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Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.35
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 431  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1936-6469 - ISSN (Online) 0882-0783
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2562 journals]
  • Mapping Repeated Interviews
    • Abstract: The present study introduces an adaptation of the Griffiths Question Map (GQM; Griffiths and Milne 2006) which extends the chronological, visual map of question types used in an investigative interview to include child interviewee’s responses (through the addition of the Interview Answer Grid, IAG). Furthermore, it provides a rare evaluation of repeated interviews with children. From a sample of transcripts of Scottish repeated interviews with child victims, two ‘good’ and two ‘poor’ first interviews were chosen based on interviewer question types. First and second investigative interviews of these four children were mapped using the GQM and IAG in order to examine across the two interviews the similarity of interviewer and interviewee behaviours and the consistency and investigative-relevance of information provided. Both ‘good’ and ‘poor’ interviews were found to include practices discouraged by interviewing guidelines, which would not have been identified by examining question proportions alone. Furthermore, ‘good’ first interviews were followed by second interviews which began with poor question types, suggesting a possible impact of confirmation bias. Social support was also assessed and found to be used infrequently, mainly in response to the child being informative rather than pre-emptively by interviewers in an attempt to encourage this. Children were also found to disclose throughout their second interviews, suggesting that rapport-maintenance is vital for single and multiple interviews. The use of the GQM and IAG is encouraged as a technique for determining interview quality.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Validation and Calibration of the Spanish Police Intimate Partner Violence
           Risk Assessment System (VioGén)
    • Abstract: This study describes the rationale, development, and validation of the intimate partner violence (IPV) police risk assessment forms of the VioGén System of the Spanish Ministry of Interior (VPR4.0 and VPER4.0), which promote greater predictive effectiveness and an improvement in the IPV law enforcement prevention. A validation study of the mentioned protocols is presented, including inter-observer reliability, estimated by the equivalence or inter-judge reliability method, while the convergent validity of these protocols was calculated with the RVD-BCN protocol. The sample consisted of 6613 new cases of IPV included in the VioGén System over a period of 2 months and which were longitudinally followed up for 6 months. The discrimination indexes are not only the summarized odds ratio (OR), area under the ROC curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity, but also the calibration indexes positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). The results show the suitability of using procedures which, in a coordinated manner, incorporate two risk assessment instruments, one for a first screening assessment and a second one to re-assess IPV danger situations on a regular basis. The values obtained are within the margins reported by different meta-analyses regarding this type of instruments, which supports their use for professional practice.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Missing Children Photograph Appeals: Does the Number of Appeals Affect
           Identification Accuracy Following a Short Recall Delay'
    • Abstract: The study objectives were (1) to determine if there were any associations between the time spent observing fictional appeals and identification accuracy, (2) to establish if the number of missing children photographs observed influences identification accuracy and (3) to determine whether the number of missing children appeals observed influences identification accuracy following a short 3-day delay. A two-stage approach was utilised. Two hundred and forty-two participants observed one, four or eight mock missing children photographs followed by a short word memory distraction task and a target present line-up identification task. The second stage comprised of another target present line-up identification task presented after a short 3-day delay. One-way between-group ANOVAs indicate that observing one missing child photograph has significantly greater overall identification accuracy and lower identification error than viewing four or eight photographs immediately after observing the appeal and following a 3-day delay. Additional analyses found that the identification accuracy was significantly higher immediately after observation compared with the identification accuracy following a 3-day delay. The findings demonstrate the necessity for improving missing children appeals. Due to the exploratory nature of the study, additional research is required to explore these factors further.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Can the Cognitive Interview Reduce Memory Conformity in an Interview
    • Abstract: Eyewitness testimony may be contaminated by event-related information shared by other witnesses. The present study aimed to assess the influence of a modified cognitive interview (MCI) on the detrimental effects of what is called memory conformity. Participants watched a videotaped staged event. Immediately after this, they answered 22 questions about the video out loud, either alone or with a confederate who intentionally introduced false information in her answers (i.e., 6 incorrect and 12 confabulated details). A week later, participants were interviewed individually about the video using either an MCI or a structured (control) interview. Results suggested that participants recalled some of the incorrect and confabulated items suggested by the confederate. Those interviewed with the MCI (vs. SI) also reported fewer incorrect details but more confabulated details previously introduced by the confederate. The potential social and cognitive mechanisms underlying the influence of the MCI protocol on the damaging effects of prior co-witness discussions are examined.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • The Influence of Familiar and Confident Eyewitnesses on Mock Jurors’
