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Journal Cover   Journal of Knowledge Management
  [SJR: 0.883]   [H-I: 36]   [99 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1367-3270
   Published by Emerald Homepage  [311 journals]
  • Living Lab as knowledge system: A actual approach for managing urban
           service projects ?
    • Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 19, Issue 5, September 2015.
      Purpose This communication explores Living Labs as knowledge systems for urban service projects. This empirical study aims to identify and characterize knowledge in Living Labs dedicated to urban service projects. It also aims to understand how through knowledge path, Living Labs redefine the management of projects. First, we present the praxeologic and academic context underlining the main challenges associated to urban service projects. It mainly concerns the growth of the cities (Haouès-Jouve, 2013), the problematic of social acceptability (Savard, 2013), as well as the normative approaches to manage projects (Kerzner, 2010). Second, we present our literature review on co-innovation and Livings Labs. (Chesbrough, 2004 ; Gaglio, 2011). We also present the concept of knowledge lied in Living Lab system (Sanders and Stappers, 2008). Here, knowledge refers to dynamic knowledge, as suggested by Argyris (1995). Design/methodology/approach In the third part, we explain the goals of this study as well as the abductive and «partnership» qualitative methodology we used (Fontan et René, 2014). We detailed here the constitutive and the operational definitions on knowledge we have mobilized (Piaget, 1974, Gadille, 2010). A special focus is made, here, on distributed knowledge (Nowotny and al., 2002 ; Trépos, 1996,), on «users» as «experts of uses» (Chen and al., 2010). We then describe our sample and the four cases of Living Labs we explored. Findings Finally, we present our findings. We expose how we characterized knowledge lying in the loops of the Living Lab system and how knowledge is mobilized In LL. We also draw a theoretical model of project management referring to knowledge, Living Lab and co-innovation approach. Research limitations/implications To conclude, we present several implications in project management research and urban studies Practical implications Several implications concern the current practices of project management. Due to some new societal challenges, we consider that a new professional posture is required Originality/value The orginality of the study lies in its content and its format. We used a specific participative approach to explore Living Labs. We investigated knowledge in Living Labs, which are new entities dedicated to very actual projects, where users are co-managers.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2015-08-01T12:45:12Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-02-2015-0058
  • SECI and inter-organizational and intercultural knowledge transfer A
           case-study of controversies around a project of co-operation between
           France and China in the health sector
    • Authors: Pascal LIEVRE, Jing TANG
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 19, Issue 5, September 2015.
      Purpose The purpose of this article is to study the obstacles to knowledge transfer between organizations belonging to different cultures by making use of the SECI model. The contribution made by this paper is in the use of the SECI model for studying this type of issue. For even though it recognizes the epistemological duality between tacit and explicit knowledge the traditional literature had not adopted this theoretical structure. The explanation for this is an excessively simplistic interpretation of the SECI model in its 1995 version together with lack of knowledge about Nonaka’s more recent works - Nonaka et al., 2008. Design/methodology/approach We use a comparative case study opposing a failure and a success, and rely on Latour controversies to account for the context and contradictions. One of the authors worked for five years as a mediator in these projects, and adopted the reflective practitioner posture of Schön. Findings Using the SECI model is relevant for studying this question. The results obtained converge with the literature and mark the SECI’s first stage - socialization – as an operation of major importance. We show that the failure in knowledge transfer is due to a deficit of socialization, as the lack of prolonged situations of co-presence of the actors, i.e. the lack of shared context, impedes knowledge conversion. Research limitations/implications To go further, conditions of the socialization context must be better specified and developed. Second, cases in other areas than the health sector to observe the circulation of knowledge could developed. Practical implications Our findings suggest ways for managers to fight against knowledge transfer barriers in multicultural contexts, relying on the socialization process. Originality/value Accounting for the problem of knowledge transfer in a multi culural context through the SECI model, which focuses on the interaction between tacit and explicit knowledge, opens a fruitful line of reflexion.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2015-08-01T12:45:10Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-02-2015-0054
  • The Role of Organizational and Social Capital in the Firm's Absorptive
    • Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 19, Issue 5, September 2015.
