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Journal Cover Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology
  [SJR: 0.405]   [H-I: 14]   [414 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1936-6469 - ISSN (Online) 0882-0783
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Minority Status and Spirituality among Police Officers: Blacks and Women
           in a Metropolitan Department
    • Authors: Richard Lee Rogers
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: This paper addresses two questions: (1) What are the sources of spirituality among police officers' (2) Can spirituality alleviate police stress' These issues are examined in a secondary analysis of the dataset Police Stress and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland, 1997–1999. The study extends research on law enforcement spirituality to include the structural sources of spirituality. Minority status easily emerges as a source of spirituality with the highest levels present among African Americans and females. Contrary to previous research that has found either non-existent or positive relationships between spirituality and work-related stress among law enforcement, this study finds that spirituality is weakly associated with lower levels of burnout after controlling for demographic factors. However, the weak relationship between spirituality and perceived stress disappears when controlling for burnout and demographic factors, thus undermining the ability to make any overarching claims about the influence of spirituality that can cover all kinds of police stress.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9229-x
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2018)
  • Relationship Between Motivation to Lead, Mental Health Status, and Job
           Satisfaction of Male and Female Civil Police Constables
    • Authors: Mahesh Kumar Maurya; Manisha Agarwal
      Pages: 9 - 20
      Abstract: The purpose of the study was to examine the differences in perceptions of motivation to lead, mental health, and job satisfaction of male and female police constables. Police constables (N = 203, male = 144, female = 59) were surveyed at four districts (Varanasi, Mirzapur, Allahabad and Lucknow) in the state of Uttar Pradesh, Republic of India. Participants’ responses were obtained on questionnaires which measured demographic characteristics, motivation to lead (Dubrin, 1998), psychological well-being, psychological distress (Heubeck & Neill Psychological Reports, 87:431–440, 2000), and job satisfaction (Dantzker’s Journal of Crime and Justice 16:171–181, 1993). Results of t test analysis indicated that job experience, salary, education, motivation to lead, and psychological well-being were significantly different among the male and female police constables. Motivation to lead was a significantly positive correlate of job satisfaction among male participants only while psychological well-being was significantly, positively correlated with job satisfaction of both male and female participants. Psychological well-being also exercised partial mediator effects on the positive relationship between “motivation to lead” and job satisfaction in male police constables only. However, psychological distress was negatively correlated with job satisfaction of male police constables. The findings have significant implications for increasing job satisfaction in the police department. Findings indicate that the government should concentrate on removing anomalies in the job conditions of the female police constables so as to promote psychological well-being. Simultaneously, the police department should also pay attention to conditions which can increase motivation to lead among its female police constables.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9230-4
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2018)
  • In Search of Indicators of Detective Aptitude: Police Recruits’ Logical
           Reasoning and Ability to Generate Investigative Hypotheses
    • Authors: Ivar A. Fahsing; Karl Ask
      Pages: 21 - 34
      Abstract: Previous psychological research on criminal investigation has not systematically addressed the role of deductive and inductive reasoning skills in decision-making in detectives. This study examined the relationship between these skills derived from a cognitive ability test used for police recruitment and test scores from an investigative reasoning skills task (Fahsing and Ask 2016). Newly recruited students at the Norwegian Police University College (N = 166) were presented with two semi-fictitious missing-person cases and were asked to report all relevant hypotheses and necessary investigative actions in each case. The quality of participants’ responses was gauged by comparison with a gold standard established by a panel of senior police experts. The scores from the deductive and inductive reasoning test were not related to participants’ performance on the investigative reasoning task. However, the presence or absence of an investigative “tipping-point” (i.e. arrest decision) in the two cases was systematically associated with participants’ ability to generate investigative hypotheses. Methodological limitations and implications for police recruitment and criminal investigative practice are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9231-3
