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Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.35
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 434  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1936-6469 - ISSN (Online) 0882-0783
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2570 journals]
  • Guns, Gloves, and Tasers: Perceptions of Police Officers and Their Use of
           Weapon as a Function of Race and Gender
    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of the present studies was to examine how officer characteristics influenced mock jurors’ judgments in a police use of force case. In study 1 (N = 356), we examined officer race, suspect race, and weapon type (gun vs. taser vs. assault gloves), and in study 2 (N = 352) we examined officer gender, weapon type, and whether the officer was on or off duty. In both studies, participants read a case summary concerning police use of force where the suspect/victim died from his injuries. In study 1, mock jurors were more likely to vote guilty when the officer was White as well as when a gun was used. The officer was perceived most favorably when he was Black and a taser or assault gloves were used compared to a gun. Mock jurors’ attitudes toward the police also were examined and were found to be related to mock jurors’ guilt ratings and perceptions of the officer. In study 2, mock jurors were more likely to vote guilty for the defendant when the officer was male, off duty, and the weapon used was a gun. Mock jurors also viewed the police officer more negatively when he was off duty as well as when a gun was used. Overall, this study is the first to our knowledge to systematically vary both officer characteristics and suspect/victim characteristics and the results suggest that both have the capacity to influence how use of force cases are perceived by potential jurors.
      PubDate: 2020-01-18
  • Memory Reconsolidation Therapy for Police Officers with Post-traumatic
           Stress Disorder
    • Abstract: Abstract Police officers are frequently exposed to traumatic events and therefore are at elevated risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health conditions. While evidence-based treatments for PTSD such as prolonged exposure therapy demonstrate effectiveness, residual symptoms and relapse remain problematic outcomes. Improvements in outcomes may be enhanced by modifying psychotherapy processes based upon recent neuroscientific findings. The present study explored incorporating memory reconsolidation principles into evidence-based exposure therapy for PTSD to create memory reconsolidation therapy (MRT). MRT incorporates memory recall followed by a wait period to make memories liable for modification. Using a case series design, three police officers diagnosed with PTSD participated in a maximum of twelve 90-min sessions of MRT and recorded weekly self-report measures of trauma symptoms and psychological distress. Results indicated participants experienced significantly reduced psychological distress with gains maintained over a 3-month follow-up. A significant reliable reduction in trauma symptoms by post-therapy was identified in two of the three cases with the third narrowly missing the clinically significant cut-off. These significant changes were maintained over the 3-month follow-up in one participant, while the maintenance of these improvements in trauma symptoms approached significance in the other two participants. These findings provide preliminary evidence to justify larger future studies to test the efficacy of MRT with police officers experiencing PTSD.
      PubDate: 2020-01-16
  • Rational Emotive Occupational Health Coaching in the Management of Police
           Subjective Well-Being and Work Ability: a Case of Repeated Measures
    • Abstract: Abstract Low subjective well-being and work ability constitute threats to employees’ job performances across the world. Indices of low subjective well-being have been observed among police officers in Nigeria and have been linked to their occupational experiences. Managing enhanced subjective well-being is paramount for police officers’ job effectiveness. The current study investigated the effectiveness of rational emotive occupational health coaching (REOHC) in enhancing subjective well-being of police officers in Enugu state, Nigeria. Participants (N = 151) included police officers with not less than 5-year working experience who were randomly assigned to intervention (N = 76) and nonintervention (N = 75) groups. Participants in the intervention group were exposed to 120-min REOHC program weekly for a period of 16 weeks. Subjective well-being scale (SWBS) and perceived work ability index (PWAI) were used to collect data at pre-test, post-test, and follow-up assessments. Data collected were analyzed using independent samples as well as paired sample t test statistics and repeated measure ANOVA. Results revealed that participants in the intervention group had significant improvement in their life satisfaction, affect balance, and flourishing scores at post-test and follow-up assessments compared with the pre-test. Participants in the nonintervention control group did not have a significant change in subjective well-being subscale scores across pre-test, post-test, and follow-up evaluations. The conclusion drawn was that REOHC can be effective in managing subjective well-being among police officers and employees who work under chronic stressful conditions.
