for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help
Followed Journals
Journal you Follow: 0
 
Sign Up to follow journals, search in your chosen journals and, optionally, receive Email Alerts when new issues of your Followed Journals are published.
Already have an account? Sign In to see the journals you follow.
Journal Cover Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
  [SJR: 0.649]   [H-I: 31]   [406 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1752-928X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Medico-legal investigation in an explicable case of congenital central
           hypoventilation syndrome due to a rare variant of the PHOX2B gene
    • Authors: Francesco Ventura; Rosario Barranco; Tiziana Bachetti; Paolo Nozza; Ezio Fulcheri; Antonella Palmieri; Isabella Ceccherini
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volume 58
      Author(s): Francesco Ventura, Rosario Barranco, Tiziana Bachetti, Paolo Nozza, Ezio Fulcheri, Antonella Palmieri, Isabella Ceccherini
      The heterozygous PHOX2B gene mutation is related to congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS). It is characterized by defective autonomous nervous system development leading to inadequate breathing response to hypoxia and hypercapnia, leading to hypoventilation especially during non-REM sleep, but also during waking in the more severe cases. Herein we report a case of sudden death in a 28-day-old child. The mother reported the infant was found lying on her own bed in the prone position. The infant was wearing a romper and lying in her crib without any blanket or other objects. At autopsy no significant pathological findings were detected. Histologically, sparse aspirated milk residues were present in some lung fields. Toxicological and microbiological examinations were within the norm. The initial postmortem investigation ruled out any readily identifiable cause of death. However, genetic analysis revealed a rare heterozygous 21bp in-frame deletion of the polyalanine coding sequences of the PHOX2B gene. In-frame contractions of the poly-Ala tract of the PHOX2B gene have already been reported in patients with symptoms suggestive of sporadic hypoventilation, apparent life-threatening events or neonatal respiratory distress.

      PubDate: 2018-05-14T17:52:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.04.009
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2018)
       
  • Estimation of stature from sternum – Exploring the quadratic models
    • Authors: Ashish Saraf; Tanuj Kanchan; Kewal Krishan; Navneet Ateriya; Puneet Setia
      Pages: 9 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Ashish Saraf, Tanuj Kanchan, Kewal Krishan, Navneet Ateriya, Puneet Setia
      Identification of the dead is significant in examination of unknown, decomposed and mutilated human remains. Establishing the biological profile is the central issue in such a scenario, and stature estimation remains one of the important criteria in this regard. The present study was undertaken to estimate stature from different parts of the sternum. A sample of 100 sterna was obtained from individuals during the medicolegal autopsies. Length of the deceased and various measurements of the sternum were measured. Student's t-test was performed to find the sex differences in stature and sternal measurements included in the study. Correlation between stature and sternal measurements were analysed using Karl Pearson's correlation, and linear and quadratic regression models were derived. All the measurements were found to be significantly larger in males than females. Stature correlated best with the combined length of sternum, among males (R = 0.894), females (R = 0.859), and for the total sample (R = 0.891). The study showed that the models derived for stature estimation from combined length of sternum are likely to give the most accurate estimates of stature in forensic case work when compared to manubrium and mesosternum. Accuracy of stature estimation further increased with quadratic models derived for the mesosternum among males and combined length of sternum among males and females when compared to linear regression models. Future studies in different geographical locations and a larger sample size are proposed to confirm the study observations.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T06:19:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2018)
       
  • Xenon detection in human blood: Analytical validation by accuracy profile
           and identification of critical storage parameters
    • Authors: Cécile Frampas; Julia Ney; Mark Coburn; Marc Augsburger; Vincent Varlet
      Pages: 14 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Cécile Frampas, Julia Ney, Mark Coburn, Marc Augsburger, Vincent Varlet
      Xenon is a rare, mostly inert, noble gas that has applications in a wide range of fields, including medicine. Xenon acts on the human body as a useful organ-protective and anesthetic agent and has also been previously studied for potential applications in fields such as optics, aerospace and medical imaging. Recently, it was discovered that xenon can boost erythropoietin production, and it has been used as a performance-enhancing agent in international sports competitions such as the Sochi Olympic Games. Therefore, screening methods to detect the misuse of xenon by analysis of biological samples and to monitor anesthesia kinetics and efficiency are being investigated. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an analytical method to detect xenon in blood samples using gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Preliminary studies were conducted to determine the best parameters for chromatography and mass spectrometry for xenon. The analysis was performed using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using the transitions m/z 129 → 129, 131 → 131 for xenon and 84 → 84, 86 → 86 for krypton, which was chosen as the internal standard. The LOD of GC-MS/MS was found to be 52 pmol on-column. Calibration lines and controls were made to obtain an accuracy profile at a range of 2.08–104 nmol with a β-expectation tolerance interval set at 80% and the acceptability limit set at ±30%. From the accuracy profile, the LOQ of 15 nmol on-column for the range of 2.08–104 nmol was obtained. The method was validated according to the guidelines of the French Society of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Techniques. The detection method was finally validated using blood from test persons subjected to a 15% or 30% xenon mixture with pure oxygen and air for 45 min. Even though the probes were already used for other projects, it was still possible to detect xenon.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T06:19:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2018)
       