    • Abstract: We examined whether eyewitness confidence, familiarity with the defendant (defined as number of prior exposures), and eyewitness age (Study 1 only) influenced mock jurors in a murder trial. Participants read a criminal mock trial transcript where the eyewitness reported seeing the defendant once or many times (vs. none) and answered questions relating to the defendant’s guilt, culpability, and the accuracy of the eyewitness’ identification. In Studies 1 and 2 (N = 542 and N = 169, respectively) only confidence influenced jurors’ judgments with more guilt judgments and higher likelihood of identification accuracy when the witness espoused high (vs. low) confidence. Study 3 (N = 179) utilized a stronger operationalization of familiarity by explicitly stating the number of times the eyewitness had seen the defendant prior to the crime (e.g., 0, 10, or 20 times). Mock jurors were more likely to believe that the defendant was guilty when the eyewitness had seen him 10 times prior to the crime compared to zero times. Additionally, there was a trend for more favorable perceptions of the eyewitness as familiarity with the defendant increased. These results suggest that in some cases, familiarity between an eyewitness and defendant can impact mock juror decision-making.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Where Bias Begins: a Snapshot of Police Officers’ Beliefs About Factors
           that Influence the Investigative Interview with Suspects
    • Abstract: The aim of the current study was to obtain a snapshot of police officer’s beliefs about factors that may influence the outcome of the investigative interview with suspects. We created a 26-item survey that contained statements around three specific themes: best interview practices, confessions and interviewee vulnerabilities. Police officers (N = 101) reported their beliefs on each topic by indicating the level of agreement or disagreement with each statement. The findings indicated that this sample of officers held beliefs that were mostly consistent with the literature. However, many officers also responded in the mid-range (neither agree nor disagree) which may indicate they are open to developing literature-consistent beliefs of the topics. Understanding what officers believe about factors within the investigative interview may have implications for future training. It may also help explain why some officers do not consistently apply best practices (i.e. strong counterfactual beliefs) versus officers who reliably apply literature-consistent practices to their interviews (i.e. knowledge-consistent beliefs).
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Witnesses’ Verbal Evaluation of Certainty and Uncertainty During
           Investigative Interviews: Relationship with Report Accuracy
    • Abstract: The Enhanced Cognitive Interview (CI) is a widely studied method to gather informative and accurate testimonies. Nevertheless, witnesses still commit errors and it can be very valuable to determine which statements are more likely to be accurate or inaccurate. This study examined whether qualitative confidence judgments could be used to evaluate report accuracy in a time-saving manner. Forty-four participants watched a mock robbery video and were interviewed 48 h later with a revised CI. Participants’ recall was categorized as follows: (1) evaluated with very high confidence (certainties), (2) recalled with low-confidence utterances (uncertainties), or (3) recalled with no confidence markers (regular recall). Certainties were more accurate than uncertainties and regular recall. Uncertainties were less accurate than regular recall; thus, its exclusion raised participants’ report accuracy. Witnesses were capable of qualitatively distinguishing between highly reliable information, fairly reliable information, and less reliable information in a time-saving way. Such a distinction can be important for investigative professionals who do not know what happened during the crime and may want to estimate which information is more likely to be correct.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • The Relationship Between Facebook Reactions and Sharing Investigative
           Requests for Assistance
    • Abstract: The use of social media as an investigative tool is widespread by law enforcement agencies. In this article, we review the public requests for investigative assistance posted by different law enforcement agencies across the nation to determine what Facebook reactions are associated with additional shares. Using like, love, sad, wow, angry, and funny clicks as proxies for the emotions community members report feeling, the goal is to provide empirically supported advice to law enforcement agencies about how to set the tone of their requests to reach the widest audience, measured by the number of times the post has been shared. When controlling for the type of crime listed, we found a positive relationship between the number of funny or sad clicks and the number of shares, while those posts that elicit angry clicks were shared fewer times. The strength of the relationships and the implications for law enforcement messaging are discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • The Influence of Familiarity Recency and Eyewitness Age on Mock
           Jurors’ Judgement
    • Abstract: The majority of research examining factors that influence jurors where the sole evidence is eyewitness identification focuses on stranger identifications where the eyewitness has never encountered the perpetrator before. However, it also is important to understand how familiarity between the eyewitness and perpetrator may be influential as familiarity is prevalent in criminal cases. Therefore, the current study examined the influence of familiarity recency (i.e., how long ago the eyewitness knew the defendant as a former neighbor 1, 5, or 10 years ago) and age of the eyewitness (25, 50, or 75 years old) on mock jurors’ decision-making. Mock jurors (N = 326) read a trial transcript involving a positive identification from an eyewitness. Neither familiarity recency nor eyewitness age influenced mock jurors’ perceptions of the defendant or eyewitness, or verdict decisions. However, mock jurors’ subjective ratings regarding the familiarity between the eyewitness and defendant were highly associated with mock jurors’ perceptions and verdict decisions. Specifically, higher familiarity ratings were associated with more guilty verdicts, higher guilt ratings, more positive perceptions of the eyewitness, and more negative perceptions of the defendant. This is an important finding as it demonstrates that jurors’ personal perceptions of familiarity are highly influential in familiar eyewitness cases.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • What Do Criminal Justice Students Know About Autism' An Exploratory
