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Journal Cover Journal of Knowledge Management
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1367-3270
     Published by Emerald Homepage  [308 journals]   [SJR: 0.844]   [H-I: 28]
  • Non-disruptive knowledge and business processing in knowledge life cycles
           – aligning value network analysis to process management
    • Authors: Christian Stary
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 18, Issue 4, Page 651-686, July 2014. Purpose – This paper aims to achieve fully intertwined knowledge and business processing in change processes. It proposes streamlining situated articulation work, value network analyses (VNA) and subject-oriented business process modelling (S-BPM) and execution to provide non-disruptive single and double learning processes driven by concerned stakeholders. When implementing knowledge life cycles, such as Firestone and McElroy’s knowledge life cycle, the agility of organizations is significantly constrained, in particular, when surviving knowledge claims should be implemented in the business processing environment in a seamless way. Design/methodology/approach – The contribution is based on a conceptual analysis of knowledge life cycle implementations, learning loop developments and an exploratory case study in health care to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The solution towards non-disruptive knowledge and business processing allows stakeholders to actively participate in single- and double-loop learning processes. Findings – The introduced approach supports problem and knowledge claim formulation, knowledge claim evaluation and non-disruptive knowledge integration into a business process environment. Based on stakeholder articulation, the steps to follow are: holomapping, exchange analysis, impact analysis, value creation analysis, subject-oriented modelling, business process validation and execution. Seamless support of stakeholders is enabled through the direct mapping of stakeholder and activity descriptions from value network representations to behaviour specifications (process models) on the individual and organizational layer. Research limitations/implications – Current knowledge life cycle developments and implementations can now be analyzed in a structured way. Elements of the proposed approach could be integrated in disruptive implementations to overcome current limitations of knowledge life cycles. However, further case studies need to be performed to identify hindrances or barriers of combining VNA and S-BPM, both on the technological and methodological layer. What works for expert service industries might need to be adapted for production industries, and tools or tool chains might need to be configured accordingly. Finally, the socio-economic impact of the approach needs to be explored. Practical implications – The presented case study from health care reveals the potential of such a methodological combination, as cycle times can be reduced, in particular, due to the execution of role-specific process models in the respective business processing environment. It can be considered as a fundamental shift for existing change management procedures, as they require rework of the entire functional process models when addressing business processing. Now, stakeholder- or role-specific behaviour can be handled isolated and in parallel, without affecting the entire organization in case of modifications. Originality/value – The proposed methodological integration has not been done before. It enables stakeholders to perform single- and double-loop change processes in a seamless way.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Aug 2014 07:19:11 GMT
  • How do R&D employees use their social networks to acquire user
    • Authors: Carl Wadell et al
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 18, Issue 5, September 2014. Purpose The aim of this article is to investigate how R&D employees use their social networks to acquire user information and how this information is used in the development of new products. Design/methodology/approach A single case study was conducted within a business unit at a multinational medical technology company. Data was collected through a mixed method. Findings The results show that many R&D employees lack social networks through which they can acquire information about the users’ needs. However, some R&D employees’ establish cost-efficient relationships to people with a direct experience of using the company’s products. These relationships are established over time and are often used in a rather informal way to acquire user information. Moreover, the results show how R&D employees are purposefully complementing these relationships with more occasional interactions with people that hold direct and indirect use experiences. Research limitations/implications As with most single case studies, it will be important to replicate this investigation in other contexts in order to clarify the generalizability of the findings. Practical implications The article shows how important it is that management provides R&D employees with opportunities to establish, nurture, and utilize relationships conducive to information about the users’ needs, The article provides some advice on how this can be accomplished. Originality/value This is one of the first articles that clearly explain how R&D employees use their social networks to acquire user information for the development of new products.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Aug 2014 17:00:30 GMT
  • Managerial practices and operative directions of knowledge management
           within inter-firm networks: a global view
    • Authors: Manlio Del Giudice et al
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 18, Issue 5, September 2014.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Aug 2014 08:24:29 GMT
  • [Dynamics of Ultra-organizational Co-opetition and Circuits of Knowledge:
           a knowledge-based view of value ecology]
    • Authors: ELIAS GEORGE CARAYANNIS et al
