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Journal Cover Journal of Information Science
  [SJR: 1.008]   [H-I: 40]   [802 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0165-5515 - ISSN (Online) 1741-6485
   Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [835 journals]
  • Editorial: Recent advances on searching as learning: An introduction to
           the special issue
    • Authors: Hansen, P; Rieh, S. Y.
      Pages: 3 - 6
      PubDate: 2016-01-12T06:13:44-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0165551515614473
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 1 (2016)
  • Searching as learning: A systematization based on literature
    • Authors: Vakkari P.
      Pages: 7 - 18
      Abstract: The paper surveys empirical studies on the relations between information searching and learning, and presents some reflections about learning in a search process based on the findings. First, the meaning of the concepts ‘learning’ and ‘searching’ is briefly defined. Learning is conceptualized as changes in one’s knowledge structures. Then it is described more in detail how learning occurs in the search process. The point of departure is to focus on tasks that require the restructuring of knowledge structures and to analyse how gradual stabilization of those structures is related to accessing and interacting with information sources. After that, empirical studies on searching and learning are categorized by identifying independent and dependent variables in those studies. In conclusion, some general remarks on the topic are presented.
      PubDate: 2016-01-12T06:13:44-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0165551515615833
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 1 (2016)
  • Towards searching as a learning process: A review of current perspectives
           and future directions
    • Authors: Rieh, S. Y; Collins-Thompson, K, Hansen, P, Lee, H.-J.
      Pages: 19 - 34
      Abstract: We critically review literature on the association between searching and learning and contribute to the formulation of a research agenda for searching as learning. The paper begins by reviewing current literature that tends to characterize search systems as tools for learning. We then present a perspective on searching as learning that focuses on the learning that occurs during the search process, as well as search outputs and learning outcomes. The concept of ‘comprehensive search’ is proposed to describe iterative, reflective and integrative search sessions that facilitate critical and creative learning beyond receptive learning. We also discuss how search interaction data can provide a rich source of implicit and explicit features through which to assess search-related learning. In conclusion, we summarize opportunities and challenges for future research with respect to four agendas: developing a search system that supports sense-making and enhances learning; supporting effective user interaction for searching as learning; providing an inquiry-based literacy tool within a search system; and assessing learning from online searching behaviour.
      PubDate: 2016-01-12T06:13:44-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0165551515615841
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 1 (2016)
  • Relationships among tasks, collaborative inquiry processes, inquiry
           resolutions, and knowledge outcomes in adolescents during guided
           discovery-based game design in school
    • Authors: Reynolds R. B.
      Pages: 35 - 58
      Abstract: This research study investigates US middle school students’ collaborative information-seeking, sense-making and knowledge-building practices in a guided discovery-based programme of game design learning in which students and their teachers participate in a formal, in-school class daily, for credit and a grade for an entire year. The learning is supported by information affordances including a wiki learning management system (LMS) housing the curriculum, organized design activities, social media features, tutorials and informational assignments. Students engage in a Constructionist blended learning setting in their classroom, and work collaboratively in teams on game design. The study draws on qualitative video data from six team cases using a coding scheme of categories for the concepts of task, collaborative information seeking (CIS) Modality, and inquiry resolution outcomes. The study also considers linkages between processes and learning outcomes. Variation in engagement across the categories among students was charted, and certain patterns emerged. Findings indicate that some categories of task appear related to some categories of students’ chosen CIS Modality for solving problems. Further, CIS processes in support of tasks appear related to inquiry incident resolution (resolved/unresolved). For student completion of advanced programming tasks in particular, we observe more frequent uses of the wiki-based LMS resources, and greater levels of challenge in fulfilling tasks. Results support existing work on these theoretical constructs in the information sciences, and lead to questions on how naturalistic emergence of CIS practices result from greater task knowledge, and whether learned CIS practices (as tasks in and of themselves) can yield project task knowledge gains. Findings of the study and the ongoing questions the work invites hold instructional design implications, and show how social constructivist educational contexts involving collaborative and information seeking and knowledge building among youth game designers can contribute to scholarly understanding of these processes more broadly in related project-based work contexts occurring among both youth and adults.
      PubDate: 2016-01-12T06:13:44-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0165551515614537
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 1 (2016)
  • Process patterns and conceptual changes in knowledge representations
           during information seeking and sensemaking: A qualitative user study
    • Authors: Zhang, P; Soergel, D.
      Pages: 59 - 78
      Abstract: The construction of knowledge representations during sensemaking resembles meaningful learning in which conceptual changes to knowledge structure take place in various forms. Guided by a cognitive process model of sensemaking expanding prior models with ideas from learning and cognitive psychology, we conducted a qualitative user study of 15 participants with news writing and business analysis tasks to investigate the evolvement of their knowledge structures. We collected and analysed think-aloud protocols along with recorded screen activities, intermediate work products including notes and concept maps, and the final reports. Findings suggested that: (a) the sensemaking process can be viewed as composed of several iterations that fall into nine slightly varied common patterns, which make up the components of sensemaking; (b) conceptual changes fall into three broad classes – accretion, tuning and restructuring; and (c) changes in forms of representation seem to assist in sensemaking. These findings provide insights for system design that assists in sensemaking and intelligent use of information.
      PubDate: 2016-01-12T06:13:44-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0165551515615834
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 1 (2016)
  • The effects of textual environment on reading comprehension: Implications
           for searching as learning
    • Authors: Freund, L; Kopak, R, OBrien, H.
      Pages: 79 - 93
      Abstract: This paper reports on a study of digital reading that investigates the effects of different textual environments on information interaction and comprehension outcomes. While there is a large body of literature that compares print and digital reading, research that compares differently designed digital reading environments is limited. Such work can inform the design of information and search systems intended to support learning. This study investigated the effects of two design dimensions: Text Presentation (Plain Text vs In-Context) and Interactivity (availability of Reading Tools). Results show that the simplest textual environment (Plain Text presentation with no Interactivity) was associated with the highest comprehension outcomes, but that Interactivity mitigated the negative effects of texts presented In-Context. Both time spent reading and certain reading behaviours varied to some extent by condition and may be associated with comprehension; however, personal characteristics of the readers played little to no role in determining outcomes.
      PubDate: 2016-01-12T06:13:44-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0165551515614472
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 1 (2016)
  • Performance of computational cognitive models of web-navigation on real
    • Authors: Karanam, S; van Oostendorp, H, Tat Fu, W.
      Pages: 94 - 113
      Abstract: Computational cognitive models of web-navigation developed so far have largely been tested only on mock-up websites. In this paper, for the first time, we compare and contrast the performance of two models, CoLiDeS and CoLiDeS+, on two real websites from the domains of technology and health, under two conditions of task difficulty, simple and difficult. We found that CoLiDeS+ predicted more hyperlinks on the correct path and had a higher path completion ratio than CoLiDeS. CoLiDeS+ found the target page more often than CoLiDeS, took more steps to reach the target page and was more ‘disoriented’ than CoLiDeS for difficult tasks. Difficult tasks in general for both models had less task success and lower path completion ratio, predicted less hyperlinks on the correct path, visited pages with lower mean LSA and took more steps to complete compared with simple tasks. Overall, inclusion of context from previously visited pages and implementation of backtracking strategies (which are both part of CoLiDeS+) led to better modelling performance. Suggestions to further improve the performance of these computational cognitive models on real websites are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-01-12T06:13:44-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0165551515615842
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 1 (2016)
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