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Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.35
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 416  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1936-6469 - ISSN (Online) 0882-0783
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2349 journals]
  • The Influence of Prior Familiarity, Identification Delay, Appearance
           Change, and Descriptor Type and Errors on Mock Jurors’ Judgments
    • Authors: Emily Pica; Chelsea Sheahan; Andrei Mesesan; Joanna Pozzulo
      Pages: 289 - 301
      Abstract: Three studies examined the influence of an eyewitness’ prior relationship with the defendant in combination with identification delay (study 1; N = 281), defendant appearance change between the time of the crime and identification (study 2; N = 194), and type of descriptors reported (i.e., perpetrator or crime scene) and presence of descriptor errors (study 3; N = 304) on mock jurors’ judgments. Familiarity was not influential in dichotomous verdicts (i.e., guilty vs. not guilty); however, in studies 1 and 2, when the eyewitness and defendant shared a personal relationship (e.g., familial), mock jurors were more likely to assign higher guilt ratings to the defendant, suggesting that personal relationships may sway jurors to believe that an accurate identification can be made. In study 3, when descriptor errors were present, there were more guilty verdicts, thus supporting prior research that has found when descriptor errors are introduced, the testimony is viewed as less credible.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9251-z
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 4 (2018)
  • Clusters of Nonverbal Behaviors Differ According to Type of Question and
           Veracity in Investigative Interviews in a Mock Crime Context
    • Authors: David Matsumoto; Hyisung C. Hwang
      Pages: 302 - 315
      Abstract: Evaluating truthfulness and detecting deception is a capstone skill of criminal justice professionals, and researchers have long examined nonverbal cues to aid in such determinations. This paper examines the notion that testing clusters of nonverbal behaviors is a more fruitful way of making such determinations than single, specific behaviors. Participants from four ethnic groups participated in a mock crime and either told the truth or lied in an investigative interview. Fourteen nonverbal behaviors of the interviewees were coded from the interviews; differences in the behaviors were tested according to type of question and veracity condition. Different types of questions produced different nonverbal reactions. Clusters of nonverbal behaviors differentiated truth tellers from liars, and the specific clusters were moderated by question. Accuracy rates ranged from 62.6 to 72.5% and were above deception detection accuracy rates for humans and random data. These findings have implications for practitioners as well as future research and theory.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9250-0
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 4 (2018)
  • The Dangers of Co-witness Familiarity: Investigating the Effects of
           Co-witness Relationships on Blame Conformity
    • Authors: Dara Mojtahedi; Maria Ioannou; Laura Hammond
      Pages: 316 - 326
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of pre-existing relationships between co-witnesses on statement similarity, after a post-event discussion. Although research studies have attempted to observe the effect of a pre-existing relationship on eyewitness pairs, few have investigated these effects on larger groups of co-witnesses. Four hundred and twenty participants took part in an eyewitness simulation experiment. Participants were placed into groups of five, and viewed video footage of a bar fight. After witnessing the event, participants discussed the event with group members before giving individual statements privately. The study employed a one-way between subjects design with three conditions: (1) participants discussed the event with familiar co-witnesses, (2) participants discussed the event with unfamiliar co-witnesses and (3) participants were not permitted to discuss the event with their co-witnesses (control). It was found that post-event discussion between co-witnesses increased the level of similarity in blame attribution within the eyewitness groups; however, this difference was only significant in groups where eyewitnesses shared a pre-existing relationship. In addition, the level of uncertainty was reduced when eyewitnesses took part in post-event discussions. It is suggested that this might be attributed to an increased level of informational influence between familiar co-witnesses. However, there was no evidence suggesting that post-event discussions led to an increase in false eyewitness statements.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9254-4
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 4 (2018)
  • Shoot/No-Shoot Decisions in the Context of IED-Detection Training and
           Eyewitness Memory for Persons