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 18, Issue 5, September 2014. Purpose This paper analyzes important theoretical work conducted in the research streams of co-opetition and value creation. While innovation is acknowledged as a desirable and empirically verified outcome of co-opetition between firms, academic research has not systematically examined value creation outcomes of intra-firm co-opetition. This study aims to explore the nature of co-opetitive relationships within the firm. Processes of knowledge creation, differentiation and evolution are presented in the paper. Design/methodology/approach The paper examines and compares co-opetitive dynamics in different contexts, by adopting a multi-level approach to help understand and analyze the complex phenomenon of intra-organizational co-opetition. Value creation in an ecology perspective is discussed to enhance the conceptualization of the Quintuple Helix. Findings This paper highlights the role of knowledge differentiation as a driver of value creation. In particular, intra-firm co-opetition dynamics are investigated in relationship with knowledge evolution. A theoretical model is proposed via the DUCCK framework (Dynamics of Ultra-Organizational Co-opetition and Circuits of Knowledge). Research limitations/implications This paper attempts to provide new perspectives on the growing academic field of co-opetition and knowledge creation. It complements previous research in intra-organizational settings and offers an alternative knowledge-based view of organizational value creation. Practical implications The paper contributes to develop managers’ practices in understanding potential benefits of intra-organizational co-opetition. The paper also brings additional insights for KM practitioners, by considering the impact of co-opetition on knowledge dynamics. Originality/value This paper explores, adds to the existing theoretical knowledge, and contributes to the under-researched topic of intra-organizational co-opetition. This is the first attempt to link internal co-opetition to firm’s KM practices.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Aug 2014 08:24:15 GMT
  • Conflict and learning in inter-organizational online communities:
           Negotiating knowledge claims
    • Authors: Julie Ferguson et al
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 18, Issue 5, September 2014. Purpose This article analyzes how learning occurs in inter-organizational online communities, despite highly diverse, even conflicting knowledge claims among participants. Design/methodology/approach We compared two inter-organizational communities in the domain of development aid through inductive, qualitative case study. Findings We found that diverse communities proved more likely to yield conflicting knowledge claims in terms of expertise, value consensus, and formal position. However, they were also better positioned for enabling mutual learning, than communities with a more uniform representation. Research limitations/implications We provide theoretical insights for knowledge management, by showing how the negotiation of knowledge claims facilitates mutual learning in inter-organizational online communities. Practical implications The findings are practically relevant for managers of knowledge-intensive organizations by showing how knowledge is shared in diverse, online communities. The research also shows that the recognized challenges which diverse communities can yield are likely to be outweighed by their benefits: enabling mutual learning, generating useful expertise and a stronger negotiating position. Originality/value We add a new dimension to knowledge management literature, showing how conflict and learning can be a mutually reinforcing process. Contrary to prior knowledge-based views, we found that a diverse community, with a higher concentration of conflicting knowledge claims, facilitated mutual learning more adeptly than a more uniform community. This is important for knowledge management theory and practice, because it shows how inter-organizational communities can benefit from heterogeneity, and how conflict can enable, and even strengthen mutual learning.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Aug 2014 08:24:14 GMT
  • Industrial Cluster Involvement, Organizational Learning, and
           Organizational Adaptation: An Exploratory Study in High Technology
           Industrial Districts
    • Authors: Hilary Cheng et al
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 18, Issue 5, September 2014. Purpose The primary purpose of this study is to examine the relationships among a firm’s industrial cluster involvement, organizational learning and its ability to successfully adapt to external environment. Design/methodology/approach Field survey research method was used and data were collected from 943 high technology companies in US, China, Taiwan and Sweden. Multiple regression analysis as well as mediation test were conducted to analyze the data. Findings The study finds that being positioned in an industrial cluster enhances a firm’s learning and further leads to a firm’s desired adaptive outcomes. Research limitations/implications Using self-reported data could be a potential limitation of this study. It would be preferable to have other forms of data for a study. Further, cross-cultural comparisons are needed to enhance our understandings in this multicultural setting. Practical implications The findings provide business executives as well as policy makers a new way of thinking in respect to how to develop a holistic learning practices as well as improving inter-firm trust in order to appropriately adapt to the fast changing environment. Originality/value The major contribution of this study is an initial attempt to provide a comprehensive approach in analyzing a firm’s industrial cluster involvement. Further, the study attempts to empirically examine learning and cluster involvement in relation to organizational adaptation.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Aug 2014 08:24:09 GMT
  • Knowledge creation and exploitation in Italian Universities: the role of
           internal policies for patent activity.