      Purpose We ask the question of the contingency of a firm's absorptive capacity upon the type of expected outcome. We thus look at different expected outputs in terms of more or less radical innovations and see if there are consequences on the absorptive process underpinning cognitive structures and processes, as embodied in its organizational and social capital. Design/methodology/approach To do so, we conducted a qualitative study. We interviewed 23 persons in three French industrial firms about their firm's absorptive capacity. One of these firms aims at "new-to-the-firm" innovations, while the two others aim at "new-to-the-world" innovations. Findings Our results suggest that while "new-to-the-firm" innovations tend to favor the use of social capital, "new-to-the-world" innovations tend to rely more on organizational capital. We interpret these rather counterintuitive results by the necessity to take into account other variables than knowledge distance in the absorption of new knowledge. In particular, complexity and time-length would call for greater use of organizational capital, while speed and reactivity would instead require greater use of social capital. Originality/value This is to our knowledge one of the first study evidencing the contingent nature of the absorptive process. Further, our results tend to show the form absorptive capacity takes depends not only on cognitive aspects but also on the particular environment the firm evolves in.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2015-08-01T12:45:09Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-05-2015-0169
  • Crowding at the frontier: boundary spanners, gatekeepers and knowledge
    • Authors: Aurore Haas
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 19, Issue 5, September 2015.
      Purpose This work contributes to defining the concepts of boundary spanner, gatekeeper and knowledge broker. Design/methodology/approach A review of the literature covering more than 100 sources. Findings A review of past research leads to proposing a set of new definitions and also to the detection of 6 research avenues. Originality/value The ability of organizations to recognize, source and integrate key information or knowledge is important for their strategy, innovation and performance over time. Three types of individuals have information gathering and knowledge dissemination roles at the frontier of organizations and groups: boundary spanners, gatekeepers and knowledge brokers. Although research on these individuals is well developed, we found that in practice the definitions of the concepts overlap and still need a clarification. So far, no systematic comparison of these roles has been undertaken.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2015-08-01T12:45:06Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-01-2015-0036
  • Strategizing across Boundaries: Revisiting Knowledge Brokering Activities
           in French Innovation Clusters
    • Authors: Luciana CASTRO
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 19, Issue 5, September 2015.
      Purpose Cooperative relationships between actors located in the same geographical area that are economically independent and culturally distinct are the heart of functioning innovation clusters. This can slow down the creation of common innovation projects, particularly in French innovation clusters where cooperation is influenced by the governmental financing devoted to this system. This research focuses on knowledge brokering activities implemented in this inter-organizational context, showing how they cross knowledge boundaries, structure cooperative dynamics and participate in common strategy-making. The mobilization of the strategy as practice theory allows for an in-depth analysis shedding light on various practices, resources and practitioners related to the brokering activities taking place within an innovation cluster in Paris. Findings show a widespread development of brokering activities that emerges from cluster governance unit to its networks according to a reflexive relationship progressive structured over time. Design/methodology/approach This research is based on a longitudinal exploratory analysis of the Parisian cluster Advancity. In order to capture its organizational dynamics, two databases of the cluster (focused on innovation projects and integration of members), 24 power point files presented to negotiate strategy and 13 interviews with managers and members of the cluster were used. The whole of the data was triangulated and generated categories of data that can be compared with the concepts of the literature on innovation clusters (governance), brokering activities (knowledge access, learning, networking and implementation) and strategy-making (recursive process and adaptation of the strategy). Findings The analysis shows the effects of each type of brokering activities on strategy making across knowledge and organizational boundaries. The practices of implementation activity initially absent from the cluster become, in its mature phase, one of the central activities. Moreover, all the brokering activities are initially handled by the managers of the cluster and progressively are extended to their members becoming then, a widespread activity within the internal networks. The maturation of these practices goes together with the maturation of the own cluster. The practice of experimentation particularly, affects brokering activities and produces learning and networking effects within the cluster. Practical implications From a managerial point of view, considering the organization of the clusters as a constellation of communities of practice (Wenger, 1998) emphasizes that the knowledge brokerage activities can be extended and delayed within each community that makes up the organization. A top-down approach could therefore suffocate the network. It would be interesting to develop this research approach in future work and complete this research by reinforcing microscopic analysis enabled, for example, by tracking a small number of innovation projects during their lifecycle. Originality/value The results of this research provide a theoretical contribution in that they allow to revisit the classification of the activities of a knowledge broker (Hargadon 1998, 2005) in a new organizational context representative of the knowledge-based innovation (Amin and Cohendet, 2004). They are also contributing to the current emerging from the KBVC (Bahlmann and Huysman, 2008; Arikan, 2009) by mobilizing the theory of the practice (Whittington, 2006; Jarzabkowski, 2005). This perspective helps to discern a particular form of strategy making within the clusters.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2015-08-01T12:45:04Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-02-2015-0050
  • From knowledge to knowing, from boundaries to boundary construction
    • Authors: Claude PARAPONARIS, Martine Sigal
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 19, Issue 5, September 2015.
