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Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.35
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 415  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1936-6469 - ISSN (Online) 0882-0783
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2348 journals]
  • A Brief History of Personality Assessment in Police Psychology:
    • Authors: Peter A. Weiss; Robin Inwald
      Pages: 189 - 200
      Abstract: Since the 1960s, the application of psychological services and research to law enforcement settings (known as “police psychology”) evolved from being practically nonexistent to almost universal in a relatively short period of time (Scrivner 2006). Currently, psychologists provide a variety of services to law enforcement agencies, including performing evaluations for pre-employment selection, “fitness-for-duty” evaluations (FFDE), and counseling/treatment for psychologically troubled officers and first responders. The extensive use of personality assessment instruments in police psychology is not surprising given the fact psychologists have traditionally concerned themselves with issues of psychological measurement and test construction. In the contemporary practice of police psychology, assessment using personality measures is essential, being utilized in all of the abovementioned evaluations, in addition to other occasional applications (Weiss et al. 2008). This article provides a brief history of personality assessment in police and public safety psychology as it developed from 1916 to 2008.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9272-2
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2018)
  • Can We Identify Bad Cops Based on History' Base Rates of Historical
           Markers in Law Enforcement Pre-employment Evaluations
    • Authors: Stephen L. Aita; Benjamin D. Hill; Mandi W. Musso; Wm. Drew Gouvier
      Pages: 201 - 208
      Abstract: While psychometric police selection processes have progressively evolved, the efficacy of simple background information has not been extensively evaluated. This study examined the utility of base rate information to predict job performance among law enforcement officers. Pre-employment historical markers from bad hires were compared to good hires from a large sample of 1536 officers. Of this sample, 205 officers were categorized as bad hires if they were arrested, had greater than five misconduct episodes, or were terminated for cause within 5 years following hire. Base rates of 40 pre-employment history variables were compared for good and bad hires. Analysis of markers showed that bad hires had a significantly higher frequency of markers across family factors, mental health variables, conduct problems, and criminal justice outcomes compared to good hires. Among the largest differences were history of multiple physical altercations, outpatient psychiatric treatment, and events related to previous law enforcement employment such as employer reprimands, suspensions, or fitness for duty evaluations. Many other intuitive markers occurred too infrequently to analyze or showed no significant difference between good hires and bad hires in law enforcement settings. Base rates in addition to psychological test data are necessary aspects of the police pre-employment evaluation.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9258-0
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2018)
  • Shoot/No-Shoot Decisions: Dissociation, Judgment, and Assailant/Weapon
    • Authors: Schuyler W. Liao; Jana L. Price-Sharps; Matthew J. Sharps
      Pages: 209 - 214
      Abstract: Shoot/no-shoot decisions in law enforcement are under increasing scrutiny nationwide. However, little research has addressed the ways in which factors related to assailants and weapons influence these decisions. In the present research, images of adult male, adult female, and juvenile (female) assailants presented simulated direct threats to respondents. Assailants were armed with a pistol, a knife, or a glass bottle. Respondents were asked to indicate whether or not they would shoot in the presence of these threats. Respondents also completed the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). Tendencies toward dissociation, a process generating a sense of unreality, influenced the performance of males who shot; more dissociated men took more time to fire. However, dissociation did not influence the performance of women. Sex and youth of the assailant had no effects on the shoot/no-shoot performance of either men or women, and oddly, weapon type had no significant effect on women’s performance, although men were more likely to fire on an assailant of either age or sex armed with a gun or knife than a bottle. These results are discussed in terms of relevance for law enforcement training and for juridical proceedings in shoot/no-shoot cases.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9267-z
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2018)
  • Assessing the Psychological Well-being and Coping Mechanisms of Law
           Enforcement Investigators vs. Digital Forensic Examiners of Child
           Pornography Investigations
    • Authors: Kathryn C. Seigfried-Spellar
      Pages: 215 - 226