    • Authors: Marco Romano et al
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 18, Issue 5, September 2014. Purpose The contribution aims at identifying factors that might affect academic patent activities. It investigates the characteristics of universities acting on the number of academic patents, thus classifying elements of differentiation among universities able to determine the level of patent activity. Design/methodology/approach Three hypothesis are tested through a regression analysis, considering various academic variables. Findings Results demonstrate that the patent activity is mainly influenced by the presence of Universities’ internal policies that regulate such a field. The adoption of a regulation is a signal for academics of the university inclination and attempt to develop an environment conducive to patent activities, and to offer structured support to inventors in the different phases of the patenting process Research limitations/implications The study, since it focuses on a single country, Italy, may reflect some peculiarities of the national system. Future research may extend it to different geographical areas in which institutional and environmental factors are different, or, maintaining the geographical location, study the impact of institutional factors to the change over time in the rate of patenting universities. Originality/value Unlike the great number of studies which focus on institutional factors affecting university patent activity, the present study explore the academic elements able to valorise and exploit scientific knowledge, providing also a practical guidance for university governance.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Aug 2014 08:24:08 GMT
  • Creating Technological Knowledge in Vintage Communities of Practice
    • Authors: Francesco Schiavone et al
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 18, Issue 5, September 2014. Purpose This paper shows how members of a ‘vintage community of practice’ – the MAME community – recombine old technological knowledge with new technological knowledge. A vintage community of practice (CoP) is a group of aficionados of old technology who keep using it even after superior new technologies have emerged and technological change has taken place. This paper presents mechanisms through which developers and gamers in the MAME community and its subcommunities or hubs select and recombine old and new technology to update old arcade videogames in a format that is playable on current PCs. Design/methodology/approach An inductive single-case exploratory case study was conducted in the MAME community. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with core community members to uncover mechanisms through which old technology-related knowledge (T-RK) was combined with new T-RK in order to update old versions of arcade video games into software versions that can be played on current PCs. Informant discourses were analyzed using first-order and second-order coding methods. Findings Our data revealed three mechanisms through which community leaders positively impact new and old T-RK recombinations that led to new knowledge creation within the MAME vintage CoP. We named these mechanisms: leader mentorship, leader self-development propensity, and clustering in the community. Our data also revealed a two-phase knowledge creation process in an open source software community (OSSC) that supports the MAME community: knowledge selection and knowledge recombination. Research limitations/implications The study is limited by the size of the investigated community, so further research should be conducted in multiple vintage CoPs so as to generalize our results. Practical implications Our results offer practitioners insights into the internal knowledge creation mechanisms that occur in vintage CoPs. Our findings seek to motivate managers to start collaborating with vintage CoPs in order to develop products for the niche vintage product markets. Originality/value This research is one of the first in the field of vintage communities of practice. It affords understanding of social mechanisms by which old technologies are combined with new ones, in order to give rise to vintage products that suit the needs of niche vintage product markets.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Aug 2014 08:24:04 GMT
  • knowledge sharing and exchange of information within bank and firm
           networks: the role of the intangibles on the access to credit
    • Authors: maria rosaria della peruta et al
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 18, Issue 5, September 2014. Purpose The authors theoretically develop the idea that the intangible value of the collaboration between firms and the banking system can influence the probability of default on the part of firms and, therefore, their rating. The authors also propose that collaboration between banks and firms has a positive effect not only on the access to credit but also on the innovation activities and on the intervention of foreign capital in the ownership of Italian businesses. Design/methodology/approach As pointed out by the literature on smaller businesses finance, investments widely rely on credit availability. Tests using data on a sample investigation involving 5,587 firms, operating in 17 manufacturing sectors in Italy, support the majority of the proposed ideas. Findings The empirical investigation shows that only some aspects of the collaboration between enterprises and banks influence the probability of default, the investments in RandD and the internationalization of ownership of the enterprises. In particular the three stated variables are positively influenced both by the intensity of the credit relationship and by the level of information exchange with the credit system. Research limitations/implications Further development of this research, as more empirical data become available, should allow explaining why the level of information exchange with the credit system has the greatest influence on the dependent variables analyzed. Originality/value This paper aims to extend the current understanding on how the local banking system is developed and is able to increase access to credit after gathering all the information about firms asking for funds.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Aug 2014 08:23:48 GMT