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2018)
  • The Role of Familiarity with the Defendant, Type of Descriptor
           Discrepancy, and Eyewitness Age on Mock Jurors’ Perceptions of
           Eyewitness Testimony
    • Authors: Chelsea L. Sheahan; Joanna D. Pozzulo; Jennifer E. Reed; Emily Pica
      Pages: 35 - 44
      Abstract: The current study examined the influence of eyewitness familiarity with the defendant (familiar vs. not familiar), type of descriptor discrepancy (none vs. permanent vs. non-permanent), and eyewitness age (10- vs. 20-year-old) on mock jurors’ decision making. Mock jurors (N = 422 undergraduate students) read a mock trial involving an alleged motor theft. Familiarity with the defendant resulted in more guilty verdicts and higher guilt ratings compared to when the relationship between the eyewitness and defendant was described as ‘strangers’. Mock jurors also were more likely to reach a guilty verdict, provide higher guilt ratings, and rate the eyewitness more favourably when no discrepancies were reported compared to when there were discrepancies. Moreover, the defendant was rated less favourably when discrepancies were present. Surprisingly, mock jurors were more likely to vote guilty, and rate the eyewitness more favourably and the defendant less favourably, when descriptor discrepancies were permanent features made compared to non-permanent feature discrepancies. No effects of eyewitness age were found.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9232-2
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2018)
  • Misinterpreting Danger' Stereotype Threat, Pre-attack Indicators, and
           Police-Citizen Interactions
    • Authors: Kimberly Barsamian Kahn; Jean M. McMahon; Greg Stewart
      Pages: 45 - 54
      Abstract: This paper compares police trainings and materials on pre-attack indicators in police-citizen interactions with similar behavioral indicators of stereotype threat, which is not necessarily a sign of danger. Stereotype threat is a social identity threat in which individuals feel that they may be judged or treated negatively based on a social group stereotype (Steele 1997). This psychological threat can increase the target’s anxiety, physiological arousal, and decrease cognitive capacity. We hypothesize that symptoms of stereotype threat might be similar to pre-attack indicators being taught to police in the USA, which can lead police to potentially misinterpret a citizen’s actions. Using a deductive content analysis, three coders analyzed a sample of pre-attack indicator police trainings for three indicators of stereotype threat: anxiety, arousal, and reduced cognitive capacity. Results found significant overlap between danger indicators taught in trainings and stereotype threat indicators. All 15 identified trainings contained at least one of the three indicators of stereotype threat, and 13 contained at least two indicators. None of the trainings discussed stereotype threat. We argue that stereotype threat should be taught in addition to relevant indicators of danger in trainings, lest officers misinterpret citizens’ stereotype threat-related behaviors solely as manifestations of imminent danger.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9233-1
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2018)
  • Is the Public Willing to Help the Nigerian Police During the Boko Haram
           Crisis' A Look at Moderating Factors
    • Authors: Stamatis Elntib; Zainab Sani Nass; Maria Ioannou; Saskia Ryan; Paul Christiansen
      Pages: 55 - 62
      Abstract: This paper sought the opinion of 200 Nigerians on their willingness to cooperate with the police during the Boko Haram crisis. Public perceptions of police effectiveness during the crisis, residence location, gender and religious affiliation were used as moderators. Data was analysed using an explanatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Results indicated a strong association between perceived effectiveness and willingness to report to the police with respondents who question the effectiveness of the police being less likely to be willing to report criminal activity about Boko Haram. Further to this, the impact of religion on willingness to report was at least partially mediated by perceived effectiveness of the police with the results showing that Christian respondents perceived the police as less effective. Females and those living in the north were significantly less willing to report criminal activity to the police. The findings are discussed in relation to the BH crises and directions for future research are given.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9234-0
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2018)
  • A Multidimensional Approach to Ascertaining Individual Differentiation and
           Consistency in Serial Sexual Assault: Is It Time to Redefine and
    • Authors: Marina Sorochinski; C Gabrielle Salfati
      Pages: 63 - 83
