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Journal Cover Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology
  [SJR: 0.405]   [H-I: 14]   [419 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1936-6469 - ISSN (Online) 0882-0783
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Minority Status and Spirituality among Police Officers: Blacks and Women
           in a Metropolitan Department
    • Authors: Richard Lee Rogers
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: This paper addresses two questions: (1) What are the sources of spirituality among police officers' (2) Can spirituality alleviate police stress' These issues are examined in a secondary analysis of the dataset Police Stress and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland, 1997–1999. The study extends research on law enforcement spirituality to include the structural sources of spirituality. Minority status easily emerges as a source of spirituality with the highest levels present among African Americans and females. Contrary to previous research that has found either non-existent or positive relationships between spirituality and work-related stress among law enforcement, this study finds that spirituality is weakly associated with lower levels of burnout after controlling for demographic factors. However, the weak relationship between spirituality and perceived stress disappears when controlling for burnout and demographic factors, thus undermining the ability to make any overarching claims about the influence of spirituality that can cover all kinds of police stress.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9229-x
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2018)
  • In Search of Indicators of Detective Aptitude: Police Recruits’ Logical
           Reasoning and Ability to Generate Investigative Hypotheses
    • Authors: Ivar A. Fahsing; Karl Ask
      Pages: 21 - 34
      Abstract: Previous psychological research on criminal investigation has not systematically addressed the role of deductive and inductive reasoning skills in decision-making in detectives. This study examined the relationship between these skills derived from a cognitive ability test used for police recruitment and test scores from an investigative reasoning skills task (Fahsing and Ask 2016). Newly recruited students at the Norwegian Police University College (N = 166) were presented with two semi-fictitious missing-person cases and were asked to report all relevant hypotheses and necessary investigative actions in each case. The quality of participants’ responses was gauged by comparison with a gold standard established by a panel of senior police experts. The scores from the deductive and inductive reasoning test were not related to participants’ performance on the investigative reasoning task. However, the presence or absence of an investigative “tipping-point” (i.e. arrest decision) in the two cases was systematically associated with participants’ ability to generate investigative hypotheses. Methodological limitations and implications for police recruitment and criminal investigative practice are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9231-3
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2018)
  • Is the Public Willing to Help the Nigerian Police During the Boko Haram
           Crisis' A Look at Moderating Factors
    • Authors: Stamatis Elntib; Zainab Sani Nass; Maria Ioannou; Saskia Ryan; Paul Christiansen
      Pages: 55 - 62
      Abstract: This paper sought the opinion of 200 Nigerians on their willingness to cooperate with the police during the Boko Haram crisis. Public perceptions of police effectiveness during the crisis, residence location, gender and religious affiliation were used as moderators. Data was analysed using an explanatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Results indicated a strong association between perceived effectiveness and willingness to report to the police with respondents who question the effectiveness of the police being less likely to be willing to report criminal activity about Boko Haram. Further to this, the impact of religion on willingness to report was at least partially mediated by perceived effectiveness of the police with the results showing that Christian respondents perceived the police as less effective. Females and those living in the north were significantly less willing to report criminal activity to the police. The findings are discussed in relation to the BH crises and directions for future research are given.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9234-0
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2018)
  • Secondary Confessions as Post-identification Feedback: How Jailhouse
           Informant Testimony Can Alter Eyewitnesses’ Identification Decisions
    • Authors: Preston M. Mote; Jeffrey S. Neuschatz; Brian H. Bornstein; Stacy A. Wetmore; Kylie N. Key
      Abstract: Prior research has shown that primary confession evidence can alter eyewitnesses’ identifications and self-reported confidence. The present study investigated whether secondary confession evidence from a jailhouse informant could have the same effect. Participants (N = 368) watched a video of an armed robbery and made an identification decision from a photo lineup. Except for those in the no-feedback conditions, all participants then read that certain lineup members either confessed to the crime, denied involvement, or were implicated by a jailhouse informant. Jailhouse informant testimony implicating the identified lineup member led participants to have significantly higher confidence in their identification. In contrast, jailhouse informant testimony that implicated a lineup member other than the identified led participants to have significantly lower confidence in their initial identification, and 80% of these witnesses changed their identification. These results indicate that jailhouse informant testimony can influence eyewitnesses’ confidence and their identification decisions.