  • What matters for knowledge sharing in collectivistic cultures'
           Empirical evidence from China
    • Authors: Zhenzhong Ma et al
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 18, Issue 5, September 2014. Purpose This study is to identify key factors that facilitate knowledge sharing in collectivistic cultures and further to help better understand knowledge management in the international context. Design/methodology/approach Using a survey method, this study collected data from over 200 managerial employees in knowledge management based project teams from China. Regression analysis was then conducted to analyze the impact of individual differences and environmental factors on the willingness to share knowledge among team members in order to identify key factors for successful knowledge retention in the constantly changing organizational environment in a collectivistic context. Findings The results show that incentives are very important in individual’s decision to share knowledge in project teams even in a collectivistic culture like China and both intrinsically and extrinsically motivated individuals tend to share more knowledge with their team members. Individuals with high altruism are also found more likely to share knowledge with others. Moreover, a trusting environment and explicit knowledge will facilitate knowledge sharing for better retention. Research limitations/implications More studies should be conducted in other collectivistic cultures in order to explore cultural barriers in knowledge management in the international context and comparative studies using samples from different cultural backgrounds are also encouraged to help extend the theories on knowledge management. Originality/value While it is well known that knowledge sharing is essential for organization to maintain competitive advantage, relatively few studies have examined knowledge sharing in collectivistic cultures, and even fewer have done so in China. This study adds values to the literature by identifying key factors for knowledge sharing in China and thus helps refine the knowledge management theories and provides insights for multinationals on knowledge management in the Chinese market.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Aug 2014 08:23:48 GMT
  • Interorganisational Partnerships And Knowledge Sharing: The Perspective Of
           Non-Profit Organisations (NPOs)
    • Authors: Dinesh Rathi et al
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 18, Issue 5, September 2014. Purpose This paper seeks first to identify key interorganisational partnership types among non-profit organisations (NPOs), and secondly to determine how knowledge sharing takes place within each type of partnership. Results explore the value of social media specifically in facilitating external relationships between NPOs, firms and the communities they serve. Design/methodology/approach Empirical qualitative analysis of exploratory interviews with 16 Canadian NPOs generates a non-exhaustive classification of partnership types emerging from these organisations, and their defining characteristics in the context of interorganisational knowledge sharing. Findings Findings: Overall eight categories of partnerships from the sampled NPOs emerged from the analysis of the data. These include: business partnerships, sector partnerships, community partnerships, government partnerships, expert partnerships, endorsement partnerships, charter partnerships and hybrid partnerships. Using examples from interviews, the sharing of knowledge within each of these partnerships are defined uniquely in terms of directionality (i.e., uni-directional, bi-directional, multi-directional knowledge sharing) and formality (i.e. informal, semi-formal or formal knowledge sharing).Specific practices within these relationships also arise from examples, in particular the use of social media to support informal and community-driven collaborations. Twitter, as a popular social networking tool, emerges as a preferred medium that supports interorganisational partnerships relevant to NPOs. Originality/value This research is valuable in identifying the knowledge management practices unique to non-profit organisations. By examining and discussing specific examples of partnerships encountered among NPOs, this paper contributes original findings about the implications of interorganisational knowledge sharing, as well as the impact of emerging social technologies on same.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Aug 2014 08:23:40 GMT
  • Dynamic Efficiency: Intellectual Capital in the Chinese Non-Life Insurance
    • Authors: Qian Long Kweh et al
