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Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.35
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 422  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1936-6469 - ISSN (Online) 0882-0783
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Confirmatory Information Processing in Legal Decision: Effect of Intimate
    • Authors: Rafaele Dumas; Catherine Esnard
      Abstract: A large body of research has focused on legal decision-making in mixed courts of lay and professional judges. However, few studies have been conducted to test the impact on evidence processing of the intimate conviction instruction (ICI), a decision rule based on impression formation used in civil law systems. The influence of the two facets of the ICI (the decision rule and the motivation requirement) on confirmatory information processing (CIP) was studied in a harm-to-person case. Using a methodology combining the simulated juror and CIP paradigms, the decision rule (based on impression vs. rationality) and the motivation requirement (required vs. not required) were manipulated to observe their impact on assimilation and selective exposure biases. Results showed significant interactions of the two facets of the ICI but only on the assimilation bias. These results are discussed in the light of the evidence processes in the context of legal decision-making in criminal courts.
      PubDate: 2019-02-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-019-9316-2
  • Crime Linkage: Finding a Behavioral Fingerprint Using the “Path
           Similarity Metric”
    • Authors: David A. Keatley; David D. Clarke
      Abstract: When a detective arrives at a crime scene, or investigates multiple cases, they are often tasked with understanding whether the crimes are linked. Knowing whether the same suspect(s) was involved across multiple crimes is a key part of the investigation. To date, there are numerous methods for crime linkage; however, very few take temporal sequences of events into account. It is known that modus operandi and signatures change over time, and therefore, linkage analyses should integrate these temporal changes. The current paper presents a new method of crime linkage, the Path Similarity Metric, which is based on sequence analysis procedures. The method is proposed, outlined, and tested in contrast to existing linkage analyses (e.g., Jaccard’s coefficient). The Path Similarity Metric outperforms Jaccard’s coefficient across a series of crimes. Future applications of the Path Similarity Metric are outlined, and directions for the use of the metric in ongoing investigations are considered alongside other linkage methods.
      PubDate: 2019-02-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-019-9315-3
  • Police Crisis Intervention Teams: Understanding Implementation Variations
           and Officer-Level Impacts
    • Authors: William V. Pelfrey; Ania Young
      Abstract: Many police agencies utilize the Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) approach to facilitate effective responses when officers are called to address persons experiencing a mental health crisis. CIT training is predicated on verbal de-escalation tactics and includes situational assessment procedures, understanding the role and elements of the mental health system, and connections to mental health resources. The CIT approach, often called the Memphis Model, is generally recognized as beneficial for the community, persons with mental health issues, and the agency. The officer-level impacts of assignment to a CIT position have not been thoroughly explored. Additionally, differences in implementation of the original CIT model, resulting from community variations, have not been studied. The extant research employs several data collection modalities: surveys of CIT coordinators, interviews with leading CIT researchers, and interviews/focus groups with law enforcement personnel, to expand understanding of CIT efficacy, variations, and impact. Findings point to agency policy issues regarding the use and possible expansion of CIT teams.
      PubDate: 2019-01-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-019-9314-4
  • The Police Use of Background Information Related to Alleged Victims in
           Mock Evaluations of Child Sexual Abuse
    • Abstract: When statistically related to child sexual abuse (CSA), background information can assist decision-making in investigations of CSA allegations. Here, we studied the use of such background information among Finnish police officers. We analyzed their ability to identify and interpret CSA-related and CSA-unrelated background information both when placed in mock scenarios and when presented as separate, individual variables. We also measured the ability to correctly estimate the probability of CSA based on such background information. In the context of mock scenarios, officers were better in discarding CSA-unrelated variables than in identifying CSA-related ones. Within-subject performance across different scenarios was, however, not consistent. When information was presented as separate variables, officers tended to incorrectly consider many CSA-unrelated variables as CSA-related. Officers performed better in recognizing whether actual CSA-related variables increase or decrease the probability of CSA. Finally, officers were inaccurate in identifying variables that are CSA-related only for boys or only for girls. When asked to estimate the CSA probability of mock scenarios, participants were accurate only in assessing low-probability cases, and this was not associated with the ability to identify CSA-related and CSA-unrelated variables. We conclude that police officers would benefit from more training in using background information and from using available decision-making support tools in the context of investigating CSA allegations.