      Abstract: Whilst investigative use of behavioural evidence to help link and solve serial offences has long been in use, the empirical and theoretical grounds for whether and how to use this evidence effectively have begun to emerge only in recent decades. The present study empirically tested (a) the potential for effectively differentiating between rape offence crime scenes using quantitative and qualitative distinctions within the behavioural dimensions of control, violence, and sexual activity, and (b) the extent to which redefining behavioural consistency more broadly to include dynamic trajectories of behavioural change may be more effective than limiting this definition to behavioural stability. Results confirmed that sexual offences can be successfully differentiated based on the specific degree and subtype of these behavioural dimensions present in each crime scene. The analysis of consistency and behavioural trajectories showed that whilst none of the offenders exhibited complete consistency across behavioural dimensions, a subsample of offenders remained fully consistent in at least one. Furthermore, of those who were not consistent, the vast majority followed an identifiable trajectory of change. Findings are discussed in the context of psychological theories of behavioural consistency as well as practical aspects of advancing the utility of behavioural linkage.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9235-z
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2018)
  • Effectiveness of Emotional Fitness Training in Police
    • Authors: Wing Tung Au; Yuet Yi Wong; Ka Mei Leung; Sau Mee Chiu
      Abstract: This paper reports the effectiveness of Emotional Fitness Training launched by the Hong Kong Police Force (HKPF) in enhancing four aspects of emotional fitness in police officers, namely resilience, positive emotions, cognitive flexibility, and emotional well-being. The Emotional Fitness Training workshops evaluated were conducted in three phases. Phase 1 workshops were offered to junior police officers and frontline commanders for voluntary participation. Phase 2 workshops were offered to supervisory staff with train-the-trainer purposes. Phase 3 workshops were also offered to supervisory staff, but as a regular training-day activity to let the staff learn to deliver training packages. A total of 300 respondents participated in the program evaluation exercises, and these were assessed before the workshop (pretest), immediately after the workshop (posttest), and 10 weeks after the workshop took place (10 weeks posttest). Most of the seven measures registered statistically significant improvements compared to pretest in all three training phases. We noted varying effectiveness in the three phases of training that could be attributed to the amount of out-of-class practice engaged in by the participants. We measured professional pride and organizational commitment 1 year after the workshop and found that workshop participants reported greater pride and commitment compared with nonparticipants of the same rank. Among workshop participants, those with better emotional fitness also reported greater pride and commitment. The findings provide strong evidence supporting the effectiveness of emotional fitness training to enhance resilience, positive emotions, cognitive flexibility, and emotional well-being, and more importantly, they strengthen professional pride and organizational commitment even 1 year after training.
      PubDate: 2018-01-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9252-6
  • Assessing the Effectiveness of NICHD Protocol Training Focused on Episodic
           Memory Training and Rapport-Building: a Study of Korean Police Officers
    • Authors: Misun Yi; Eunkyung Jo; Michael E. Lamb
      Pages: 279 - 288
      Abstract: The present study examined the effectiveness of 2-day training programs utilizing the NICHD Protocol, with a particular focus on the episodic memory training and rapport-building phases. Ninety-seven police officers were allocated to one of four training conditions (protocol only, protocol and rapport-building, protocol and memory training, protocol and other interview issues), and mock interviews were conducted both before and after the training. The results showed that the proportions of invitations and directive questions asked significantly increased after training, whereas the proportions of option-posing and suggestive questions decreased. Although the different training programs changed interviewing behavior similarly, college students interviewed by police officers who had additional training in rapport-building and episodic memory training were more satisfied with their interviewers than those who were interviewed by police officers in the other conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9220-y
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 4 (2017)
  • Show Me Your Hands! Police and Public Perceptions of Violent Interpersonal
    • Authors: Richard R. Johnson
      Pages: 289 - 299
