investigations. DNA analysis of hairs with root sheaths is easy in many cases, but analyses using only the shaft or tip of the hair are often difficult. Here we describe a suspected case of child abuse in which we were commissioned to perform DNA analysis. Among 100 hairs, PCR amplification was succeeded in 99 samples, and as a result of direct sequencing, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the 99 hairs were classified into 6 types. The most common type was the 8-base substitution type of 16,168T-16,172C-16,183C-16,189C-16,217C-16,249C-16,325C-16,390A, which was observed in 86 hairs. This corresponded to the type of the victim. Total 736 STRs (75.5%) in 975 loci of 65 hairs could be typed, and only an amelogenin locus was typed in another hair. All 15 loci were typed in 10 hairs. STR types of 65 (98.5%) in 66 hairs were consistent with that of the victim. From 10 naturally-shed hair of a person, only 37 STRs (30.8%) in 120 loci of 8 hairs were typed, and all 15 loci could not be typed in these hairs. This difference in success rates of STR analysis suggested strongly that the hairs in this case were not shed naturally but forcibly, and the relevance to child abuse was suspected.
  • Sex estimation by size and shape of foramen magnum based on CT
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Diana Toneva, Silviya Nikolova, Stanislav Harizanov, Ivan Georgiev, Dora Zlatareva, Vassil Hadjidekov, Angel Dandov, Nikolai LazarovAbstractForamen magnum (FM) has a well-protected position, which makes it of particular interest in forensic research. The aim of the study is to assess the sex differences in size and shape of FM, develop discriminant functions and logistic regression models based on the FM measurements, compare the accuracy results of the measurements obtained through different measuring approaches, and establish the most reliable variables for sex estimation in Bulgarian adults. Head CT scans of 140 Bulgarian adults were used in the study. The segmentation of the skulls was performed in the software InVesalius. The length, breadth, circumference and area were measured based on the 3D coordinates of definite landmarks and semi-landmarks. The circumference and area were calculated regarding the foramen as a 2D and 3D structure. Two additional variables (λ2 and λ3) corresponding to the least square errors along the length and breadth directions at the fitting of the 3D coordinates to a plane were examined for their sex discriminating ability. The FM shape was classified based on the values of the FM index. The significance of the sex differences was assessed. Discriminate function analysis and binary logistic regression were conducted. Significant sex differences were established in the FM size and shape. The eigenvalue λ3 is the best discriminating parameter applying discriminant function analysis. The acceptance of FM as a 2D or 3D structure does not provide substantial information for its sex discrimination. The measurements of FM do not offer sufficiently high predicting rates for sex estimation in the Bulgarian population.
  • Trimethylamine in postmortem tissues as a predictor of postmortem interval
           estimation using the GC method
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Weichen Li, Leiming Han, Xiaochen Liu, Jifeng Cai, Lagabaiyla Zha, Yadong Guo, Yunfeng Chang, Yanjun DingAbstractTrimethylamine (TMA), a simple amine in volatile compounds, indicating the spoilage degree of meat, related with the late postmortem interval (PMI) during the cadaver decomposition process. In this paper, a headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) method has been successfully built to analyze the content of TMA in postmortem rat tissues (liver, myocardial and skeletal muscle tissues), which is used for PMI estimation with the wide range of PMI (0-720 h postmortem) at 16°C±1°C. Correspondingly, three equations about the relationship between the PMI and TMA content were established, in which they showed that the TMA content in all three tissues increased from the firstly detected time to 192 h and gradually decreased after 384 h. Furthermore, the TMA measurement in five human samples was carried out and the results (
  • Sudden unexpected death with primary adrenal lymphoma
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Yukiko Hata, Shin Ishizawa, Naoki NishidaAbstractAn 82-year-old man was found dead on the road near his home with unwitnessed interval of 3 hours from final witness. He had been diagnosed with hypertension and mild aortic stenosis (AS) 13 years before death, and was continuously followed up with medication. Although a recent medical check-up related to cardiac function was stable and consistent with moderate AS, he sometimes complained of general fatigue, anorexia associated with intermittent mild fever and rare vomiting in the weeks before death. At autopsy, no lethal injury or drug intoxication was found, but congenital bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) with central rache was found. Although calcification was found in a restricted area of one cusp, valvular structural deformity was clearly milder than in typical severe AS cases. Moderate left ventricular hypertrophy without coronary disease was found. A brownish-red, soft nodular lesion was found in both adrenal glands, but no other tumorous focus was evident in any other organs. Immunohistochemical examination showed that B-lymphocyte-derived markers (CD20, melanoma associated antigen (mutated) 1, and CD79a) were exclusively positive. Therefore, we diagnosed primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma phenotype. We concluded that the cause of sudden unexpected death (SUD) was adrenal insufficiency associated with PAL, with a background of moderate AS related to BAV.
