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Journal Cover Journal of Knowledge Management
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1367-3270
   Published by Emerald Homepage  [312 journals]
  • Group dynamics and the role of ICT in the life cycle analysis of community
           of practice-based product development: A case study
    • Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 3, May 2016.
      Purpose This article examines the dynamics of a community of practice (CoP) through a case study of eCars – Now! They offer open source blueprints of the electric conversion kits globally We analysed the CoP by considering its entire life cycle, starting from the motives for its establishment, through its active performance, up to the current stage, where the members need to decide whether the community will remain viable. Particular attention was paid to the group dynamics and issues that seemed relevant to the change in dynamics which determine whether a CoP maintains its vitality or dissipates. Design/methodology/approach The qualitative case study was chosen as our research strategy (Yin, 1984) in order to answer the research question and understand the target phenomenon of the CoP by analysing textual data. We chose this particular case because of its unusual revelatory value for the case CoP which aims at creating a tangible innovation by using a platform that normally aims at intangible problem solving (Eisenhardt & Graebner, 2007). In the data collection, we used method and researcher triangulation (Patton, 1990). Findings Life cycle analysis revealed four themes that explained the change in the group dynamics and the dispersal of the community: 1) differentiation and dispersal of interests, 2) growth that resulted in role differentiation, 3) virtuality in community development and 4) inclusion of investors. The themes were all related to the fact that the case community operated with not only knowledge, but also with a tangible product. Therefore, the tangibility of a problem to be solved seems to play a pivotal role in a CoP’s operations and dynamics and, in part, also explains the changing role of ICT in the process. Research limitations/implications However, we identified also different ways to characterize community participation, which was also relevant from group dynamics point of view. Thus, the topic should be studied further. Group dynamics in general, as it relates to the success of CoPs, should be also investigated further. Additional studies should implement the inclusion of external resources in the community. Further research is also needed to investigate tangible and intangible outcomes achieved through CoPs. Much of the available research was conducted over short periods; prolonged interactions in a CoP context could show different results. Practical implications In conclusion, at the beginning of the life cycle of the eCars community, ICT played a significant role. It helped increase awareness of the community in the first place and enabled people to join in which thus enabled the community to evolve. When the operations evolved and the life cycle progressed, both the physical meeting place as well as personal interaction and communication became emphasized and much more important. In the maturing stage the role of ICT, and especially social media, is the essential part of the community. Originality/value We argue that the ideological basis for this kind of community should be openness. All information should be available for everyone who register to the community platform on the Internet. This community was working in the mindset of open innovation. Technical documentation and all other material were available for everyone in the community’s wiki pages which attracted a lot of people who were delighted by eCars. Many advisors delivered technical information and good advice to the practitioners of the community through the platform. The hang arounds were also very well informed in this stage regarding how the core group was working.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-03-23T12:48:54Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-06-2015-0227
  • New ICTs for Knowledge Management in Organizations
    • Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 3, May 2016.

      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-03-23T12:48:45Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-02-2016-0057
  • IT Innovation Strategy: Managing the implementation communication and its
           generated knowledge through the use of an ICT Tool
    • Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 3, May 2016.
      Purpose Without effective implementation, no IT strategy can succeed. There has been much re-search into IT planning, but few studies have developed one of the most important phases of IT strategy: IT Implementation. IT implementation can be improved at Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Organizations through the use of organization learning models (OLM) and the implementation of ICT tools. This paper has two purposes 1) Define an OLM framework that determines the best practices to increase knowledge at individual, group and/organizational levels, and 2) Define and implement an ICT Tool to facilitate the integration and institutionalization of the OLM. The ICT tool is based on the Technology Roadmapping technique that allows an organization to manage at an executive level what, when and how the IT strategy is going to be implemented. Design/methodology/approach This paper is based on a case study performed at an ICT Organization that provides ICT ser-vices to financial institutions. The study was carried out in 2014. It analyzed over 24,000 projects, which translated into an equivalent of more than 18 million man-hours. The pro-posal was assessed at a very large ICT Organization. Findings This paper proposes a framework called SPIDER to implement effectively organizational learning models based on big data management principles for monitoring and reporting cur-rent status of IT Innovation strategies. This kind of approaches contribute to solve the prob-lems identified in the state of the art regarding the communication and monitoring the im-plementation status of IT innovation strategies. During this research work several factors that are essential to implement this kind of approaches in large banking organizations were identified. These factors include: i) Effort required to elaborate the monitoring and reporting activities; ii) Easiness to understand the reported information; iii) Detailed planning of the implementation program; and iv) Focus on communication efficiency. Originality/value This paper determined the best practices to manage knowledge generated during the implementation of an IT Strategy. Additionally, this paper defined and implemented an ICT Tool to properly communicate and monitor the implementation of an IT Innovation Strategy, based on Technological Roadmap techniques
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-03-23T12:48:43Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-06-2015-0217
  • Web GIS to Enhance Relational Capital: The Case of General Merchandise
    • Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 3, May 2016.