      PubDate: 2018-05-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9274-0
  • Recent Police Recruits’ Existing Knowledge of the Police and
           Organisational Commitment
    • Authors: Fran Boag-Munroe
      Abstract: In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to police officers’ organisational commitment. This research paper contributes to this growing body of knowledge by investigating commitment amongst recent police recruits. The paper examines the extent to which new recruits’ existing knowledge of the police service prior to becoming an officer predicts organisational commitment, and different possible sources of this pre-entry knowledge. Using a sample of 236 recent police recruits in England and Wales, the study observed a significant relationship between recent recruits’ existing knowledge of the police service and their organisational commitment. Prior police work experience (both paid and voluntary) significantly predicted existing knowledge of the police service, and in turn organisational commitment. In comparison, pre-entry police training did not predict existing knowledge of the police service, and moreover was found to negatively predict organisational commitment. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to proposed changes to recruitment and entry routes into policing in England and Wales.
      PubDate: 2018-04-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9273-1
  • An Interview Study of the Experiences of Police Officers in Regard to
           Psychological Contract and Wellbeing
    • Authors: Fazeelat Duran; Jessica Woodhams; Darren Bishopp
      Abstract: In this paper, it is argued that the psychological contract (PC) could provide rich insights into the understanding of employee and employer relations within the police and the stress and wellbeing of officers. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with active, full-time police officers and these were analysed using framework analysis. More than 100 base-units of meaning were identified which were categorised into six main themes namely ‘Motivation’, ‘Mutual obligations’, ‘Stressors’, ‘Negative consequences’, ‘Mediators’ and ‘Positive impact of the job’. From the interviews, it was apparent that some officers are experiencing PC breach and that this was having a negative impact on their wellbeing. These findings are considered and avenues for improving the situation are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-04-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9275-z
  • Police Profanity and Public Judgments of Guilt and Effectiveness in
           Officer-Involved Shootings
    • Authors: Matthew J. Sharps; Jaime F. Torkelson; David L. Hulett; Megan L. Kuhn; Clarissa N. Sevillano
      Abstract: Police shooting decisions have come under increasing scrutiny, and the degree to which potential jurors and witnesses understand those decisions is increasingly important. Officers under the stress of shooting situations may use profanity which may be recorded, but which does not relate to tactical outcomes. This research addressed how such profanity may influence public assessment of police performance. A paragraph was provided to respondents, describing a situation in which a male officer shot an armed adult male perpetrator. The officer was presented as either having used or not used profanity in the situation. Respondents were asked to address the officer’s performance under these two different sets of conditions. Profanity resulted in a significantly higher perceived level of officer guilt in these situations, and a diminished perception of his professionalism, but did not result in a lower level of perception as to whether the officer had successfully resolved the situation or had done the “right thing.” Results are discussed in terms of current cognitive theory and of practical application in the field and in court.
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9268-y
  • The Eyes Really Do Have It: Attribution of Character in the Eyes of
    • Authors: Matthew J. Sharps; Megan R. Herrera
      Abstract: “The eyes are the window of the soul” is a staple cliché in many cultures, but is there any truth to this concept, of any potential importance in the forensic realm' The present study addressed this question in two experiments. It was shown that observation of the eyes and ocular regions of normal control individuals, and of serial killers, enabled average respondents to distinguish these individuals clearly in terms of trustworthiness, likability, and general “goodness.” In both experiments, and based on nothing but this observation, serial killers were consistently rated lower on all three indices. No sex or individual differences were observed in this pattern of results. These findings are consistent with current evolutionary and cognitive theory, and may highlight the importance of the perception of defendants by witnesses and jurors in criminal proceedings.
      PubDate: 2018-04-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9271-3
  • Dance Like No One’s Watching: the Influence of Demand Characteristics
           When Examining Lineups via Computer or In-Person
    • Authors: Emily Pica; Joanna Pozzulo; Chelsea L. Sheahan
      Abstract: Lineup administrators may inadvertently bias an eyewitness’ identification; as such, the blind-lineup administration is recommended to combat this bias. Three studies examined eyewitness identification accuracy when the lineup is presented on a computer versus in-person to determine whether computer-administrated lineups could replace in-person lineups to ensure blind administration. Study 1 (N = 378) varied whether the administration was on a computer versus in-person across the simultaneous, elimination, and wildcard procedures. Overall, participants were more accurate when presented with the online administration; moreover, participants were more accurate in target-absent lineups when presented with a simultaneous or elimination procedure compared to the wildcard procedure. Study 2 (N = 367) was similar to study 1 but used different stimuli and included the simultaneous, elimination, and elimination-plus procedures. Identification accuracy was comparable for online and in-person administration. Study 3 (N = 219) sought to examine why online administration was superior in study 1 by varying whether the researcher was present only during the identification task. When the researcher was present, participants were more likely to make a foil identification in the simultaneous procedure compared to the elimination procedure. The results of these three studies suggest that computer-administrated lineups may be a feasible solution to ensure blind administration.
