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Journal Cover Journal of Knowledge Management
  [SJR: 1.12]   [H-I: 49]   [100 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1367-3270
   Published by Emerald Homepage  [312 journals]
  • Knowledge management and business performance: global experts' views on
           future research needs
    • First page: 1169
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 6, October 2016.
      Purpose This paper is examines the views of the global KM community on the research area of KM and business performance, and identifies key future research themes. Design/methodology/approach An interview study spanning 222 informants in 38 countries was launched to collect data on KM expert views concerning the future research needs of the KM field. Findings The value contribution of KM requires more research despite experts agreeing on the complexities involved in solving this challenge. Further research areas identified were related to the influence of KM to support (1) business strategy, (2) intellectual capital, (3) decision making, (4) knowledge sharing, (5) organizational learning, (6) innovation performance, (7) productivity and (8) competitive advantage. Research limitations/implications The sample is dominated by European-based KM experts and the self-selecting sampling approach by relying on the networks of each partner had could have biased the structure of our sample. Practical implications The recognition of the complexity to demonstrate the value contribution of KM could prevent practitioners from using over-simplified approaches and encourage them to to use more advanced measurement approaches. Originality/value The paper is unique in that reports on the views of 222 KM experts from 38 countries representing both academia and practice, on the issue of future research needs in terms of KM and business outcomes. As such it provides valuable guidance for future studies in the KM field and related subjects.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-08-22T11:20:54Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-12-2015-0521
  • Understanding counterproductive knowledge behavior: antecedents and
           consequences of intra-organizational knowledge hiding
    • First page: 1199
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 6, October 2016.
      Purpose This study explores antecedents and consequences of intra-organizational knowledge hiding. Design/methodology/approach A model was developed and tested with data collected from 691 knowledge workers from fifteen North American credit unions. Findings Knowledge hiding and knowledge sharing belong to unique yet possibly overlapping constructs. Individual employees believe that they engage in knowledge hiding to a lesser degree than their co-workers. The availability of knowledge management systems and knowledge policies has no impact on intra-organizational knowledge hiding. The existence of a positive organizational knowledge culture has a negative effect on intra-organizational knowledge hiding. In contrast, job insecurity motivates knowledge hiding. Employees may reciprocate negative knowledge behavior, and knowledge hiding promotes voluntary turnover. Practical implications Managers should realize the uniqueness of counterproductive knowledge behavior and develop proactive measures to reduce or eliminate it. Originality/value Counterproductive knowledge behavior is dramatically under-represented in knowledge management research, and this study attempts to fill that void.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-08-22T11:20:59Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-05-2016-0203
  • What factors influence knowledge sharing in organizations? A social
           dilemma perspective of social media communication
    • First page: 1225
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 6, October 2016.
      Purpose Enterprise social media platforms provide new ways of sharing knowledge and communicating within organizations to benefit from the social capital and valuable knowledge that employees have. Drawing on social dilemma and self-determination theory, the aim of the study is to understand what factors drive employees’ participation and what factors hamper their participation in enterprise social media. Design/methodology/approach Based on a literature review, a unified research model is derived integrating demographic, individual, organizational and technological factors that influence the motivation of employees to share knowledge. The model is tested using statistical methods on a sample of 114 respondents in Denmark. Qualitative data is used to elaborate and explain quantitative findings. Findings Our findings pinpoint towards the general drivers and barriers to knowledge sharing within organizations. The significant drivers are: enjoy helping others, monetary rewards, management support, change of knowledge sharing behavior and recognition. The significant identified barriers to knowledge sharing are: change of behavior, lack of trust and lack of time. Practical implications The proposed knowledge sharing framework helps to understand what factors impact engagement on social media. Furthermore the article suggests different types of interventions to overcome the social dilemma of knowledge sharing. Originality/value The study contributes to an understanding of factors leading to the success or failure of enterprise social media drawing on self-determination and social dilemma theory.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-08-22T11:21:02Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-03-2016-0112
  • Exploration of multi-layered knowledge sharing participation: the roles of
           perceived benefits and costs
    • First page: 1247
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 6, October 2016.
      Purpose This paper explores participants’ perceived benefits and costs that influence the quantity and the quality of voluntary participation in knowledge networks in a resources-constrained economy. Design/methodology/approach A conceptual model of perceived benefits and costs of knowledge sharing is designed on the basis of literature. The influence of perceived benefit and cost on perceived quantity and quality of knowledge sharing are assessed on the basis of a survey with 283 participants in a business context within a resource-restrained economy. Findings The results indicate that reputation, reciprocity, and altruism are perceived to benefit quantity of participation, while reciprocity, altruism, and knowledge self-efficacy are perceived to benefit the quality of participation in knowledge networks. Effort and time have a negative impact on both quantity and quality of participation in knowledge sharing. Research limitations/implications This study provides insights into the factors that influence acceptance and use of knowledge networks, and can thus influence business policies. Originality/value This exploratory study explores both perceived benefits and costs of participation in knowledge sharing in a resource-constrained economy.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-08-22T11:21:00Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-01-2016-0044
  • Effects of knowledge management on client-vendor relationship quality: the
           mediating role of global mindset
    • First page: 1268
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 6, October 2016.
      Purpose This study argues that knowledge management by itself has only limited effects on client-vendor relationship of global providers of highly customised services. Rather it is the ability of top management to properly evaluate and utilise a vast array of complex knowledge which allows global firms to develop and maintain superior client-vendor relationship. The paper tests the proposition that global mindset of top management mediates the effects of knowledge management on client-vendor relationship quality. Design/methodology/approach The paper uses survey data from a sample of 68 international service providers (ISPs) in the information technology sector in India and partial least squares approach to structural equation modelling in order to test the hypotheses. Findings The results show that both knowledge management and global mindset have positive and statistically significant effects on the quality of client-vendor relationships. The results also confirm that the global mindset of top management has significant and substantive mediation effects on the relationship between knowledge management and client-vendor relationship quality. Research limitations/implications The small size of the sample and the focus on ISPs in a single country constitute the main limitations of the study. Future research should ideally draw from a larger sample of ISPs from multiple countries and sectors in order to allow for greater generalization of the findings. Practical implications ISPs will benefit from developing the global mindset of their top management teams in order to enhance their client-vendor relationships. Originality/value The paper provides new insights into how in an international context, firms can transform their knowledge management into superior client-vendor relationship quality through the development of global mindset.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-08-22T11:21:04Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-03-2016-0099
  • Intrinsic motivation for knowledge sharing - competitive intelligence
           process in a telecom company
    • First page: 1282
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 6, October 2016.