      Purpose This paper studies the impact of Information and Communication Technologies in organizations to capture and manage Intellectual Capital. The paper focuses particularly on the use of Web-based Geographical Information Systems (Web GIS) to increase relational capital. Design/methodology/approach This paper analyzes in detail the websites of 143 general merchandise retailers, which have been grouped according to their dominant operational format. Menus and search tools have been used to find out about the way in which these retailers provide information to the customers about their stores, with special attention to the use of Web GIS. Findings The results obtained show that most of the companies analyzed use Web GIS to provide information about the location and other characteristics of the stores. The findings in this paper also suggest that the quantity and quality of the information provided by is somewhat related to the company size. Research limitations/implications The limitations of this study come from the difficulty of predicting if Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) will generalize the use of Web GIS in the future. Practical implications The findings of the paper suggest that large retail firms have adopted Web GIS to provide information to the customers and for other geomarketing purposes. Moreover, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) should use Web GIS to improve their relationship with customers. Originality/value To our knowledge, no paper has analyzed in detail the use of Web GIS by companies with the aim of enhancing relational capital.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-03-23T12:48:39Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-06-2015-0218
  • Towards Building Internal Social Network Architecture that Drives
           Innovation: A Social Exchange Theory Perspective
    • Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 3, May 2016.
      Purpose This paper aims to contribute to towards the extension and further development of the social exchange theory. It provides conceptual insights on social networks in geographically dispersed organizations, and how intra-organizational social interactions influences organizational behavior, employees relationship exchange inclination and innovation drive. Design/methodology/approach A thematic literature review method was used to conduct an extensive review of relevant literature. Findings Guided by the tenets of the social exchange theory, our analysis and discussions elucidates how intra-organizational social network architecture can be developed, supported and utilized to drive innovations in geographically dispersed organizations. Research limitations/implications A general limitation and perhaps also a strength of this type of conceptual paper is that it is a synthesis [thematic discursive analysis] of existing theory and published research. Thus, there are no primary empirical content. However, the issue of empirical evidence is nevertheless mediated by the fact that the discussions and argumentation process generate key propositions which could be validated in subsequent research endeavors. Also the selection of relevant literature is restricted specifically to the topic of the study. We strived to ensure rigor through a robust and comprehensive literature review which was organized thematically according to all the key words in the main and sub topics covered in section two. Practical implications The firm should therefore empower the SIHRM function to make investments in intra-organizational social networking through the development, implementation and moderation of various organizational architectures. The insights presented suggests that management should pay serious attention to organizational design— that is, not only from the conventional contractual obligations point of view, but rather the increasing importance of social capital should also be given some priority when thinking of resilient ways to encourage collaborations and efficient knowledge management. In other words, intra-organizational social network architecture should be considered as organizational capability and utilized as a toolset for the SIHRM to harness knowledge flow and unleash innovation. Originality/value The novel contribution of this paper is twofold. First, the study provide an implementable framework which scholars and practitioners could use to develop and/ test the actualization of an intra-organizational social network architecture in a geographically dispersed organization. Second, the study have provide some key propositions and well-grounded direction for further research in order to inspire the further development/extension of the social exchange theory.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-03-23T12:48:23Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-06-2015-0212
  • IT and relationship learning in networks as drivers of green innovation
           and customer capital: Evidence from the automobile sector
    • Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 3, May 2016.