      PubDate: 2019-01-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-019-9312-6
  • Frame-of-Reference Effects on Police Officer Applicant Responses to the
           Revised NEO Personality Inventory
    • Authors: Paul Detrick; John T. Chibnall
      Abstract: Prior investigations of the frame-of-reference effect have compared personality inventory responses using contextualized (e.g., at work) versus standard non-contextualized frames-of-reference primarily under low-demand or simulated high-demand conditions. Results generally suggest that a context relevant instructional set may increase reliability and validity. These findings have not been studied using actual applicants under high-demand conditions such as personnel selection. In the present study, actual police officer applicants completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) using either an “at work” or a standard (no context) frame-of-reference under both high- and low-demand conditions. Results indicated significant demand effects on 3/5 NEO PI-R domain scores and 25/30 facet scores. Frame-of-reference, on the other hand, yielded no significant main effects. An “at work” frame-of-reference, relative to a standard context, had no influence on police officer applicant NEO PI-R responses, irrespective of demand. Context effects on job applicant responses may not be of concern regarding reliability or validity of responding under high-demand conditions such as personnel selection.
      PubDate: 2019-01-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-019-9313-5
  • Suicide and Associated Vulnerability Indicators in Adult Missing Persons:
           Implications for the Police Risk Assessment
    • Authors: Hannah Yong; Calli Tzani-Pepelasis
      Abstract: This research examined the relationship between adult missing persons and suicide, considering a number of possible vulnerability indicators/characteristics of this group of missing persons. Implications for missing person investigations were also explored, particularly for the risk assessment process. Data was extracted for 93 (N = 93) missing persons cases from one English police force, over a 4-year period. These individuals were found dead suspected of suicide. The findings illustrate a number of vulnerability indicators/characteristics of missing persons who complete suicide. In relation to the initial risk assessment level applied to the missing person report, two vulnerability indicators, a risk of suicide and the presence of a suicide note, had an effect on predicting a higher risk assessment level. Future research, in order to overcome the present study’s limitations, should attempt to collect data from more than one police force in order to increase the sample size. In addition to this, it would be beneficial to use a sample of missing persons who are found safe and well as a comparative sample to have a better chance in understanding the examined relationship and whether the vulnerability indicators/characteristics are indicative of suicide risk. The findings of this study have practical implications for the risk assessment process and are a step forward in providing empirical evidence applicable to identifying missing persons most at risk of suicide. This research has helped to build upon and corroborate existing knowledge of missing persons who complete suicide. This study provides new empirical evidence on suicide in adult missing persons. The findings demonstrate the subjective and variable nature of the risk assessment process and highlight potential implications on missing person investigations.
      PubDate: 2019-01-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9308-7
  • Mental Health Outcomes Following a Large-Scale Potentially Traumatic Event
           Involving Police Officers and Civilian Staff of the Queensland Police
    • Abstract: A large-scale potentially traumatic event (PTE) poses considerable mental health risks for police services. There is limited literature detailing the mental health outcomes following large-scale PTEs. This study examined the mental health outcomes amongst Queensland Police Service (QPS) staff following a large-scale PTE. Two hundred and sixteen Australian police officers and support staff involved in the response to a natural disaster completed a clinical interview and measures of psychological distress (Kessler 10) and post-traumatic stress (PCL-C) 4 weeks post-deployment to the incident. The results showed that approximately 24% of the participants had elevated levels of general distress, while 13% had clinical levels of PTSD symptoms. Age was associated with the severity of PTSD symptoms but not general distress. Civilian staff reported significantly higher symptoms of general distress and PTSD than police officers. Females reported significantly higher symptoms of psychological distress than males; however, no differences were observed for symptoms of post-traumatic stress. Finally, the K10 had strong convergent validity with clinical levels of PTSD as measured by the PCL-C indicating that the K10 may be a useful general screening measure of both general distress and PTSD symptoms when brevity is needed in a large-scale PTE mental health screening measure.