      Purpose Knowledge about competitive environments is a determinant factor for the success of a firm, as it may allow it to anticipate threats and opportunities in its market. This study explores variables that enable or prevent an employee’s intrinsic motivation to share knowledge. It studies the collection and sharing of information that may be a signal of future competitive moves in competitive intelligence (CI) processes. Design/methodology/approach Canonical correlation using survey data from a company. The study was based on the Self Determination Theory relating intrinsic motivation to behavior. Findings The study confirms the importance of different aspects motivating knowledge sharing behavior, such as information system’s support, top management support, and information feed-back. Research limitations/implications The study is limited to one company, respecting the limitations of a case study, but external validation was impossible to test. Findings showed strong correlation of some variables with intrinsic motivation and are coherent with other studies in the knowledge sharing field. Practical implications Firms introducing knowledge sharing processes should pay attention to the importance of information system support. The relationship with people involved is also important, as in supporting their collaborations and giving feed-back to contributions. Sustaining intrinsic motivation seems a fundamental aspect to the process’ success. Originality/value The study indicates the relation of different variables of motivation with motivation. It explores knowledge sharing in a CI process, an important process in firms nowadays. It shows important aspects that ensure continuity of knowledge sharing as informational feed-back and top management support. Canonical correlation was also used, a technique not frequently explored and useful to study correlation among groups of variables.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-08-22T11:20:55Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-02-2016-0083
  • Role of knowledge brokers in communities of practice in Japan
    • First page: 1302
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 6, October 2016.
      Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of knowledge brokers in Japanese communities of practice (CoP). This is because if knowledge brokers can connect across boundaries and introduce practices into another CoP, they can contribute by introducing practices as tacit knowledge to another CoP. Design/methodology/approach This study examines five hypotheses on knowledge brokers with respect to multi-membership in CoPs, knowledge brokering, and career adaptability. In this study, an online questionnaire was administrated to 412 business persons, all employed by Japanese companies. Findings In line with the predictions, the results show that the cognition and behavior of multi-membership were composed of two factors: “creation and integration of diverse opinions” and “acceptance of diverse opinions.” With respect to covariance structure analysis, “concern,” one of the factors of career adaptability, had both direct and indirect effects on “knowledge brokering.” “Creation and integration of diverse opinions,” one of the factors of the cognition and behavior of multi-membership, had direct effects on “knowledge brokering.” Research limitations/implications Given that the data presented in this study are limited to knowledge brokers in Japanese CoPs, the study needs to be extended to an international context and to other kinds of knowledge brokers. Originality/value This study contributes to the findings which show the complexity of multimembership and career adaptability. Upon closer examination, each subscale of multimembership and career adaptability shows a different effect on knowledge brokering. In other words, this study reveals the importance of proactive behavior in integrating diverse opinions for knowledge brokering.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-08-22T11:21:03Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-03-2016-0098
  • The impact of focus, function, and features of shared knowledge on re-use
           in emergency management social media
    • First page: 1318
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 6, October 2016.
      Purpose Organizations often use social media such as blogs to share and re-use knowledge during contingencies, disasters, and emergencies. However, the factors related to the knowledge itself--rather than the media--which lead to more and less re-use (particularly in the fast-paced and uncertain context of emergencies), are not well known. Design/methodology/approach Integrating theories of social media, knowledge management, and mass communication theory, we develop a model of the characteristics of knowledge (focus, function, features), characteristics of knowledge sharers, and the user’s needs which influence the extent to which knowledge is re-used. Findings A study of 645 blog posts revealed why some knowledge is re-used in emergencies more than other knowledge. Surprisingly, non-event related knowledge is re-used more often than event related knowledge, perhaps because users are less certain how they would re-use non-event knowledge thus are paradoxically more interested in what it might offer. Results also indicate several other factors which impact re-use. Practical implications Traditional mechanisms used to evaluate knowledge for reuse such as rank and organizational status are less important than the focus and function of the knowledge itself; offers practitioners strategies for more efficient knowledge sharing during emergencies and identifies opportunities for more effective employment of emergency management social media. Originality/value One of the first studies to dig deeper into factors of knowledge shared and re-used during emergencies, this research integrates several theoretical streams to explain why some knowledge is more valuable for re-use. It increases our understanding of knowledge sharing during disasters and offers strategies for development of knowledge systems for future emergencies.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-08-22T11:20:57Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-04-2016-0177
  • Artifacts in knowledge management research: a systematic literature review
           and future research directions
    • First page: 1333
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 6, October 2016.
      Purpose The purpose of this article is to assess the role of artifacts in the knowledge management field in the past 18 years (1997-2015) and to identify directions for future research. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted a systematic literature review of 101 articles published in 7 journals retrieved from EBSCO and Google Scholar online research databases. The framework for analysis included 13 codes, i.e. author(s), title, year of publication, typology, theoretical lens, categorizations, methods for empirical work, relevancy, level of analysis, keywords, findings, research themes, and future research directions. Codes were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative methods. Findings Findings lacked cumulativeness and consistency in the current knowledge management debate. Empirical works outnumbered conceptual contributions by two to one, and the majority of articles focused at the organizational level of analysis. Knowledge management systems, knowledge sharing, and digital archives were the major research themes connected to artifacts, together with other closely aligned concepts such as learning and online learning, knowledge transfer and knowledge creation. Research limitations/implications This study has temporal and contextual limitations related to covered time span (18 years) and journals subscription restrictions. Originality/value This article is a first attempt to systematically review the role of artifacts in knowledge management research and therefore it represents a primary reference in the knowledge management field. It provides directions to future theoretical and empirical studies as well as suggestions to managerial practices.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-08-22T11:21:01Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-05-2016-0199
  • Old wine in new bottles: docility, attention scarcity and knowledge
    • First page: 1353
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 6, October 2016.
      Purpose This paper addresses the nature of docility in organizations, its practical role in attention scarcity and knowledge diffusion in complex organizations, and the management implications for organizational learning and innovation to improve knowledge management. Design/methodology/approach This paper examines knowledge organizations from the perspective of human resource strategies, their role in information abundance but attention scarcity, and techniques to enhance docility mechanisms at different levels of the organization to increase innovation and performance. Findings This paper, in reviewing the organization literature on attention scarcity, and addresses the shortage of studies linking the need for docility – the desire to learn from workers and the desire to teach – in personnel practices of knowledge firms, where intense social interaction, social feedback, and social learning are the norms. Practical implications Knowledge management – scanning, creation, coordination, interpreting, transfer, and integration – may well be the basis of competitive advantage, based on human resource strategies to mobilize explicit and tacit knowledge via docility mechanisms, including mentoring, teamwork, coaching and deep collaboration. Originality/value Decades ago, Herbert A. Simon introduced this new concept, docility, which is now central to knowledge organizations that face information abundance and attention scarcity. Knowledge organizations require tools of docility to align human resource strategies to both strategic management and operational functions to enhance teaching and learning in design structures that are time constrained.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-08-22T11:20:58Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-03-2016-0124
  • The effects of knowledge management capabilities on perceived school
           effectiveness in career and technical education
    • First page: 1373
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 6, October 2016.