      Abstract: Psychology has recently begun to examine human interpersonal social predictors of violence. One area yet unexamined is potential differences between law enforcement officers and non-police in their perception of aggressive interpersonal social cues. Using a sample of 129 police officers and 178 non-police individuals, a direct comparison was made about perceptions of interpersonal social behaviors associated with imminent violence. It was revealed that both samples generally shared similar perceptions, with a few exceptions. Police officers were more sensitive than other individuals are to each of the behavioral cues. The police sample also perceived the behavior of placing one’s hands in one’s pockets as more threatening than did the non-police sample.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9221-x
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 4 (2017)
  • Lie Detection Accuracy—the Role of Age and the Use of Emotions as a
           Reliable Cue
    • Authors: Hannah Shaw; Minna Lyons
      Pages: 300 - 304
      Abstract: Literature surrounding the accuracy of deception detection has produced inconsistent findings, and the majority of investigations have been based upon low-stakes lies. Although recent research has suggested that high-stakes situations may produce reliable cues to deception, it remains unclear whether knowledge of these cues actually improves the detection of lies. In an online experiment, we assessed participant’s ability to detect lies in 22 public appeals for help with missing or murdered relatives (N = 196). Participants were randomly allocated to either the cue condition (presented with previously identified cues to deception) or no cue condition (instructed to make judgement on instinct), before being presented with the video footage. Participants were asked to indicate whether the appealer is lying or telling the truth, how confident they are in their judgement and if they were familiar with the case. At the end of the experiment, participants wrote qualitative responses on the cues that they used during lie detection. Although cue knowledge and confidence did not significantly predict accuracy scores, there was a positive relationship between accuracy and age. Participants who used emotion-based cues were significantly better at detecting deception. The findings are discussed with reference to the existence of reliable cues.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9222-9
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 4 (2017)
  • Observers’ Real-Time Sensitivity to Deception in Naturalistic
    • Authors: Drew A. Leins; Laura A. Zimmerman; Emily N. Polander
      Pages: 319 - 330
      Abstract: This study tested the ability of experienced interviewers and novice observers to detect deception while watching mock interviews featuring experimental or control questioning methods and different detainee languages. The protocol featured a complex, realistic critical event and naturalistic interviews in which mock detainees could report unconstrained. Experimenters recorded these interviews and presented them to observers who judged veracity in real time. In general, experienced interviewers were no more sensitive to deception than were novices and both groups set conservative response criteria. Observers were more sensitive to deception when viewing control versus experimental questioning methods. Observers were more sensitive to deception when viewing Arabic speakers interviewed through an interpreter. Results imply that not all trained interviewers exhibit a lie bias; additional research should examine how best to transition lab-tested interview methods into the field, and language and interpreter factors may impact the ability to assess veracity in multiple ways.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9224-2
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 4 (2017)
  • Hardiness as a Moderator and Motivation for Operational Duties as
           Mediator: the Relation Between Operational Self-Efficacy, Performance
           Satisfaction, and Perceived Strain in a Simulated Police Training Scenario
    • Authors: Bjørn Helge Johnsen; Roar Espevik; Evelyn-Rose Saus; Sverre Sanden; Olav Kjellevold Olsen; Sigurd W. Hystad
      Pages: 331 - 339
      Abstract: Training of police officers is important in order to maintain an effective law enforcement community. The present study investigates the mediating effect of motivation for operational duties on the relation between operational self-efficacy and performance satisfaction as well as perceived strain during a simulated operational scenario. Moderating effects of personality hardiness on the same relations were also investigated. Personality hardiness as a moderator was found only for the relation between operational self-efficacy and performance satisfaction. A positive effect was found for high hardy subjects, and a negative effect was found for low hardy subjects. The results also showed a mediating effect of motivation for operational duties on both performance satisfaction and perceived strain. This could have implication for selection and training in the police force.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9225-1
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 4 (2017)
  • Predictors of Group Performance in a Police Criminal Investigation
           Department: the Role of Gender Homogeneity, Leadership and Team
    • Authors: Jaap Schaveling; Saskia Blaauw; Kees van Montfort
      Pages: 358 - 368
