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Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 4.302
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 314  
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ISSN (Print) 0022-3514 - ISSN (Online) 1939-1315
Published by APA Homepage  [86 journals]
  • A meta-analysis of procedures to change implicit measures.
    • Abstract: Using a novel technique known as network meta-analysis, we synthesized evidence from 492 studies (87,418 participants) to investigate the effectiveness of procedures in changing implicit measures, which we define as response biases on implicit tasks. We also evaluated these procedures’ effects on explicit and behavioral measures. We found that implicit measures can be changed, but effects are often relatively weak ( ds < .30). Most studies focused on producing short-term changes with brief, single-session manipulations. Procedures that associate sets of concepts, invoke goals or motivations, or tax mental resources changed implicit measures the most, whereas procedures that induced threat, affirmation, or specific moods/emotions changed implicit measures the least. Bias tests suggested that implicit effects could be inflated relative to their true population values. Procedures changed explicit measures less consistently and to a smaller degree than implicit measures and generally produced trivial changes in behavior. Finally, changes in implicit measures did not mediate changes in explicit measures or behavior. Our findings suggest that changes in implicit measures are possible, but those changes do not necessarily translate into changes in explicit measures or behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Jun 2019 04:00:00 GMT
  • And the winner is . . . ' Forecasting the outcome of others’
           competitive efforts.
    • Abstract: People frequently forecast the outcomes of competitive events. Some forecasts are about oneself (e.g., forecasting how one will perform in an athletic competition, school or job application, or professional contest), while many other forecasts are about others (e.g., predicting the outcome of another individual’s athletic competition, school or job application, or professional contest). In this research, we examine people’s forecasts about others’ competitive outcomes, illuminate a systematic bias in these forecasts, and document the source of this bias as well as its downstream consequences. Eight experiments with a total of 3,219 participants in a variety of competitive contexts demonstrate that when observers forecast the outcome that another individual will experience, observers systematically overestimate the probability that this individual will win. This misprediction stems from a previously undocumented lay belief—the belief that other people generally achieve their intentions—that skews observers’ hypothesis testing. We find that this lay belief biases observers’ forecasts even in contexts in which the other person’s intent is unlikely to generate the person’s intended outcome, and even when observers are directly incentivized to formulate an accurate forecast. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 23 May 2019 04:00:00 GMT
  • Kids becoming less alike: A behavioral genetic analysis of developmental
           increases in personality variance from childhood to adolescence.
    • Abstract: Recent work in personality development has indicated that the magnitude of individual differences in personality increases over child development. Do such patterns reflect the differentiation of individuals by genotype, an increasing influence of environmental factors, or some (interactive) combination of the two' Using a population-based sample of over 2,500 twins and multiples from the Texas Twin Project, we estimated age trends in the variances in self- and parent-reported measures of the Big Five personality traits between Ages 8 and 18 years. We then estimated age trends in the genetic and environmental components of variance in each measure. Individual differences in personality increased in magnitude from childhood through mid-adolescence. This pattern emerged using both children’s self-reports and ratings provided by their parents, and was primarily attributable to increases in the magnitude of genetic influences. Most of the increasing genetic variance appeared nonadditive, pointing to the possibility that developmental processes tend to make genetically similar individuals disproportionately more alike in their personality traits over time. These findings could reflect increasing or accumulating effects of trait-by-trait interactions; person-by-environment transactions, whereby genetically similar people are disproportionally likely to experience similar environments; the activation of dominant genes across developmental transitions (e.g., puberty); or some combination of these three processes, among other factors. Theories of personality development will need to accommodate these descriptive findings, and longitudinal, genetically informed designs are needed to test some of the specific hypotheses springing from this study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Mar 2019 04:00:00 GMT
  • Beyond attractiveness: A multimethod approach to study enhancement in
           self-recognition on the Big Two personality dimensions.