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 18, Issue 5, September 2014. Purpose This study investigates the effect of intellectual capital on the operating efficiency of non-life insurance firms in China. Design/methodology/approach We employ a dynamic data envelopment analysis (DEA) model called dynamic slacks-based measure (DSBM) model to estimate the operating efficiency of 32 Chinese non-life insurance firms. Using a panel dataset for the period from 2006 to 2010, we run OLS regressions to find the relationship between intellectual capital and efficiency performance. Findings We find that the insurers have almost monotonically decreasing efficiency for the period from 2006 to 2010. Our regression results show that human capital, structural capital, and relational capital are significantly and positively related to operating efficiency. Research limitations/implications This study suggests that managers of the Chinese non-life insurers should devote attention to the investments in intellectual capital to stay sustainable. Originality/value This is the first paper to examine the impact of IC on operating efficiency in the Chinese non-life insurance industry. We differ from prior studies that we employ the DSBM model proposed by Tone and Tsutsui (2010) for evaluating the operating efficiency using a dynamic process.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Aug 2014 08:23:30 GMT
  • Knowledge management practices for innovation: A multinational
           corporation’s perspective
    • Authors: Daniel Jimenez-Jimenez et al
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 18, Issue 5, September 2014. Purpose This paper seeks to assess the importance of different knowledge management practices in order to promote organizational innovation in multinational companies. The links among internationalization, reverse knowledge transfer and social capital and organizational innovation are analyzed. Design/methodology/approach Structural equation modeling was used to check the research hypotheses with a sample of 104 Multinational companies Findings The results show that internalization has not a direct effect on organizational innovation but a indirect effect thought the transfer of knowledge from external subsidiaries to the headquarter. Furthermore, this knowledge and other that comes from internal and external social capital, is essential for the development of innovations. Research limitations/implications Self-reporting by the CEOs may be the most significant limitation since a single key informant provided the data; multiple informants would enhance the validity of the research findings. A second limitation is the cross-sectional design of the research that does not allow observation of the short- and long-term impact of the relationships among the variables. Practical implications Organizational innovation is not an easy task. However, those multinational companies, which foster knowledge management practices that generate new knowledge from external subsidiaries, internal or external social relationships, will facilitate the generation of innovations. In consequence, these companies should foster the generation of knowledge from different sources. Originality/value This paper studies focus on the multinational companies and its possibility to acquire knowledge from different sources (inside organization, external local environment and international context). Specially focus on the transfer of knowledge from subsidiaries to headquarters (reverse knowledge transfer) that it is insufficiently investigated by the current literature.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Aug 2014 08:23:18 GMT
  • Directions of external knowledge search: investigating their different
           impact on firm performance in high-technology industries
    • Authors: Jorge Cruz-González et al
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 18, Issue 5, September 2014. Purpose The aim of the paper is to identify the different directions of external knowledge search and to investigate their individual effect on performance at the firm level. Design/methodology/approach The empirical study is based on survey data gathered from two distinct informants of 248 large and medium-sized high-tech manufacturing Spanish firms. In dealing with concerns on simultaneity and reverse causality, perceived time-lags among dependent and independent variables were introduced. Quantitative methods based on questionnaire answers were used. Findings Findings reveal six distinct external search patterns and indicate that, while market sources such as customers and competitors are positively associated with performance, knowledge acquired from general information sources, other firms beyond the core business, and patents and databases, has no significant effect. Moreover, knowledge obtained from science and technology organizations and from suppliers displays an inversed U-shaped effect on firm performance. Research limitations/implications Conclusions can only be generalized to high-tech manufacturing firms from developed countries and, although well established methodological procedures were followed, the nature of the study remains cross-sectional. Yet, an important implication emerges from this work: more openness to external knowledge is not always better. It is necessary to carefully evaluate the potential gains and pains of each type of partner and source. Practical implications This research provides guidance to managers about how to shape their companies’ inter-organizational networks, i.e., the specific external agents on which they should focus, as well as the efforts they should devote to each of these key partners. Originality/value By considering distinct directions of external knowledge search instead of a single dimension, the paper contributes to shed some more light to the mixed results reported by the scarce empirical studies that have investigated the effect of openness towards external knowledge on performance at the firm level.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Aug 2014 08:23:08 GMT
  • Classification of supply chain knowledge: a morphological approach
    • Authors: S Sudhindra et al