  • Both-sided native valve infective endocarditis in a drug addict with
           incidental pneumoconiosis
    • Authors: Shashank Tyagi; Swati Patki; Pradeep Vaideeswar; Vikas Meshram
      Pages: 41 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volume 58
      Author(s): Shashank Tyagi, Swati Patki, Pradeep Vaideeswar, Vikas Meshram
      Involvement of both right and left heart chambers with infective endocarditis is extremely rare. In this case report, we aimed to present a rare case of Infective endocarditis (IE) in an intravenous & inhalational drug misuse involving both cardiac chambers with incidental pneumoconiosis.

      PubDate: 2018-05-14T17:52:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2018)
       
  • External foam and the post-mortem period: Only the positive finding counts
    • Authors: Guido Reijnen; Marcel Buster; Petra Vos; Udo Reijnders
      First page: 44
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volume 58
      Author(s): Guido Reijnen, Marcel Buster, Petra Vos, Udo Reijnders


      PubDate: 2018-05-14T17:52:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.04.010
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2018)
       
  • Age threshold for proper definition of premature coronary artery disease
           in males
    • Authors: Hasan A. Abderrahman; Imad M. Al-Abdallat; Ahmed K. Idhair
      Pages: 45 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volume 58
      Author(s): Hasan A. Abderrahman, Imad M. Al-Abdallat, Ahmed K. Idhair
      Background There is no universally accepted definition for the cut point age before which atherosclerosis is considered “premature.” This is a retrospective study aimed to utilize the medico legal autopsy information for finding a proper definition of the age threshold of premature atherosclerosis in males. Objectives This work aimed to utilize autopsy reports data that were issued at Jordan University Hospital to evaluate age-related differences in the distribution of coronary atherosclerotic and myocardial lesions and the determination of the age threshold at which such differences became apparent in male deaths. Such a threshold might provide a proper definition for premature atherosclerosis and premature sudden atherosclerotic cardiac death. At the same time, the meaning of a reference age for mature atherosclerotic death incidents could be elucidated. Methods A total of 1139 male autopsy reports with sudden coronary atherosclerotic death were reviewed. Results There is an overall decreasing trend in the prevalence of coronary thrombosis with age, where the prevalence of coronary thrombosis was more common in younger age groups and constitutes 59.9% of cases in the age groups less than 45 years in comparison to 42.7% of cases in the ages more than 65 years. The same trend was noticed for the prevalence of cases without evident myocardial fibrosis. On the other hand, the trend was increasing for stenosis without apparent thrombosis and for myocardial fibrosis. In spite of that, the detailed pattern of the prevalence of these pathologies with age did not show a steady, and a continuous change through the whole spanned age groups. Instead, two distinct phases were observed, the first phase represents the cases less than 49 years of age and the second phase represents the cases more than the age of 54 and the age group between 50/54 is what we called the “turn-interval.” Conclusion sThe “turn-interval” was considered as the scientific basis to define the age threshold that differentiates the premature atherosclerotic coronary diseases. Accordingly, it was proposed that male premature coronary artery diseases constituted the cases suffering from the heart attack, or died as a result of cardiac attacks below the age of 49, and the mature disease that affects people who is older than 54 years old.

      PubDate: 2018-05-14T17:52:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.04.011
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2018)
       