      PubDate: 2019-01-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9310-0
  • The Influence of Familiarity Recency and Eyewitness Age on Mock
           Jurors’ Judgement
    • Authors: Lauren E Thompson; Chelsea Sheahan; Emily Pica; Joanna Pozzulo
      Abstract: The majority of research examining factors that influence jurors where the sole evidence is eyewitness identification focuses on stranger identifications where the eyewitness has never encountered the perpetrator before. However, it also is important to understand how familiarity between the eyewitness and perpetrator may be influential as familiarity is prevalent in criminal cases. Therefore, the current study examined the influence of familiarity recency (i.e., how long ago the eyewitness knew the defendant as a former neighbor 1, 5, or 10 years ago) and age of the eyewitness (25, 50, or 75 years old) on mock jurors’ decision-making. Mock jurors (N = 326) read a trial transcript involving a positive identification from an eyewitness. Neither familiarity recency nor eyewitness age influenced mock jurors’ perceptions of the defendant or eyewitness, or verdict decisions. However, mock jurors’ subjective ratings regarding the familiarity between the eyewitness and defendant were highly associated with mock jurors’ perceptions and verdict decisions. Specifically, higher familiarity ratings were associated with more guilty verdicts, higher guilt ratings, more positive perceptions of the eyewitness, and more negative perceptions of the defendant. This is an important finding as it demonstrates that jurors’ personal perceptions of familiarity are highly influential in familiar eyewitness cases.
      PubDate: 2019-01-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9311-z
  • Perceptions of Incarcerated Youth About Police Violence and Legitimacy in
           Trinidad and Tobago
    • Authors: Nikolaos Stamatakis
      Abstract: This study was focused on the youth’s perceptions in Trinidad and Tobago, a developing Caribbean nation. It describes their personal experiences with and perceptions of police misbehavior or excessive use of force on juveniles and young adults held in the two reformatory institutions, as well as in the country’s only juvenile facility. The main objective of the present empirical research was to explore the diachronic conceptual relationship between violence and the levels of police legitimacy as perceived or experienced by the youth from 13 to 23 years old. Short questionnaires were used to capture the youth’s opinions on institutional violence, a distinct and long-lasting phenomenon in the region. Multivariate analyses of the quantitative data also examined the role of trust as an influencing factor for police legitimacy (and legitimation), being previously evaluated in terms of efficiency and equality. Although most of the research participants had a bad impression about the police, overall, whether the police operations were efficient or their procedures fair had no impact or influence on the particular sample’s levels of trust and general perceptions of the TTPS. Finally, recommendations on changes in the police’s administrative procedures were made along with a shift in organizational culture, and the promotion of community policing.
      PubDate: 2019-01-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9309-6
  • Clusters of Nonverbal Behaviors Differ According to Type of Question and
           Veracity in Investigative Interviews in a Mock Crime Context
    • Authors: David Matsumoto; Hyisung C. Hwang
      Pages: 302 - 315
      Abstract: Evaluating truthfulness and detecting deception is a capstone skill of criminal justice professionals, and researchers have long examined nonverbal cues to aid in such determinations. This paper examines the notion that testing clusters of nonverbal behaviors is a more fruitful way of making such determinations than single, specific behaviors. Participants from four ethnic groups participated in a mock crime and either told the truth or lied in an investigative interview. Fourteen nonverbal behaviors of the interviewees were coded from the interviews; differences in the behaviors were tested according to type of question and veracity condition. Different types of questions produced different nonverbal reactions. Clusters of nonverbal behaviors differentiated truth tellers from liars, and the specific clusters were moderated by question. Accuracy rates ranged from 62.6 to 72.5% and were above deception detection accuracy rates for humans and random data. These findings have implications for practitioners as well as future research and theory.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9250-0
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 4 (2018)
  • The Dangers of Co-witness Familiarity: Investigating the Effects of
           Co-witness Relationships on Blame Conformity
    • Authors: Dara Mojtahedi; Maria Ioannou; Laura Hammond
      Pages: 316 - 326