      Purpose Knowledge management is shot through with complex questions. This is certainly the case with regard to boundaries, since they constitute both a bounding line that has to be crossed if the knowledge required for innovation is to be diffused and a form of protection for scientific and technological organisations and institutions. This examination of boundaries leads to a state of the art review that begins with the question of knowledge transfer. We start with foundations of the knowledge dynamic within organisations. Nevertheless, certain gaps were identified in the theory, since it did not seem so easy to carry out transfers. This led in turn to attempts to identify the boundaries that were causing difficulties and that had to be crossed. This led to an examination of the role of boundaries. What status could boundaries have when knowledge was expanding enormously within communities? Finally, we come face to face with knowledge management systems that have tended to redefine the forms that boundaries take. Design/methodology/approach Conceptual approach. Meta analysis State of the Art in order to introduce the Special Issue “Knowledge Across Boundaries" JKM Volume 19, No. 5, 2015 (October) Findings The notions of transfer and boundary demonstrated their usefulness in the development of a new theory, namely the knowledge-based view. These concepts were then critiqued, with reference, firstly, to the contexts in which communication takes place and, secondly, to the cognitive dimensions of the activity. Finally, studies showed that the cognitive and organisational approaches can be linked and that they shed light on many knowledge sharing situations. Boundaries are no longer the object of attention, the focus having switched to the collective process of creating new concepts. Research limitations/implications This state of the art is limited to the papers about Management Science. Practical implications Knowledge hybridization is possible but must be referred to resources made available by the division of labour between disciplines (Shinn, 1997). Expansive learning (Engeström, 2010) is close to boundary construction (Holford, 2015) in order to indicate the dialectical view between instituting and instituted society (Castoriadis, 1975, 1987). We are now perhaps at the point of transition between the interest in ‘boundary spanners’ and a new concern with ‘boundary construction’. Originality/value The concept (with examples) of ‘boundary construction'
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2015-08-01T12:45:03Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-01-2015-0034
  • Sourcing knowledge for innovation: Knowledge reuse and creation in project
    • Authors: Anis KHEDHAOURIA, Arshad JAMAL
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 19, Issue 5, September 2015.
      Purpose Present research investigates motivations of team members to source knowledge and how the sourced knowledge increases their reuse and creation outcomes. Design/methodology/approach A model based on knowledge sourcing perspective is proposed and tested to link knowledge sourcing methods in teams to their performance outcomes. The hypotheses are tested on data collected from a survey of 341 project teams. Findings Findings show (1) critical role of team members’ learning orientation in increasing knowledge sourcing, reuse, and creation; (2) group knowledge sourcing and repositories are more appropriate to increase knowledge reuse; (3) Internet is more effective to increase knowledge creation; and (4) knowledge reuse increases knowledge creation among team members with a strong learning orientation. Research limitations/implications Further studies can replicate our model and introduce group characteristics to improve its explanatory power. Also, use of self-reported measures in data collection may lead to biases, future research should collate different measures longitudinally or use separate primary and secondary observations. Practical implications Team leaders should enhance team effectiveness by ensuring diversity of knowledge and skills. Current research emphasizes that team leaders can integrate a crowdsourcing or ‘users as co-creators’ approach to increase knowledge creation by team members. Team members’ learning orientation can be increased by promoting a climate that encourages open discussion of problems, mistakes, and errors. Originality/value Our research highlights that knowledge sourcing methods produce different performance outcomes regarding knowledge reuse and creation. These insights can be useful to team leaders and researchers in order to better understand what motivations team members to source knowledge and how it increases their reuse and creation outcomes.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2015-08-01T12:45:02Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-01-2015-0039
  • Guest Editorial: Knowing across boundaries
    • Authors: Claude Paraponaris
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 19, Issue 5, September 2015.

      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2015-08-01T12:45:00Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-05-2015-0194
  • Learning from complex and heterogeneous experiences: The role of knowledge
    • Authors: ECHAJARI LOUBNA, Catherine Thomas
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 19, Issue 5, September 2015.
      Purpose Can organizations learn from complex and heterogeneous experiences? According to March (2010), this kind of high intellect learning is difficult to accomplish because it requires deliberate investments in knowledge transfer and creation. Zollo and winter (2002) emphasized how knowledge codification can facilitate this process, as long as it is “well- performed.” However, knowledge management scholars have yet to explore what is meant by well-performed codification and how to achieve it. Design/methodology/approach In this paper, we address this gap and provide a conceptual analysis based on two related but previously disconnected research areas: organizational learning and knowledge management. Findings We contribute to the literature in three ways. First, we propose a new understanding of different types of experiences and their effects on learning. Then we discuss the codification process using a critical realist paradigm in order to overcome the epistemological boundaries of knowledge versus knowing; in doing so, we show that codification can take different forms in order to be “well-performed.” Finally, we identify appropriate codification strategies based on experience type. Originality/value The abstraction-oriented codification outlined in this paper runs counter to the logic of concrete codification that dominates both theory and practice. Thus, going beyond the traditional debate on the degree of codification (i.e., should knowledge be fully codified or just partly codified), we have introduced a new debate about the appropriate degree of abstraction.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2015-08-01T12:44:58Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-02-2015-0048
  • Knowledge at the boundary between science and society: a review of the use
           of farmers’ knowledge in agricultural development
    • Authors: Nathalie GIRARD
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 19, Issue 5, September 2015.