      Purpose This study aims to investigate the impact that knowledge management (KM) capabilities have on school effectiveness in career and technical education (CTE) in Taiwan. Design/methodology/approach The study adopted survey research. A total of 439 valid samples were obtained and subsequently verified with structural equation modeling. Findings The results indicated that KM capabilities consist of two main dimensions: The KM enabler capabilities and the KM process capabilities. The former includes structures, cultures, and information technology support, while the latter includes acquisitions, storage, sharing, and applications. In terms of the relationships among the dimensions of the model structure, the KM enabler capabilities managed to effectively predict the KM process capabilities, and the KM process capabilities managed to effectively predict the perceived school effectiveness. Research limitations/implications Based on the results, improvement of the KM enabler capabilities and process capabilities of higher education institutions of CTE is recommended so that their school effectiveness may be improved. Since the participants were not randomly selected, the generalizability of the results should be further examined. Practical implications This study encourages practitioners to focus their KM practices on KM enabler capabilities and the KM process capabilities. Originality/value The current study provided insight into and further understanding of the model regarding the relationships among the KM enabler capabilities, the KM process capabilities, and the school effectiveness.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-08-22T11:20:56Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-12-2015-0515
  • Tracing the historical origins of knowledge management issues through
           Referenced Publication Years Spectroscopy (RPYS)
    • First page: 1393
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 6, October 2016.
      Purpose This study, using a new method called Referenced Publication Years Spectroscopy (RPYS), examines the most important historic works written in the area of knowledge management. Design/methodology/approach Preliminary data of this study have been extracted from Web of Science through Scientometric methods. The references used in all the papers in the core journals in this field since 1980 to the end of 2014 were studied. Findings The distribution of resources in the area of knowledge management based on the publication year indicates that this field of study, during time intervals 1900 to 1980, has seen 8 major mutations. A considerable influence of such fields as economics, business, social networks analysis, organizational learning, and economic sociology on the realm of knowledge management is evident. The association of Polanyi with the mutations of 1958, 1962 and 1967 suggests his obvious influence on the evolution of knowledge management. The ratio of articles to books among the whole documents detected by RPYS was 2 to 13 which could direct us to the point that, the channel for information transformation in knowledge management is more focused on books than on articles. Originality/value None of the few studies done by scientometric methods in the realm of knowledge management has been seen through the issue of the historical origins of this area. This piece of research, using a new scientometric method, can be considered the first study in which the origins of knowledge management over time have been studied.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-08-22T11:20:53Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-01-2016-0019
  • GUEST EDITORIAL Knowledge intensive organisations: on the frontiers of
           knowledge management
    • First page: 845
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 5, September 2016.
      Purpose To further research on leadership and knowledge management (KM) through formal knowledge strategies in Knowledge Intensive Organisations (KIOs); analyse KM challenges and approaches within KIOs, especially tacit knowledge. Design/methodology/approach Conceptual and literature research. Findings Managing knowledge as an organisational asset involves how knowledge is: (i) obtained, (ii) stored and organized, (iii) accessed and shared when needed.  This is crucial for KIOs. Knowledge that is not captured, understood and transferred, throughout the organization is useless. This requires the integration of systems and processes with people and leadership. Tacit knowledge generation and transfer is especially important in KIOs. In particular the success of KIOs depends crucially on management's ability to give leadership in a way that supports knowledge-intensive teamwork. The global nature of internal and external knowledge networks adds to the leadership challenge. This can be made more complex by cultural differences, intellectual property protection (formal and informal) and talent scarcity. Research limitations/implications Further research is needed to identify the types of KIO and to better understand sound common KM and related leadership principles across all types of KIO and those that are more context-dependent on the type of KIO and/ or its business and cultural context. More research is needed on policy-making organisations, in-company R&D and creative industries. Originality/value The article takes forward research on leading knowledge management in KIOs and introduces 14 challenging new papers in this specific field of research.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-08-04T11:17:33Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-07-2016-0296
  • Understanding knowledge creation in the context of knowledge-intensive
           business processes
    • First page: 858
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 5, September 2016.
      Purpose This article investigates knowledge creation in the context of knowledge-intensive business processes (KIBP) and seeks to identify the challenges and opportunities associated with this phenomenon. Design/methodology/approach This study utilized a grounded theory approach to develop a framework based on thirty interviews across three different types of organizations. Findings The findings argue knowledge creation in the context of KIBP is negatively influenced by the lack of support for process-competency requirements within knowledge-intensive (KI) processes. These process-competency requirements center on the ability to effectively engage with the process, develop reasoning skills to handle KIBP, and gain a higher-level perspective of the KIBP within the organization. Practical implications For practitioners, the opportunity exists to explore their organizational influences on the process-competencies to reduce the negative impact of any gaps identified within their knowledge-intensive business processes. Originality/value Although previous studies explore knowledge creation in a broad sense, this article examines the phenomenon specifically within the context of knowledge-intensive business processes and analyze the potential for organizations to enhance their knowledge creation initiatives in this context.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-08-04T11:17:38Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-11-2015-0443
  • Antecedents and intervention mechanisms: a multi-level study of R & D
           team’s knowledge hiding behavior
    • First page: 880
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 5, September 2016.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine why employees hide knowledge and how organizations intervene and influence the negative effects of knowledge hiding. This study builds and tests a theoretical model at both individual and team level. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from universities, research institutes, and enterprises’ R&D teams in China via a two-wave survey. The final sample contained 417 cases. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to test hypotheses. Findings The results show that territoriality plays a mediating role between psychological ownership and knowledge hiding, and that organizational result justice negatively moderated the relationship between territoriality and knowledge hiding. Procedure justice negatively moderated the relationship between territoriality and rationalized hiding, and that between territoriality and evasive hiding. Interactive justice negatively moderated the relationship between territoriality and rationalized hiding, and that between territoriality and evasive hiding. There were thus interactive effects among territoriality, perceived knowledge value, and psychological ownership; the relationship between individual psychological ownership and territoriality was weaker when perceived knowledge value was lower and task interdependence was higher, and stronger with higher perceived knowledge value and lower task interdependence. Research limitations/implications Territorial behaviors, such as knowledge hoarding and misleading within R&D teams, are the primary challenges for organizations’ positive activities, including internal sharing, teamwork, and organizational goal accomplishment. Researching knowledge territoriality in the Chinese cultural context will help to distinguish territorial behaviors and to take preventive measures. In addition, this study not only enables managers to understand clearly the precipitating factors of knowledge territoriality and the relationships among them, but also provides constructive strategies for reducing the negative effect of organizational intervention in knowledge territoriality. Originality/value This study adopts a multilevel modeling method and not only reveals the “black box” of interaction among psychological ownership, territoriality, and knowledge hiding at the individual level, but also probes the three-way interaction of perceived knowledge value, team task dependency, and psychological ownership with territoriality at both individual and team levels, and then discusses the mediation effect of organizational justice on the relationship between territoriality and knowledge hiding. The conclusion of this study not only enriches the literature on knowledge hiding in the field of knowledge management, but also helps to elucidate the function and intervention mechanism of knowledge hiding.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-08-04T11:17:23Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-11-2015-0451
  • Classifying emerging knowledge sharing practices and some insights into
           antecedents to social networking: a case in insurance
    • First page: 898
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 5, September 2016.