      Abstract: The Netherlands’ Ministry of Security and Justice has agreed on performance targets with the country’s police departments. Introducing the targets created a shift to controlling performance in team management focus. This empirical study of police teams in Utrecht in the Netherlands (N = 134) focuses on the influence of leadership style, gender and psychosocial team factors when teams are required to achieve agreed performance objectives. We address calls in the literature for more research into (objective) measures relating to effective police leadership and existing (police) management practices. Gender homogeneity, a combination of charismatic, empowering and transactional leadership styles, and team members’ awareness of team achievements were found to be relevant. The practical implications of these results are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9227-z
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 4 (2017)
  • Clusters of Nonverbal Behaviors Differ According to Type of Question and
           Veracity in Investigative Interviews in a Mock Crime Context
    • Authors: David Matsumoto; Hyisung C. Hwang
      Abstract: Evaluating truthfulness and detecting deception is a capstone skill of criminal justice professionals, and researchers have long examined nonverbal cues to aid in such determinations. This paper examines the notion that testing clusters of nonverbal behaviors is a more fruitful way of making such determinations than single, specific behaviors. Participants from four ethnic groups participated in a mock crime and either told the truth or lied in an investigative interview. Fourteen nonverbal behaviors of the interviewees were coded from the interviews; differences in the behaviors were tested according to type of question and veracity condition. Different types of questions produced different nonverbal reactions. Clusters of nonverbal behaviors differentiated truth tellers from liars, and the specific clusters were moderated by question. Accuracy rates ranged from 62.6 to 72.5% and were above deception detection accuracy rates for humans and random data. These findings have implications for practitioners as well as future research and theory.
      PubDate: 2017-12-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9250-0
  • The Influence of Prior Familiarity, Identification Delay, Appearance
           Change, and Descriptor Type and Errors on Mock Jurors’ Judgments
    • Authors: Emily Pica; Chelsea Sheahan; Andrei Mesesan; Joanna Pozzulo
      Abstract: Three studies examined the influence of an eyewitness’ prior relationship with the defendant in combination with identification delay (study 1; N = 281), defendant appearance change between the time of the crime and identification (study 2; N = 194), and type of descriptors reported (i.e., perpetrator or crime scene) and presence of descriptor errors (study 3; N = 304) on mock jurors’ judgments. Familiarity was not influential in dichotomous verdicts (i.e., guilty vs. not guilty); however, in studies 1 and 2, when the eyewitness and defendant shared a personal relationship (e.g., familial), mock jurors were more likely to assign higher guilt ratings to the defendant, suggesting that personal relationships may sway jurors to believe that an accurate identification can be made. In study 3, when descriptor errors were present, there were more guilty verdicts, thus supporting prior research that has found when descriptor errors are introduced, the testimony is viewed as less credible.
      PubDate: 2017-12-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9251-z
  • Dispositional Mindfulness Moderates the Relationship Between Occupational
           Stressors and Perceived Stress Among Law Enforcement Personnel
    • Authors: Joshua Benjamin Kaplan; Michael S. Christopher; Sarah Bowen
      Abstract: Law enforcement personnel (LEPs) experience occupational stressors that can result in poor health outcomes and have a negative impact on the communities they serve. Dispositional mindfulness, or receptive awareness and attention to present moment experience, has been shown to negatively predict perceived stress and to moderate the relationship between stressors and negative stress-related outcomes. The current study is an investigation of the moderating role of specific facets of dispositional mindfulness (i.e., nonreactivity, nonjudging, and acting with awareness) in the relationship between occupational stressors and perceived stress in a sample of LEPs. As hypothesized, nonreactivity significantly moderated the relationship between operational stressors and perceived stress, such that LEPs low in nonreactivity exhibited a significant relationship between stressors and perceived stress, whereas those high in nonreactivity did not. Nonjudging also moderated the relationship between organizational stressors and perceived stress; however, unexpectedly, LEPs high in nonjudging evidenced a significant relationship between stressors and perceived stress, whereas those low in nonjudging did not. Potential implications of these findings for LEP stress reduction interventions are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-12-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9246-9
  • Effects of Mental Strength Training for Police Officers: a Three-Wave