      Purpose Despite the positive effects of customer capital (CC), questions remain over how managers enable CC growth by applying their skills and capabilities through managerial actions and strategies, such as developing information technology (IT) capability, fostering relationship learning (RL) activities, and developing green innovations performance (GIP) with clients. These questions are especially pertinent in SMEs and automotive industry companies that operate through supply chains, where knowledge about customers is likely to result from personal contact between customers and organizational members. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the extent to which these managerial actions were more likely to lead to the successful creation of CC Design/methodology/approach Using the partial least squares (PLS) technique, this paper studies how these three managerial actions impact on CC. To do so, data from 140 companies in the Spanish automotive components manufacturing sector has been used Findings Our findings support the influence of RL on both GIP and CC. RL is a key managerial action in exploiting customer information and knowledge advantages, enabling firms to structure and reconfigure resources to produce new ways to compete and to satisfy stakeholders. In addition, results show that GIP is a determinant of CC because of its contribution to achieving sustainable competitive advantage, with GIP performing a mediating role in the relationship between RL and CC. A second contribution shows that IT is not in itself able to yield a competitive advantage, thereby validating the existence of complementary or co-focused strategic assets such as RL and GIP, which enhance IT’s influence on CC Research limitations/implications We were unable to explore the subtleties of the processes over time. Future research should include a longitudinal study Practical implications This study considers RL an essential factor in achieving both GIP and CC. Consequently, managers should seek to build strong RL cultures. In addition, this study shows that IT is not in itself able to yield a competitive advantage, thereby validating the existence of complementary or co-focused strategic assets such as RL and GIP Originality/value No study has ever examined these three antecedent variables (IT, RL, GIP) together, with the aim to examine their effects on CC
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-03-23T12:48:13Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-05-2015-0203
  • Factors affecting the use of wiki to manage knowledge in a small company
    • Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 3, May 2016.
      Purpose The paper presents and discusses the findings of a case study analysis of the adoption and use of a wiki system by a small enterprise that is intended as a tool for managing the knowledge needed to successfully perform its business activities. The study aims at contributing to the still insufficient research on the factors influencing the use of new Web 2.0 technologies in small organisations to support internal knowledge management. Design/methodology/approach The study combines a qualitative and quantitative approach. The main unit of analysis is the wiki system of a small company, particularly its implementation and usage by the company’s employees. Relevant information about the wiki was collected through six interviews to different company members, and by means of an online survey submitted to almost all employees. Interviews involved the CEO of the company, the system developers and two typical users. The survey was made through a questionnaire of 19 questions online administered by means of a popular free-access online poll website ( Findings Through the reconstruction of the history of the system the study allowed to understand how the wiki has been introduced and is effectively used inside the case company. The findings of the study highlight that the wiki technology, being light and user-friendly, can be particularly suited for small companies. At the same time they reveal that the successful implementation of such a system is not a spontaneous and automatic result, but requires a resolute support by top management, a good motivation of participating employees, and a clear definition of purposes and ways of use. Practical implications The findings of the study contribute both to the academic research, by making available to scholars further empirical evidence about the use of web 2.0 technologies in small organisations, and to the practice, by providing some guidelines to managers of small companies who are attempting to adopt and use wikis to effectively manage their knowledge assets. Originality/value The paper contributes to the limited research about the adoption and use of wikis as knowledge management system, both in general and in the particular case of a SME. Furthermore, by investigating the behaviours and opinions of individual knowledge workers, it takes into account a perspective that the literature has so far neglected.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-03-23T12:48:10Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-05-2015-0205
  • Harnessing network-based intellectual capital in online academic networks.
           From the organizational policies and practices towards competitiveness
    • Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 3, May 2016.