    • Authors: Matthew J. Sharps; Megan R. Herrera; David L. Hulett; Amanda Briley
      Pages: 327 - 331
      Abstract: Cognitive approaches to training for the detection of improvised explosive devices (IED’s) are of increasing importance. However, there is a question as to the degree to which such training might interfere with other important law enforcement (LE) functions in the field, and the degree to which such training might enhance other important cognitive/perceptual functions. A promising cognitive approach to IED training, the SMOKE system, was provided to respondents, who then responded to shoot/no-shoot decisions, important LE situations of increasing relevance. It was shown that SMOKE training did not interfere with shoot/no-shoot decisions. However, those with SMOKE training performed better than control respondents on eyewitness memory for the perpetrator of a given crime in field-valid scenes. This indicates that cognitively based training may enhance vigilance and resultant memory in field situations.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9283-z
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 4 (2018)
  • Do they Aggress Earlier' Investigating the Effects of Ego Depletion on
           Police Officers’ Use of Force Behavior
    • Authors: Mario S. Staller; Paul Christiansen; Benjamin Zaiser; Swen Körner; Jon C. Cole
      Pages: 332 - 344
      Abstract: Endowed with the state monopoly on the legitimate use of even potentially lethal force, it is intolerable for police officers to act outside the governing legal and ethical framework. At the same time, officers are expected to exert self-control and refrain from excessive use of force when they deal with provocative and perilous situations. This study sought to investigate corresponding self-control and self-control failures through the role of ego depletion in the decision to use force by police officers. Two experiments were conducted using officers from a German State Police force, requiring the participants to use force against a provocative role player. Experiment 1 found that the ego depletion measure failed and there were no differences between the groups. Using a different ego depletion method, experiment 2 found that ego-depleted participants aggressed earlier than controls. These results indicate that circumstances that produce ego depletion could lead to the inappropriate use of force through reducing self-control. This has major implications for the police use of force and how we understand police officers’ decision-making in response to provocation.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9249-6
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 4 (2018)
  • Force, Stress, and Decision-Making Within the Belgian Police: the Impact
           of Stressful Situations on Police Decision-Making
    • Authors: Antoinette Verhage; Jannie Noppe; Yinthe Feys; Eva Ledegen
      Pages: 345 - 357
      Abstract: Stress and fear are inevitable aspects of the police job and may have a large impact on police officers’ decision-making process. Many studies have explored how stress and fear may influence assessments of police officers, especially with regard to the use of force. This article aims to contribute to this research domain by reporting the findings from two empirical studies among Belgian police officers: a quantitative study of police officers’ attitudes towards and experiences with the use of force and a qualitative study on the influence of stress and emotions on officers’ decision-making and assessment abilities and accuracy of shooting. Both studies confirmed that stress and fear are often present in Belgian police practice. One of the main findings is that Belgian police officers are anxious about the consequences of their actions because they know they will be held accountable for them. The pressure that results from this accountability can make it even more difficult for police officers to react to stressful situations. Therefore, we need to look for the right balance in this difficult position, by providing tools that support police officers in making daily decisions, and help them do their job as effectively as possible.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9262-4
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 4 (2018)
  • Role Conflict and the Psychological Impacts of the Post-Ferguson Period on
           Law Enforcement Motivation, Cynicism, and Apprehensiveness
    • Authors: Jose Torres; Timothy Reling; James Hawdon
      Pages: 358 - 374