      PubDate: 2020-01-06
  • Effectiveness of Descriptions in Missing Children Appeals: Exploration of
           Length, Type of Content and Confidence on Recall Accuracy
    • Abstract: Abstract When a child goes missing, it is commonplace to release details of the child in the hope that a member of the public can help to locate him or her. Despite their importance and daily usage, there remains a significant gap in understanding just how effective these appeals are in helping to locate missing children. This exploratory study utilized a two-stage approach and sought (1) to explore whether the length of the description and the type of content enclosed in the description influenced subsequent recall abilities, (2) to determine whether the length of time spent reading the mock appeal influences the subsequent recall ability, (3) to establish whether confidence in own recall ability is associated with overall recall ability, and (4) to determine whether descriptive length and content influences the subsequent recall ability following a 3-day break. Two hundred and twenty-three participants observed one of four mock missing children descriptions followed by a short word memory distraction task and a free-recall task. The second stage comprised of another free-recall task presented after a short 3-day delay. Two-way factorial ANOVAs found observing shorter descriptions have significantly greater recall accuracy than observing longer descriptions both immediately after observing the appeal and after a 3-day delay. Results also found that newsworthy descriptive content had a greater recall accuracy than non-newsworthy descriptive content after a 3-day delay. Additional analyses found that confidence in own accuracy and time spent observing the appeals was also significantly associated with recall accuracy. The findings demonstrate the necessity for improving missing children appeals.
      PubDate: 2019-12-28
  • Intelligence, Authority and Blame Conformity: Co-witness Influence Is
           Moderated by the Perceived Competence of the Information Source
    • Abstract: Abstract Previous research suggests that co-witness influence is heavily dependent on how eyewitnesses perceive the source of information, with perceived credibility, authority and memory accuracy identified as significant predictors. However, very little research has directly investigated the effects of perceived intelligence on co-witness influence. The present study used confederates to expose participants (N = 182) to misinformation about a witnessed event, prior to collecting their statements. Participants were paired up with a confederate who was presented as either a PhD student (high intelligence), police officer (high authority), neutral (no information provided) or completed the study individually (control). Results found that participants were significantly more likely to blame the wrong person for the crime if it had been suggested to them by a police officer or PhD student. Implications of the findings suggest that the characteristics and perceptions of co-witnesses can moderate the risks of statement contamination.
      PubDate: 2019-12-11
  • Mindfulness, Self-Control, Implicit Bias, Race, Threat Perception Failure,
           and the Accidental Use of Deadly Force Against Off-Duty Police Officers
    • Abstract: Abstract This study explores the impact of mindfulness, self-control, race, and implicit bias on threat perception failure-based shootings against ununiformed officers in a training simulation. A sample of 79 students were recruited to participate in a law enforcement active shooter training simulation. Participants completed a mindfulness non-reactivity measure, the Grasmick Self-control Scale, and a Weapons Implicit Attitudes tasks (IAT). Then, participants assumed the role of a police officer in a training scenario designed to provoke wrongful deadly force. After hearing gunshots, participants in this scenario were confronted with either a Black or White male portraying an off-duty police officer holding a badge and pointing a gun at another role player lying on the ground. The mindfulness non-reactivity scale significantly predicted not shooting the off-duty officer in the combined race analysis and the White officer only analysis. Implicit bias only predicted shooting the Black officer when mindfulness non-reactivity was included as a covariate. Race moderated the correlation between self-control and the decision to shoot. Implications and future directions are discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-12-10
  • Transferring Police Academy Training to the Street: the Field Training
    • Abstract: Abstract This research examines the role of police field training officers (FTOs) in the transfer of police academy training to the job. The authors issued a pilot survey instrument, the Police Learning Environment Inventory (PLEI), to assess the role of FTO behaviors in the transfer of academy training. The survey was issued to police organizations in the southwest and northeast regions of the USA. Survey responses were analyzed to determine both dimensional structure of FTO behaviors and their relationship to trainee intent to transfer academy training to the job. Results demonstrate that an array of FTO behaviors fall under a single dimension. Further, this behavioral dimension was significantly associated (p < .01) with police officer intent to transfer academy training to the field.