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 18, Issue 4, August 2014. Purpose The purpose of the article is to create a knowledge classification model that can be used by knowledge management (KM) practitioners for establishing a knowledge management framework (KMF) in a supply chain (SC) network. Epistemological as well as ontological aspects of knowledge have been examined. SC networks provide a more generic setting for managing knowledge due to the additional issues concerning flow of knowledge across the boundaries of organizations. Design/methodology/approach Morphological analysis has been used to build the knowledge classification model. Morphological approach is particularly useful in exploratory research on concepts/entities having multiple dimensions. Knowledge itself has been shown in literature to have many characteristics and the methodology used has enabled a comprehensive classification scheme based on such characteristics. Findings A single, comprehensive classification model for knowledge that exists in SC networks has been proposed. Nine characteristics, each possessing two or more value options, have been finally included in the model. Research limitations/implications Knowledge characteristics have been mostly derived from past research with the exception of three which have been introduced without empirical evidence. Although the article is primarily about SC knowledge, the results are fairly generic. Practical implications The proposed model would be of use in developing KM policies, procedures and establishing knowledge management systems (KMS) in SC networks. The model will cater to both system and people aspects of a KMF. Originality/value The proposed knowledge classification model based on morphological analysis fills a gap in a vital area of research in KM as well as SC management. No similar classification model of knowledge with all its dimensions has been found in literature.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Aug 2014 20:55:15 GMT
  • Structural social capital and innovation. Is knowledge transfer the
           missing link'
    • Authors: Raffaele Filieri et al
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 18, Issue 4, August 2014. Purpose Individuals and organisations are becoming increasingly involved in collaboration networks to share knowledge and generate innovation. Social Capital (SC) Theory has been adopted in several areas of study to explain how individuals, groups, and organisations manage relationships to generate innovation. However, to date no systematic review has been carried out on the role that structural social capital plays for knowledge transfer and innovation at the interpersonal, inter-unit, and inter-firm levels and therefore the aim of this study is to address this gap. Design/methodology/approach This review covers studies of social capital in organisational behaviour, strategy, and management over a period of 20 years. Findings The literature review shows that knowledge types and knowledge transfer processes are the missing links in the relationship between structural social capital and innovation. Moreover, the paper demonstrates that seemingly opposite configurations of social capital are complementary to each other (structural holes vs. dense networks, strong vs. weak ties) and that contextual factors should be considered when discussing the effects of social capital on knowledge transfer and innovation. In addition, it is the balance of different configurations of social capital which enables an individual or a company to explore, access, assimilate, and combine different knowledge types, which will lead to improved innovation outcomes. Originality/value This review facilitates understanding of the role of social capital for knowledge transfer processes and the mediating role of knowledge transfer processes and knowledge types in the relationship between structural social capital and innovation.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Aug 2014 20:55:14 GMT
  • Knowledge management in teams: empirical integration and development of a
    • Authors: Ram Manohar Singh et al
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 18, Issue 4, August 2014. Purpose This study had two main objectives: (i) to develop a scale to measure knowledge management holistically at team level and (ii) to provide an empirical integration to a fractured body of literature on knowledge management. Design/methodology/approach Ten concepts commonly studied under the umbrella term “knowledge management” were reviewed. On the basis of literature review, a semi-structured interview was conducted with 24 information technology (IT) professionals. A scale was developed based on the literature review and the interviews. The scale was tested in two phases, on samples of 91 and 699 IT professionals. Team knowledge management was analysed on 512 respondents, belonging to 34 teams. Findings Findings suggest that the newly developed scale is a reliable and valid measure of knowledge management. Exploratory factor analysis of the twenty-seven items scale suggests that knowledge management should be measured along four dimensions: knowledge creation, sharing, retention and actionable knowledge support. Practical implications Organizations expect their teams to make the best use of knowledge resources. This scale would help organizations diagnose knowledge management practices in teams and develop interventions according to the needs of each team. The scale and four factor model will provide a framework and a tool to investigate relationship of knowledge management with other variables. Originality/value The attempts to integrate literature on knowledge management have largely been theoretical, and there has been little empirical work to provide an integrative framework for knowledge management concepts. This paper presents an empirical basis for the integration of knowledge management concepts. The paper also presents development of a scale which measures knowledge management practices in teams.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Aug 2014 20:53:40 GMT
  • Use of information and communication technology to support employee-driven