      Purpose The paper explores a case of early adoption in the use of social media tools for the purposes of knowledge and information sharing across a supply chain in the UK home insurance market. Design/methodology/approach The methodology used includes genre and content analysis to analyse empirical data from blogs and posts via a customised social extranet (KNOWNET) involving 130 users over a 13 month period. Findings The results uncover a set of emerging practices which support both information and knowledge exchange, but which are in the main driven by organisational factors such as buyer power and supplier competitive influencing. Research limitations/implications This study has contributed an overall conceptual understanding of reasons behind social media adoption, by identifying organisational attributes of buyer power and supplier influence as key antecedents to knowledge sharing within a supply chain. Originality/value This paper builds on current thinking in social media theory by providing a window into organisational and supply chain attributes that can explain social media adoption within the context of knowledge sharing supply chains. A systematic classification of user posts over an extended period enabled this work to illuminate not just emerging knowledge sharing practices across a buyer led supply chain, but also the effects of buyer power on users to an online community.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-08-04T11:17:26Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-11-2015-0432
  • How to measure trust: the percolation model applied to
           intra-organisational knowledge sharing networks
    • First page: 918
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 5, September 2016.
      Purpose The present paper explores how to measure trust as a receptivity force in an intra-organisational knowledge sharing network with the help of self-developed algorithms of modelling percolations. Design/methodology/approach In this paper, a completely new methodology is applied by using a sample study of an international company’s financial centre as an example. Computer software has been developed to simulate the network and calculate the percolation thresholds by combining its characteristics, thereby revealing what and to what extent connectivity and trust respectively influence knowledge sharing. Findings The application of computer modelling to build up a percolation network is useful for answering questions about the determinants of knowledge sharing. Arguably, we demonstrate how the applied new methodology is superior in addressing how to measure the critical values of trust, connectivity and interaction issues, as well as leading to better insights about how these can be managed. The present article confirms that trust is an essential factor influencing knowledge sharing and that there is a reciprocal effect between social interaction and trust. Practical implications The model provides a useful tool for assessing features of the intra-organisational knowledge sharing network and thus an important foundation for implementing actions in practice. The findings of this study imply that managers should consider the important role of task-related trust between actors and in general for knowledge sharing. With the help of percolation modelling, the degree of trust in an organisation can be computed and this provides managers with an approach for managing trust. Originality/value The topic of 'how can trust be measured' is very important, and is becoming even more important now, as the financial crisis and other issues are raising questions about trust and moral compass rather than financial data. A percolation based approach to studying knowledge sharing has not been researched in depth before now, and this study attempts to fill that gap. Fundamentally, this multidisciplinary research adds value to the theoretical foundation of the percolation network and research methodology to be used in social sciences, and gives an example of their potential practical implications.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-08-04T11:17:42Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-11-2015-0464
  • Optimizing decisions using knowledge risk strategy
    • First page: 936
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 5, September 2016.
      Purpose The paper focuses on a strategic approach for making trade-offs between knowledge and risk. Design/methodology/approach Knowledge and risk are viewed as organizational resources that have an inherent trade-off between them, so that optimal firm performance does not necessarily arise through greater accumulation of knowledge, nor from reduced risk. This trade-off is represented as an efficient knowledge-risk frontier. The paper examines the dynamics of this frontier on organizational performance. Findings The concept of knowledge risk strategy is presented which contends that non-probabilistic risk or uncertainty originates from gaps in knowledge. Research limitations/implications The paper proposes a new line of research to understand decision making in organizations, particularly those which focus on knowledge intensive products and services. Practical implications The paper proposes managerial approaches to improve organizational positioning relative to the efficient knowledge/risk frontier through greater awareness of contributors to knowledge gaps and risk in decision situations, as well as traditional strategic tools such as outsourcing. Originality/value The postulated link between risk and knowledge gaps establishes a knowledge-based view of firm risk and recognizes trade-offs for decisions regarding knowledge accumulation.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-08-04T11:17:36Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-11-2015-0465
  • Reconciling ambiguity with interaction: Implementing formal knowledge
           strategies in a knowledge intensive organization
    • First page: 959
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 5, September 2016.
      Purpose This paper looks at the actions autonomous knowledge workers perform to implement formalized knowledge strategies as part of an accreditation. Design/methodology/approach Using a strategy-as-practice framework, this paper follows a qualitative approach to study the implementation of a standard in a business school. The data collection was carried out over a 14 month period, with access to interviews, observations, meetings minutes, and other institutional information. Findings Even though faculty members received similar information, the standard was implemented in different and conflicting ways. Three themes explain these differences: 1) Different approaches to ambiguous KM practices, 2) enablers and inhibitors of knowledge sharing, and 3) different conceptions of continuous improvement. Research limitations/implications As this was a single case findings are not broadly generalizable. The research is based on rich data over a prolonged period, albeit in a very specific setting where unique actor and structural characteristics are not generally representative of the wider business and organizational environment. The nature of the university setting is quite unique. Although possible links to other fields which share some specific similarities with universities are provided, the contextual limitations are acknowledged. Accordingly, the work is presented as a basis for future enquiry when investigating implementation, especially activity based research within KIOs. Practical implications This paper provides a deep analysis of the actions knowledge workers perform when implementing standards promoted by organizational directives. It exposes tensions and conflicts among knowledge workers when implementing a standard. Our model is the basis for insights on how managers can balance the tensions of creative change and stable structure. Originality/value This paper describes how ambiguity and human interactions can reveal a deeper understanding of the different stages of standards implementation. It provides a model that uses the level of ambiguity and structure to explain how knowledge workers interacted in groups and as a whole to implement Assurance of Learning.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-08-04T11:17:43Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-11-2015-0438
  • Mental health knowledge management: critical success factors and strategy
           of implementation
    • First page: 980
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 5, September 2016.
      Purpose This paper aims to recommend implementation of the knowledge management (KM) strategy for Mental Health Organization, an area that has to date, limited attention in literature based on the factors that influence KM success. Design/methodology/approach A mixed methods research was conducted to identify the organisational culture, resources, enablers and the influential factors of MHKM. The data were collected in five referral mental hospitals. It was analysed using quantitative, qualitative and triangulation methods. Findings The organisational culture has become a great barrier. Forty-three influential factors were identified. Otherwise, based on culture, resources, enablers, and SWOT analysed were adopted to propose 10 of the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) and were recommended into an implementation strategy. Research limitations/implications The paper has proven that KM is a new and emerging discipline in Indonesia, especially on mental health care. This will contribute to the governmental policy of KM implementation and enforce the quality of services. Practical implications This result has the potential to leverage interdisciplinary KM research. It supports Mental Health Organization in applying KM. Originality/value This study is probably the first to analyse factors that are of influence in a MHKM initiative program.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-08-04T11:17:35Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-10-2015-0378
  • How do collaboration and investments in knowledge management affect
           process innovation in services?
    • First page: 1004
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 5, September 2016.
      Purpose Despite the keen interest in radical and incremental innovation, few studies have tested the varying impact of firm-level factors in service sectors. This paper analyses how collaboration with existing and prospective users, and investments in knowledge management (KM) practices can be adapted to maximise the outputs of radical and incremental process innovation in a Knowledge-Intensive Business Service (KIBS) industry. Design/methodology/approach Original survey data from 166 Information Technology Service (ITS) firms and interviews with 13 executives provide the empirical evidence. PLS-SEM is used to analyse the data. Findings Collaboration with different types of users, and investments in KM practices affect radical versus incremental process innovation differently. Collaboration with existing users influences incremental process innovation directly, but not radical innovation; and prospective user collaboration matters for radical, but not incremental innovation. Furthermore, for radical innovation, investments in KM practices mediate the impact of prospective user collaboration on innovation. Research limitations/implications While collaboration with existing users for incremental process innovations does not appear to generate significant managerial challenges, to pursue radical innovations firms must engage in intensive collaboration with prospective users. Higher involvement with prospective users requires higher investment in KM practices to promote efficient intra- and inter-firm knowledge flows. Originality/value This study is based on a large-scale survey, together with management interviews. Radical and incremental innovations in the service industry require engagements with different kinds of users, and the use of knowledge management tools.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-08-04T11:17:29Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-11-2015-0429
  • How transactive memory systems relate to organizational innovation: the
           mediating role of developmental leadership
    • First page: 1025
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 5, September 2016.