      Purpose At the boundary between science and society, the development of agricultural systems is grounded in various innovation processes that are currently being challenged by sustainability issues. In particular, farmers’ knowledge is emphasized today in various reports and scientific studies as a way of designing more sustainable agricultural systems. Our objective was therefore to build a review of the various management processes of this knowledge in this domain, with the aim of identifying research topics and perspectives for KM within the boundaries between science and society. Design/methodology/approach We performed a literature analysis on a database built from the Web of Science and qualitatively analyzed 273 scientific article abstracts. Findings We built four KM strategies on the basis of the objectives of these papers, the arguments used to justify the study of farmers’ knowledge (FK) and the position of the authors in relation to this knowledge. These strategies can be broken down as follows: (1) Assessing FK to improve it; (2) Documenting FK to capitalize or legitimize it in development processes; (3) Using FK as a resource for innovation; and (4) Facilitating the sharing of various sources of knowledge to increase the efficiency of development projects. Research limitations/implications Since our four KM strategies show a relative genericity, we drew up research perspectives for each of them, some of which were related to the KM community and some of which extended the focus on political, legal or sociological aspects of knowledge production processes at the boundary between science and society. Practical implications Our four categories of KM strategies revealed the importance of legitimization processes of practitioners’ knowledge when dealing with innovation at science-society boundaries, whereas such processes are often neglected by classical KM methodologies. Originality/value Even if farmers’ knowledge has been used since the 1970s to promote more endogenous innovation processes as opposed to classical science-driven innovation processes, no review has yet been done of the use of farmers’ knowledge in the development of agricultural systems.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2015-08-01T12:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-02-2015-0049
  • Outsourcing of strategic resources and capabilities: Opposing choices in
           the commercial aircraft manufacturing
    • Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 19, Issue 5, September 2015.
      Purpose This paper addresses the questions of different outsourcing strategies between Airbus and Boeing and point out the theoretical limits of the RBV approach that must be broadened with a finance perspective.. Due to the complexity of systems, the aircraft industry is nowadays structured around a well-organized value chain of product development and manufacturing. However, according to the Resource-based View, capabilities attached to some systems and components are strategic resources and must be kept in house in order to maintain competitive advantage. In commercial aircraft avionics, critical systems such as flight controls falls directly under this rule, due to substantial risks of passenger safety they deal with. Design/methodology/approach This study is based on two comparative studies concerning the A330/340 and A350 programs at Airbus and their equivalents at Boeing, the B777 and the B787. The data are both primary (financial and patent data) and secondary (semi-structured interviews and documentation Findings Our main result highlights the limits of the RBV model to understand why Airbus has chosen to re-internalize the development and production of flight control systems contrary to Boeing. For both, cost reduction is the main objective of outsourcing but European firms are more careful with critical resources. The financialization of aircraft manufacturers’ strategies is another explanatory factor relevant to understand why Boeing outsources strategic resources such as flight controls Research limitations/implications We demonstrate the potential of multiplication of research methods to address a question. Second, we try to bring together different theories in a preliminary effort, which gives us some promising stuffy perspective for future works. Practical implications By addressing both the RBV and the financialization perspectives, we provide an interesting view of the CoPS challenges. Originality/value Several originalities are relevant in this work. From a methodological point of view, we offer a comparison between the two main players of commercial aircraft manufacturing, an oligopolistic industry. Second, the data we choose to rely on are both qualitative and quantitative to strengthen the results. Third, at a micro level, this study is original in its approach of linking outsourcing to financialization.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2015-08-01T12:44:54Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-01-2015-0040
  • Investing in transferable strategic human capital through alliances in the
           luxury hotel industry
    • Authors: Michel Ferrary
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 19, Issue 5, September 2015.