  • Development of forensic medicine in post reform Indonesia
    • Authors: Yoni Fuadah Syukriani; Nita Novita; Deni K. Sunjaya
      Pages: 56 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volume 58
      Author(s): Yoni Fuadah Syukriani, Nita Novita, Deni K. Sunjaya
      Forensic medicine practice in Indonesia was introduced through the Dutch colonial criminal justice system in the early twentieth century. After more than 70 years of national independence, the development of forensic medicine still faces fundamental challenges, including confusion in the distribution of responsibility with law enforcement agencies, difficulties in managing conflicts of interest, and impediments in scientific practice and professional development. Despite of the golden opportunity from the Indonesian Reform movement in the late 1990s, the impact on forensic medicine development has been less than expected. It is thus important to identify the scope of the problems plaguing the development of forensic medicine, as well as its causes. We conducted a qualitative study to explain the problems and propose solutions. The results show that the standards of practice have developed more slowly than those in many other branches of medicine, despite its increasing popularity from its role in counterterrorism and disaster victim identification. A strong thriving spirit exists in forensic science, although growth in forensic research activities should be facilitated more. The 2009 Health Law has included forensic medicine practice in the health system to cover the role of forensic medicine for health and medical education purposes. It also potentially provides a way to support the justice system without exposing forensic practitioners to possible conflicts of interest, for instance, by utilizing a tiered referral system. To this aim, an alternative is proposed: to place forensic medicine practice within the context of the health system.

      PubDate: 2018-05-14T17:52:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2018)
       
  • Development and validation of an HPLC-MS/MS method for the detection of
           ketamine in Calliphora vomitoria (L.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae)
    • Authors: Paola A. Magni; Marco Pazzi; Jessica Droghi; Marco Vincenti; Ian R. Dadour
      Pages: 64 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volume 58
      Author(s): Paola A. Magni, Marco Pazzi, Jessica Droghi, Marco Vincenti, Ian R. Dadour
      Entomotoxicology is a branch of forensic entomology that studies the detection of drugs or other toxic substances from insects developing on the decomposing tissues of a human corpse or animal carcass. Entomotoxicology also investigates the effects of these substances on insect development, survival and morphology to provide an estimation of the minimum time since death. Ketamine is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia. In recent years ketamine has also been used as a recreational drug, and occasionally as a sedating drug to facilitate sexual assault. In both activities, it has resulted in several deaths. Furthermore, ketamine has been also implicated in suspicious deaths of animals. The present research describes for the first time the development and validation of an analytical method suited to detect ketamine in larvae, pupae, empty puparia, and adults of Calliphora vomitoria L. (Diptera: Calliphoridae), using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). This research also considers the effects of ketamine on the survival, developmental rate and morphology (length and width of larvae and pupae) of C. vomitoria. The larvae were reared on liver substrates homogeneously spiked with ketamine concentrations consistent with those found in humans after recreational use (300 ng/mg) or allegedly indicated as capable of causing death in either humans or animals (600 ng/mg). The results demonstrated that (a) HPLC-MS/MS method is applicable to ketamine detection in C. vomitoria immatures, not adults; (b) the presence of ketamine at either concentration in the food substrate significantly delays the developmental time to pupal and adult instar; (d) the survival of C. vomitoria is negatively affected by the presence of ketamine in the substrate; (e) the length and width of larvae and pupae exposed to either ketamine concentration were significantly larger than the control samples.

      PubDate: 2018-05-14T17:52:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.04.013
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2018)
       
  • Commentary: Disclosure in the criminal justice system
    • Authors: Carole McCartney
      Pages: 72 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volume 58
      Author(s): Carole McCartney


      PubDate: 2018-05-14T17:52:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.04.015
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2018)
       
  • Difficulties in interpretation when assessing prolonged and subacute
           exposure to the toxic effects of chlorine
    • Authors: Marek Wiergowski; Ireneusz Sołtyszewski; Jacek Sein Anand; Michał Kaliszan; Jolanta Anita Wilmanowska; Zbigniew Jankowski; Marcin Łukasik
      Pages: 82 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Marek Wiergowski, Ireneusz Sołtyszewski, Jacek Sein Anand, Michał Kaliszan, Jolanta Anita Wilmanowska, Zbigniew Jankowski, Marcin Łukasik
      The purpose of this study was a toxicological interpretation of exposure to chlorine with unusual course. Medical, clinical and court records, as well as reviews of the literature, served as the basis for this interpretation. The first case of poisoning concerns a 52-year-old man who for a short time (probably several hours), during the industrial cleaning of facilities with sodium hypochlorite, was exposed to chlorine in a presumed high concentration. The man was obese and suffered from hypertension and moderate atherosclerosis, and therefore could be more susceptible to the toxic effects of chlorine. After exposure no pulmonary edema or symptoms typical for acute respiratory distress syndrome were present. The second case concerns the chronic poisoning of a 56-year-old man who worked for eight years, 8 h a day, 5 days a week, in a room which was next to a chlorination room. In this chamber technical sodium hypochlorite was stored and dosed. In both cases, determining a cause and effect relationship between exposure to toxic and allergic agents in the form of active chlorine, and the onset of symptoms may be difficult. The findings described above in the first and second case are particularly important in cases of compensation claims and may have a completely different etiology than previously described in medical literature.