    • Abstract: Self-enhancement refers to the phenomenon that individuals tend to have unrealistically positive self-views. Traditional measures of self-enhancement typically imply self-evaluations and reference values, such as evaluations by others or evaluations of the average other. Comparing individuals’ self-evaluations with such reference values, however, bears risks. It is not evident that the reference values are more accurate than the self-evaluations and it is not possible to distinguish self-enhancers from individuals who are indeed superior to others. Here, we present two novel methods to measure self-enhancement that circumvent these problems by using participants’ own faces as reference values. In Study 1 we systematically manipulate facial characteristics that have previously been found to impact perceptions of attractiveness, likability, and the Big Two personality dimensions in participants’ faces and ask them to recognize themselves. In Study 2 we use a novel approach to apply random noise patterns to participants’ faces and ask them to indicate in which version they recognize themselves more. Aggregating these random noise patterns reveals the direction of self-recognition in a more bottom-up, data-driven way. Across both studies we find evidence for self-enhancement regarding attractiveness, likability, and the Big Two personality dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Mar 2019 04:00:00 GMT
  • Different physiological reactions when observing lies versus truths:
           Initial evidence and an intervention to enhance accuracy.
    • Abstract: Humans consistently face the challenge of discerning liars from truth-tellers. Hundreds of studies in which observers judge the veracity of laboratory-created lies and truths suggest that this is a difficult task; in this context, lie-detection accuracy is notoriously poor. Challenging these findings and traditional methodologies in lie-detection research, we draw upon the somatic marker hypothesis and research on interoception to find that: (a) people experience physiological reactions indicating increased sympathetic arousal while observing real, high-stakes lies (vs. truths), and (b) attending to these physiological reactions may improve lie-detection accuracy. Consistent with the tipping point framework, participants demonstrated more physiological arousal and vasoconstriction while observing real crime liars versus truth-tellers, but not mock crime liars versus truth-tellers (Experiment 1; N = 48). Experiment 2 replicated this effect in a larger sample of participants (N = 169). Experiment 3 generalized this effect to a novel set of stimuli; participants demonstrated more physiological arousal to game show contestants who lied (vs. told the truth) about their intention to cooperate in a high-stakes economic game (N = 71). In an intervention study (Experiment 4; N = 428), participants were trained to attend to their physiological signals; lie-detection accuracy increased relative to a control condition. Experiment 5 (N = 354) replicated this effect, and the addition of a bogus training condition suggested that increased accuracy was not simply attributable to self-focused attention. Findings highlight the limitations of relying on laboratory-created lies to study human lie-detection and suggest that observers have automatic, physiological reactions to being deceived. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Mar 2019 04:00:00 GMT
  • Self-presentation in interracial settings: The competence downshift by
           White liberals.
    • Abstract: Most Whites, particularly sociopolitical liberals, now endorse racial equality. Archival and experimental research reveals a subtle but persistent ironic consequence: White liberals self-present less competence to minorities than to other Whites—that is, they patronize minorities stereotyped as lower status and less competent. In an initial archival demonstration of the competence downshift, Study 1 examined the content of White Republican and Democratic presidential candidates’ campaign speeches. Although Republican candidates did not significantly shift language based on audience racial composition, Democratic candidates used less competence-related language to minority audiences than to White audiences. Across 5 experiments (total N = 2,157), White participants responded to a Black or White hypothetical (Studies 2, 3, 4, S1) or ostensibly real (Study 5) interaction partner. Three indicators of self-presentation converged: competence-signaling of vocabulary selected for an assignment, competence-related traits selected for an introduction, and competence-related content of brief, open-ended introductions. Conservatism indicators included self-reported political affiliation (liberal-conservative), Right-Wing Authoritarianism (values-based conservatism), and Social Dominance Orientation (hierarchy-based conservatism). Internal meta-analyses revealed that liberals—but not conservatives—presented less competence to Black interaction partners than to White ones. The simple effect was small but significant across studies, and most reliable for the self-reported measure of conservatism. This possibly unintentional but ultimately patronizing competence-downshift suggests that well-intentioned liberal Whites may draw on low-status/competence stereotypes to affiliate with minorities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Mar 2019 05:00:00 GMT
  • When individual goal pursuit turns competitive: How we sabotage and coast.