      Purpose Strategic human capital requires considerable investment in training costs, effective compensation, opportunities for professional development and expectancy of long employment relationship within a firm. A firm can undertake investment in strategic knowledge and workers can engage in learning only in these circumstances. However, there is a number of risks that is associated with investment in strategic human capital within a firm. In this paper, we argue that providing strategic human capital to other firms within alliances could be a strategy for leveraging resource. Strategic knowledge facilitates transactions between firms possessing co-specialized human capital and tangible resources. Organizational design of an alliance based on co-specialization allows to balance costs and returns for human capital supplier, as well as for beneficiary and workers. Within an alliance, the human capital supplier provides workers to a beneficiary firm and coordinates their activities. Supplier specialized in human capital investment ensures improved performance, productivity and efficiency of workers. Possibility to form a greater pool of labor force and to centralize training allow optimizing cost and sharing risks associated with investment activity among alliance participants. Human resource practices in alliance system foster long-term employment relationship. Entering an alliances increase of job positions number, of professional development opportunities through horizontal mobility, promotion and learning opportunities for workers. Finally, alliances allow leveraging investment in human capital beyond one singe organization. Design/methodology/approach This paper is conceptualizing the use of alliance based on co-specialization as strategy to optimize investment in strategic human capital resource. We are drawing upon the resource-based view (Barney, 1991; Wernerfelt, 1995) and transaction cost theory (Coase, 1937; Williamson, 1981) to examine an alliance as strategy for leveraging the human capital resources for accessing new markets, building reputation and sharing the risks across more than one organization. Findings Firstly, we review the theoretical literature on human capital as strategic resource (Becker, 1962; Coff, 1997), its sourcing on internal and external labor markets and respective employment systems (Delery & Doty, 1996; Doeringer & Piore, 1971). Secondly, we focus on the features of human capital resource (Barney, 1986; Chi, 1994; Doz & Hamel, 1998). Thirdly, we conceptualize the use of alliances based on co-specialization as organizational structures for investment in human capital across organizations and examine respective employment system and HR practices (Delery & Doty, 1996; Doeringer & Piore, 1971). As result, we argue that an alliance can be an alternative mean to optimize returns on investment in human capital with strategic transferable knowledge. By consequence, we describe an alliance employment system and illustrate our arguments with a case of human capital trading in a co-specialization alliance under a long-term management contract in luxury hotel industry. Originality/value In this paper, we discuss collaborative ventures as sourcing strategy of the human capital. An alliance strategy is relevant for sourcing the strategic human capital resources. Human capital resource can be accessed by firms through transfer of skills and organizational routines within collaborative agreements, such as alliances based on co-specialization. In this case, alliance is an organizational architecture between organization improves the efficiency and productivity, reduces marginal cost on training due to larger scale of operations and reduces risk by splitting investment in human capital and by offering more career and development opportunities for strategic knowledge workers.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2015-08-01T12:44:53Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-01-2015-0045
  • Solicitation of experts in an undetermined environment: the case of a
           polar exploration
    • Authors: Jean-Philippe BOOTZ, Pascal LIEVRE, Eric SCHENK
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 19, Issue 5, September 2015.
      Purpose While companies are compelled to manage exploration projects, the processes underlying the expansion of knowledge in these projects is not well known. The purpose of this article is to understand the solicitation of outside experts in the upstream phase of innovation projects, which fall within the scope of the exploration and which take place within a context of radical uncertainty: how are these experts identified, selected and mobilised? Design/methodology/approach Based on the litterature, we first present a conceptual view of the notion of expert. Then, we analyze the research question by means of a case study of a polar expedition.The project leader seeks a knowledgable person who has never been identified as an expert, but whose knowledge is essential. Findings The expert appears both in his cognitive and social dimensions. Moreover he emerges out of the situation, on the basis of neither strong nor weak signals. The rationality of expert solicitation falls within a pragmatic logic where the acquired knowledge must reduce the uncertainty so that the project can progress. The learning process enables to increase gradually the knowledge of the actor, but also to build the legitimacy required in order to have access to the expert. Practical implications Our findings can be translated in more general situations. Indeed polar expeditions projects and exploratory innovation projects (Garel and Lièvre, 2010) possess some common characteristics: lack of knowledge concerning, timing issues, need to implement a pragmatic, enquiry-based learning. These projects strongly rely on external expert knowledge. Our case study suggests that, while it may be useful, planning should not strictly define the course of action. A central competence of the project leader is to manage the duality between planning and adaptation. This implies the ability to adapt, to detect and to assess human resources and knowledge flows rapidly, as well as to weave social links inside and outside the organisation. Originality/value The existing literature offers a comprenhensive view of experts in organization. However the questions of expert selection and indentification remain open. Our paper fills a gap in the literature concerning the way experts are identified and selected. The case study shows that identifying experts does not solely depend on weak signals (reputation) or on strong signals (the expert's social status). Rather, the expert emerges in the situation, in an unexpected way. The expert's social dimension is not sufficient and one must look to the cognitive roots of the expertise. On the other hand, we emphasise the fact that the expert is a social construct which emerges from the solicitation process.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2015-08-01T12:44:51Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-02-2015-0061
  • Exploring collaboration technology use: how users’ perceptions twist
           and amend reality
    • Authors: Alina Dulipovici, Dragos Vieru
      Pages: 661 - 681
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 661-681, July 2015.