      Abstract: Previous research indicates law enforcement investigators and digital forensic examiners working child exploitation cases are at an increased risk for experiencing psychological distress; however, the roles of digital forensic examiners and investigators often overlap substantially when working child pornography cases. Thus, the current study was the first to compare the psychological well-being, job satisfaction, coping mechanisms, and attitudes toward mental health services for individuals working as either digital forensic examiners and/or investigators of child pornography cases. Law enforcement officers were solicited from the Internet Crimes Against Children task force listserv, and based on their current self-reported duties, 20 were classified as digital forensic examiners-only, 71 as investigators-only, and 38 as both digital forensic examiners and investigators of cases involving Internet child pornography. Results showed significant differences between groups; individuals performing both duties scored significantly higher on secondary traumatic stress, higher on feelings of worthlessness, and lower on concentration compared to digital forensic examiners-only. Individuals performing both duties also reported significantly lower scores on job satisfaction compared to investigators-only. Finally, individuals working both duties were significantly more likely to know someone who sought counseling as a result of work-related stress. The study’s mental health implications and future research suggestions are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9248-7
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2018)
  • Dispositional Mindfulness Moderates the Relationship Between Occupational
           Stressors and Perceived Stress Among Law Enforcement Personnel
    • Authors: Joshua Benjamin Kaplan; Michael S. Christopher; Sarah Bowen
      Pages: 227 - 232
      Abstract: Law enforcement personnel (LEPs) experience occupational stressors that can result in poor health outcomes and have a negative impact on the communities they serve. Dispositional mindfulness, or receptive awareness and attention to present moment experience, has been shown to negatively predict perceived stress and to moderate the relationship between stressors and negative stress-related outcomes. The current study is an investigation of the moderating role of specific facets of dispositional mindfulness (i.e., nonreactivity, nonjudging, and acting with awareness) in the relationship between occupational stressors and perceived stress in a sample of LEPs. As hypothesized, nonreactivity significantly moderated the relationship between operational stressors and perceived stress, such that LEPs low in nonreactivity exhibited a significant relationship between stressors and perceived stress, whereas those high in nonreactivity did not. Nonjudging also moderated the relationship between organizational stressors and perceived stress; however, unexpectedly, LEPs high in nonjudging evidenced a significant relationship between stressors and perceived stress, whereas those low in nonjudging did not. Potential implications of these findings for LEP stress reduction interventions are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9246-9
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2018)
  • Interrogative Specialists and False Confessions: Debunking the Con Artist
    • Authors: Bradford J. Beyer; James Herndon
      Pages: 233 - 243
      Abstract: Within the criminal justice system, confessions are an extremely powerful form of evidence. Unfortunately, innocent people sometimes falsely confess to crimes they did not actually commit. Such travesties of justice have sparked a significant degree of academic research into the false confession phenomenon. Within the existing literature, there exists a conceptual framework that the interrogative methods and actions of law enforcement officers are a key cause of false confessions with some researchers going so far as to suggest that law enforcement interrogators act as confidence men who trick criminal subjects into confessing. However, few researchers have actually questioned law enforcement officers about false confessions and even fewer have consulted with officers who specialize in interrogation. This study is a subset of a larger qualitative case study designed to explore the experiences of 13 federal law enforcement polygraph examiners who specialize in interrogation regarding their approach to criminal interrogation and their experiences with both true and false confessions. This study focused on the personal processes federal law enforcement polygraph examiners use in reviewing Miranda rights and documenting confessions. NVivo software was used to organize the data. Common themes in interview responses were then identified and revealed that participants employ an open, detailed, and straightforward approach in reviewing Miranda rights and documenting the confessions of criminal subjects. These findings contradict the premise that law enforcement interrogators inherently operate as confidence men by tricking and manipulating criminal subjects.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9263-3
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2018)
  • Confessions of a Criminal Psychopath: an Analysis of the Robert Pickton
    • Authors: Sasha Reid; Jooyoung Lee
      Pages: 257 - 270
      Abstract: Police interrogation methods have changed over time. While traditional techniques relied on violence and physical torture, modern techniques have shifted toward psychological coercion and manipulation. These techniques, most widely known as parts of The Reid Technique, have proven to be a powerful way to elicit confessions of guilt from suspected criminals.