      Purpose The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between transactive memory systems and organizational innovation. Several recent studies have discussed the positive relationship between these two entities. Yet very few studies have demonstrated how transactive memory systems are related to leadership and innovation. This study investigates this tripartite relationship, finding that developmental leadership exerts a mediating effect on the relationship between transactive memory systems and organizational innovation. Design/methodology/approach In examining this relationship, 224 participants from an electronics company in South Korea were surveyed. Structural equation modeling was used to enable the identification of simultaneous interactive relationships among the three research variables. Findings Contrary to previous research results, transactive memory systems were found not to be significantly related to organizational innovation. Results also indicated that transactive memory systems comprise a statistically significant variable that influences developmental leadership. Subsequently, developmental leadership can be considered to be a valid construct in predicting organizational innovation; it can also be seen to fully mediate the relationship between transactive memory systems and organizational innovation. Originality/value These results have theoretical and managerial implications. Since transactive memory systems do not always precede organizational innovation, knowledge of “who knows what” is not enough to ensure innovative performances. To accelerate organizational innovation, intentional managerial interventions such as developmental leadership are accordingly necessary.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-08-04T11:17:39Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-10-2015-0413
  • Knowledge transfer in knowledge-intensive organizations: the crucial role
           of improvisation in transferring and protecting knowledge
    • First page: 1045
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 5, September 2016.
      Purpose This paper answers the question: How do knowledge workers’ improvisation processes promote both knowledge transfer and protection in knowledge-intensive organizations (KIOs)? A model is proposed identifying how effective improvisation can strengthen the effect of four specific knowledge transfer mechanisms--an experimental culture, minimal structures, the practice of storytelling, and shared mental models--on knowledge transfer inside the organization and knowledge protection outside of it. Design/methodology/approach The paper builds on a knowledge translation perspective to position improvisation as intrinsically intertwined with knowledge transfer and knowledge protection. Findings Improvisation is proposed as the moderating factor enhancing the positive impact of an experimental culture, minimal structures, storytelling practice, and shared mental models on knowledge transfer and knowledge protection. Practical implications The paper argues against a “plug-and-play” approach to knowledge transfer that seeks to replicate knowledge without considering how people relate to the routines and the context, and highlights to leaders of KIOs the importance of developing awareness, understanding, and motivation to improvise in order to internalize new knowledge being transferred and to create imitation barriers. Originality/value The paper proposes that KIOs’ success in transferring and protecting knowledge emerges, not directly from formal knowledge transfer mechanisms, but from knowledge workers’ improvisation processes.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-08-04T11:17:25Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-10-2015-0385
  • Global dispersion of offshore service providers: an information processing
    • First page: 1065
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 5, September 2016.
      Purpose This paper proposes a new theoretical perspective on organizational design of offshoring service organizations by adopting an information processing perspective which incorporates the factors of collaborative information technologies, task commoditization and global customer service delivery that are characteristic of modern day knowledge-intensive service organizations. Design/methodology/approach We analyze data from a large multiyear survey of offshoring service providers conducted in 12 countries. Findings We show how (1) use of collaborative technology is significantly and positively related to spatial and configurational dispersion, (2) task commoditization is significantly and positively related to spatial and temporal dispersion, and (3) need for global customer presence is not related to spatial, temporal or configurational dispersion. Research limitations/implications The paper integrates concepts from MIS, operations management and international business to show how collaborative technology, task characteristics and customer service requirements affect the global dispersion of KIS. Practical implications The results show how use of collaborative technology, task characteristics and global customer service requirements need to be jointly considered in the global dispersion of activities by knowledge-intensive service providers. Originality/value The study sheds light on the effect of the key factors on different dimensions of global dispersion (i.e. spatial/temporal/configurational dispersion) in offshoring service provider organizations. Secondly, it shows how the traditional information processing perspective on organizations can be updated and applied to KIS organizations by incorporating the factors of global collaborative information technologies, task commoditization and global customer service.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-08-04T11:17:30Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-11-2015-0449
  • The team absorptive capacity triad: a configurational study of individual,
           enabling, and motivating factors
    • First page: 1083
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 5, September 2016.
      Purpose The paper seeks to understand how knowledge-intensive teams can develop and enhance their team absorptive capacity (ACAP) level, by exploring whether individual and organizational factors are complements or substitutes for team absorptive capacity. Design/methodology/approach The study applies a configurational approach using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis in order to identify combinations of individual and team factors that are associated with team absorptive capacity. Data was gathered through a survey among 297 employees of four medium-sized Dutch firms, working in 48 functional teams. Findings The primary finding is that knowledge-intensive team absorptive capacity depends on a triad of complementary factors: 1) team members’ individual absorptive capacity, 2) factors that enable knowledge integration, and 3) factors that motivate knowledge integration. Underdevelopment of one or more factors leads to lower team absorptive capacity. Research limitations/implications The study contributes to the discussion on the locus of knowledge-creation and enhances understandings of why knowledge-intensive teams differ in knowledge processing capabilities. It suggests future research on cross-functional teams in new ventures and large firms. Practical implications The paper informs managers and team leaders about the factors that determine knowledge-intensive teams’ absorptive capacity, enabling them to develop team-specific strategies to increase their teams’ performance. Originality/value The study takes a holistic perspective on knowledge-intensive team absorptive capacity by using a configurational approach. It also highlights the potential of team-level research in the knowledge management literature for both researchers and practitioners.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-08-04T11:17:28Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-11-2015-0433
  • Leading knowledge management in a secondary school
    • First page: 1104
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 5, September 2016.