      PubDate: 2018-04-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9270-4
  • Suicide Prevention in U.S. Law Enforcement Agencies: a National Survey of
           Current Practices
    • Authors: Rajeev Ramchand; Jessica Saunders; Karen Chan Osilla; Patricia Ebener; Virginia Kotzias; Elizabeth Thornton; Lucy Strang; Meagan Cahill
      Abstract: Increasing attention is being paid to suicide among law enforcement officers, and how the agencies that employ these officers could prevent such deaths. This study presents the results of a national survey of U.S. law enforcement agencies’ strategies for preventing officer suicide. We invited 177 agencies from across the United States to be interviewed, and 110 agreed to participate in qualitative interviews. Agencies were grouped into one of four categories based on the services they offered. Agencies offered minimal (a municipal employee assistance program), basic (mental health, critical incident response procedures, and training), proactive (in-house mental health care, embedded chaplains, substance misuse programs, peer support, screening, or health and wellness programs), and integrated services (integration of services into day-to-day operations). The results indicate that many U.S. law enforcement agencies are engaged in efforts to promote officer wellness and prevent suicide. Officers’ perceptions of confidentiality may inhibit the use of in-house or contracted mental health services, while a weak or inconclusive evidence-base raises questions about common approaches like peer support or critical incident stress debriefing.
      PubDate: 2018-04-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9269-x
  • Shoot/No-Shoot Decisions: Dissociation, Judgment, and Assailant/Weapon
    • Authors: Schuyler W. Liao; Jana L. Price-Sharps; Matthew J. Sharps
      Abstract: Shoot/no-shoot decisions in law enforcement are under increasing scrutiny nationwide. However, little research has addressed the ways in which factors related to assailants and weapons influence these decisions. In the present research, images of adult male, adult female, and juvenile (female) assailants presented simulated direct threats to respondents. Assailants were armed with a pistol, a knife, or a glass bottle. Respondents were asked to indicate whether or not they would shoot in the presence of these threats. Respondents also completed the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). Tendencies toward dissociation, a process generating a sense of unreality, influenced the performance of males who shot; more dissociated men took more time to fire. However, dissociation did not influence the performance of women. Sex and youth of the assailant had no effects on the shoot/no-shoot performance of either men or women, and oddly, weapon type had no significant effect on women’s performance, although men were more likely to fire on an assailant of either age or sex armed with a gun or knife than a bottle. These results are discussed in terms of relevance for law enforcement training and for juridical proceedings in shoot/no-shoot cases.
      PubDate: 2018-04-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9267-z
  • Job Demands, Job Resources, and Well-being in Police Officers—a
           Resource-Oriented Approach
    • Authors: Christine Wolter; Andreas Santa Maria; Franziska Wörfel; Burkhard Gusy; Tino Lesener; Dieter Kleiber; Babette Renneberg
      Abstract: This study examined the association between job characteristics, namely job demands and job resources, and mental health outcomes in terms of emotional exhaustion and well-being among police officers. Eight hundred forty-three German police officers participated in a cross-sectional online survey. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the validity of the dual process model of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) framework in the context of police work. Job demands (verbal assaults by citizens, workload, and administrative stressors) predicted emotional exhaustion whereas job resources (team support, shared values, and perceived fairness) predicted well-being. Moreover, job resources were directly and negatively associated with emotional exhaustion. The findings confirm the capacity of job resources to simultaneously promote well-being and reduce emotional exhaustion. Work place interventions should thus not merely decrease job demands. To improve and protect police officers’ well-being, it is advisable to promote job resources. A supportive and fair organizational climate based on shared values is required to foster mental health in the context of police work.