           innovation in organizations: a knowledge management perspective
    • Authors: Leif Jarle Gressgård et al
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 18, Issue 4, August 2014. Purpose Employee-driven innovation (EDI) involves systematic exploitation of knowledge resources in organizations. The role of information and communication technologies (ICT) for efficient knowledge management is important in this respect, and the purpose of this paper is to investigate how organizations focusing on EDI use ICT-based tools in their innovation work. Design/methodology/approach In-depth interviews with employees, managers, and union representatives from 20 organizations focusing on EDI were conducted. The sample included organizations from eight different industries, representing both private and public sectors. Findings The results show that ICT-based tools can support the processes of acquisition, dissemination, and exploitation of knowledge, which are important aspects of EDI. However, use of ICT-based tools has to be aligned with organizational structures and professional role conduct to be efficient. Practical implications The study contributes to practice by highlighting several factors that organizations should emphasize in order to succeed with application of external and internal knowledge in their innovation work. Originality/value The study applies a knowledge management perspective on the role of ICT-based tools to support employee-driven innovation in organizations. The findings contribute to an improved understanding of organizational conditions for succeeding with use of ICT-based tools in innovation work, and emphasize that perspectives on knowledge management, technology management, and human resource management have to be combined to understand how employee-driven innovation can be promoted by use of ICT in organizations.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Aug 2014 20:52:21 GMT
  • Best of both worlds: hybrid knowledge visualization in police crime
           fighting and military operations
    • Authors: Martin J. Eppler et al
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 18, Issue 4, August 2014. Purpose Making effective and timely use of all available, relevant knowledge is a major requirement for today’s police officers who strive to fight organized crime or resolve complex criminal acts under time pressure. As they share this knowledge integration challenge with many management contexts, the authors have examined the knowledge visualization practices of a leading regional police force (and of a military unit) in order to derive insights for corporate knowledge management. Design/methodology/approach To examine the knowledge visualization practices of a leading regional police force, the authors have conducted on-site observations, focus groups, and interviews, as well as site-, document-, tool- and software- analyses within the police headquarters. Findings As one main result of their empirical investigation, the authors find that the police force’s practice of hybrid (i.e., digital and physical) knowledge visualization offers a useful strategy for corporate knowledge management as well. They also show how organizations can apply this dual approach to making knowledge visible i.e., using sophisticated visualization software in combination with hands-on physical and permanently visible knowledge boards. Originality/value They discuss how these two modalities can be combined to improve knowledge management and how this hybrid practice can be understood theoretically through the lens of boundary object theory. With this regard, this article also extends the boundary object theory by identifying nine dynamic qualities of collaborative visualizations.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Jul 2014 19:34:49 GMT
  • Multi-level analysis of knowledge transfer: A knowledge recipient’s
    • Authors: Minhyung Kang et al
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 18, Issue 4, August 2014. Purpose This study adopts the recipient’s perspective to explore multi-level antecedents’ effects on knowledge transfer using social capital and social network theories. Design/methodology/approach Social network and general attribute survey responses from 331 employees were analyzed through hierarchical linear modeling to verify the study’s multi-level research model and hypotheses. Findings A recipient’s trust in colleagues positively influences knowledge transfer and company tenure has a negative impact. At a dyadic level, the perceived expertise of a source, in addition to strength of ties, exerts a positive effect on knowledge transfer. Additionally, a recipient’s network centrality moderates the effects of dyadic relationships on knowledge transfer. Research limitations/implications This study deepened the current understanding of the role of social capital in knowledge transfer from a recipient’s perspective. Three dimensions of a recipient’s social capital respectively showed significant, but different types of influence on knowledge transfer. Interaction effects between individual and dyadic level antecedents should be considered as well. Practical implications Both a strong tie at a dyadic level and a diverse network at an individual level should be nurtured to facilitate knowledge transfer. In addition, bi-directional knowledge transfer between seasoned employees and new employees should be promoted. Originality/value Most studies have focused on motivating a knowledge source, assuming that a recipient is always ready to adopt a source’s knowledge. To reduce this bias, the current study examined social capital’s role in knowledge transfer from a recipient’s perspective.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Jul 2014 19:34:25 GMT
  • The impact of change readiness on the knowledge sharing process for
           professional service firms.