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of pre-existing relationships between co-witnesses on statement similarity, after a post-event discussion. Although research studies have attempted to observe the effect of a pre-existing relationship on eyewitness pairs, few have investigated these effects on larger groups of co-witnesses. Four hundred and twenty participants took part in an eyewitness simulation experiment. Participants were placed into groups of five, and viewed video footage of a bar fight. After witnessing the event, participants discussed the event with group members before giving individual statements privately. The study employed a one-way between subjects design with three conditions: (1) participants discussed the event with familiar co-witnesses, (2) participants discussed the event with unfamiliar co-witnesses and (3) participants were not permitted to discuss the event with their co-witnesses (control). It was found that post-event discussion between co-witnesses increased the level of similarity in blame attribution within the eyewitness groups; however, this difference was only significant in groups where eyewitnesses shared a pre-existing relationship. In addition, the level of uncertainty was reduced when eyewitnesses took part in post-event discussions. It is suggested that this might be attributed to an increased level of informational influence between familiar co-witnesses. However, there was no evidence suggesting that post-event discussions led to an increase in false eyewitness statements.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9254-4
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 4 (2018)
  • Shoot/No-Shoot Decisions in the Context of IED-Detection Training and
           Eyewitness Memory for Persons
    • Authors: Matthew J. Sharps; Megan R. Herrera; David L. Hulett; Amanda Briley
      Pages: 327 - 331
      Abstract: Cognitive approaches to training for the detection of improvised explosive devices (IED’s) are of increasing importance. However, there is a question as to the degree to which such training might interfere with other important law enforcement (LE) functions in the field, and the degree to which such training might enhance other important cognitive/perceptual functions. A promising cognitive approach to IED training, the SMOKE system, was provided to respondents, who then responded to shoot/no-shoot decisions, important LE situations of increasing relevance. It was shown that SMOKE training did not interfere with shoot/no-shoot decisions. However, those with SMOKE training performed better than control respondents on eyewitness memory for the perpetrator of a given crime in field-valid scenes. This indicates that cognitively based training may enhance vigilance and resultant memory in field situations.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9283-z
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 4 (2018)
  • Do they Aggress Earlier' Investigating the Effects of Ego Depletion on
           Police Officers’ Use of Force Behavior
    • Authors: Mario S. Staller; Paul Christiansen; Benjamin Zaiser; Swen Körner; Jon C. Cole
      Pages: 332 - 344
      Abstract: Endowed with the state monopoly on the legitimate use of even potentially lethal force, it is intolerable for police officers to act outside the governing legal and ethical framework. At the same time, officers are expected to exert self-control and refrain from excessive use of force when they deal with provocative and perilous situations. This study sought to investigate corresponding self-control and self-control failures through the role of ego depletion in the decision to use force by police officers. Two experiments were conducted using officers from a German State Police force, requiring the participants to use force against a provocative role player. Experiment 1 found that the ego depletion measure failed and there were no differences between the groups. Using a different ego depletion method, experiment 2 found that ego-depleted participants aggressed earlier than controls. These results indicate that circumstances that produce ego depletion could lead to the inappropriate use of force through reducing self-control. This has major implications for the police use of force and how we understand police officers’ decision-making in response to provocation.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9249-6
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 4 (2018)
  • Secondary Confessions as Post-identification Feedback: How Jailhouse
           Informant Testimony Can Alter Eyewitnesses’ Identification Decisions
    • Authors: Preston M. Mote; Jeffrey S. Neuschatz; Brian H. Bornstein; Stacy A. Wetmore; Kylie N. Key
      Pages: 375 - 384
      Abstract: Prior research has shown that primary confession evidence can alter eyewitnesses’ identifications and self-reported confidence. The present study investigated whether secondary confession evidence from a jailhouse informant could have the same effect. Participants (N = 368) watched a video of an armed robbery and made an identification decision from a photo lineup. Except for those in the no-feedback conditions, all participants then read that certain lineup members either confessed to the crime, denied involvement, or were implicated by a jailhouse informant. Jailhouse informant testimony implicating the identified lineup member led participants to have significantly higher confidence in their identification. In contrast, jailhouse informant testimony that implicated a lineup member other than the identified led participants to have significantly lower confidence in their initial identification, and 80% of these witnesses changed their identification. These results indicate that jailhouse informant testimony can influence eyewitnesses’ confidence and their identification decisions.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9274-0