      Authors of the Reid Technique claim that when applied correctly, their methods lead to significant increases in police confession rates. But, these techniques are not universally useful. In addition to eliciting false confessions, the Reid Technique has been less effective on psychopaths—who are self-centered, manipulative, and lack empathy. Psychopaths can be resistant to these methods, which rely on the interrogator’s ability to induce fear, anxiety, and feelings of remorse in the suspect. When confronted with a criminal psychopath, interrogators face unique challenges requiring a different approach to interrogation. To show this, we analyze the cell plant video of an undercover officer who obtained a serial murder confession from Robert Pickton by appealing to his narcissism. We conclude by offering a few additional strategies that can be used by investigators when interrogating psychopaths.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9256-2
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2018)
  • Community Awareness of Patron Banning in Australia: a Brief Report
    • Authors: Ashlee Curtis; Nicholas Taylor; Belinda Guadagno; Clare Farmer; Peter Miller
      Pages: 283 - 287
      Abstract: Patron banning involves banning individuals who engage in problematic behaviour in night time entertainment precincts from certain areas. Patron banning is used in most jurisdictions within Australia despite a lack of evidence regarding its effectiveness. To have an impact, patron banning should act as a deterrent for problematic behaviour at a range of licenced premises (individual and general deterrence), as well as constituting as an immediate punishment which prevents future problem behaviours at the establishment(s) from which an individual has been banned (incapacitation). However, for deterrence to occur, the general public must be aware of the existence and basic functions of patron banning. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the level of public awareness of patron banning and its use. One hundred seventy-two participants anonymously completed an online questionnaire, comprising two sections: (1) demographic information and (2) participant’s awareness, understanding, and previous experience with patron banning. The majority of participants indicated being aware of patron banning, but most did not know any details about it. The results of this study indicate that while individuals are aware that banning powers exist, they are less aware of how these powers are used in practice. In this way, patron banning fails to fulfil the requirements of a general deterrent. Given its expanding use, further research is needed to determine if patron banning does affect the behaviour of those receiving bans and of the community more generally.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9257-1
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2018)
  • A Sequence Analysis of Nonverbal Behaviour and Deception
    • Authors: A Marono; DD Clarke; J Navarro; DA Keatley
      Pages: 109 - 117
      Abstract: The ability to correctly interpret nonverbal communication (NVC) is an important ability in everyday interactions, which may use NVC techniques to identify the concealment of information. In the present study, a novel approach was used to understand NVC. Behaviour sequence analysis identified specific sequences of behaviours that indicate psychological distress caused by deception. The study involved the analysis of 55 videos of real criminals and high-power individuals that were filmed fabricating statements, which were later exposed as being untruthful at the time of being filmed. In addition, 53 clips of criminals making truthful statements were also analysed as a contrast group. Results indicated clear differences between honest and deceptive responses, such as furrowing of eyebrows in the deceptive sequences occurring more often than honest statements. In addition, sequences of behaviours were shown in the present data set, which could indicate a new method for analysing NVC and detecting psychological distress caused by deception. The possible implications and applications for police and forensic investigation are also outlined.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9238-9
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2018)
  • Measuring Police Integrity: Futile Exercise or Worthwhile Effort in
           Personnel Management' Revisiting Survey Data from Two Previous Studies
           in Order to Assess the Psychometric Qualities of the Klockars
    • Authors: Marc Alain; Michel Rousseau; Francesco Carrer
      Abstract: In this paper, we attempt to determine if the psychometric features of the 11-scenario survey designed by Klockars et al. provide valid results for survey responses concerning police integrity and ethics. To do this, we used the multi-facet Rash statistical model on two samples from police respondents in two different countries (one in North America and the other in Continental Europe). Our results demonstrate that the survey, when combined with a specific statistical model, was able to assess the level of integrity of police officers in these two different samples. We conclude that the 11-scenario survey and the methodology we have developed can be considered very robust and is therefore useful for managerial purposes, particularly in candidate selection and promotion.