  • Comprehensive evaluation of the greater sciatic notch for sexual
           estimation through three-dimensional metric analysis using computed
           tomography based models
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Dong-Ho Kim, So-Hyun Lee, Sang-Seob Lee, Yi-Suk Kim, Dae-Kyoon Park, Seung-Ho Han, U-Young LeeAbstractThe greater sciatic notch is an effective indicator for sexual estimation, which is the initial process to identify unknown skeleton. Visual assessment is the mainstream of analysis methods; however, the subjectivity of researchers is also questioned. Metric method using three-dimensional models reconstructed from radiographic images can ensure reproducible and stable measurement of the greater sciatic notch. In this study, the greater sciatic notch was analyzed in various manners, including distances, angles, and dimensions, with the aid of an automatic measurement program and a landmark verification system. Among 28 items, 15 measurements showed more than 85% accuracy. Measurements related to the posterior part of the greater sciatic notch near the posterior inferior iliac spine particularly showed higher accuracy (93.1%). To test this observation, “arithmetic posterior angle of the greater sciatic notch”, a generalized form of partial angle of the greater sciatic notch, was designed. It showed more than 90% accuracy. When the results of the three-dimensional measurements were applied to classify dry bones, it proved to be valid in contemporary Korean population. The method and results of this study can be referenced in wider use of the greater sciatic notch analysis.
  • Assessment of DNA degradation of buccal cells under humid conditions and
           DNA repair by DOP-PCR using locked nucleic acids
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Masaru Asari, Hiroaki Matsuura, Shotaro Isozaki, Chisato Hoshina, Katsuhiro Okuda, Hiroki Tanaka, Kie Horioka, Hiroshi Shiono, Keiko ShimizuAbstractWe analyzed the degradation level of DNA from buccal cells under humid conditions using quantitative PCR analysis. Gauze samples with buccal cells were incubated for up to 12 months under three different conditions (25°C/dry, 25°C/humid, or 40°C/humid). The degradation was evaluated based on two degradation ratios (129:41 and 305:41 bp). DNA degraded slowly under the 25°C/humid conditions, and significant differences in the two degradation ratios were detected between 25°C/dry and 25°C/humid conditions after 12 months. Moreover, the degradation rapidly progressed under the 40°C/humid conditions, and the two degradation ratios in this conditions were much lower than those from 25°C/dry and 25°C/humid conditions after a short incubation period (3 months). To evaluate the effect of DNA repair on low-copy degraded DNA, degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR (DOP-PCR) was performed before short tandem repeats (STR) genotyping. As a standard DOP-PCR, we used a 22-base primer with 10 degenerate sequences (5’-CTCGAGNNNNNNNNNNATGTGG-3’), and additionally designed DOP-PCR primers with 2, 4, 6, or 8 locked nucleic acids (LNAs). When slightly degraded DNA (305:41-bp ratio=0.60) was used, DOP-PCR significantly increased the fluorescent intensity and success rate of genotyping using Identifiler and Globalfiler kits. In particular, the reaction with four LNAs produced the highest value. However, such benefits were not observed in the analysis of moderately degraded DNA (305:41-bp ratio=0.13). Although the recovery rates of STR profiles by DOP-PCR were dependent on the degradation level of low-copy DNA, the effectiveness of DOP-PCR highlights the potential of LNA for degenerate sequences.