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 4 (2018)
  • Effects of Mental Strength Training for Police Officers: a Three-Wave
           Quasi-experimental Study
    • Authors: Erik van der Meulen; Mark W. G. Bosmans; Kim M. E. Lens; Esmah Lahlah; Peter G. van der Velden
      Pages: 385 - 397
      Abstract: Police officers are frequently confronted with various stressors that may affect their mental health. Psychological resilience may protect against these effects. For this purpose, a Mental Strength Training (MST) was developed by the Dutch Police Academy aimed at psychological resilience enhancement. The present three-wave study examined efficacy of this training using a quasi-experimental study design among police officers (N Total  = 305, n Experimenal  = 138, n Comparison  = 167). Additionally, we compared between officers in the experimental and comparison group recently confronted with a potentially traumatic event (N Total  = 170, n Experimenal  = 74, n Comparison  = 96). Questionnaires on resilience (Mental Toughness Questionnaire-48 (MTQ-48) and Resilience Scale-nl (RS-nl)), mental health disturbances (Symptoms CheckList 90-R (SCL-90-R) and Self-Rating Inventory for PTSD (SRIP)), were administered pre-training, and about 3 and 9 months post-training. Mixed-effects models showed training effects on Interpersonal Confidence. Similar analyses among officers with recent potentially traumatic event experience showed significant training effects for the RS-nl subscale of Acceptance of Self and Life, MTQ-48 total score, and the MTQ-48 subscale of Interpersonal Confidence. However, all effects yielded small effect sizes according to Cohen’s d, and are therefore of limited practical relevance. Officer’s appraisal of training benefits on resilience enhancement was largely negative. We found no indications that 4-day training substantially improved officer’s psychological resilience or mental health.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9247-8
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 4 (2018)
  • Assessment of Stress and Resiliency in Emergency Dispatchers
    • Authors: Bryan Steinkopf; Ryan A. Reddin; Ryan A. Black; Vincent B. Van Hasselt; Judy Couwels
      Pages: 398 - 411
      Abstract: Although they are technically the first responders on most critical incidents, emergency dispatchers have received a modicum of attention from researchers and clinicians. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate job-related stress, psychological distress, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), stress resiliency, and posttraumatic growth in this high-risk group. These areas were evaluated via an assessment battery administered to 90 emergency dispatchers working in a law enforcement agency. Results showed that dispatchers experienced an average amount of occupational stress, with 24% of the current sample reporting significant job stress. Between 13.34 and 15.56% reported symptoms consistent with a PTSD diagnosis, and 16.67% indicated sub-threshold PTSD symptomatology. The findings revealed that, overall, dispatchers experience occupational stress, psychological distress, and sub-threshold PTSD at similar or higher rates compared to police officers. Further, dispatchers reported posttraumatic growth at an average rate, also similar to that reported by police officers. Clinical implications of the results are discussed. Suggestions for directions that future research might take are offered.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9255-3
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 4 (2018)
  • Psychometric Properties of a Contextualized, Actuarially Informed
    • Authors: Holly Ellingwood; Kevin M. Williams; Gill Sitarenios; Joanna Solomon
      Abstract: Despite empirical evidence that personnel selection assessments may be more effective when they incorporate actuarial (standardized, evidence-based interpretation guidelines) and contextualized (job-specific item language) components, relevant research specific to law enforcement settings is extremely limited. The Matrix-Predictive Uniform Law Enforcement Selection Evaluation (M-PULSE) Inventory, an example of such an assessment, has experienced increased popularity as a valuable pre- and post-conditional law enforcement screener. Yet, relatively little is known about its psychometric properties beyond the normative sample. In the first peer-reviewed study to focus on the M-PULSE, we examined the instrument in a large (N = 1202) sample of officer candidates in the Western USA. Results supported the reliability, factor structure, and lack of gender or ethnic bias of the M-PULSE, and scores were generally uncorrelated with age and educational background. These results empirically support the M-PULSE as a psychometrically sound instrument for law enforcement selection, and more broadly, may espouse actuarial, contextualized assessment methods.