      PubDate: 2018-07-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9287-8
  • Object–Color Stroop Task to Assess Selective Attention in “True” and
           “Legally Considered” Juvenile Delinquents
    • Authors: Tanusree Moitra; Diganta Mukherjee; Garga Chatterjee
      Abstract: The present study compared selective attention processing among juvenile delinquents of two different citizenships and matched control groups. The sample consisted of 70 “true” juvenile delinquents (Indian citizen—charged for theft, rape or murder), 54 “legally considered” delinquents (Bangladesh citizens—charged only with illegal immigration), and 70 matched control group of Indian citizens. They were tested on object–color Stroop task designed specifically with objects typically found in South Asia. Results show that participants had taken less time in typical condition (for example, red color of red apple) compared to atypical condition (blue color of red apple). This behavioral characteristic is more specifically present in Bangladeshi delinquents and non-delinquent controls, while Indian delinquents are different from both on this measure. Demographic variables also have an influence on performance. Differences in selective attention processing were found between “true” and “legally considered” juvenile delinquents. Furthermore, the age of participants also had an influence on performance. These findings together suggest establishment of separate observation homes for juvenile delinquents. Furthermore, this is the first study to test response modulation hypothesis among offenders with psychopathic traits in an Asian country.
      PubDate: 2018-07-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9286-9
  • Predictors of Mental Health Stigma among Police Officers: the Role of
           Trauma and PTSD
    • Authors: Sara Soomro; Philip T. Yanos
      Abstract: Police officers are both at risk of exposure to trauma and experiencing PTSD and are more likely to come into contact with people with mental illness than community members. As a result, the extent and predictors of mental health stigma is an issue of concern among police officers; however, little prior research on stigma has focused on police officers. The present study examined the predictors of mental health stigma among police officers, including the experience of trauma and PTSD symptoms. Active duty police officers (N = 296) were recruited through an online survey and completed measures of trauma exposure, PTSD symptoms, and a number of dimensions of stigma (negative stereotypes, attributions, intended behavior, and attitudes toward seeking help). Findings supported that police officers experience high rates of trauma exposure and higher rates of current PTSD than the general population. Endorsement of negative stereotypes about people with mental illness was higher among police officers than the general population. Contrary to what was expected, officers meeting criteria for current PTSD endorsed more stigma about mental illness, even when controlling for common demographic predictors of stigma, including gender and knowing someone with a mental illness. Findings have important implications for the training of police officers regarding mental illness.
      PubDate: 2018-06-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9285-x
  • Role Conflict and the Psychological Impacts of the Post-Ferguson Period on
           Law Enforcement Motivation, Cynicism, and Apprehensiveness
    • Authors: Jose Torres; Timothy Reling; James Hawdon
      Abstract: In the wake of high-profile deadly force cases in the post-Ferguson era, a number of negative psychological outcomes have been depicted by law enforcement officers. We examine if negative post-Ferguson outcomes predict current cynicism, motivation, and apprehensiveness. Further, we account for whether role orientations, specifically support for a law enforcement orientation or a community policing orientation, mediate the psychological effects of the post-Ferguson period. Since the law enforcement orientation, exercised through strict enforcement of the law, has been called out of favor in the post-Ferguson area, supporting this role may negatively impact officers via role conflict. The opposite may be observed for those supporting a community policing orientation. We test these arguments using results from an online survey of law enforcement officers in the USA, administered 6 months following highly publicized incidents in Dallas and Baton Rouge where police were targeted and killed. Results showed that post-Ferguson psychological impacts continued to affect current levels of cynicism, motivation, and apprehensiveness. Support for law enforcement or community policing orientation did not mediate the effects of post-Ferguson sentiments. Nonetheless, role orientations played a significant role in predicting current cynicism, motivation, and apprehensiveness and provided support for the theory of role conflict.