      PubDate: 2019-12-09
  • Exploring the Potential Impact of Body Worn Cameras on Memory in
           Officer-Involved Critical Incidents: a Literature Review
    • Abstract: Abstract The current paper reviews existing literature that relates to how body worn cameras might influence an officer’s memory of their interactions with the public, namely those that involve the use of force. Notably, most of this research does not come from the policing field but focuses on the impact of camera technology in other settings. Much of the available research supports the commonly held view that body worn cameras could be used to enhance memory for these interactions, particularly interactions that are complex or stressful. However, contrary to what people might expect, research also exists that suggests body worn cameras may actually have a detrimental effect on officer memory. Three major potential detriments: cognitive offloading, retrieval-induced forgetting and misinformation-type effects are highlighted. Future studies examining the impact of body worn cameras on officers’ memory are necessary. Ways forward are discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-12-09
  • Intellectual Disability Affects Case Judgment Differently Depending on
           Juvenile Race
    • Abstract: Abstract This research investigated how juvenile race and ctual disability affect case judgment involving recanted confession. We recruited 151 participants to serve as mock jurors using a 2 (juvenile race: Black, White) × 2 (intellectual disability: disabled, nondisabled) between-subjects design. We found that participants rendered more guilty verdicts, had higher confidence in the defendants’ guilt, and estimated a higher probability of crime commission when the juvenile defendants were White instead of Black. Consistent with the “bend-over-backwards” effect and the expectancy-violation theory, participants judged the nondisabled White juvenile defendants harshly but the nondisabled Black juvenile defendants leniently. In addition, intellectual disability was a mitigating factor, but mostly for White juvenile defendants. Black juvenile defendants with intellectual disability were often judged more harshly than Black juvenile defendants without intellectual disability. Finally, juvenile race and intellectual disability interacted to affect the evaluation of confession evidence and case outcome. Overall, the current research extended our understanding of public perception of Black and White juvenile defendants with intellectual disability.
      PubDate: 2019-12-05
  • Mapping Repeated Interviews
    • Abstract: Abstract The present study introduces an adaptation of the Griffiths Question Map (GQM; Griffiths and Milne 2006) which extends the chronological, visual map of question types used in an investigative interview to include child interviewee’s responses (through the addition of the Interview Answer Grid, IAG). Furthermore, it provides a rare evaluation of repeated interviews with children. From a sample of transcripts of Scottish repeated interviews with child victims, two ‘good’ and two ‘poor’ first interviews were chosen based on interviewer question types. First and second investigative interviews of these four children were mapped using the GQM and IAG in order to examine across the two interviews the similarity of interviewer and interviewee behaviours and the consistency and investigative-relevance of information provided. Both ‘good’ and ‘poor’ interviews were found to include practices discouraged by interviewing guidelines, which would not have been identified by examining question proportions alone. Furthermore, ‘good’ first interviews were followed by second interviews which began with poor question types, suggesting a possible impact of confirmation bias. Social support was also assessed and found to be used infrequently, mainly in response to the child being informative rather than pre-emptively by interviewers in an attempt to encourage this. Children were also found to disclose throughout their second interviews, suggesting that rapport-maintenance is vital for single and multiple interviews. The use of the GQM and IAG is encouraged as a technique for determining interview quality.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Validation and Calibration of the Spanish Police Intimate Partner Violence
           Risk Assessment System (VioGén)
    • Abstract: Abstract This study describes the rationale, development, and validation of the intimate partner violence (IPV) police risk assessment forms of the VioGén System of the Spanish Ministry of Interior (VPR4.0 and VPER4.0), which promote greater predictive effectiveness and an improvement in the IPV law enforcement prevention. A validation study of the mentioned protocols is presented, including inter-observer reliability, estimated by the equivalence or inter-judge reliability method, while the convergent validity of these protocols was calculated with the RVD-BCN protocol. The sample consisted of 6613 new cases of IPV included in the VioGén System over a period of 2 months and which were longitudinally followed up for 6 months. The discrimination indexes are not only the summarized odds ratio (OR), area under the ROC curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity, but also the calibration indexes positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). The results show the suitability of using procedures which, in a coordinated manner, incorporate two risk assessment instruments, one for a first screening assessment and a second one to re-assess IPV danger situations on a regular basis. The values obtained are within the margins reported by different meta-analyses regarding this type of instruments, which supports their use for professional practice.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Missing Children Photograph Appeals: Does the Number of Appeals Affect