    • Abstract: People working toward individual goals often find themselves surrounded by others who are pursuing similar goals, such as at school, in fitness classes, and through goal-oriented network devices like Fitbit. This research explores when these individual goal pursuits can turn into competitions, why it happens, and the downstream consequences of this pseudocompetition on goal pursuers. We found that people were more likely to treat their goal pursuit as a competition when they were near the end (vs. at the beginning) of their individual goal and, thus, prioritized relative positional gain (i.e., performing better than others sharing similar pursuits) over making objective progress on their own goal, sabotaging others when they had the opportunity to do so (Studies 1–3B). Further, we provided evidence that certainty of goal attainment at a high (vs. low) level of progress drove this shift in focus, leading to such sabotage behaviors (Studies 3A and 3B). Ironically, success in gaining an upper hand against others in these pseudocompetitions led individuals to subsequently reduce their effort in their own pursuits (Studies 1–5). Six experiments captured a variety of competitive behaviors across different goal domains (e.g., selecting games that diminished others’ prospects, selecting difficult questions for fellow students). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Jan 2019 05:00:00 GMT
  • Self-control development in adolescence predicts love and work in
    • Abstract: This longitudinal study over a 23-year time span examined predictive associations between self-control development in adolescence and love and work outcomes in adulthood. Participants were 1,527 adults aged 35 years (48.3% female). The predictor variable self-control was measured yearly at the ages of 12 to 16 years. Adult outcome variables were measured at the age of 35 years. Three important results stand out. First, the measure of adolescent self-control functioned equivalently across the adolescent years. Second, adolescents showed a mean-level increase in self-control across the adolescent years and significant individual differences in level and change of self-control. Finally, individual differences in change in adolescent self-control predicted better intimate relationships in terms of higher relationship satisfaction and lower conflict; and more satisfaction and engagement in work-life in adulthood independent of the initial levels of self-control in early adolescence. These findings demonstrate that developmental self-regulatory processes reveal long-term consequences in important life domains beyond the adolescent years. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Dec 2018 05:00:00 GMT
  • Sixteen going on sixty-six: A longitudinal study of personality stability
           and change across 50 years.
    • Abstract: How much do people’s personalities change or remain stable from high school to retirement' To address these questions, we used a large U.S. sample (N = 1,795) that assessed people’s personality traits in adolescence and 50 years later. We also used 2 independent samples, 1 cross-sectional and 1 short-term longitudinal (N = 3,934 and N = 38, respectively), to validate the personality scales and estimate measurement error. This was the first study to test personality stability/change over a 50-year time span in which the same data source was tapped (i.e., self-report). This allowed us to use 4 different methods (rank-order stability, mean-level change, individual-level change, and profile stability) answering different developmental questions. We also systematically tested gender differences. We found that the average rank-order stability was .31 (corrected for measurement error) and .23 (uncorrected). The average mean-level change was half of a standard deviation across personality traits, and the pattern of change showed maturation. Individual-level change also supported maturation, with 20% to 60% of the people showing reliable change within each trait. We tested 3 aspects of personality profile stability, and found that overall personality profile stability was .37, distinctive profile stability was .17, and profile normativeness was .51 at baseline and .62 at the follow-up. Gender played little role in personality development across the life span. Our findings suggest that personality has a stable component across the life span, both at the trait level and at the profile level, and that personality is also malleable and people mature as they age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Aug 2018 04:00:00 GMT
  • The codevelopment of effortful control and school behavioral problems.
    • Abstract: Effortful control refers to the propensity to regulate one’s impulses and behaviors, to focus and shift attention easily, and to motivate the self toward a goal when there are competing desires. Although it seems likely that these capacities are relevant to successful functioning in the school context, there has been surprisingly little longitudinal research examining whether youth with poor effortful control are more likely to act out in the classroom, get suspended, and skip school. Conversely, there is even less research on whether youth who exhibit these school behavioral problems are more likely to decline over time in effortful control. We used multimethod data from a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin youth (N = 674), assessed biennially from 5th to 11th grade, to examine the codevelopment of effortful control and school behavioral problems. Bivariate latent growth curve models revealed a negative association between the trajectories of effortful control and school behavioral problems, indicating that steeper decreases in effortful control were related to steeper increases in school behavioral problems. Furthermore, this codevelopmental pattern was bidirectional; cross-lagged regression analyses showed that low effortful control was associated with relative increases in school behavioral problems, and school behavioral problems were associated with relative decreases in effortful control. Gender, nativity status, Mexican cultural values, and school-level antisocial behavior had concurrent associations with effortful control and school behavioral problems, but they did not moderate the codevelopmental pathways. We discuss the theoretical implications for personality development, as well as the practical implications for reducing school behavioral problems during adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Jul 2018 04:00:00 GMT
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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