      PubDate: 2018-05-14T17:52:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2018)
       
  • Determining gender by taking measurements from magnetic resonance images
           of the patella
    • Authors: Hacer Yasar Teke; Özge Ünlütürk; Elif Günaydin; Semra Duran; Sait Özsoy
      Pages: 87 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Hacer Yasar, Özge Ünlütürk, Elif Günaydin, Semra Duran, Sait Özsoy
      Background A key step in making a positive identification in forensic medicine is the establishment of a biological profile, which involves determining factors such as gender, age, ancestry and stature. The goal of this study was to determine if gender could be established by taking various measurements of the patella taken from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images and analyzing the variations by gender. Methods The sample group consisted of 220 patients (110 male and 110 female) whose patella were measured using MRI images of their left knee. Reasons for exclusion were any previous surgery, patella bipartite variation, any fracture in the patella due to trauma or findings of mass or infection. Three measurements – transverse length (TP), craniocaudal length (CC) and anteroposterior length (APP) – were taken off T2-weighted axial and sagittal MRI scans. The program SPSS (Version 21.0) was used to make a descriptive analysis, independent t-test and discriminative analysis. Results It was found possible to determine gender with an accuracy rate of 91% for females and 87% for males. Since measurements were made individually the accuracy for gender estimation is lower than that seen in other methods. Conclusion The findings are important in that they show that it is possible to determine gender at a high degree of accuracy using just a few measurements taken from the patella.

      PubDate: 2018-05-14T17:52:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2018)
       
  • Documentation and analysis of traumatic injuries in clinical forensic
           medicine by involving structured light three-dimensional surface scanning
           versus photography
    • Authors: Awatif Shamata; Tim Thompson
      Pages: 93 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Awatif Shamata, Tim Thompson
      Non-contact three-dimensional (3D) surface scanning has been applied in forensic medicine and has been shown to mitigate shortcoming of traditional documentation methods. The aim of this paper is to assess the efficiency of structured light 3D surface scanning in recording traumatic injuries of live cases in clinical forensic medicine. The work was conducted in Medico-Legal Centre in Benghazi, Libya. A structured light 3D surface scanner and ordinary digital camera with close-up lens were used to record the injuries and to have 3D and two-dimensional (2D) documents of the same traumas. Two different types of comparison were performed. Firstly, the 3D wound documents were compared to 2D documents based on subjective visual assessment. Additionally, 3D wound measurements were compared to conventional measurements and this was done to determine whether there was a statistical significant difference between them. For this, Friedman test was used. The study established that the 3D wound documents had extra features over the 2D documents. Moreover; the 3D scanning method was able to overcome the main deficiencies of the digital photography. No statistically significant difference was found between the 3D and conventional wound measurements. The Spearman's correlation established strong, positive correlation between the 3D and conventional measurement methods. Although, the 3D surface scanning of the injuries of the live subjects faced some difficulties, the 3D results were appreciated, the validity of 3D measurements based on the structured light 3D scanning was established. Further work will be achieved in forensic pathology to scan open injuries with depth information.

      PubDate: 2018-05-14T17:52:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2018)
       
  • Bare footprint metric analysis methods for comparison and identification
           in forensic examinations: A review of literature
    • Authors: Richa Mukhra; Kewal Krishan; Tanuj Kanchan
      Pages: 101 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Richa Mukhra, Kewal Krishan, Tanuj Kanchan
      Footprint is one of the most common types of physical evidence recovered at a crime scene. The forensic footprint evidence plays an important role in establishing the identity of a person; therefore, its examination is of prime importance. A link may be established by observing and comparing the morphological features of footprints with the perpetrator. These barefoot prints may be present as a two-dimensional print or a three-dimensional imprint depending on the substrate upon which they have been impressed upon and accordingly different methods and techniques are implemented in order to identify the questioned prints. After the execution of appropriate procedure, these prints are then compared with the exemplar prints, i.e., prints of the suspects to narrow down the process of identification. The analysis of bare footprints has been used to offer a wide range of knowledge about different print patterns. Thus, the present work extends an overview of the different methods and indices that are being used to evaluate footprints for comparison and identification purposes. The evaluation and interpretation of footprints is not only of prime importance in forensic examination but also help in clinical examinations and elucidation of various podiatric disorders. The paper also focuses on the occurrence of footprint evidence, forensic podiatric training and education, reliability and accuracy of the footprint analysis methods and their intra-rater and inter-rater discrepancy.