      Purpose – This study aims to examine how a collaboration technology is used by three organizational groups. The main focus is on the interplay between the users’ perceptions (of the technology and of the knowledge shared) and the material properties of the collaboration technology. Design/methodology/approach – Two theoretical frameworks (social representations and sociomaterial practice perspective) examine collaboration technology use to better understand the underlying dynamics. The research is conducted as a case study in a US company where a collaboration technology was being implemented. Findings – The findings reveal a process model showing how social dynamics and users’ perceptions of what the collaboration technology can do and cannot do to share the users’ knowledge influence the users’ behaviour. Based on these perceptions, users will twist or amend their interpretation of the reality (the material properties of the technology) to justify their use of the collaboration technology. Research limitations/implications – This research is conducted as a single case study. However, the significant amount of time spent at the research site allowed for a very rich description of the events and processes involved. Practical implications – This study offers guidelines on what influences use and adoption of collaboration technologies. It highlights the importance of providing more than just training, as social dynamics and users’ perceptions continuously influence users’ behaviour. Originality/value – By combining two complementary theoretical frameworks, this study provides a novel and more in-depth explanation of collaboration technology use (or lack thereof).
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2015-06-12T09:54:56Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-11-2014-0468
  • Methodologies for developing knowledge management systems: an evaluation
    • Authors: Razieh Dehghani, Raman Ramsin
      Pages: 682 - 710
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 682-710, July 2015.
      Purpose – This paper aims to provide a criteria-based evaluation framework for assessing knowledge management system (KMS) development methodologies. Design/methodology/approach – The evaluation criteria have been elicited based on the features expected from a successful KMS. Furthermore, a number of prominent KMS development methodologies have been scrutinized based on the proposed evaluation framework. Findings – It was demonstrated that the proposed evaluation framework is detailed and comprehensive enough to reveal the strengths and weaknesses of KMS development methodologies. It was also revealed that even though the evaluated methodologies possess certain strong features, they suffer from several shortcomings that need to be addressed. Research limitations/implications – The evaluation framework has not been applied to all existing KMS development methodologies; however, the evaluation does cover the most comprehensive methodologies which exist in the research context. Practical implications – The results of this research can be used for the following purposes: organizational goal-based selection of KMS development methodologies, evolution of existing KMS development methodologies and engineering of tailored-to-fit KMS development methodologies. Originality/value – The proposed evaluation framework provides a comprehensive and detailed set of criteria for assessing general, area-specific and context-specific features of KMS development methodologies. KMS developers can select the methodology which best fits their requirements based on the evaluation results. Furthermore, method engineers can extend existing methodologies or engineer new ones so as to satisfy the specific requirements of the project at hand.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2015-06-12T09:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-10-2014-0438
  • Development and validation of knowledge management performance measurement
           constructs for small and medium enterprises
    • Authors: Cheng Sheng Lee, Kuan Yew Wong
      Pages: 711 - 734
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 711-734, July 2015.
      Purpose – This paper aims to address the lack of previous studies and to propose a reliable and valid knowledge management performance measurement (KMPM) model for small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach – A survey instrument containing 13 constructs and 49 items was initially developed and posted to small and medium-sized consultancy firms in Malaysia. Reliability and validity analysis was performed to ensure the quality of the instrument. Findings – The developed survey instrument was shown to be reliable, valid and suitable to be applied in SMEs to evaluate their knowledge management (KM) performance. Research limitations/implications – The present study is limited to SMEs in the service sector. The results are not suitable to be generalized to the manufacturing sector or larger organizations without further research. Practical implications – This study would provide SMEs with a better understanding on KMPM and also a guideline to refer to when measuring their KM performance. Academics can use this study as a basic model to explore KMPM in SMEs and develop new measurement models. Originality/value – This study is believed to be the first that has scientifically developed and empirically tested the constructs that represent a comprehensive KMPM model tailored for SMEs.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2015-06-12T09:55:43Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-10-2014-0398
  • The micro-processes during repatriate knowledge transfer: the
           repatriates’ perspective
    • Pages: 735 - 755
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 735-755, July 2015.