      Abstract: In the wake of high-profile deadly force cases in the post-Ferguson era, a number of negative psychological outcomes have been depicted by law enforcement officers. We examine if negative post-Ferguson outcomes predict current cynicism, motivation, and apprehensiveness. Further, we account for whether role orientations, specifically support for a law enforcement orientation or a community policing orientation, mediate the psychological effects of the post-Ferguson period. Since the law enforcement orientation, exercised through strict enforcement of the law, has been called out of favor in the post-Ferguson area, supporting this role may negatively impact officers via role conflict. The opposite may be observed for those supporting a community policing orientation. We test these arguments using results from an online survey of law enforcement officers in the USA, administered 6 months following highly publicized incidents in Dallas and Baton Rouge where police were targeted and killed. Results showed that post-Ferguson psychological impacts continued to affect current levels of cynicism, motivation, and apprehensiveness. Support for law enforcement or community policing orientation did not mediate the effects of post-Ferguson sentiments. Nonetheless, role orientations played a significant role in predicting current cynicism, motivation, and apprehensiveness and provided support for the theory of role conflict.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9284-y
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 4 (2018)
  • Secondary Confessions as Post-identification Feedback: How Jailhouse
           Informant Testimony Can Alter Eyewitnesses’ Identification Decisions
    • Authors: Preston M. Mote; Jeffrey S. Neuschatz; Brian H. Bornstein; Stacy A. Wetmore; Kylie N. Key
      Pages: 375 - 384
      Abstract: Prior research has shown that primary confession evidence can alter eyewitnesses’ identifications and self-reported confidence. The present study investigated whether secondary confession evidence from a jailhouse informant could have the same effect. Participants (N = 368) watched a video of an armed robbery and made an identification decision from a photo lineup. Except for those in the no-feedback conditions, all participants then read that certain lineup members either confessed to the crime, denied involvement, or were implicated by a jailhouse informant. Jailhouse informant testimony implicating the identified lineup member led participants to have significantly higher confidence in their identification. In contrast, jailhouse informant testimony that implicated a lineup member other than the identified led participants to have significantly lower confidence in their initial identification, and 80% of these witnesses changed their identification. These results indicate that jailhouse informant testimony can influence eyewitnesses’ confidence and their identification decisions.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9274-0
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 4 (2018)
  • Effects of Mental Strength Training for Police Officers: a Three-Wave
           Quasi-experimental Study
    • Authors: Erik van der Meulen; Mark W. G. Bosmans; Kim M. E. Lens; Esmah Lahlah; Peter G. van der Velden
      Pages: 385 - 397
      Abstract: Police officers are frequently confronted with various stressors that may affect their mental health. Psychological resilience may protect against these effects. For this purpose, a Mental Strength Training (MST) was developed by the Dutch Police Academy aimed at psychological resilience enhancement. The present three-wave study examined efficacy of this training using a quasi-experimental study design among police officers (N Total  = 305, n Experimenal  = 138, n Comparison  = 167). Additionally, we compared between officers in the experimental and comparison group recently confronted with a potentially traumatic event (N Total  = 170, n Experimenal  = 74, n Comparison  = 96). Questionnaires on resilience (Mental Toughness Questionnaire-48 (MTQ-48) and Resilience Scale-nl (RS-nl)), mental health disturbances (Symptoms CheckList 90-R (SCL-90-R) and Self-Rating Inventory for PTSD (SRIP)), were administered pre-training, and about 3 and 9 months post-training. Mixed-effects models showed training effects on Interpersonal Confidence. Similar analyses among officers with recent potentially traumatic event experience showed significant training effects for the RS-nl subscale of Acceptance of Self and Life, MTQ-48 total score, and the MTQ-48 subscale of Interpersonal Confidence. However, all effects yielded small effect sizes according to Cohen’s d, and are therefore of limited practical relevance. Officer’s appraisal of training benefits on resilience enhancement was largely negative. We found no indications that 4-day training substantially improved officer’s psychological resilience or mental health.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9247-8
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 4 (2018)
  • Assessment of Stress and Resiliency in Emergency Dispatchers
    • Authors: Bryan Steinkopf; Ryan A. Reddin; Ryan A. Black; Vincent B. Van Hasselt; Judy Couwels
      Pages: 398 - 411