           Quasi-experimental Study
    • Authors: Erik van der Meulen; Mark W. G. Bosmans; Kim M. E. Lens; Esmah Lahlah; Peter G. van der Velden
      Abstract: Police officers are frequently confronted with various stressors that may affect their mental health. Psychological resilience may protect against these effects. For this purpose, a Mental Strength Training (MST) was developed by the Dutch Police Academy aimed at psychological resilience enhancement. The present three-wave study examined efficacy of this training using a quasi-experimental study design among police officers (N Total  = 305, n Experimenal  = 138, n Comparison  = 167). Additionally, we compared between officers in the experimental and comparison group recently confronted with a potentially traumatic event (N Total  = 170, n Experimenal  = 74, n Comparison  = 96). Questionnaires on resilience (Mental Toughness Questionnaire-48 (MTQ-48) and Resilience Scale-nl (RS-nl)), mental health disturbances (Symptoms CheckList 90-R (SCL-90-R) and Self-Rating Inventory for PTSD (SRIP)), were administered pre-training, and about 3 and 9 months post-training. Mixed-effects models showed training effects on Interpersonal Confidence. Similar analyses among officers with recent potentially traumatic event experience showed significant training effects for the RS-nl subscale of Acceptance of Self and Life, MTQ-48 total score, and the MTQ-48 subscale of Interpersonal Confidence. However, all effects yielded small effect sizes according to Cohen’s d, and are therefore of limited practical relevance. Officer’s appraisal of training benefits on resilience enhancement was largely negative. We found no indications that 4-day training substantially improved officer’s psychological resilience or mental health.
      PubDate: 2017-12-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9247-8
  • Assessing the Psychological Well-being and Coping Mechanisms of Law
           Enforcement Investigators vs. Digital Forensic Examiners of Child
           Pornography Investigations
    • Authors: Kathryn C. Seigfried-Spellar
      Abstract: Previous research indicates law enforcement investigators and digital forensic examiners working child exploitation cases are at an increased risk for experiencing psychological distress; however, the roles of digital forensic examiners and investigators often overlap substantially when working child pornography cases. Thus, the current study was the first to compare the psychological well-being, job satisfaction, coping mechanisms, and attitudes toward mental health services for individuals working as either digital forensic examiners and/or investigators of child pornography cases. Law enforcement officers were solicited from the Internet Crimes Against Children task force listserv, and based on their current self-reported duties, 20 were classified as digital forensic examiners-only, 71 as investigators-only, and 38 as both digital forensic examiners and investigators of cases involving Internet child pornography. Results showed significant differences between groups; individuals performing both duties scored significantly higher on secondary traumatic stress, higher on feelings of worthlessness, and lower on concentration compared to digital forensic examiners-only. Individuals performing both duties also reported significantly lower scores on job satisfaction compared to investigators-only. Finally, individuals working both duties were significantly more likely to know someone who sought counseling as a result of work-related stress. The study’s mental health implications and future research suggestions are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-12-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9248-7
  • Do they Aggress Earlier' Investigating the Effects of Ego Depletion on
           Police Officers’ Use of Force Behavior
    • Authors: Mario S. Staller; Paul Christiansen; Benjamin Zaiser; Swen Körner; Jon C. Cole
      Abstract: Endowed with the state monopoly on the legitimate use of even potentially lethal force, it is intolerable for police officers to act outside the governing legal and ethical framework. At the same time, officers are expected to exert self-control and refrain from excessive use of force when they deal with provocative and perilous situations. This study sought to investigate corresponding self-control and self-control failures through the role of ego depletion in the decision to use force by police officers. Two experiments were conducted using officers from a German State Police force, requiring the participants to use force against a provocative role player. Experiment 1 found that the ego depletion measure failed and there were no differences between the groups. Using a different ego depletion method, experiment 2 found that ego-depleted participants aggressed earlier than controls. These results indicate that circumstances that produce ego depletion could lead to the inappropriate use of force through reducing self-control. This has major implications for the police use of force and how we understand police officers’ decision-making in response to provocation.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9249-6
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