      Purpose The paper aims to investigate the standpoints and practices of university members from European developing countries regarding the harnessing of the intellectual capital within online academic social networks. Design/methodology/approach A questionnaire-based survey with 210 university members was conducted, the indicators adopting prior measurement scales which were further adapted to a network framework. Findings The organizational policies and practices relate positively and highly significantly with the valuation of the network-based intellectual capital components. Moreover, 63 percent of the professional and organizational competitiveness of higher education institutions is determined by the exploitation of the intellectual capital embedded in online academic networks. Research limitations/implications All survey respondents were from the European developing countries, which may limit the general applicability of the findings. Also, the emphasis is laid solely on online academic networks. Practical implications This paper brings to the fore both the potential and the state of the art in leveraging the intellectual capital of online specialized networks which are indicative of the academic field. When acknowledged as such, the network-based intellectual capital is liable to generate substantial competitive advantages at the professional and organizational levels at the same time. Originality/value This research adds to the extant literature in two main ways. Firstly, it advances a new construct – network-based intellectual capital – in the context of the online academic social networks. Secondly, it proposes a research model for addressing the network-based intellectual capital from a competitive advantage perspective.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-03-23T12:46:01Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-05-2015-0208
  • ERP as an Organizational Innovation: Key Users and Cross-boundary
           Knowledge Management
    • Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 3, May 2016.
      Purpose Purpose of the study is to provide more insight in the ways key users act as knowledge managers and boundary spanners during the ERP system usage phase. Despite the recognized importance of key users during the implementation phase of an ERP system, little is known about their role in the ERP usage phase. Design/methodology/approach In order to provide rich insight in the boundary spanning mechanisms utilized by key users to share knowledge, a qualitative approach was applied. In the study, ‘abductive’ theme coding for 58 interviews with key users, end users and managers has been used. This paper found six mechanisms and characterized them as ‘crossing’ structural, social or cognitive boundaries. Findings Six boundary spanning mechanisms have been distinguished which have been applied by key users to overcome several knowledge management issues. Subsequently these mechanisms lead to a model which describes three different roles, key users may fulfill to efficiently share and transfer knowledge during the ERP usage phase. Research limitations/implications Knowledge barriers during an ERP implementation and their accompanying six boundary crossing mechanisms have been distinguished. Practical implications The recognition of the essential role that key users can fulfill during the usage phase of an ERP system is an important implication. Management has to take into account that tasks and responsibilities of key users have to be clear from the start and they may cautiously select employees who are suited to become a key user. Originality/value The main contribution is the importance of the impact of key users on the effectivity of knowledge management during the ERP usage phase.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-03-23T12:45:45Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-05-2015-0195
  • The effect of online social networks and competency-based management on
           innovation capability
    • Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 3, May 2016.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of online social networks and competency-based management on innovation capability. Design/methodology/approach The paper is theory-confirming. Theoretical relationships were tested using an empirical study of 289 firms from the Spanish biotechnology and telecommunications industries. Findings Results confirm that online social network use for internal cognitive processes (e.g., reading, searching, and storing information) and external cognitive processes (e.g., sharing and co-creating knowledge) positively affects knowledge transfer. This knowledge helps firms to achieve superior competency in R&D to succeed in innovation programs. Research limitations/implications All survey respondents were from Spain, which may limit the generalizability of findings. A longitudinal approach was not used. Doing so, however, would make it possible to explore time lags between online social network use, competency-based management, and innovation. Practical implications This study highlights the potential as well as the limitations of online social networks and competency-based management in promoting innovation capability. Businesses must consciously manage the assimilation and use of online social networks to benefit from them. Originality/value The study contributes to the literature by identifying effects on innovation capability at the meso level (i.e., online social networks). Findings highlight the need for a shift in focus away from collaborating and interacting in online social networks (micro level) and organizational contexts (macro level) so as to improve innovation capability.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-03-23T12:45:40Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-05-2015-0175
  • The impact of IT-based Knowledge Management Systems on internal venturing
           and innovation: a Structural Equation Modeling approach to corporate
    • Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 3, May 2016.
      Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess the perceived importance of information technology as a core factor enabling innovation in knowledge management (KM). The aim is to propose an approach for using the IT Tools for Knowledge Management involved in the design of effective learning applications to help the firms to guide internal venturing development. Design/methodology/approach The research design at the base of the present research has provided a survey which was conducted on a sample consisting of 187 different companies located in the italian provinces of Naples and Caserta, from the segments of the electronics, the computer and network systems, the SW development, aimed at deepening connections and influences of the use of IT-based KMS. Structural Equation Modeling tecnique has been performed in order to get results. Findings Consistent with what has been observed in previous studies (Del Giudice & Straub, 2011), the empirical analysis developed has confirmed that 72% of companies surveyed has defined themselves much agree on the ability of KMS for supporting complex phenomena such as internal venturing: both encouraging the individual to become "intrapreneur"; and helping the employee to improve their performances within business processes in which they are likely to be involved. Originality/value This article reviews key research literature issues on IT revolution for KM. With the growth of new and exciting information technology opportunities, however, comes the daunting opportunity to experiment interoperable, easy to use, engaging, and accessible IT applications that communicate the right information needed to reconfigure innovative mechanisms for entrepreneurism and organizational performance.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-03-23T12:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-07-2015-0257
  • Why share expertise? A closer look at the quality of motivation to
           share or withhold knowledge
    • Pages: 181 - 198
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 2, Page 181-198, April 2016.
      Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of motivation for knowledge sharing (KS) by assessing how four qualitatively different motivation types, as per self-determination theory (SDT), predict KS, its quality and its undesirable counterpart, knowledge withholding. Design/methodology/approach – The study was carried out as a survey (n = 200) in an expert organization. The analyses were conducted using structural equation modeling. Findings – Autonomous type of extrinsic motivation (identified motivation) was the strongest predictor of KS (in work meetings) and its quality, whereas the other motivation types (intrinsic, introjected and external) had no independent contribution to variance in KS. Knowledge withholding was negatively associated with identified and positively with external KS motivation. Research limitations/implications – Single organization limits the generalizability of the results. Future studies should further investigate the role of identified motivation for various KS behaviors. Practical implications – The findings suggest that autonomy-supportive management practices known to facilitate self-determined behavior can improve KS. Fostering external motivation by incentivizing KS may be both ineffective and have undesirable consequences. Originality/value – Few prior studies investigate KS motivation beyond external and intrinsic motivation or apply SDT to KS using SDT-based scales. This study distinguishes between four different motivation types and is the first to investigate their differential impact on KS and its quality. It is also the first to demonstrate the importance of identified motivation for KS. It further elucidates how the quality of KS motivation is reflected in knowledge withholding, an overall underinvestigated behavior.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-03-29T10:23:45Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-03-2015-0124
  • The impact of (low) trust on knowledge sharing
    • Pages: 199 - 214
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 2, Page 199-214, April 2016.
      Purpose – This paper aims to explore the differences in the level of knowledge sharing between co-workers in high versus low trust situations, for cognition-based trust and for affect-based trust as well as implicit and explicit knowledge. Design/methodology/approach – The differences were examined through data provided by 102 professionals working for a financial organization in The Netherlands. Findings – The differences in the level of knowledge sharing in high versus low trust situations are significant. The effect is larger for affect-based trust and for implicit knowledge. Research limitations/implications – The survey has been conducted within one organization only. Practical implications – Organizations should realize the importance of trust between their co-workers, and in general, there is much to gain by increasing the levels of trust between co-workers, as this will also increase knowledge sharing between co-workers. Originality/value – Previous studies have not examined the situation of low trust and its effect on the level of knowledge sharing within a homogeneous group of co-workers.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-03-29T10:22:57Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-10-2015-0391
  • Knowledge hoarding: antecedent or consequent of negative acts? The
           mediating role of trust and justice
    • Pages: 215 - 229
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 2, Page 215-229, April 2016.