           Study Among Future Professionals
    • Abstract: The social and communication impairments and other atypical behaviors among those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) make this subset of the population particularly vulnerable. These vulnerabilities also present a separate set of concerns when they have contact with the criminal justice system, typically as victims or witness of abuse, as offenders or suspicious persons, or lost or missing persons. Specific measures must be taken to improve communication and to avoid misinterpreting communication impairments and other atypical behaviors as an indication of a lack of cooperation, being under the influence of substances, or of guilt/lack of remorse. Without the benefit of having basic knowledge and understanding of autism, criminal justice system professionals will struggle with meeting the needs of those with ASD. The current study explored the level of autism knowledge and awareness of among a sample of 400 undergraduate criminal justice students and possible future criminal justice professionals. The results demonstrated that the sample of students had moderate knowledge of ASD, which did not appear to increase with time in program. Those with greater exposure to people with ASD had more knowledge and understanding than those who did not. Recommendations and implications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • D. Canter: Psychology and Law: Bridging the Gap
    • PubDate: 2019-09-12
  • Assessments in Forensic Practice: Book by K. Browne, A. Beech, L. Craig,
           & S. Chou
    • PubDate: 2019-09-12
  • Perceptions of Police Conduct When Race and Gender Are Considered
    • Abstract: With the recent media attention on police discretion and police discrimination, the current studies aimed to address whether people believe the race and gender of a person under suspicion influences police conduct. In study 1, participants (N = 137) read an incident summary where two individuals, who were described as being Black or White and male or female, were asked to leave a local coffee establishment; the police were called, and the individuals were arrested. Participants were more likely to believe the call to police and the arrest were justified when the individuals were White as opposed to Black. Study 2 was an extension of study 1 whereby the race of the individual calling the police also was varied between Black and White. Participants (N = 316) in study 2 also were more likely to believe the call to police and the arrest were justified when the individuals were White as opposed to Black. Additionally, participants were more likely to believe the call to the police was justified when the individual was male compared to female. Across both studies, participants also were asked to rate how much they believed race and gender influenced the call to the police and arrest; participants believed that both race and gender were influential in these decisions. The current studies provide new information regarding the public’s perception of police prejudice and suggest that people may be apt to consider the negative relationships between the police and minorities when considering a specific case. Further, the results suggest that the public does not support or agree with racially driven arrests and actually counteract any prejudice by making anti-stereotypical judgements.
      PubDate: 2019-09-12
  • Working with the Police: a Positive Outlook from a National Sample of
           Probation and Parole Officers
    • Abstract: Formal police–probation/parole partnerships were popularized in the early 1990s, many modeled after the perceived success of Boston’s Operation Night Light. Yet, funding dissipated in the 2000s and little research was completed. This study represents the first national survey of frontline probation/parole officers concerning the prevalence of partnerships with the police, their support for partnerships, and an examination of factors that influence that support. Findings reveal that many partnerships exist informally and very few report the lack of any partnership with the police. Indeed, these results confirm that working with the police is an integral function of community supervision work, especially in regard to information sharing.
      PubDate: 2019-09-11
  • How Terrorism Red Flags Become Weak Signals Through the Processes of
           Judgement and Evaluation
    • Abstract: This paper addresses the question of why, in spite of their characteristics as ‘strong signals’, terrorism red flags can sometimes be missed. This represents a serious problem for counter-terrorism. By analysing the two phases of the investigative decision-making process, judgement and evaluation, we explain how the decision-making process can introduce distortions that can weaken even the strongest signals, making them vulnerable to being missed. We first examine the concept of weak signals and the challenges involved in detecting them. Then, drawing on the theoretical and empirical research in decision theory, we explain the role of the decision-making process in weakening and distorting strong signals. We present a model of the decision-making process based on prospect theory representing missed red flags as judgement and evaluation errors. We argue that the two phases of the decision-making process cause distortions in information, evidence, data and signals that are relevant to assessing an individual’s likely engagement in terrorism. We end the paper with some recommendations that can be implemented to mitigate the problems identified in the paper.