      Abstract: Although they are technically the first responders on most critical incidents, emergency dispatchers have received a modicum of attention from researchers and clinicians. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate job-related stress, psychological distress, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), stress resiliency, and posttraumatic growth in this high-risk group. These areas were evaluated via an assessment battery administered to 90 emergency dispatchers working in a law enforcement agency. Results showed that dispatchers experienced an average amount of occupational stress, with 24% of the current sample reporting significant job stress. Between 13.34 and 15.56% reported symptoms consistent with a PTSD diagnosis, and 16.67% indicated sub-threshold PTSD symptomatology. The findings revealed that, overall, dispatchers experience occupational stress, psychological distress, and sub-threshold PTSD at similar or higher rates compared to police officers. Further, dispatchers reported posttraumatic growth at an average rate, also similar to that reported by police officers. Clinical implications of the results are discussed. Suggestions for directions that future research might take are offered.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9255-3
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 4 (2018)
  • Where Bias Begins: a Snapshot of Police Officers’ Beliefs About Factors
           that Influence the Investigative Interview with Suspects
    • Authors: Nicole M. Adams-Quackenbush; Robert Horselenberg; Peter J. van Koppen
      Abstract: The aim of the current study was to obtain a snapshot of police officer’s beliefs about factors that may influence the outcome of the investigative interview with suspects. We created a 26-item survey that contained statements around three specific themes: best interview practices, confessions and interviewee vulnerabilities. Police officers (N = 101) reported their beliefs on each topic by indicating the level of agreement or disagreement with each statement. The findings indicated that this sample of officers held beliefs that were mostly consistent with the literature. However, many officers also responded in the mid-range (neither agree nor disagree) which may indicate they are open to developing literature-consistent beliefs of the topics. Understanding what officers believe about factors within the investigative interview may have implications for future training. It may also help explain why some officers do not consistently apply best practices (i.e. strong counterfactual beliefs) versus officers who reliably apply literature-consistent practices to their interviews (i.e. knowledge-consistent beliefs).
      PubDate: 2018-11-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9301-1
  • The Relationship Between Facebook Reactions and Sharing Investigative
           Requests for Assistance
    • Authors: Kimberly F. Brunell; Sarah W. Craun; Briana Davis
      Abstract: The use of social media as an investigative tool is widespread by law enforcement agencies. In this article, we review the public requests for investigative assistance posted by different law enforcement agencies across the nation to determine what Facebook reactions are associated with additional shares. Using like, love, sad, wow, angry, and funny clicks as proxies for the emotions community members report feeling, the goal is to provide empirically supported advice to law enforcement agencies about how to set the tone of their requests to reach the widest audience, measured by the number of times the post has been shared. When controlling for the type of crime listed, we found a positive relationship between the number of funny or sad clicks and the number of shares, while those posts that elicit angry clicks were shared fewer times. The strength of the relationships and the implications for law enforcement messaging are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-11-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9297-6
  • Resilience Among Police Officers: a Critical Systematic Review of Used
           Concepts, Measures, and Predictive Values of Resilience
    • Authors: Kim M. E. Janssens; Peter G. van der Velden; Ruben Taris; Marc J. P. M. van Veldhoven
      Abstract: Resilience, hardiness, and psychological capital are considered to be important capacities for police officers to cope with and adapt to challenging stressful and potentially traumatic situations. Despite their growing popularity, a systematic review assessing used concepts and instruments for these capacities and synthesizing the results of studies on the predictive values of resilience, hardiness, and psychological capital among police officers is absent. The aim of the present study is to fill this gap of scientific knowledge, and for this purpose, a systematic literature search was conducted using PsycInfo, Pubmed, and Web of Science. We identified 17 cross-sectional and 5 longitudinal studies. Results showed that resilience, hardiness, and psychological capital were studied mostly in relation to physical and mental health variables. No study focused on officers’ professional functioning. In both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, associations with health variables were very weak to moderate, while cross-sectional studies mostly yielded stronger associations than longitudinal associations. In sum, we found no empirical support for the growing popularity.