  • Early postmortem interval estimation based on Cdc25b mRNA in rat cardiac
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Li Tao, Jianlong Ma, Liujun Han, Hongmei Xu, Yan Zeng, Lyu Yehui, Wencan Li, Kaijun Ma, Bi Xiao, Long ChenAbstractPurposeThe postmortem interval (PMI) is the amount of time that has elapsed since the time of death. Over the years, many approaches have been developed to assess PMI, but their time frame of applicability has been only days to weeks. Our present pilot study aimed to find the sensitive mRNA marker if the degradation of mRNA could be used to estimate the early postmortem interval (up to 24 h).MethordsIn our study, we use the microarray to screen 217 mRNAs markers of rat cardiac tissue.Then, real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to validate of the candidate markers at 7 time points within 24 h and at temperatures of 25 °C and 35 °C. Another 27 rats were then used to verify the model.ResultsAmong all of the candidate markers, △Cq (cell division cycle 25 homolog B(Cdc25b)) had the best correlation coefficient with early postmortem interval and was used to build a new model using the R software. The results of verification testing demonstrated that the error rate was less than 15%, demonstrating the high predictive power of our mathematical model.ConclusionIn this study, Cdc25b was found to be the sensitive marker to estimate early postmortem interval, and Rpl27 was found to be suitable for use as the endogenous control. Our work provided new leads for molecular approaches to early postmortem interval estimation using the significant mRNA markers established here.
  • Fatal exertional rhabdomyolysis. Literature review and our experience in
           forensic thanatology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Mariano Paternoster, Emanuele Capasso, Pierpaolo Di Lorenzo, Gelsomina Mansueto
  • Tattoo image composed of radiopaque deposits demonstrated by postmortem
           computed tomography
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Akira Hayakawa, Rie Sano, Hiroyuki Takei, Yoichiro Takahashi, Rieko Kubo, Hiroyuki Tokue, Satoshi Hirasawa, Takehiro Shimada, Sachiko Awata, Masahiro Yuasa, Shinji Uetake, Hisashi Akuzawa, Yoshihiko KominatoAbstractPostmortem computed tomography (PMCT) is becoming used more commonly in routine forensic investigation. CT is sensitive for detection of metal foreign bodies. Here we report a case of suicide due to self-ignition of kerosene that the victim had poured over herself. Prior to autopsy, PMCT detected tiny radiopaque particles arranged in a row in the surface of the back and either thigh, together with a series of similar particles under the skin lateral to the breasts or the bilateral inguinal region. At autopsy, external examination revealed third-degree burns involving charred tissues all over the body except for the head. Tattoos were visible on the back and on either thigh. The tattoos had colored designs, and the red portions corresponded to the radiopaque particles in the surface of the body. Internal examination demonstrated swelling of the axillary and inguinal lymph nodes, which corresponded to the radiopaque particles. A wave length-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed deposition of mercury and titanium in the inguinal lymph nodes. Thus, it was plausible that the ink could have contributed to the radiopaque particles found by PMCT in the surface of the back and thighs, as well in the lymph nodes. The present case was able to provide clues for interpretation of radiopaque particles revealed by PMCT in the surface of the body.
  • A new method for simultaneous quantification of fosphenytoin, phenytoin
           and its primary metabolite 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylhydantoin in whole
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 August 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Takayoshi Suzuki, Tadashi Ogawa, Jun Ueyama, Masae Iwai, Fumio Kondo, Hiroshi SenoAbstractA method for simultaneous quantification of fosphenytoin (F-PHT), phenytoin (PHT) and its main metabolite 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylhydantoin (HPPH) in whole blood was developed and validated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Whole blood samples were pretreated by liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile and methanol. Chromatographic separation was performed using a CORTECSTM UPLC® C18 (2.1 × 50 mm i.d., particle size 1.6 μm) analytical column, and water containing 10 mM ammonium formate and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. Quantification of the analytes was carried out using mass chromatography with each product ion referenced against phenytoin-d10 as an internal standard. Calibration curves exhibited good linear relationships in a range from 0.005 to 50 μg/ml with correlation coefficients exceeding 0.995. The limits of detection were estimated to be 0.002–0.01 μg/ml. The accuracies and precisions were 96.2–104.3% and 0.7–10.7%, respectively. The recovery efficiencies were in the range of 42.4–59.2%. Matrix effects were observed for PHT and HPPH, with signal suppression ranging from -6.6 to -32.2%. Matrix effect for F-PHT (-5.0–8.9%) was less than those for PHT and HPPH. All analytes were stable under different storage conditions. This method was successfully applied for the quantification of F-PHT, PHT and HPPH in rat whole blood samples taken after bolus intravenous administration of F-PHT.