      PubDate: 2019-09-10
  • C. J. Najdowski and M. Stevenson: Criminal Juries in the 21st Century:
           Contemporary Issues, Psychological Science, and the Law
    • PubDate: 2019-09-07
  • Confirmatory Information Processing in Legal Decision: Effect of Intimate
    • Abstract: A large body of research has focused on legal decision-making in mixed courts of lay and professional judges. However, few studies have been conducted to test the impact on evidence processing of the intimate conviction instruction (ICI), a decision rule based on impression formation used in civil law systems. The influence of the two facets of the ICI (the decision rule and the motivation requirement) on confirmatory information processing (CIP) was studied in a harm-to-person case. Using a methodology combining the simulated juror and CIP paradigms, the decision rule (based on impression vs. rationality) and the motivation requirement (required vs. not required) were manipulated to observe their impact on assimilation and selective exposure biases. Results showed significant interactions of the two facets of the ICI but only on the assimilation bias. These results are discussed in the light of the evidence processes in the context of legal decision-making in criminal courts.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Evidence for the Belief in Live Lineup Superiority
    • Abstract: There are substantive differences in international preferences in the medium through which eyewitness identification lineups are administered, but these jurisdictional preferences are not based on evidence. Regardless of whether one medium produces greater identification accuracy, it is the perception of evidence strength by triers of fact that determines its influence in judicial proceedings. Yet, we know little about how lineup mediums are perceived by potential triers of fact. Four-hundred six undergraduate students viewed a video interview of an eyewitness describing an identification that took place with one of three different lineup mediums (live, video, photo) to compare their relative persuasiveness. Participants also directly compared mediums. There was a clear preference for evidence elicited from live lineups in direct comparisons, but not in the experimental conditions. Live lineup superiority beliefs exist in policy and, these data show, in the beliefs of potential witnesses and triers of fact when various lineup mediums are directly compared.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • The Psychology of Internet Fraud Victimisation: a Systematic Review
    • Abstract: Existing theories of fraud provide some insight into how criminals target and exploit people in the online environment; whilst reference to psychological explanations is common, the actual use of established behavioural theories and/or methods in these studies is often limited. In particular, there is less understanding of why certain people/demographics are likely to respond to fraudulent communications. This systematic review will provide a timely synthesis of the leading psychologically based literature to establish the key theories and empirical research that promise to impact on anti-fraud policies and campaigns. Relevant databases and websites were searched using terms related to psychology and fraud victimisation. A total of 44 papers were extracted and 34 included in the final analysis. The studies range in their scope and methods; overall, three main factors were identified: message (n = 6), experiential (n = 7), and dispositional (n = 21), although there was some overlap between these (for example, mapping message factors onto the dispositional traits of the victim). Despite a growing body of research, the total number of studies able to identify specific psychological processes associated with increased susceptibility to online fraud victimisation was limited. Messages are targeted to appeal to specific psychological vulnerabilities, the most successful linking message with human factors, for example, time-limited communications designed to enact peripheral rather than central information processing. Suggestions for future research and practical interventions are discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-07-02
  • Recognition of a Missing Person in a Mock Silver Alert in Relation to
           Individual Difference Factors and the Effect of an Educational Video
    • Abstract: In two studies, we investigated participants’ ability to recognize a missing older adult featured in a mock Silver Alert. Previous research on face recognition indicates the presence of biases related to demographic variables such as gender, race, and age; thus, we compared recognition of the target in relation to these variables. Further, we explored recognition of the target in relation to empathy, conscientiousness, attitudes toward and contact with older individuals as these variables may play a role in motivation and attention to these types of alerts. In Study 1, college students (N = 610) viewed both a video of the missing man and an educational video on Silver Alerts before attempting recognition, whereas in Study 2 (N = 350), we experimentally manipulated whether participants viewed the educational video. Both studies resulted in high recognition rates (83.90% and 75.1%, respectively). Study 2 did not show a significant effect of the educational video, perhaps because of the effectiveness other components of both studies, such as the additional video of the target. Those who recognized the target had significantly higher empathy scores and metacognitive ratings (i.e., confidence) in both studies, with inconsistent differences on other individual difference variables. Caucasian participants were more likely than African-American participants to recognize the Caucasian male target, consistent with previous research on Own-Race Bias in face recognition. Additional research is needed to explore ways of improving the public’s ability to recognize missing senior citizens.
      PubDate: 2019-06-19
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Heriot-Watt University
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