      PubDate: 2018-06-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9284-y
  • The Impact of Beliefs Concerning Deception on Perceptions of Nonverbal
           Behavior: Implications for Neuro-Linguistic Programming-Based Lie
    • Authors: Flavia Spiroiu
      Abstract: Regularly employed in a forensic context, the Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) model purports that the behavioral distinction between somebody who is remembering information and somebody who is constructing information lies in the direction of their eye movements. This strategy reflects numerous current approaches to lie detection, which presume that nonverbal behavior influences perceptions and judgments about deception. The present study emphasized a reverse order by investigating whether beliefs that an individual is deceptive influence perceptions of the respective individual’s nonverbal behavior as indicated by observed eye movement patterns. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to either a group informed that right eye movements indicate constructed and thus deceptive information or a group informed that left eye movements indicate constructed and thus deceptive information. Each participant viewed six investigative interviews depicting the eye movement patterns of mock suspects labeled as deceptive or truthful. The interviews were structured according to different right/left eye movement ratios. Results revealed that participants reportedly observed the deceptive suspects displaying significantly more eye movements in the direction allegedly indicative of deception than did the truthful suspects. This result occurred despite the fact that the actual eye movement ratios in both deceptive/truthful sets of interviews were identical and the eye movements were predominantly in the opposite direction of that allegedly indicative of deception. The results are discussed in the context of encoding-based cognitive-processing theories. Limitations on the generality of the results are emphasized and the applicability (or lack thereof) of NLP-based lie detection in forensic contexts is discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-06-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9278-9
  • Shoot/No-Shoot Decisions in the Context of IED-Detection Training and
           Eyewitness Memory for Persons
    • Authors: Matthew J. Sharps; Megan R. Herrera; David L. Hulett; Amanda Briley
      Abstract: Cognitive approaches to training for the detection of improvised explosive devices (IED’s) are of increasing importance. However, there is a question as to the degree to which such training might interfere with other important law enforcement (LE) functions in the field, and the degree to which such training might enhance other important cognitive/perceptual functions. A promising cognitive approach to IED training, the SMOKE system, was provided to respondents, who then responded to shoot/no-shoot decisions, important LE situations of increasing relevance. It was shown that SMOKE training did not interfere with shoot/no-shoot decisions. However, those with SMOKE training performed better than control respondents on eyewitness memory for the perpetrator of a given crime in field-valid scenes. This indicates that cognitively based training may enhance vigilance and resultant memory in field situations.
      PubDate: 2018-06-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9283-z
  • Depressive Symptoms Among Police Officers: Associations with Personality
           and Psychosocial Factors
    • Authors: Emily N. Jenkins; Penelope Allison; Kim Innes; John M. Violanti; Michael E. Andrew
      Abstract: Protective psychosocial factors may reduce the risk of stress-related illnesses in policing. We assessed the association between protective factors and depressive symptoms among 242 police officers. Participants were from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) Study (2004–2014). Coping, hardiness, personality traits, and social support were assessed at baseline. Depressive symptoms were measured at baseline and follow-up using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. The relationship between protective factors and the rate of change in depressive symptoms was assessed using linear regression. Logistic regression evaluated associations between protective factors and new-onset depression. Of participants free of depression at baseline, 23 (10.7%) developed probable depression during the follow-up. Odds of new-onset depression increased with increasing neuroticism (adjusted odds ratio [ORADJ] = 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11–1.35) and passive coping (ORADJ = 2.07, 95% CI, 1.06–4.03). Increasing agreeableness (ORADJ = 0.87, 95% CI, 0.78–0.96) and conscientiousness (ORADJ = 0.90, 95% CI, 0.84–0.98) were associated with decreased odds of new-onset depression. New-onset depression was not significantly associated with other coping subscales, hardiness, or social support. There were no significant associations between protective factors and change in depressive symptom scores. This study suggests certain personality characteristics and passive coping may be associated with increased odds of new-onset depression in police officers.