      Purpose This paper tries to explore the influence of the Principal’s leadership in kicking-off KM implementation and the following KM processes in the school. The author tries to propose a model of Knowledge Leadership for principals to adopt at the beginning of KM journey and during the process of KM implementation. The paper is to share the lessons learned during the process of implementation: what he has done and what should be improved. Thus, this paper can provide a model for school principals to implement KM in their schools. This paper can also shed light to KM researchers about the issue of leadership during KM implementation. Design/methodology/approach The study uses an action research to explore how the principal’s leadership can enhance KM implementation in a school environment and evaluate the effectiveness of the framework of Knowledge Leadership for the KM Implementation in school setting. An insider action research methodology was adopted to study and reflect on the processes of KM implementation and lesson learned. Multiple sources of data, including observations, questionnaires and interviews, have been collected for evaluation. Findings In this study, the principal kicked off KM in the school. It was found that KM CANNOT be implemented without the principal’s effective knowledge leadership. If there was only little KM leadership, such as the leadership in stage 1, KM was found to be difficult to be launched. After awareness of the need of strengthening leadership in stage 2, the principal exercised stronger leadership in pushing the KM process further, the school had more obvious KM outcomes. Therefore, this study proves that leadership is essential for KM implementation, especially at the beginning of the KM processes. The principal acted as the knowledge leader with the roles of knowledge vision builder, knowledge enabler builder and knowledge role model. The roles of Knowledge Leadership is found to be potent and critical for the process of KM implementation to facilitate sharing information/knowledge and nurturing a sharing culture and trust.The Principal’s Knowledge Leadership was integrated with the KM processes to strengthen the implementation of the KM strategies. The principal acted as the knowledge leader with the roles of knowledge vision builder, knowledge enabler builder and knowledge role model. This study showed that such framework of Knowledge Leadership contributed substantially in promoting and sustaining KM implementation by providing a clear guideline to execute the processes in the KM implementation. The Knowledge Leadership is found to be potent and critical for facilitation of sharing information/knowledge and nurturing a sharing culture and trust. In this study, the principal kicked off KM in the school. It was found that KM CANNOT be implemented without the principal’s effective knowledge leadership. If there was only little KM leadership, such as the leadership in stage 1, KM was found to be difficult to be launched. After awareness of the need of strengthening leadership in stage 2, the principal exercised stronger leadership in pushing the KM process further, the school had more obvious KM outcomes. Therefore, this study proves that leadership is essential for KM implementation, especially at the beginning of the KM processes. The principal acted as the knowledge leader with the roles of knowledge vision builder, knowledge enabler builder and knowledge role model. The roles of Knowledge Leadership is found to be potent and critical for the process of KM implementation to facilitate sharing information/knowledge and nurturing a sharing culture and trust. Research limitations/implications Although the results of the study conducted in one school may not be generalized to other school contexts, the lessons learned in the study might be a reference to other schools for their future development. Because of his unique position as the principal in the researched school, the researcher adopted insider approach generating value for investigation of KM implementation in this study, because there were multiple mediating processes through which leaders could influence school functioning, and, hence, knowledge sharing or other issues in KM implementation. Practical implications This study could make contributions for KM implementation in the public sector, especially in schools. Moreover, the approaches, the strategies, the processes, and the challenges the principal and the school faced can shed light on practice and research for further KM implementation. In addition, although leadership has been commonly regarded as an important factor in KM implementation, few studies have explored the impact of leadership during the KM process. With principal’s leadership as the main component, this study is important for analysis of the role of leadership during the process. The framework of Knowledge Leadership adopted in this study has been tried and evaluated to be applicable and necessary for KM implementation in a school environment. This study shows a case of KM Implementation in a school with the principal’s leadership as the key driver for the processes. The thoughtful procedures of initiating KM implementation, allocation of the school resources, and shaping learning for staff is a showcase to shed light on the processes and lessons learned, and to provide a model for schools who are interested in applying KM in their schools. Originality/value Fullan (2002) mentions the essence of KM in schools, the importance of principals’ leadership in the promotion of KM in schools, the moral purpose and knowledge sharing, and as well as leadership and sustainability but he does not provide any practical suggestion for how principals can become knowledge leaders. Therefore, this paper hopes to further propose a model to show how to...
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-08-04T11:17:31Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-10-2015-0390
  • Understanding researchers’ strategic behaviour in knowledge production:
           a case of social science and nanotechnology researchers
    • First page: 1148
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 5, September 2016.
      Purpose This paper seeks to understand strategic behaviour of researchers when producing knowledge in two scientific fields, nanotechnology and social sciences. Design/methodology/approach We conducted semi-structured interviews with 43 researchers to analyse the needs for strategic interdependence (resource-sharing) and for organisational autonomy (decision-making) in knowledge production. When aligned, these two concepts form three modes of behaviour: mode1, mode2 and mode3. Findings The empirical study results show that, besides well-studied differences in various publications, there are large behaviour differences between social science and nanotechnology researchers. While nanotechnology researchers’ behaviours are mostly in mode3 (sharing resources; highly autonomous), social science researchers’ behaviours tend to be in mode1 (highly autonomous; no need to share resources). Practical implications This study delivers an understanding of the differences in the strategic behaviours of researchers in different scientific fields. We propose managerial interventions for research managers – university and research group leaders. Originality/value While most studies that compare scientific fields look at knowledge production outcomes, we analyse conditions that differentiate these outcomes. To this end, we compare individual researchers’ behaviours in different fields by analysing the need for collaboration and the need for autonomy.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-08-04T11:17:41Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-11-2015-0444
  • The impact of knowledge management on job satisfaction
    • First page: 621
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 4, July 2016.
      Purpose This paper proposes that knowledge management (KM) could be a way to nurture job satisfaction and examines how KM can increase the satisfaction of individual employees with their jobs. Design/methodology/approach A theoretical model concerning the connections between five facets of KM (knowledge acquisition, knowledge sharing, knowledge creation, knowledge codification and knowledge retention) and job satisfaction is proposed. It is then empirically tested with a SEM-PLS analysis of a survey data set of 824 observations, collected from the members of a Finnish municipal organization. Findings Existence of KM processes in one’s working environment is significantly linked with high job satisfaction. Especially intra-organizational knowledge seems to be a key KM process promoting satisfaction with one’s job in most employee groups. Interestingly, significant knowledge-based promoters of job satisfaction differ as a function of job characteristics. Practical implications KM has a strong impact on employee job satisfaction, and therefore managers are advised to implement KM activities in their organizations, not only for the sake of improving knowledge worker performance, but also for improving well-being at work. Originality/value This paper produces knowledge on a type of consequence of KM that has been largely unexplored in previous research, individual job satisfaction. Also it promotes moving the KM literature to the next stage where the impact of KM practices is not explored as a “one size fits all” type of a phenomenon, but rather as a contingent and contextual issue.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-05-25T11:31:33Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-10-2015-0398
  • Measuring knowledge in organizations: a knowledge-in-practice approach
    • First page: 637
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 4, July 2016.
      Purpose This paper aims to develop a reliable and valid scale for measuring the underlying knowledge involved in work. To do so, it builds on the knowledge-in-practice (KIP) framework that suggests different types of work have different underlying knowledge characteristics. This allows us to answer two important questions: (1) What are the underlying characteristics of knowledge-in-practice that are important to effectively manage a firm’s knowledge resources? (2) How do we measure these characteristics? The answers help to build theoretical and empirical understanding of the construct of KIP. Design/methodology/approach The study uses a discovery-oriented survey design methodology to design the survey instrument, followed by a mixed methods approach to validate the scale. Findings A new scale is developed for measuring the tacitness and learnability of the knowledge involved in work. It allows work units to be evaluated based on the underlying knowledge involved in different types of work. Research limitations/implications The KIP scale can be used for measuring the type of knowledge characteristics in organizations. Academics can use this study as a basic model to explore knowledge across different contexts and focus on the different characteristics within and across work contexts. Practical implications The study provides a clearer and more granular understanding of knowledge in organizations that can be used as a guideline to refer to when measuring and assessing knowledge requirements. Originality/value Scholars have pushed to understand work from a knowledge and collaboration perspective. A measurement scale for the knowledge-in-practice framework provides a critical first step towards this outcome.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-05-25T11:31:12Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-11-2015-0478
  • Knowledge sharing is knowledge transfer: a misconception in the literature
    • First page: 653
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 4, July 2016.