  • Ratios and distances of pull-up peaks observed in GlobalFiler kit data
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Koji Fujii, Takashi Fukagawa, Haruhiko Watahiki, Yusuke Mita, Tetsushi Kitayama, Natsuko MizunoAbstractShort tandem repeat (STR) analysis is widely used for forensic examinations with a capillary electrophoresis instrument such as the 3500xL Genetic Analyzer. This instrument adapts multi-locus STR kits to examine up to 27 loci using a 6-fluorescent dye system and corrects the spectral overlap between each dye. However, inaccurate spectral correction can cause pull-up peaks. Here, we examined the pull-up peaks observed in GlobalFiler kit data in terms of their peak height ratios and distances from their parent allele peaks when using the 3500xL and the 3130xl Genetic Analyzers. With the 3500xL, 546 pull-up peaks were observed, and their pull-up ratios averaged 1.03 ± 0.32% (range 0.260–2.80%). Of the 546 pull-up peaks, 534 peaks (97.8%) were within ±1 bp from their parent allele peaks. Overall, the pull-up peaks toward adjacent shorter wavelength channels (e.g., from yellow to green) tended to be observed in the left side (shorter bp) of the corresponding parent allele peaks, and the opposite side tendency was observed for those pull-up peaks toward adjacent longer wavelength channels. These tendencies were also observed in the GlobalFiler data generated with the 3130xl and in the data obtained by injecting a J6 matrix standard with LIZ 500 or 600 v2 size standard into the 3500xL and 3130xl. Inspection of raw data revealed that the shift of pull-up peaks from their parent allele peaks was derived from sigmoid, pull-down, or slightly shifted pull-up shapes. Based on the obtained data, we propose a standard for assessment of questionable pull-up peaks.
  • Medico-legal implications of toluene abuse and toxicity. Review of cases
           along with blood concentrations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Guido Pelletti, Francesca Rossi, Marco Garagnani, Rossella Barone, Raffaella Roffi, Susi PelottiAbstractToluene, a liquid aromatic hydrocarbon, is one of the most widely used industrial solvents, and is present in numerous paints, paint thinners, glues and other industrial and household products. It has become the most abused solvent in the world due to its rapid effects following inhalation. However, the numerous cases of fatal and non-fatal toluene-related intoxication reported in the literature over a span of 50 years have not yet been collected and discussed in the forensic setting.In this paper we aim to provide a review of the cases of toluene abuse and intoxication and the state of the art of the forensic toxicological analysis of toluene intoxications in the living and in the dead subject, from the early identification to the medico-legal interpretation of the toxicological result. We have identified a total of 45 papers regarding different aspects of toluene abuse, and divided them into three sections, namely sampling, storage and techniques of analysis, assessment in living subjects and post-mortem assessment. This article reports toluene concentrations in blood from 202 living subjects, 23 fatal toluene intoxications and 85 toluene related deaths. The results are discussed in relation to the clinical presentation (living subjects, including impaired drivers), and the manner of death according to the medical examiner reports (post-mortem examinations).Finally, we discuss the strengths and limitations of the review.
  • Genetic Resolution of Applied Biosystems™ Precision ID Ancestry Panel
           for Seven Asian Populations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Ji Hyun Lee, Sohee Cho, Moon-Young Kim, Dong Hoon Shin, Allah Rakha, Vasant Shinde, Soong Deok LeeAbstractMassively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers additional information in cases that lack reference samples for comparison. The HID-Ion AmpliSeq Ancestry Panel is a forensic multiplex platform consisting of 165 autosomal markers designed to provide biogeographic ancestry information. We analyzed seven different population groups from Asia to assess the accuracy and reliability of analysis, using this panel.In this study, we have designated 750 unrelated Asians, from southern China (n=99), Beijing (n=100), Japan (n=101), Korea (n=100), Vietnam (n=100), Nepal (n=100), India (n=51), and Pakistan (n=99). The likelihood ratios of 750 Asians were calculated, using the Torrent Server and the HID SNP Genotyper Plugin Version 4.3.2.The results reveal that all Northeast Asians (China, Japan, and Korea), and Vietnamese, were predicted as East Asians with the highest ethnicity likelihood values from reference data. Although the samples from Nepal, India and Pakistan (Southwest Asians), were predominantly predicted as South Asians, there were seven cases of which results revealed as Europeans, with similar likelihood patterns. Population structure analysis indicated that Southwest Asians have a genetic profile that is distinguishable from those of other Asian populations.This panel was validated for potential usefulness in forensic analysis and the findings could be used as a basis for building additional Asian specific reference databases. Nevertheless, additional analyses comprising larger sample sizes will be necessary, especially Southeast Asians, to fully understand the Asian population structure, and to discriminate them with further details.