           Identification Accuracy Following a Short Recall Delay'
    • Abstract: Abstract The study objectives were (1) to determine if there were any associations between the time spent observing fictional appeals and identification accuracy, (2) to establish if the number of missing children photographs observed influences identification accuracy and (3) to determine whether the number of missing children appeals observed influences identification accuracy following a short 3-day delay. A two-stage approach was utilised. Two hundred and forty-two participants observed one, four or eight mock missing children photographs followed by a short word memory distraction task and a target present line-up identification task. The second stage comprised of another target present line-up identification task presented after a short 3-day delay. One-way between-group ANOVAs indicate that observing one missing child photograph has significantly greater overall identification accuracy and lower identification error than viewing four or eight photographs immediately after observing the appeal and following a 3-day delay. Additional analyses found that the identification accuracy was significantly higher immediately after observation compared with the identification accuracy following a 3-day delay. The findings demonstrate the necessity for improving missing children appeals. Due to the exploratory nature of the study, additional research is required to explore these factors further.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Can the Cognitive Interview Reduce Memory Conformity in an Interview
    • Abstract: Abstract Eyewitness testimony may be contaminated by event-related information shared by other witnesses. The present study aimed to assess the influence of a modified cognitive interview (MCI) on the detrimental effects of what is called memory conformity. Participants watched a videotaped staged event. Immediately after this, they answered 22 questions about the video out loud, either alone or with a confederate who intentionally introduced false information in her answers (i.e., 6 incorrect and 12 confabulated details). A week later, participants were interviewed individually about the video using either an MCI or a structured (control) interview. Results suggested that participants recalled some of the incorrect and confabulated items suggested by the confederate. Those interviewed with the MCI (vs. SI) also reported fewer incorrect details but more confabulated details previously introduced by the confederate. The potential social and cognitive mechanisms underlying the influence of the MCI protocol on the damaging effects of prior co-witness discussions are examined.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • The Influence of Familiar and Confident Eyewitnesses on Mock Jurors’
    • Abstract: Abstract We examined whether eyewitness confidence, familiarity with the defendant (defined as number of prior exposures), and eyewitness age (Study 1 only) influenced mock jurors in a murder trial. Participants read a criminal mock trial transcript where the eyewitness reported seeing the defendant once or many times (vs. none) and answered questions relating to the defendant’s guilt, culpability, and the accuracy of the eyewitness’ identification. In Studies 1 and 2 (N = 542 and N = 169, respectively) only confidence influenced jurors’ judgments with more guilt judgments and higher likelihood of identification accuracy when the witness espoused high (vs. low) confidence. Study 3 (N = 179) utilized a stronger operationalization of familiarity by explicitly stating the number of times the eyewitness had seen the defendant prior to the crime (e.g., 0, 10, or 20 times). Mock jurors were more likely to believe that the defendant was guilty when the eyewitness had seen him 10 times prior to the crime compared to zero times. Additionally, there was a trend for more favorable perceptions of the eyewitness as familiarity with the defendant increased. These results suggest that in some cases, familiarity between an eyewitness and defendant can impact mock juror decision-making.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Where Bias Begins: a Snapshot of Police Officers’ Beliefs About Factors
           that Influence the Investigative Interview with Suspects
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of the current study was to obtain a snapshot of police officer’s beliefs about factors that may influence the outcome of the investigative interview with suspects. We created a 26-item survey that contained statements around three specific themes: best interview practices, confessions and interviewee vulnerabilities. Police officers (N = 101) reported their beliefs on each topic by indicating the level of agreement or disagreement with each statement. The findings indicated that this sample of officers held beliefs that were mostly consistent with the literature. However, many officers also responded in the mid-range (neither agree nor disagree) which may indicate they are open to developing literature-consistent beliefs of the topics. Understanding what officers believe about factors within the investigative interview may have implications for future training. It may also help explain why some officers do not consistently apply best practices (i.e. strong counterfactual beliefs) versus officers who reliably apply literature-consistent practices to their interviews (i.e. knowledge-consistent beliefs).