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether and how knowledge hoarding, functions as antecedent and consequent of work related negative acts, as a measure of bullying. The authors investigate the relation as mediated by trust and justice. Design/methodology/approach – Data stem from a longitudinal study in which questionnaire responses were collected twice from 1,650 employees in 52 workplaces. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the two models. Design-based corrections were made to accommodate the multi-level structure of data. Findings – The analyses showed that knowledge hoarding was both an antecedent and a consequent of negative acts. First, over time, knowledge hoarding was indirectly related to negative acts mediated by trust and justice. Second, negative acts were both directly and indirectly related to knowledge hoarding over time. The study thus points to the existence of a vicious circle of negative acts, psychological states of trust and justice, and knowledge hoarding behaviours, which presumably will affect both individual and organizational outcomes negatively. Research limitations/implications – The use of already collected, self-report data, single-item measures, and the two-year time lag could pose potential limitations to the study. Practical implications – Preventive and repair actions could potentially impact both negative acts and knowledge hoarding by focusing on increasing the social exchange quality at work unit level. Originality/value – This paper combines two strands of research, that of bullying at work and that of knowledge management, within which research on knowledge hoarding has been an under-researched area.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-03-29T10:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-06-2015-0222
  • Review of empirical research on knowledge management practices and firm
    • Pages: 230 - 257
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 2, Page 230-257, April 2016.
      Purpose – Knowledge management (KM) has emerged as one of the most discussed new management methods. Among the most debated areas in KM has been the association between knowledge and firm performance, but a lack of understanding and consensus still remains as a major issue. This paper aims to address the research gap by reviewing the empirical literature and determining how KM-based managerial and organizational practices are related with firm performance. Design/methodology/approach – This study followed a systematic review procedure. Findings – The findings demonstrate that utilization of KM practices is significant driver for innovation. Also, specific leadership characteristics and organizational arrangements are likely to support firm performance through more efficient and effective management of knowledge resources. Research limitations/implications – This study adds to the discussion on knowledge-based view of the firm by pointing out the key organizational and managerial practices that are associated with firm performance. The results of this study also add structure to the previously scattered discussion on KM practices by synthesizing the relevant literature Practical implications – Measuring KM performance is characterized by organizational complexity; this study demonstrated that innovation is a likely outcome of utilization of KM practices, but there are numerous other factors that influence the financial performance figures. Also, this study points out that organizations should pay attention to specific KM leadership attributes and organizational arrangements in order to achieve firm performance through KM. Originality/value – This is the first systematic literature review on KM practices and firm performance. The results increase understanding of efficient and effective management of knowledge resources for organizational benefit.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-03-29T10:21:50Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-09-2015-0336
  • Knowledge management in small and medium enterprises: a structured
           literature review
    • Pages: 258 - 291
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 2, Page 258-291, April 2016.
      Purpose – This paper aims to review and critique the knowledge management (KM) literature within small and medium enterprises (SMEs), offers an overview of the state of research and outline a future research agenda. Design/methodology/approach – Papers published in KM journals are analysed using a structured literature review methodology. The paper analyses 89 papers published in ten journals specialising in the field of KM. Findings – KM within SMEs is a research area of growing importance. Findings show that literature on KM in SMEs is fragmented and dominated by unrelated research, with few comparative studies between countries and several countries receiving little attention. Additionally, different definitions of SMEs are used and different kinds of SMEs (e.g. micro, small and medium) are often treated as equivalent, making comparison almost impossible. The results show a failure to address the implications of findings for practitioners and policymakers, which risks relegating the KM research on SMEs to irrelevance. Originality/value – The paper presents a comprehensive structured literature review of the articles published in KM journals. The paper’s findings can offer insights into future research avenues.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-03-29T10:20:16Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-08-2015-0320
  • Emergent approach to knowledge management by small companies: multiple
           case-study research
    • Pages: 292 - 307
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 2, Page 292-307, April 2016.
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the knowledge management (KM) approach followed by small companies. In particular, after introducing the notion of emergent approach, the paper aims to examine if that notion is useful to properly describe the way small businesses approach their KM activities. Design/methodology/approach – The study is based on the results of a qualitative survey involving 12 owners and managers of small companies belonging to the knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) sector. The survey uses the case-study method. Findings – The findings confirm that the approach to KM adopted by small companies can be defined as emergent: in the analysed cases, there were no formal KM plans, despite the fact that the examined companies have all introduced various KM practices. This shows that there can be the need to define KM approaches that better fit smaller companies. Practical implications – Although an emergent approach may be seen as unplanned, companies should learn how to be aware of their KM practices and, once they are, how to develop them properly. For executives to be able to recognize emergent KM practices, notions and elements of KM need to be introduced in their business background and professional education (e.g. how KM fits into a small organization, what KM processes are, what KM tools and practices exist, etc.). Originality/value – The study contributes to the understanding of KM in really small entities, still a much under-explored topic.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-03-29T10:24:13Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-07-2015-0271
  • The relationship between face to face social networks and knowledge
           sharing: an exploratory study of manufacturing firms
    • Pages: 308 - 326
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 2, Page 308-326, April 2016.