      PubDate: 2018-11-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9298-5
  • Body-Worn Cameras in the Post-Ferguson Era: An Exploration of Law
           Enforcement Perspectives
    • Authors: Seth Wyatt Fallik; Ross Deuchar; Vaughn J. Crichlow
      Abstract: In the aftermath of Michael Brown’s death in Ferguson, Missouri, confidence in police has weakened. Body-worn cameras (BWCs) are perceived to increase law enforcement transparency and accountability, and, by proxy, restore law enforcement legitimacy. Though the empirical status of BWCs has grown in recent years, missing from these accounts are the actual words and narratives of officers. Through a qualitative approach, the data and analysis within this paper overcome this issue and indicate that BWCs have had an impact on police–citizen interactions in one Southern American State. More specifically, citizen and officer accountability from BWCs was found to have positive and negative consequence. Officers articulated this supposition in a number of ways and the paper contextualizes these perspectives within the extant literature. The policy implications and areas of future research from these findings are discussed as they inform a non-positivist approach to research.
      PubDate: 2018-10-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9300-2
  • Police Discretion in Rape Cases
    • Authors: Mandeep K. Dhami; Samantha Lundrigan; Sian Thomas
      Abstract: Although policing requires officers to follow policy guidelines when making decisions, these nevertheless leave room for discretion. We used a within-subjects experimental design and idiographic statistical analyses to examine the factors predicting 25 specialist police officers’ decisions to progress rape cases. We found little to no evidence of the influence of some factors (i.e., victim’s criminal history, victim-suspect relationship, time taken to report crime, victim’s prior reports of rape, victim’s alcohol/drug use during offense, and suspect’s previous convictions) on officers’ rape case progression decisions. However, 15 officers were less likely to progress cases involving victims who provided inconsistent accounts. Thus, some types of rape victims may not get access to the justice that they desire and deserve. Although officers also reported that consistency of the victim’s account was important to their decision-making, there was generally a lack of concordance between officers’ self-reported and applied decision-making policies. Thus, officers’ accounts of how they progressed a rape case may be unreliable and invalid.
      PubDate: 2018-10-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9299-4
  • Personality Characteristics Associated with Different Criminal Typologies
           in a Sample of Spanish Inmates
    • Authors: María Penado Abilleira; María Luisa Rodicio-García
      Abstract: The objective of this research is to study the personality characteristics of a sample of men and women who are serving prison sentences in Spanish prisons, to determine their distinguishing characteristics, and to analyze whether the personality traits are related to the type of crime for which they are condemned. The sample is composed of 294 inmates (265 men and 29 women) (M = 41.20; SD = 10.51). The results indicate that the main crime for which they are imprison is for acts against property that involve violence or threat of violence against people (30.4%); to a lesser extent, acts that involve the use of psychoactive substances or other drugs (19.8%); acts that cause harm or that are intended to cause harm to people (17.9%); and acts that cause death or are intended to cause death (13.9%). Paranoia is the personality trait that most predicts criminal behaviors consisting of acts against people (homicide, injuries, and threats). Acts against property involving violence or threat against a person are more likely in people who have problems with alcohol and antisocial behavior. Finally, borderline personality traits are associated more with acts involving controlled psychoactive substances or other drugs.
      PubDate: 2018-10-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9296-7
  • The Impact of Resilience Training on Occupational Stress, Resilience, Job
           Satisfaction, and Psychological Well-being of Female Police Officers
    • Authors: T. Chitra; S. Karunanidhi
      Abstract: Despite many studies on police stress, there is little research on interventions to promote their well-being. Moreover, most studies of police stress have been predominately on male samples, with female police officers often being neglected. On this premise, the purpose of the present study was to develop and determine the efficacy of resilience training program by evaluating its impact on occupational stress, resilience, job satisfaction, and psychological well-being. Two hundred and fifty female police officers from the Southern part of India were recruited for the study. The study adopted a pre-post-follow-up research design. Resilience training with components such as self-awareness, positive attitude, emotional management, and interpersonal skills were developed uniquely for this study, based on protective model of resilience. Sixty-three female police officers, who fulfilled the criteria, were randomly assigned into two groups namely, experimental (n = 33) and control group (n = 30). Resilience training was given to the experimental group thrice a week for nearly 2 months, and control group was not given any training. Data were collected at three time periods, i.e., before training, a week after training, and 2 months after training. The statistical analysis, using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) was carried out. The results revealed that resilience training was effective in enhancing resilience, job satisfaction, and psychological well-being of female police officers and in reducing occupational stress. Medium effect sizes were reported. The qualitative feedback was positive regarding the resilience training program, supporting the empirical evidence for the effectiveness of resilience training program. The study had implications for theory and practice in police research.