      PubDate: 2018-06-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9281-1
  • 911 Calls in Homicide Cases: What Does the Verbal Behavior of the Caller
    • Authors: Jon D. Cromer; JoAnne Brewster; Kethera Fogler; Michael Stoloff
      Abstract: Each year, numerous 911 calls reporting a homicide are received by emergency communications centers; a small percentage of the calls are made by the perpetrator. These calls are recorded at times of great stress and are the first versions of what the callers purport to know. A linguistic analysis of the 911 call can lead to the development of hypotheses regarding a caller’s truthfulness, which can help to guide the initial investigative strategy. The present study examined 14 linguistic variables and an additional 4 mitigating variables in an effort to determine whether any of those variables, individually or in combination, were predictive of the guilt or innocence of the caller. A sample of 50 calls to 911 centers was examined. This study identified the presence of a variety of linguistic behaviors that were correlated with an ultimate finding of guilt or innocence.
      PubDate: 2018-06-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9282-0
  • Exploring the Validity of Behavioral Cues Predictive of Physically
           Resisting Arrest
    • Authors: Richard R. Johnson
      Abstract: Police officers are sometimes trained that certain behavioral cues predict impending violent behavior. Additionally, surveys revealed many hold perceptions that these behavioral predictors of violence are valid, yet empirical evidence of validity is sparse and contradictory. The present study used frame-by-frame analysis of videotaped police arrest encounters to explore the validity of nine behavioral cues in predicting whether the arrestee violently resisted arrest. The results revealed that four of the nine behaviors were predictive of violence, yet notable variation occurred across racial groups. The validity of the remaining behavioral cues remains equivocal at this time.
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9280-2
  • Secondary Traumatic Stress: Prevalence and Symptomology Amongst Detective
           Officers Investigating Child Protection Cases
    • Authors: Alison D. MacEachern; Ashley A. Dennis; Sharon Jackson; Divya Jindal-Snape
      Abstract: It has been increasingly recognised that individuals exposed to the trauma of others within their professional roles can be affected by secondary traumatic stress (STS). Despite this recognition, there is a dearth of literature examining the prevalence of secondary traumatic stress amongst police officers in the UK. This study aims to meet this gap. Sixty-three Detective Officers from Family Protection Units (FPU(s)), primarily engaged in child protection/abuse investigations, self-reported their experiences and symptoms associated with STS through a questionnaire. Findings indicate that over half of the respondents experienced STS symptoms with 11% reporting levels of symptoms that were in the high or severe range. This study is significant in that it provides empirical evidence of issues that have so far been little documented in the UK and considers the implications for policing policy and practice in terms of the health and well-being of serving police officers.
      PubDate: 2018-06-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9277-x
  • Associations Between Police Work Stressors and Posttraumatic Stress
           Disorder Symptoms: Examining the Moderating Effects of Coping
    • Authors: John M. Violanti; Claudia C. Ma; Anna Mnatsakanova; Desta Fekedulegn; Tara A. Hartley; Ja Kook Gu; Michael E. Andrew
      Abstract: The role of coping in the association between stress and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is not clear. We investigated the effects of active and passive coping strategies on the associations between police stress (administrative and organization pressure, physical and psychological threats, and lack of support) and PTSD symptoms in 342 police officers. Linear regression model was used in the analyses. The association between physical and psychological stress and PTSD symptoms was stronger in officers who used lower active coping (B = 4.34, p < 0.001) compared to those who utilized higher active coping (p-interaction = 0.027) (B = 1.79, p ≤ 0.003). A similar result was found between lack of support and PTSD symptoms (p-interaction = 0.016) (lower active coping, B = 5.70, p < 0.001; higher active coping, B = 3.33, p < 0.001), but was not significantly different comparing the two groups regarding the association between administrative and organizational pressure and PTSD symptoms (p-interaction = 0.376). Associations of total stress, administrative and organizational pressure, and physical and psychological stressors with PTSD symptoms were significantly stronger in officers who utilized higher passive coping (p-interaction = 0.011, 0.030, and 0.023, respectively). In conclusion, low active or high passive coping methods may exacerbate the effect of work stress on PTSD symptoms.
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9276-y
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