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Witnesses’ Verbal Evaluation of Certainty and Uncertainty During
           Investigative Interviews: Relationship with Report Accuracy
    • Abstract: Abstract The Enhanced Cognitive Interview (CI) is a widely studied method to gather informative and accurate testimonies. Nevertheless, witnesses still commit errors and it can be very valuable to determine which statements are more likely to be accurate or inaccurate. This study examined whether qualitative confidence judgments could be used to evaluate report accuracy in a time-saving manner. Forty-four participants watched a mock robbery video and were interviewed 48 h later with a revised CI. Participants’ recall was categorized as follows: (1) evaluated with very high confidence (certainties), (2) recalled with low-confidence utterances (uncertainties), or (3) recalled with no confidence markers (regular recall). Certainties were more accurate than uncertainties and regular recall. Uncertainties were less accurate than regular recall; thus, its exclusion raised participants’ report accuracy. Witnesses were capable of qualitatively distinguishing between highly reliable information, fairly reliable information, and less reliable information in a time-saving way. Such a distinction can be important for investigative professionals who do not know what happened during the crime and may want to estimate which information is more likely to be correct.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • The Relationship Between Facebook Reactions and Sharing Investigative
           Requests for Assistance
    • Abstract: Abstract The use of social media as an investigative tool is widespread by law enforcement agencies. In this article, we review the public requests for investigative assistance posted by different law enforcement agencies across the nation to determine what Facebook reactions are associated with additional shares. Using like, love, sad, wow, angry, and funny clicks as proxies for the emotions community members report feeling, the goal is to provide empirically supported advice to law enforcement agencies about how to set the tone of their requests to reach the widest audience, measured by the number of times the post has been shared. When controlling for the type of crime listed, we found a positive relationship between the number of funny or sad clicks and the number of shares, while those posts that elicit angry clicks were shared fewer times. The strength of the relationships and the implications for law enforcement messaging are discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • The Influence of Familiarity Recency and Eyewitness Age on Mock
           Jurors’ Judgement
    • Abstract: Abstract The majority of research examining factors that influence jurors where the sole evidence is eyewitness identification focuses on stranger identifications where the eyewitness has never encountered the perpetrator before. However, it also is important to understand how familiarity between the eyewitness and perpetrator may be influential as familiarity is prevalent in criminal cases. Therefore, the current study examined the influence of familiarity recency (i.e., how long ago the eyewitness knew the defendant as a former neighbor 1, 5, or 10 years ago) and age of the eyewitness (25, 50, or 75 years old) on mock jurors’ decision-making. Mock jurors (N = 326) read a trial transcript involving a positive identification from an eyewitness. Neither familiarity recency nor eyewitness age influenced mock jurors’ perceptions of the defendant or eyewitness, or verdict decisions. However, mock jurors’ subjective ratings regarding the familiarity between the eyewitness and defendant were highly associated with mock jurors’ perceptions and verdict decisions. Specifically, higher familiarity ratings were associated with more guilty verdicts, higher guilt ratings, more positive perceptions of the eyewitness, and more negative perceptions of the defendant. This is an important finding as it demonstrates that jurors’ personal perceptions of familiarity are highly influential in familiar eyewitness cases.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • What Do Criminal Justice Students Know About Autism' An Exploratory
           Study Among Future Professionals
    • Abstract: Abstract The social and communication impairments and other atypical behaviors among those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) make this subset of the population particularly vulnerable. These vulnerabilities also present a separate set of concerns when they have contact with the criminal justice system, typically as victims or witness of abuse, as offenders or suspicious persons, or lost or missing persons. Specific measures must be taken to improve communication and to avoid misinterpreting communication impairments and other atypical behaviors as an indication of a lack of cooperation, being under the influence of substances, or of guilt/lack of remorse. Without the benefit of having basic knowledge and understanding of autism, criminal justice system professionals will struggle with meeting the needs of those with ASD. The current study explored the level of autism knowledge and awareness of among a sample of 400 undergraduate criminal justice students and possible future criminal justice professionals. The results demonstrated that the sample of students had moderate knowledge of ASD, which did not appear to increase with time in program. Those with greater exposure to people with ASD had more knowledge and understanding than those who did not. Recommendations and implications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Mediating the Peer Influence Effect with Facets of Criminal Thought
           Process and Content in a Group of Early Adolescents: Replication and
    • Abstract: Abstract Prior research indicates that criminal thought content and criminal thought process mediate the peer influence effect (peer delinquency → participant delinquency). This study sought to model the temporal order of these two categories of antisocial cognition in mediating peer influence. Responses provided by 1,795 (847 male, 948 female) members of the Gang Resistance Education and Training study (mean age = 12.11 years) on measures of criminal thought content (negative attitude toward the police) and criminal thought process (proactive criminal thinking in the form of neutralizing techniques) were analyzed. Only the “content before process” model achieved significance, however. Thus, while peer associations may stimulate criminal thought content and criminal thought process, the effect on criminal thought content may be more proximal and the effect on criminal thought process may be mediated by criminal thought content.
      PubDate: 2019-11-30
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Heriot-Watt University
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