      PubDate: 2018-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9294-9
  • The Influence of Pre-video Information and Appraisal Time on Judgments of
           Police Officer Use of Excessive Force
    • Authors: Melissa A. Baker; Matthew B. Reysen
      Abstract: Confrontations between police officers and civilians are sometimes videoed and made available to the public. In two experiments, we examined emotional regulation of such videos. Participants viewed a video of a confrontation between a police officer and a civilian and were asked if the officer used excessive force. In experiment 1, we investigated whether the information provided to participants prior to watching a police officer-civilian confrontation video (pre-video information: yes, no) might create a context that would allow them to regulate their emotional responses to the video. Additionally, we examined how that context might affect their judgments of excessive force used by the officer in the video. Results of experiment 1 showed that pre-video warnings influenced excessive force judgments. Results also showed that excessive force judgments were related to the amount of time it took participants to make the excessive force judgments: participants took less time to make a “yes” than a “no” excessive force judgment. In experiment 2, we investigated both the influence of pre-video information and appraisal time on excessive force judgments: participants in different groups were required to withhold their excessive force judgments for different periods of time (appraisal times 0 s, 3 s, 8 s, 13 s). Results of experiment 2 revealed an interaction between pre-video information and appraisal time on excessive force judgments. Excessive force judgments decreased with appraisal time but only when participants were given pre-video information. We think our results have implications for how people may process police officer-civilian confrontation videos when viewing them on the news.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9295-8
  • Stigmatizing Attitudes Toward Police Officers Seeking Psychological
    • Authors: Chelsea Wheeler; Arianne Fisher; Andrea Jamiel; Tamara J. Lynn; W. Trey Hill
      Abstract: Police officers are continuously involved in various roles that prove to be highly stressful and require a developed skill set. Consequently, demands from this career put officers at an increased risk for a range of mental-health related concerns. Although officers who suffer from these mental health concerns may need to seek psychological services, there is, unfortunately, a stigma that surrounds mental health causing officers to be reluctant to seek help. This research examines public perceptions and attitudes toward law enforcement professionals seeking mental health treatment. Findings suggest that when a higher level of self-stigma toward mental health is reported, there is also a higher level of stigma toward law enforcement. Males also showed higher levels of stigma toward officers. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9293-x
  • A Mixed Method Investigation of Past Trainees’ Perceptions of a Critical
           Incident Situational Awareness Training Program
    • Authors: Aminda J. O’Hare; Amanda Beer
      Abstract: In the arena of skills training for acting in complex, high-stress environments, situation awareness has been identified as a key characteristic of successful operators. The definition of situation awareness has evolved over time to include psychophysiological state management, stress inoculation, and cognitive components. This paper utilizes a mixed methods design to examine a training program, which claims to combine the aforementioned situation awareness components in protocols developed for military, law enforcement, and private security personnel. Four past participants of the training program completed in-depth, semi-structured interviews about their experience with the training. Subsequently, a training-specific survey was developed to more thoroughly investigate trainees’ experiences. Survey responses of the program’s trainees (n = 32) were compared to non-program trainees from similar fields (n = 35) on quantitative measures. Open-ended responses of the program’s trainees were qualitatively analyzed. Overall, program trainees were found to perceive the training as positively impacting their situation awareness ability in stressful/threatening situations and non-stressful situations compared to the non-program trainees. Qualitative analyses conducted with the interviews and on open-response survey items provide descriptive explanations for how the training program is perceived to be influencing situation awareness abilities.
      PubDate: 2018-09-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9291-z
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