  • Diagnostic meaning of blood p-cresol concentration in forensic
           autopsy cases
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Natsuki Ikematsu, Masayuki Kashiwagi, Kenji Hara, Brian Waters, Aya Matsusue, Mio Takayama, Shin-ichi KuboIn some forensic autopsy cases there are high concentrations of p-cresol in the blood. In vivo, p-cresol is the only isomer yielded by intestinal bacteria and is excreted into urine. We investigated the diagnostic meaning of p-cresol in the blood of forensic autopsy cases. Blood samples from 110 autopsy cases within 48 hours of the postmortem interval (PMI) and 10 healthy adults were examined. Blood with p-cresol-d8 as an internal standard was analyzed using a GC-MS/MS method. Using acid and heat deproteinization, free (F) and conjugated (non-protein bound: C; protein bound: PC) p-cresol were individually analyzed. The p-cresol concentrations were 1.39 ± 0.86 µg/ml [mean ± SD] and 1.18 (0.19-18.80) µg/ml [median (range)] in healthy adults and autopsy cases, respectively. The p-cresol showed no significant relationship to age, sex, fasting duration, survival duration, or PMI. No significant differences were found between causes of death. Significantly higher levels of C p-cresol were found in cases with atherosclerosis in the basilar or renal arteries, or stenosis in the coronary artery. Significantly higher levels of p-cresol except F were found in cases with hyalinosis of the kidney. Cases with low BMI also showed significantly higher p-cresol concentrations. The 22 cases of abnormally high total p-cresol were investigated. It was considered that high concentrations of p-cresol could be an indicator of certain diseases and physical conditions that effect the production, absorption, metabolism, circulation, and excretion of p-cresol. Measuring the levels of p-cresol may provide valuable information about the antemortem physical conditions.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Population genetic data for 16 STR loci in Slovakia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Zdenko Červenák, Milan Mikula, Ján Matúšek, Vladimír Ferák, Andrej Choma
  • Discriminating Power of Rapidly Mutating Y-STRs in deep rooted endogamous
           pedigrees from Sindhi population of Pakistan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Allah Rakha, Yu Na Oh, Hwan Young Lee, Safdar Hussain, Ali Muhammad Waryah, Atif Adnan, Kyoung-Jin ShinAbstractRapidly mutating Y-STRs (RM Y-STRs) have been paid much attention in recent years. The 13 RM Y-STRs (DYF387S1, DYF399S1, DYF403S1a/b, DYF404S1, DYS449, DYS518, DYS526I/II, DYS547, DYS570, DYS576, DYS612, DYS626, and DYS627) have been proved to have substantially higher haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity than conventionally used Y-STRs indicating the considerable power in paternal lineage differentiation in endogamous populations, separation of which is usually impossible with standard Y-STRs. In current study, we analyzed the RM Y-STRs and PowerPlex® Y23 System in 216 male relatives from 18 deep rooted endogamous Sindhi families from Pakistan. Mutations were frequently observed at DYF399S1, DYS449, DYS518DYS547 and DYF403S1b2 loci, which are known to mutate more rapidly than other RM Y-STRs. Overall differentiation rate with RM Y-STRs was as high as 32.88%, while those with PowerPlex® Y23 System and AmpFℓSTR® Yfiler™ kit were 6.85% and 3.65% respectively. The differentiation rate of RM Y-STRs was 29.22% and 26.03% higher than those of AmpFlSTR® Yfiler™ kit and PowerPlex® Y23 System, respectively.