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to add a process perspective to the literature on repatriate knowledge transfer (RKT) and to understand how the knowledge transfer process unfolds in the repatriation context. Thus, this qualitative study uses existing knowledge transfer process models to assess their applicability to the context of repatriation and explain the micro-processes during RKT. Design/methodology/approach – To provide a rich understanding of these processes from the repatriate perspective, critical incidents reported by 29 German and US American repatriates were content-analyzed. Findings – The findings are summarized in a proposed RKT process model, which describes the roles and knowledge transfer-related activities of repatriates, recipients and supervisors as well as their interaction during four transfer phases: assessment, initiation, execution and evaluation. Research limitations/implications – The experiences of repatriates from different geographic areas as well as the perspectives of knowledge recipients and supervisors were not studied but should be included in future research. In addition, future research could test the applicability of the identified micro-processes to different knowledge transfer contexts. Practical implications – Managers can use the findings to facilitate the RKT process more effectively because the type of organizational support offered can be aligned with the changing needs of repatriates, recipients and supervisors during the four identified phases. Originality/value – This is the first study that takes a process perspective to understand RKT. The integration of the current findings with the existing literature can enable a more nuanced view on RKT.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2015-06-12T09:55:35Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-01-2015-0011
  • Power matters: the importance of Foucault’s power/knowledge as a
           conceptual lens in KM research and practice
    • Authors: Helena Heizmann, Michael R. Olsson
      Pages: 756 - 769
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 756-769, July 2015.
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to engage knowledge management (KM) researchers and practitioners with Foucault’s power/knowledge lens as a way of thinking about and recognising the central role of power in organisational knowledge cultures. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical illustrations in this paper are drawn from two qualitative studies in different professional and institutional contexts (insurance and theatre work). Both studies used in-depth interviews and discourse analysis as their principal methods of data collection and analysis. Findings – The empirical examples illustrate how practitioners operate within complex power/knowledge relations that shape their practices of knowledge sharing, generation and use. The findings show how an application of the power/knowledge lens renders visible both the constraining and productive force of power in KM. Research limitations/implications – Researchers may apply the conceptual tools presented here in a wider variety of institutional and professional contexts to examine the complex and multifaceted role of power in a more in-depth way. Practical implications – KM professionals will benefit from an understanding of organisational power/knowledge relations when seeking to promote transformational changes in their organisations and build acceptance for KM initiatives. Originality/value – This paper addresses a gap in the literature around theoretical and empirical discussions of power as well as offering an alternative to prevailing resource-based views of power in KM.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2015-06-12T09:55:06Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-12-2014-0511
  • The ShaRInK framework: a holistic perspective on key categories of
           influences shaping individual perceptions of knowledge sharing
    • Authors: Alexander Schauer, Ana Cristina Vasconcelos, Barbara Sen
      Pages: 770 - 790
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 770-790, July 2015.
      Purpose – This paper aims to present a holistic framework, termed ShaRInK (Sharer, Relations, Institution, Knowledge), that depicts key categories of influences that shape individual perceptions of knowledge sharing within an organisational setting. Design/methodology/approach – An exploratory and qualitative case study strategy in which empirical data were gathered from 24 interviewees that were based in four different branches (i.e. China, The Netherlands, the UK and the USA) of a single information technology services organisation. Findings – The findings led to a holistic framework that depicts four key categories of influences that shape knowledge sharing from an individual perspective: attitudes and characteristics of the sharers, relations between the sharers, institutions which act as a united entity on sharer perceptions and knowledge itself. Furthermore, the four key influences not only shape knowledge sharing independently but are intertwined and have a synergistic effect. The ShaRInK framework is formed by combining these. Originality/value – The findings indicate that knowledge sharing from an individual-level perspective is a more complex phenomenon than currently portrayed in the literature. All four key influences, each being fundamentally different in nature, and their relationships should be taken into account. Equally, the ShaRInK framework can be applied by organisations when developing a knowledge-sharing strategy or auditing existing strategies.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2015-06-12T09:54:04Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-12-2014-0519
  • Knowledge sharing in open source software communities: motivations and
    • Authors: Zilia Iskoujina, Joanne Roberts
      Pages: 791 - 813
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 791-813, July 2015.
      Purpose – This paper aims to add to the understanding of knowledge sharing in online communities through an investigation of the relationship between individual participant’s motivations and management in open source software (OSS) communities. Drawing on a review of literature concerning knowledge sharing in organisations, the factors that motivate participants to share their knowledge in OSS communities, and the management of such communities, it is hypothesised that the quality of management influences the extent to which the motivations of members actually result in knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach – To test the hypothesis, quantitative data were collected through an online questionnaire survey of OSS web developers with the aim of gathering respondents’ opinions concerning knowledge sharing, motivations to share knowledge and satisfaction with the management of OSS projects. Factor analysis, descriptive analysis, correlation analysis and regression analysis were used to explore the survey data. Findings – The analysis of the data reveals that the individual participant’s satisfaction with the management of an OSS project is an important factor influencing the extent of their personal contribution to a community. Originality/value – Little attention has been devoted to understanding the impact of management in OSS communities. Focused on OSS developers specialising in web development, the findings of this paper offer an important original contribution to understanding the connections between individual members’ satisfaction with management and their motivations to contribute to an OSS project. The findings reveal that motivations to share knowledge in online communities are influenced by the quality of management. Consequently, the findings suggest that appropriate management can enhance knowledge sharing in OSS projects and online communities, and organisations more generally.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2015-06-12T09:53:54Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-10-2014-0446
  • Linkage between knowledge management and manufacturing performance: a
           structural equation modeling approach
    • Authors: Li Pin Tan, Kuan Yew Wong
      Pages: 814 - 835
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 814-835, July 2015.
      Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of knowledge management (KM) on manufacturing performance and the relationships among three KM measures, namely, knowledge resources, KM processes and KM factors. It also determined a collective set of KM metrics based on these three measures. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected using questionnaires posted to 700 manufacturing companies in Malaysia from which 206 usable responses were obtained. The analysis and hypotheses testing were implemented using structural equation modeling. Findings – The results showed that the constructs of knowledge resources, KM processes and KM factors have significant and direct effects on manufacturing performance. In terms of covariance, the results also indicated that these three constructs were correlated with each other. Research limitations/implications – The sample over-represented large firms and the study was a cross-sectional approach that collected data at a single point in time. Practical implications – The results obtained would help managers to better understand the linkage between KM and manufacturing performance. They could use the results to manipulate their KM practices to improve their manufacturing performance. The proposed set of KM metrics could also act as a common language and provide directions for future research. Originality/value – This paper is one of the first empirical studies that has examined the relationship between KM and manufacturing performance. Furthermore, it has investigated the relationships among knowledge resources, KM processes and KM factors.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2015-06-12T09:54:33Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-11-2014-0487
  • Competencies for knowledge management: development and validation of a
    • Pages: 836 - 855
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 836-855, July 2015.
      Purpose – The purpose of the current paper is to develop and validate a scale for measuring and managing the acquisition of competences provided by higher education studies. Design/methodology/approach – A representative sample of Spanish graduates was obtained in the framework of the REFLEX project. In this questionnaire, a battery of 19 self-assessed items was used to measure the contribution of universities to the acquisition of generic competences. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed. Findings – The main competences acquired in higher education according to Spanish graduates can be grouped as follows: innovation, interpersonal, knowledge management, communication, organisational and professional development. Results indicated excellent fit indexes of this six-factor model to data. Research limitations/implications – This scale may be particularly useful to understand the process of transition of higher education systems according to Bologna principles. It also represents a significant contribution to the existing research in competency-based education. Practical implications – This paper may help higher education institutions to identify improvement areas in their study programmes. Besides, the proposed scale may offer crucial information in the determination of which Bologna principles have been successfully implemented. Social implications – Organisations may use these findings to design formal or informal training for new graduates hired by the organisation. Originality/value – Despite the recent increasing research in the field of competency-based learning and competences required in graduates’ workplaces, this is the first paper that aims to present a validated scale designed to measure graduate self-assessed competences.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2015-06-12T09:53:42Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-10-2014-0447
  • CRM software success: a proposed performance measurement scale
    • Pages: 856 - 875
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 856-875, July 2015.
      Purpose – This article aims to seek to provide a performance measurement scale for customer relationship management (CRM) software. The CRM concept is wide, yet prior literature offers only specific approaches. This scale goes beyond specific scenarios, to cover the various perspectives on CRM and provide quantitative validation of the measures. Design/methodology/approach – This paper describes the complete process for conceptualizing and operationalizing this reflective second-order construct, including a thorough literature review, qualitative research and a quantitative study with 208 companies that have implemented CRM software. Findings – Three main, interconnected constructs emerge to measure CRM software performance: customer life cycle, firm performance and operational performance. Retention, loyalty and satisfaction indicators form the customer life-cycle dimension. Firm performance refers to market share, efficiency, product adaptation, and new product launch indicators. The operational dimension includes improvement in sales performance, marketing campaigns, customer service and analysis of customer information. Research limitations/implications – This scale guides every element involved in CRM software implementation, toward a common objective. Practical implications – The CRM scale supports CRM software industry players and firms that intend to implement CRM software. The three model constructs provide guidelines about which improvements should be noted with a CRM implementation. Social implications – This scale help the companies who intend to implement CRM software conduct their agreement with the other parts involved (consultants, software developers and the firm). Originality/value – This paper meets an identified need, namely, to provide a CRM software performance measurement scale. The huge, unique sample is exclusive and obtained from a dedicated CRM software developer.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2015-06-12T09:55:17Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-10-2014-0401
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