      Purpose The paper aims to clearly differentiate knowledge sharing (KS) and knowledge transfer (KT) besides exemplifying their interconnections in order to minimize the current confusions in the knowledge management (KM) literature. Design/methodology/approach An extensive literature review method was employed to analyze relevant literature on both KS and KT to clearly delineate their differences and their interconnections. Findings The paper found that KS is a subset of KT (using personalization strategy) whereas KT as a whole is a broader concept if compared with KS. However, KS is not one of the immediate processes involved in KT (using codification strategy). The processes involved in KS and KT differ according to the strategy used (in KT) and perspective chosen (in KS). Other findings include KS (unidirectional) as reflective concept (viewed so far) whereas KS (bidirectional), KT (personalization) and KT (codification) as formative concepts. Research limitations/implications The findings of this paper are based on the review of selected relevant articles only. Practical implications The paper will minimize the current confusions in the KM literature and will assist future researches on both KS and KT to ensure what these concepts entail in order to avoid construct underrepresentation. Originality/value As compared to previous attempts, the present paper has shown the interconnections between KS and KT as well as the differences based on the two perspectives of KS (unidirectional/bidirectional) and the two strategies of KT (personalization/codification) and such effort is new in the literature.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-05-25T11:31:13Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-11-2015-0427
  • Knowledge diversity and firm performance: an ecological view
    • First page: 671
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 4, July 2016.
      Purpose Knowledge has been considered a crucial organizational asset for gaining competitive advantages. It is critical for a firm to maintain a knowledge composition that is productive. In this study, we examine the applicability of the diversity–stability principle in ecology to knowledge management and further investigate the impact of knowledge diversity on firm performance. Design/methodology/approach A theoretical framework for knowledge diversity and firm performance is proposed; a questionnaire survey was conducted to evaluate the research framework. Fifty-eight valid responses from experts were collected to measure knowledge strength and diversity of twenty enterprises in four industries, and financial indexes of the twenty enterprises from 2008 to 2012 were collected to analyze the research model. Findings The results show that higher IT capabilities in a firm lead to higher levels of knowledge strength and diversity. The strength and diversity of knowledge in a company can improve average company performance and reduce performance variations. Research limitations/implications This paper presents a new perspective that applies the ecological concept of diversity to examine the value of knowledge in organizations. The findings expand our understanding of the role of information technology and knowledge in organizational performance. A limitation is that the sample size is relatively small, which may limit the generalizability of the findings. Practical implications CEOs and chief knowledge officers can apply the findings herein to assess their organizational knowledge profiles and maintain a healthy knowledge ecology in strategic planning. They should be aware that both knowledge strength and knowledge diversity are crucial to the stability of firm performance. Originality/value The ecological view of knowledge management stresses the importance of maintaining a healthy intensity and diversity of knowledge at the macro level and indicates a new direction for knowledge management.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-05-25T11:31:23Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-10-2015-0377
  • Negotiate, reciprocate, or cooperate? The impact of exchange modes on
           inter-employee knowledge sharing
    • First page: 687
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 4, July 2016.
      Purpose To investigate the impact of exchange modes – negotiated, reciprocal, generalized, and productive – on inter-employee knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach Based on the affect theory of social exchange, a theoretical model was developed and empirically tested using a survey of 691 employees from fifteen North American credit unions. Findings The negotiated mode of knowledge exchange, i.e., when a knowledge contributor explicitly establishes reciprocation conditions with a recipient, develops negative knowledge sharing attitude. The reciprocal mode, i.e., when a knowledge donor assumes that a receiver will reciprocate, has no effect on knowledge sharing attitude. The generalized exchange form, i.e., when a knowledge contributor believes that other organizational members may reciprocate, is weakly related to knowledge sharing attitude. The productive exchange mode, i.e., when a knowledge provider assumes he or she is a responsible citizen within a cooperative enterprise, strongly facilitates the development of knowledge sharing attitude, which, in turn leads to knowledge sharing intentions. Practical implications To facilitate inter-employee knowledge sharing, managers should focus on the development of positive knowledge sharing culture when all employees believe they contribute to a common good instead of expecting reciprocal benefits. Originality/value This is one of the first studies to apply the affect theory of social exchange to study knowledge sharing.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-05-25T11:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-10-2015-0394
  • Should knowledge be shared generously? Tracing insights from past to
           present and describing a model
    • First page: 713
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 4, July 2016.
      Purpose Are people generous at work places? How often do we see people willing to share, when someone seeks knowledge from them without any expectation? What's the point in having knowledge when somebody doesn't share it? Then again, why do firms, reward employees to share their knowledge? ¬ ¬ ? Do sharing knowledge between people needs a commercial acceptance or rewarding inspiration? In firms, people who do not have all the work-related knowledge makes them to seek it from others. Thus, this implies that people can either share their knowledge or hoard knowledge or share partial knowledge. Our research shows that sharing knowledge existed since centuries and was practiced through generosity, with a proven evidence that the more you share the more you get back. We will analyse the role of generosity in sharing knowledge by tracing insights from literature, religion, science and modern day management scholarly views and we show that how it can lead to firm success. In this paper, we will propose a direction for future researchers on how developing generosity towards sharing knowledge. We also propose a model of generosity based on literature and our interpretation. Design/methodology/approach This paper is based on the extensive reviews from literature, articles, and opinions from scholars. We use a keyword protocol to search the articles from Google scholar and other sources on generosity and knowledge sharing. Findings This paper finds significant relationships and validated shreds of evidence on how generosity towards knowledge sharing has helped humanity in the past and how generosity can help in firm success. Originality/value This paper is the first of its kind in trying to explore how developing generosity among people can play role in facilitating knowledge sharing for firm success. This further suggests a new direction of research for scholars engaged in exploring the role of generosity with a proposed model.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-05-25T11:31:10Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-10-2015-0401
  • Communities of practice as an initiative for knowledge sharing in business
           organisations: a literature review
    • First page: 731
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 4, July 2016.
      Purpose This paper aims to review the research and to summarise the evidence on Communities of Practice (CoPs) as a tool for sharing knowledge. It will highlight the related literature from the last two decades by looking at potential barriers, solutions, and influential factors regarding CoPs within business organisations. Design/methodology/approach The study consists of a constructed approach to determine the sources for the review that covers relevant literature on the topic of CoPs. Findings This paper provides insights about the important role of CoPs in fostering knowledge-sharing within business organisations. It suggests that the impact of globalisation has encouraged many business firms to intentionally establish CoPs as a vital tool for Knowledge Management (KM) initiatives. It also appears that the importance of the three organisational factors – top management, structure and culture – lies in their ability to have a direct effect on intentionally established CoPs within business organisations. Research limitations/implications The paper suggests a number of ways in which intentionally established CoPs can be developed within business companies. This paper limited its review to three organisational factors. Investigation of other organisational factors is needed. Originality/value This paper provides a detailed insight into the management literature on CoPs as an initiative for knowledge sharing within business organisations.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-05-25T11:31:43Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-12-2015-0494
  • Knowledge sharing and individual work performance: an empirical study of a
           public sector organisation
    • First page: 749
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 4, July 2016.
      Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine whether individual-level knowledge sharing (in terms of attitudes, benefit estimations, self-efficacy and actualised behaviours) affects individual work performance. Design/methodology/approach Hypotheses are tested through structural equation modelling of survey data collected from 595 members of a public organisation. Findings The findings confirm the hypothesis that knowledge-sharing propensity impacts positively on knowledge-sharing behaviour. Additionally, knowledge-sharing behaviour mediates the relationship between knowledge-sharing propensity and individual performance. The latter effect is also significant amongst the most highly educated members of the organisation but not among those with the lowest educational levels. Originality/value This paper provides insights into the knowledge-sharing–attitude–behaviour–work performance linkage. It thus addresses a relatively neglected area in KM research, namely, that of individual knowledge behaviours and their performance impact, with an aim to better understand the micro-foundations of knowledge management. It also contributes to knowledge on KM in the public sector.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-05-25T11:31:38Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-10-2015-0414
  • Communication behavior and online knowledge collaboration: evidence from
    • First page: 769
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 4, July 2016.
      Purpose This paper aims to elucidate the collaborative mechanism of knowledge collaboration in online communities. The effects of participant communication behaviors enabling knowledge collaboration, such as public discussion, private messaging, and registration, are comprehensively investigated in relation to individual and group performances. Design/methodology/approach Eight communication categories of participants are defined according to their communication behaviors, and the average number of knowledge contributions at the individual level and the helpfulness towards collaboration efficiency at the group level are compared across the participant categories. Findings The results show that simultaneous participation in both task-oriented public discussion and relationship-oriented private messaging has a synergistic effect in promoting individual knowledge sharing, and that additional registration – disclosing one’s identity – significantly enhances efficiency in group collaboration. The role of public discussion appears to be as significant as that of private messaging with regard to online knowledge collaboration. Practical implications First, encouraging members to participate in both task-oriented discussion and casual personal communication is important for eliciting more knowledge contributions. Second, although social capital based on one-to-one private messaging has attracted much attention with respect to knowledge sharing, many-to-many public discussions that more deeply and broadly influence knowledge conversion should be more highly emphasized. Third, the perceptions of shared value and reputation based on registration also need to be cultivated to increase collaboration efficiency. Originality/value In contrast to most previous research that focused on only one type of communication, this study offers a big-picture view of the relationship between communication and online knowledge collaboration by adopting a comprehensive approach to participant communication behavior. A systematic classification of communication behaviors enables this work to illuminate the diverse effects of different communication types or styles on both individual- and group-level performances, thereby improving the understanding of the overall collaborative mechanism. This study thus provides fresh insights on effective management of online communities.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-05-25T11:31:17Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-08-2015-0312
  • >Βa> virtual and inter-organizational evolution: a case study
           from a EU research project
    • First page: 793
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 4, July 2016.
      Purpose Taking Nonaka’s SECI Model as main reference, this paper aims to offer reflections on the virtual evolution of ba, the places for knowledge creation. Indeed, looking at the current scenario, widening the knowledge spiral to the inter-organizational epistemological level, is inevitable. To this aim, information technology tools and virtual communities can establish effective interactions to exchange knowledge, making ba evolve congruently. Design/methodology/approach The paper takes the exemplary case of a platform developed during a European research project called “BIVEE: Business Innovation in Virtual Enterprise Environments”. The investigative approach chosen is Participatory Action Research, with two researchers conducting PAR in real time, and two others involved ex-post. Findings The paper shows that the virtual evolution of ba can lead the SECI model towards an inter-organizational level. Moreover, through a learning history, it describes how all the phases of the SECI process, even the Socialization one, can take place or be supported in virtual spaces. Research limitations/implications Taking into account just one single exemplary case study provides a rich, contextualized understanding of phenomena, while allowing only some theoretical generalizations. Originality/value This paper contextualizes the SECI model within a web platform for Open Innovation, in order to investigate whether the knowledge creation process can take place entirely within a virtual environment linking subjects from different organizations. In so doing, it applies the SECI model to the phases of the innovation process, called waves.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-05-25T11:31:29Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-09-2015-0342
  • Primary knowledge management practices applied in Brazil, Russia, India
           and China (BRIC) industries from 2001- 2010
    • First page: 812
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 4, July 2016.
      Purpose This study aims to expose the main Knowledge Management (KM) practices applied in BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) industries using scientific literature published in the Scopus database from 2001 to 2010. Design/methodology/approach A search was performed in papers were selected from Scopus database, which houses the KM practices of industries in BRIC countries. Findings The results show that Brazil, Russia, and India have an easier way of converting tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge, compared to China, where informal relationships of trust and friendship play a special role within organizations, as well as where the political structure (Communism) is an intervening factor. Brazil, Russia, and India practice similar KM mechanisms like the use of technology, process standardization, and electronic data management. They also model the positive experiences of Western companies. In China, interpersonal relationships shape the tacit and explicit features of organizations. Research limitations/implications The methodological filter could potentially limit the volume of responses, as not every case study can demonstrate the usual practices of KM. Empirical studies are able to capture the nuances, and even provide a holistic picture of these practices. Practical implications The results have especially practical implication. They are expected to help managers and workers to better comprehend KM practices in BRIC countries, or even suggest new KM practices in the business. Originality/value The main discussion of this paper brings together a large range of knowledge management practices applied in BRIC, addressing similarities and differences between KM deployments.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-05-25T11:31:08Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-12-2015-0522
  • Developing a knowledge management policy for ISO 9001: 2015
    • First page: 829
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 4, July 2016.
      Purpose ISO 9001: 2015 Quality Management Systems places an obligation on organisations to consider the role of organizational knowledge as a resource. This paper is the first to systematically relate the key fundamentals of knowledge management to the seven quality management principles of ISO 9001: 2015. It also draws some conclusions to assist organisations as they integrate knowledge within their quality management systems. Design/methodology/approach The paper traces the history of quality standards and the background to the inclusion of an organisational knowledge clause in ISO 9001: 2015. It then systematically considers the seven quality management principles in relation to knowledge management principles. Findings The core elements of the knowledge management standard are incorporated with the organisational knowledge clause. Explicit and tacit knowledge are addressed by the ISO standard. Knowledge and its management will become increasingly important in organisations. Research limitations/implications ISO 9001: 2015 was released in September 2015 which means that organizations have yet to apply the organizational knowledge clause. This paper is a conceptual one which needs to be complemented with empirical research. Practical implications This paper identifies the role of knowledge management principles as they apply to ISO 9001: 2015 and the seven quality management principles. More than 1.1million organisations are certified to ISO 9001, plus many others who use the standard informally. Those involved with organisational quality will need to understand the role of knowledge in the organisation. Originality/value This paper is the first to discuss knowledge management in relation to the seven quality management principles which assist the development of policy for quality management.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-05-25T11:31:07Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-11-2015-0472
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