      PubDate: 2018-04-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9265-1
  • An Examination of Mock Jurors’ Judgments in Familiar Identification
    • Authors: Jonathan P. Vallano; Jennifer Pettalia; Emily Pica; Joanna Pozzulo
      Abstract: The present studies examined jurors’ perceptions of “familiar” identifications—that is, identifications where an eyewitness espouses prior exposure to the perpetrator. In two studies, undergraduate mock jurors (total N = 760) read a criminal case vignette that manipulated whether the eyewitness claimed to have prior exposure to the perpetrator (and how much). Study 1 additionally manipulated the eyewitness’ subsequent lineup identification confidence level, finding that confidence (but not familiarity) increased participants’ beliefs in guilt and identification accuracy. Study 2 employed a stronger familiarity manipulation while additionally manipulating how long before the crime the prior exposure occurred and the viewing conditions during the crime. Results indicated that this stronger familiar identification was perceived as more accurate and indicative of guilt than the stranger identification, but only in cases of minimal prior exposure. And while viewing conditions independently affected legal judgments, it rarely moderated these familiarity effects. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-03-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9266-0
  • Challenges for Police Leadership: Identity, Experience, Legitimacy and
           Direct Entry
    • Authors: James Hoggett; Paul Redford; Deirdre Toher; Paul White
      Abstract: The police service in England and Wales has developed a new approach to police leadership where individuals from outside of the police service can now enter directly to leadership ranks. Previous research identified that officers place great value on being led by someone who has experience of being a police officer. Adopting a social identity perspective, the current paper reports on quantitative and qualitative data about police officer views on direct entry and existing police leadership captured as part of a wider national survey (N = 12,549) of police officers in England and Wales. The paper identifies the importance that shared identity and credibility play in police follower/leadership relationships. It argues that direct-entry police leaders face credibility issues linked to their lack of shared police identity but also that serving officers perceive existing leaders to be poor because they believe they have forgotten what it is like to be a police officer. This paper develops a new theoretical and empirical approach to police leadership utilizing social and organizational psychology theory and research. The paper suggests that if police leaders understand police identity, then they can create propitious conditions within which police officers will follow their leaders.
      PubDate: 2018-03-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9264-2
  • Interrogative Specialists and False Confessions: Debunking the Con Artist
    • Authors: Bradford J. Beyer; James Herndon
      Abstract: Within the criminal justice system, confessions are an extremely powerful form of evidence. Unfortunately, innocent people sometimes falsely confess to crimes they did not actually commit. Such travesties of justice have sparked a significant degree of academic research into the false confession phenomenon. Within the existing literature, there exists a conceptual framework that the interrogative methods and actions of law enforcement officers are a key cause of false confessions with some researchers going so far as to suggest that law enforcement interrogators act as confidence men who trick criminal subjects into confessing. However, few researchers have actually questioned law enforcement officers about false confessions and even fewer have consulted with officers who specialize in interrogation. This study is a subset of a larger qualitative case study designed to explore the experiences of 13 federal law enforcement polygraph examiners who specialize in interrogation regarding their approach to criminal interrogation and their experiences with both true and false confessions. This study focused on the personal processes federal law enforcement polygraph examiners use in reviewing Miranda rights and documenting confessions. NVivo software was used to organize the data. Common themes in interview responses were then identified and revealed that participants employ an open, detailed, and straightforward approach in reviewing Miranda rights and documenting the confessions of criminal subjects. These findings contradict the premise that law enforcement interrogators inherently operate as confidence men by tricking and manipulating criminal subjects.
      PubDate: 2018-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9263-3
  • Can We Identify Bad Cops Based on History' Base Rates of Historical
           Markers in Law Enforcement Pre-employment Evaluations
    • Authors: Stephen L. Aita; Benjamin D. Hill; Mandi W. Musso; Wm. Drew Gouvier
      Abstract: While psychometric police selection processes have progressively evolved, the efficacy of simple background information has not been extensively evaluated. This study examined the utility of base rate information to predict job performance among law enforcement officers. Pre-employment historical markers from bad hires were compared to good hires from a large sample of 1536 officers. Of this sample, 205 officers were categorized as bad hires if they were arrested, had greater than five misconduct episodes, or were terminated for cause within 5 years following hire. Base rates of 40 pre-employment history variables were compared for good and bad hires. Analysis of markers showed that bad hires had a significantly higher frequency of markers across family factors, mental health variables, conduct problems, and criminal justice outcomes compared to good hires. Among the largest differences were history of multiple physical altercations, outpatient psychiatric treatment, and events related to previous law enforcement employment such as employer reprimands, suspensions, or fitness for duty evaluations. Many other intuitive markers occurred too infrequently to analyze or showed no significant difference between good hires and bad hires in law enforcement settings. Base rates in addition to psychological test data are necessary aspects of the police pre-employment evaluation.