  • Estimation of stature and sex from sacrum and coccyx measurements by
           multidetector computed tomography in Chinese
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Meng-jun Zhan, Fei Fan, Li-rong Qiu, Zhao Peng, Kui Zhang, Zhen-hua DengAbstractThe present study is an attempt to estimation of stature and sex from sacrum and coccyx measurements by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in a contemporary Chinese population. Nine measurements for every sacrum and coccyx were taken from CT image of 350 Chinese. The sample is composed of 190 males and 160 females with an average age of 55 and 50 years, respectively. Discriminant function was used in sex estimation and regression analysis was used in stature estimation from these two bones. The stepwise analysis of all measurements yielded a sex classification accuracy rate of 84.9%. The classification accuracy rates of the univariate discriminant function analyses are 58.3% to 76.9%. For stature estimation, the accuracy of stature prediction ranged from 4.891 to 6.107 cm for male, from 4.474 to 5.606 cm for female, respectively. This paper provides indications that the sacrum and coccyx are important bones for sex estimation and they could be effectively used as alternatives in forensic cases when the skull and pelvis are unavailable. Furthermore, the regression equations presented in this study may be useful for forensic estimation of the stature of Chinese individuals, particularly in cases where better predictors such as the long bones are not available.
  • Estimation of stature and body weight in Slovak adults using static
           footprints: A preliminary study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Zuzana Caplova, Petra Švábová, Mária Fuchsová, Soňa Masnicová, Eva Neščáková, Silvia Bodoriková, Michaela Dörnhöferová, Radoslav BeňušAbstractThe stature and the body weight as part of the biological profile can aid the personal identification. The dimensions of the human foot, as well as the footprint, can be used for the prediction due to the existence of its positive correlation with the stature and body weight. Five diagonal axes and ball breadth of bilateral static footprints of 132 young Slovak adults were obtained. All diameters were larger in a male group than female group. No bilateral differences were found except the first diagonal axis and ball breadth. A positive correlations between the selected footprint diameters with the stature (r = 0.37 - 0.64) and the body weight (r = 0.29 - 0.71) were confirmed. The linear and multiple regression prediction equations were developed.A stature prediction equation using the most lateral diameters (the fourth and fifth diagonal axis) exhibited the highest accuracy ranging from 4-7.5 cm. Similar results were found for the body weight estimation of the male and mixed group. In the female group, the most medial axis (first and second) exhibited the highest accuracy. The body weight estimation accuracy ranges from 9.09 to 11.09 kg.The real and predicted stature and body weight were compared and found differences were lower than calculated SEEs. Thresholds and prediction trend of under- or overestimation was identified. The results of the present study show that selected measurements of static footprints could be used to predict stature and body weight but should be applied only for Slovaks due to population specificity.
  • Diagnostic Value of Multiphase Postmortem Computed Tomography Angiography
           in Selected Cases of Blunt Traumatic Deaths
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Dina Ali Shokry, Maged Nabil Hussein, Fatma Mohamed Hassan, Axel Heinemann, Herman Vogel, Klaus PueschelAbstractObjectivesRecently, multiphase postmortem computed tomography angiography (MPMCTA) has been proven as a reliable tool in the diagnosis of vascular pathology, while its potential efficiency in the detection of soft tissue lesions is ignored. In this study, we have evaluated the overall diagnostic value of MPMCTA in the diagnosis of blunt traumatic deaths in selected cases to determine its additional advantages and limitations in order to identify its potential applications.MethodsThis prospective study examined 14 decedents presented to the Department of Legal Medicine of Hamburg University that alleged death due to blunt trauma. For each case, MPMCTA and conventional autopsy findings were compared. Both radiological and autopsy findings are divided according to the body regions in addition to the detection of the cause of death.ResultsBoth MPMCTA and the conventional autopsy showed the major findings but not all findings. MPMCTA was better in the demonstration of vascular and skeletal lesions, while the diagnosis of parenchymal injury remains autopsy-dependent. The efficiency of MPMCTA for detection of haemorrhage was relatively affected by the blood amount and the location of the bleeding source. The presented MPMCTA-related artefacts interfered with the accurate diagnosis of certain injuries.ConclusionThe combination of MPMCTA with conventional autopsy appears to be the gold standard for investigation of blunt traumatic deaths. Depending on the death circumstances and the expected findings, MPMCTA can be performed alone in selected cases.
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