    • Authors: Fariza Rusly et al
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 18, Issue 4, August 2014. Purpose The study assesses the influence of change readiness on the knowledge sharing process. This study proposes that readiness for knowledge sharing involves developing holistic understanding of the process through identification of individual and organisational readiness. Design/methodology/approach The study adopts a qualitative case study design involving three New Zealand professional service firms. Using grounded theory analysis, categories and concepts of change readiness that shape the knowledge sharing process were identified. The linkages among these elements offer an explanation of how readiness for knowledge sharing is formed. Findings Findings show that beliefs regarding knowledge sharing and individual expertise determine individual readiness to share knowledge. Readiness for the process is escalated by instilling collective commitment for knowledge sharing. A conducive organisational context, which comprises communication, participation and learning, represents a firm’s capability to implement the knowledge sharing process. Findings also highlight the moderating influences of firm archetype, inter-profession differences, and knowledge nature in the interplay between change readiness elements and the knowledge sharing process. Research limitations/implications Findings reveal elements that motivate readiness for knowledge sharing from a change perspective. The propositions and theoretical model offered could extend understanding of the phenomena and lead to further studies assessing readiness for other knowledge management processes. The study involves three professional service firms; hence, interpretation of the findings is limited within the scope and context of the study. Practical implications Findings contribute to the formulation of firms’ knowledge sharing strategies by offering holistic insights into the importance of motivating readiness for knowledge sharing through consideration of multidimensional change readiness: individual and collective beliefs, individuals’ characteristics and organisational context. Originality/value It is the first empirical study that seeks to develop theory how change readiness elements influences knowledge sharing in the organisation. To offer more contextualised findings, the study focuses on the phenomena of change readiness and knowledge sharing within the professional service industry.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Jul 2014 19:33:39 GMT
  • Outsourcing of knowledge processes: a literature review
    • Authors: Ingi Runar Edvardsson et al
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 18, Issue 4, August 2014. Purpose The aim of this paper is to review research on outsourcing of knowledge processes in order to establish the current body of knowledge and, on this basis, to identify gaps in our understanding. This action will justify further research activities as well as clarify where no future research is currently needed. Design/methodology/approach The study consists of a systematic review of 24 refereed empirical articles on outsourcing of knowledge processes. Findings Five themes were identified: outsourcing of knowledge processes; outsourcing and collaborative agreements between knowledge-based firms; factors affecting successful knowledge outsourcing, knowledge management and knowledge outsourcing, and other outsourcing issues. There seems to be a lack of understanding concerning knowledge process outsourcing. Research limitations/implications This study may not have enabled a complete coverage of all empirical articles in the field of knowledge process outsourcing. Yet, it seems reasonable to assume that the review process covered a large share of studies available. Originality/value To the best of the authors´ knowledge, no systematic literature review on this topic has previously been published in academic journals.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Jul 2014 19:33:36 GMT
  • Organizational structure and knowledge-practice diffusion in the MNC
    • Authors: Nathaniel Lupton et al
      Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 18, Issue 4, August 2014. Purpose This study examines the interaction of formal and informal cross-border knowledge sharing practices of four large multinational corporations (MNCs) in aerospace, software, IT services, and telecommunications industries. The goal was to determine the manner in which coordination and control mechanisms facilitated knowledge transfer. Design/methodology/approach Case studies comprised of secondary data and semi-structured interviews with corporate headquarters and subsidiary managers in large multinational companies conducted in the United States, Canada, Mexico, China, India and Eastern Europe. Findings The primary finding of this study is that knowledge transfer mechanisms arise as a result of both formal and informal structure of the MNC. Formal structures which create either mutual dependencies or occasions for knowledge exchange facilitate transfer. Formal structure which inhibits knowledge transfer can be overcome by knowledge brokers and evaluation metrics. Research limitations/implications These findings suggest that knowledge transfer is more informal than formal, but that MNC headquarters does play a role, intended or not, through shaping the interdependencies amongst geographically distributed units. Managers should be mindful of both the manner in which tasks and the organization are structured as these have an indirect impact on the development of knowledge channels. Originality/value This paper investigates the role of organizational structure and its effect, both intended and unintended, on the transfer of knowledge-based practices. While knowledge transfer has been heavily researched, this study examines the phenomenon at a finer-grained level of analysis.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Jul 2014 19:33:33 GMT
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