      PubDate: 2018-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9258-0
  • Memory for Cars Among a Female Population: Is the Cognitive Interview
           Beneficial in Reducing Stereotype Threat'
    • Authors: Lisa Brelet; Magali Ginet; Cindy Colomb; Robin Jund; Michel Désert
      Abstract: The first aim of the present study was to assess the effect of stereotype threat on recall of a visual event involving cars by female witnesses. It was expected that stereotyped women (by the interviewer) would provide a poorer description of the cars involved than non-stereotyped women. The second aim was to test if a modified cognitive interview (MCI) could reduce this negative effect. We expected that MCI reduce the harmful effect of stereotype threat on women’s recall in comparison with a control interview (CI). Sixty-nine women watched a videotape of a criminal event involving cars. Two days later, they had to recall the to-be-remembered event and were given either a neutral or a threatening (= stereotyping) instruction. They were then interviewed using a CI or an MCI. Results showed that threatened women were less accurate and made more errors and confabulations than non-threatened women. They also produced more incorrect details about the cars involved. Moreover, the MCI elicited more correct details but without impairing accuracy for both threatened and non-threatened women. Our study supports the existing evidence that women’s testimony may be affected by the social context and highlights the need to use the MCI during judicial interviews.
      PubDate: 2018-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9261-5
  • Force, Stress, and Decision-Making Within the Belgian Police: the Impact
           of Stressful Situations on Police Decision-Making
    • Authors: Antoinette Verhage; Jannie Noppe; Yinthe Feys; Eva Ledegen
      Abstract: Stress and fear are inevitable aspects of the police job and may have a large impact on police officers’ decision-making process. Many studies have explored how stress and fear may influence assessments of police officers, especially with regard to the use of force. This article aims to contribute to this research domain by reporting the findings from two empirical studies among Belgian police officers: a quantitative study of police officers’ attitudes towards and experiences with the use of force and a qualitative study on the influence of stress and emotions on officers’ decision-making and assessment abilities and accuracy of shooting. Both studies confirmed that stress and fear are often present in Belgian police practice. One of the main findings is that Belgian police officers are anxious about the consequences of their actions because they know they will be held accountable for them. The pressure that results from this accountability can make it even more difficult for police officers to react to stressful situations. Therefore, we need to look for the right balance in this difficult position, by providing tools that support police officers in making daily decisions, and help them do their job as effectively as possible.
      PubDate: 2018-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9262-4
  • Fantasy, Opportunity, Homicide: Testing Classifications of Necrophilic
    • Authors: Mark Pettigrew
      Abstract: Although one of the more understudied sexual paraphilias, as an increasing number of cases are reported, it becomes pertinent to revisit academic analyses of necrophilia, particularly those attempts at classifying necrophilic behaviour. A case study is presented here of the development and enactment of necrophilic desire to determine the most appropriate means of categorising necrophilic behaviours. The study finds that until a stronger cohort of offenders can be established, a broader classification tool is preferable to excessive subdivisions of behaviour in grouping and understanding necrophilic activities, with the addendum that necrophiles can display a range of behaviours at any one time. Directions for law enforcement and clinicians are offered whilst the literature base is expanded.
      PubDate: 2018-03-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9259-z
  • The Impact of Childhood Abuse on Adult Male Prisoners: a Systematic Review
    • Authors: Teresa Goddard; Julie Ann Pooley
      Abstract: Childhood abuse has been associated with a broad range of adverse cognitive, emotional, behavioural and social outcomes. Research specific to adult male prisoners indicates an association between childhood abuse experiences and crime recidivism, mental health issues, substance abuse and interpersonal difficulties. The purpose of this review was to conduct a systematic investigation of databases, using predetermined search strategies and key terms, in order to collate and describe the current literature examining the impact childhood abuse has on the functioning of adult males incarcerated for criminal offences. The investigation yielded 217 studies, which, through further analysis, was reduced to a total of 17 peer-reviewed articles. A narrative synthesis summary of findings was subsequently carried out. The findings identified four main themes, revealing the means by which childhood abuse impacts the functioning of adult male prisoners: mental health difficulties, crime and recidivism, substance use and behaviour/personality issues. In addition, less robust themes of revictimisation and adult life functional difficulties were revealed. Lastly, the noteworthy limitations of the collated research and the clinical implications for the findings were discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-03-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9260-6
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