      Purpose – This paper aims to explore the relationship between face-to-face social networks and knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach – Qualitative data gathered through 25 semi-structured interviews in five manufacturing firms were collected and analysed. A grounded theory approach was used to analyse the data, which was supported through NVivo qualitative data analysis software. Findings – The results reveal that face-to-face social networks facilitate knowledge sharing in diverse ways. These include the use of multiple communication styles, brainstorming and problem-solving, learning and teaching, training, consultations and employee rotation. Practical implications – The findings of this research are expected to help practitioners to comprehend the big picture and scope of the steps they take to facilitate knowledge sharing in organisations. Viewing knowledge sharing from a holistic perspective can help practitioners comprehend how face-to-face knowledge sharing fits with and complements other knowledge-sharing channels, such as electronic social media and document repositories. In addition, through face-to-face social networks, practitioners can leverage work groups to increase knowledge sharing, meaning that potential cost savings and improved work practices can be achieved. Originality/value – For researchers, three new models are developed which provide new insights into the nature of the relationship between face-to-face social networks and knowledge sharing. The first model relates to brainstorming and problem-solving, the second to knowledge levels and the direction of learning and teaching and the third to factors influencing social networks and knowledge sharing.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-03-29T10:25:00Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-07-2015-0251
  • Knowledge sharing and social capital in globally distributed execution
    • Pages: 327 - 343
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 2, Page 327-343, April 2016.
      Purpose – The purpose of this study is to assess whether social capital explains level and quality of knowledge sharing in globally distributed execution. More specifically, the study examined how knowledge sharing in combined European–Asian teams of a globally operating engineering and construction company was affected by these teams’ social capital. Design/methodology/approach – Social capital was approached via constructs covering its structural, relational and cognitive dimensions. Data for 325 employees were collected via an online questionnaire and analysed using multiple regression models. Findings – The analyses confirm that components of social capital offer powerful explanations of both the level and the quality of knowledge sharing. The study also found many differences in how social capital affects the level versus the quality of knowledge sharing and also in how it works in the European versus the Asian situations. No social capital factor appeared to significantly predict both level and quality knowledge sharing in the European and Asian situations alike. Originality/value – This study is novel in empirically establishing how knowledge sharing in globally distributed execution is affected by teams’ social capital as an integrative construct bringing together individual and group characteristics.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-03-29T10:23:20Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-07-2015-0268
  • Conceptualising social media support for tacit knowledge sharing:
           physicians’ perspectives and experiences
    • Pages: 344 - 363
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 2, Page 344-363, April 2016.
      Purpose – This paper aims to explore the potential contributions of social media in supporting tacit knowledge sharing, according to the physicians’ perspectives and experiences. Design/methodology/approach – Adopting a qualitative survey design, 24 physicians were interviewed. Purposive and snowball sampling were used to select the participants. Thematic analysis approach was used for data analysis. Findings – The study revealed five major themes and over 20 sub-themes as potential contributions of social media to tacit knowledge flow among physicians. The themes included socialising, practising, networking, storytelling and encountering. In addition, with the help of the literature and the supporting data, the study proposed a conceptual model that explains the potential contribution of social media to tacit knowledge sharing. Research limitations/implications – The study had both theoretical (the difficulty of distinguishing tacit and explicit knowledge in practice) and practical limitations (small sample size). The study findings have implications for the healthcare industry whose clinical teams are not always physically co-located but must exchange their critical experiential and tacit knowledge. Originality/value – The study has opened up a new discussion of this area by demonstrating and conceptualising how social media tools may facilitate tacit knowledge sharing.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-03-29T10:25:25Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-06-2015-0229
  • Beginning a journey of knowledge management in a secondary school
    • Pages: 364 - 385
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 2, Page 364-385, April 2016.