      PubDate: 2018-12-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9290-0
  • An Exploration of Self-Compassion in Incarcerated Women
    • Authors: J. T. Ptacek; Kimberly A. Daubman
      Abstract: Over the past 5–7 years, there has been growing interest by criminal justice scholars in the area of positive criminology and in the development of gender-responsive treatment programs. A necessary condition for advances in these endeavors is explicating relevant psychological constructs and relying on reliable and valid measures. In this investigation, we explore the psychometric properties of the Self-Compassion Survey (SCS) in a sample of 117 incarcerated women. Participants at a maximum-security state women’s prison completed this cross-sectional, self-report study by filling out the SCS as well as measures of resilience and mindfulness. Results revealed that subscale and total SCS scores had good internal consistency and positively correlated with the other assessed constructs, as expected. Moreover, subscale means in this sample were similar to other samples of women previously reported in the literature. Taken together, our findings suggest that the SCS is a reliable and valid measure in this population and therefore is an appropriate tool to use in exploring the role of self-compassion in the lives of incarcerated women.
      PubDate: 2018-12-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9304-y
  • The Influence of Familiar and Confident Eyewitnesses on Mock Jurors’
    • Authors: Emily Pica; Chelsea L. Sheahan; Joanna Pozzulo; Jonathan Vallano; Jennifer Pettalia
      Abstract: We examined whether eyewitness confidence, familiarity with the defendant (defined as number of prior exposures), and eyewitness age (Study 1 only) influenced mock jurors in a murder trial. Participants read a criminal mock trial transcript where the eyewitness reported seeing the defendant once or many times (vs. none) and answered questions relating to the defendant’s guilt, culpability, and the accuracy of the eyewitness’ identification. In Studies 1 and 2 (N = 542 and N = 169, respectively) only confidence influenced jurors’ judgments with more guilt judgments and higher likelihood of identification accuracy when the witness espoused high (vs. low) confidence. Study 3 (N = 179) utilized a stronger operationalization of familiarity by explicitly stating the number of times the eyewitness had seen the defendant prior to the crime (e.g., 0, 10, or 20 times). Mock jurors were more likely to believe that the defendant was guilty when the eyewitness had seen him 10 times prior to the crime compared to zero times. Additionally, there was a trend for more favorable perceptions of the eyewitness as familiarity with the defendant increased. These results suggest that in some cases, familiarity between an eyewitness and defendant can impact mock juror decision-making.
      PubDate: 2018-12-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9306-9
  • Variations of Salient Rejection Options: Does One Work Best for
           Adolescents and Adults'
    • Authors: Emily Pica; Lauren E. Thompson; Joanna Pozzulo; Julie Dempsey; Jennifer Pettalia
      Abstract: Adolescents (15- to 17-years, N = 366) and adults (18- to 57-years, N = 345) were shown a videotaped theft and following a brief delay were presented with a target-present or target-absent simultaneous lineup that contained one of four variations of a “not here” graphical representation or a control with no graphical representation. Variations included: “silhouette and question mark box” vs. “silhouette box” vs. “question mark box” vs. “not here box” vs. no box (i.e., control). Lineup instructions for each option included a statement that the perpetrator may or may not be present. Participants were more likely to make an accurate identification when presented with a target-present lineup compared to a target-absent lineup. Including some form of graphical representation of “not here” did not increase the correct identification or correct rejection rates compared to when no representation was presented with the lineup. Adolescents and adults provided a comparable number of perpetrator descriptors; however, overall, adolescents produced a higher proportion of accurate responses. Participants who reported more perpetrator descriptors also were more likely to make a correct identification or correct rejection in the subsequent identification task.
      PubDate: 2018-12-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9307-8
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