      Purpose – Despite the fact that schools should be places where learning occurs, most schools have overlooked the importance of knowledge. In contrast, commercial firms have recognized knowledge as a strategic intangible asset and a key resource of the enterprises. Therefore, enterprises have already harnessed knowledge to a great extent with wide practice of knowledge management (KM). The purpose of this paper is to show that KM could be applied to the education sector similar to the practice in the business world for leveraging intellectual assets. This paper examines how schools can kick off the process of KM implementation. This paper also reports what have been done and what should be done in KM implementation better in a school. This can give insights for schools which will try KM in near future. Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses a case study in a secondary school to explore how KM can be kicked off and sustained in a school setting. A KM system called knowledge base and a document management system called Digital Archive were developed to serve as the infrastructure for knowledge sharing. Lesson study and communities of practice (CoPs) were adopted to be the platforms for knowledge sharing among teachers in the school. A case study of the processes and lesson learned was done in this paper. Multiple sources of data, including observations, questionnaires and interviews, have been collected for evaluation. Findings – In this paper, KM implementation was found to be effective through dual approaches: information-based and people-/interaction-based approaches. A knowledge base and a Digital Archive as knowledge repositories and lesson study and CoPs as platforms for knowledge sharing have been successfully established to facilitate sharing information/knowledge and nurturing a sharing culture and trust. Challenges faced and the related coping strategies during the process of implementation were shared and reflected. It was also found that building sharing culture is the critical turning point of the process of KM implementation. Breaking through the barrier of sharing was found to be very essential to KM implementation. Research limitations/implications – This paper adopts case study methodology to report the process of KM implementation in a school. Although these results of the study conducted in one school may not be generalized to other school contexts, the lessons learned in the study will be a strong empirical evidence of research of KM implementation, especially in schools. Because of the limited number of prior studies and the importance of the pioneering work of launching KM implementation, this paper tries to address the research gap by using theory building from cases as a research strategy rather than theory testing research, especially in “how”and“why” in the steps of kicking off KM implementation in an unexplored research area. Practical implications – This paper shows a case of KM implementation in a school with thoughtful procedures of implementing information-based and people-/interaction-based approaches. The paper is a showcase that will shed light on the processes and lessons learned and also helps to provide a model for schools who are interested in applying KM in their schools. Social implications – Most people might think that KM can be applied only in commercial sector. This paper shows that KM can also be adopted in schools as well as other sectors. Originality/value – This paper represents one of the pioneering work of implementing KM in a school. It hopes to make contributions for KM implementation also in the public sector within which are non-profit-making organizations.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-03-29T10:23:38Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-04-2015-0155
  • Managing knowledge in the construction industry through computational
           generation of semi-fiction narratives
    • Pages: 386 - 414
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 20, Issue 2, Page 386-414, April 2016.
      Purpose – Narratives are useful to educate novices to learn from the past in a safe environment. For some high-risk industries, narratives for lessons learnt are costly and limited, as they are constructed from the occurrence of accidents. This paper aims to propose a new approach to facilitate narrative generation from existing narrative sources to support training and learning. Design/methodology/approach – A computational narrative semi-fiction generation (CNSG) approach is proposed, and a case study was conducted in a statutory body in the construction industry in Hong Kong. Apart from measuring the learning outcomes gained by participants through the new narratives, domain experts were invited to evaluate the performance of the CNSG approach. Findings – The performance of the CNSG approach is found to be effective in facilitating new narrative generation from existing narrative sources and to generate synthetic semi-fiction narratives to support and educate individuals to learn from past lessons. The new narratives generated by the CNSG approach help students learn and remember important things and learning points from the narratives. Domain experts agree that the validated narratives are useful for training and learning purposes. Originality/value – This study presents a new narrative generation process for a high-risk industry, e.g. the construction industry. The CNSG approach incorporates the technologies of natural language processing and artificial intelligence to computationally identify narrative gaps in existing narrative sources and proposes narrative fragments to generate new semi-fiction narratives. Encouraging results were gained through the case study.
      Citation: Journal of Knowledge Management
      PubDate: 2016-03-29T10:25:45Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JKM-07-2015-0253
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