      PubDate: 2018-05-14T17:52:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.05.006
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2018)
       
  • The application of frontal sinus index and frontal sinus area in sex
           estimation based on lateral cephalograms among Han nationality adults in
           Xinjiang
    • Authors: Huifang Luo; Jierui Wang; Shuang Zhang; Congbo Mi
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volume 56
      Author(s): Huifang Luo, Jierui Wang, Shuang Zhang, Congbo Mi
      The frontal sinus, due to its unique anatomical features, has become an important element in research for individual identification. Previous studies have demonstrated the use of frontal sinus as an indicator for sex discrimination; however, the sex discrimination rate using frontal sinus was lower compared to that using the traditional morphological methods. In order to improve the sex discrimination percentage, we developed a new method involving the measurement of the frontal sinus index and frontal sinus area from lateral cephalogram radiographs. In this study, 475 digital lateral cephalograms of adult Han citizens from Xinjiang were included. The maximum height, depth, and area of the frontal sinus were calculated using the NemoCeph NX software. The frontal sinus index (ratio of the maximum height to the depth of frontal sinus) was also computed. Statistical analysis results showed significant differences in the frontal sinus index and area between males and females. Discriminant function equation derived from this study differentiated between sexes with 76.6% accuracy. The results demonstrated that the use of frontal sinus index and area for sex discrimination was more accurate than using the frontal sinus index alone.

      PubDate: 2018-05-14T17:52:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2017.12.014
      Issue No: Vol. 56 (2018)
       
  • Unusual head injury by a forklift vehicle
    • Authors: F. Zack; V. Blaas; A. Büttner
      Pages: 9 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volume 56
      Author(s): F. Zack, V. Blaas, A. Büttner
      A case of an unusual head injury by a forklift vehicle is presented.

      PubDate: 2018-03-21T05:45:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.02.024
      Issue No: Vol. 56 (2018)
       
  • Paraphilic infantilism, diaperism and pedophilia: A review
    • Authors: Sunil M. Doshi; Kalpesh Zanzrukiya; Lavlesh Kumar
      Pages: 12 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volume 56
      Author(s): Sunil M. Doshi, Kalpesh Zanzrukiya, Lavlesh Kumar
      Paraphilic disorders range from nearly normal behaviour to a behaviour which may be considered as destructive or menacing to the society at large. In accordance with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-V, the terms Paraphilia and Paraphilic disorders, denote different interpretations. Multiple paraphilias connected to childhood either directly or indirectly has been documented in scientific literature. Paraphilic Infantilism, Diaperism and Pedophilia constitute major portion among them. Paraphilic infantilism denotes paraphilic desire of being a baby. Diaperism deals with fetishistic behaviour in relation to diapers and pedophilia stands for sexual attraction towards children. Behaviourally these three paraphilias do share some characteristics and show overlapping of certain features, but psychologically they are diverse. In a number of literature on digital media, the terms have been used interchangeably or are described in a manner that creates confusion. However, when described individually they are precisely written, hence it necessitates to be elaborated collectively to surpass the current trends of mixing them. The review focuses on behavioral, developmental, psychological and legal aspects of these paraphilias.

      PubDate: 2018-03-21T05:45:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.02.026
      Issue No: Vol. 56 (2018)
       
  • Annual variation in decomposition and insect succession at a periurban
           area of central Iberian Peninsula
    • Authors: Luisa M. Díaz-Aranda; Daniel Martín-Vega; Aída Gómez-Gómez; Blanca Cifrián; Arturo Baz
      Pages: 21 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volume 56
      Author(s): Luisa M. Díaz-Aranda, Daniel Martín-Vega, Aída Gómez-Gómez, Blanca Cifrián, Arturo Baz
      The variation in decomposition and insect succession among the four seasons of one year was studied for the first time in a periurban area of central Spain. During the winter trial, the carcasses showed corification, a cadaveric preservation phenomenon which apparently leaded to a significant delay in decomposition processes. The composition of the insect fauna breeding on carcasses changed significantly between trials. Active decay was mainly driven by Calliphoridae (Diptera) larvae in every season except in winter trial, when larvae of Thanatophilus species (Coleoptera: Silphidae) were the main consumers of soft tissues. Advanced decay was characterized by the occurrence of Dermestidae, Silphidae, Cleridae, Nitidulidae (Coleoptera) and Piophilidae (Diptera) larvae. Differences in the species composition in comparison with other regions of the Iberian Peninsula were also observed. The current paper provides baseline and preliminary information on the insect succession on carrion in central Spain, as well as a starting point for further research on forensic entomology in this region.

      PubDate: 2018-03-21T05:45:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 56 (2018)
       
  • What do clinicians understand about deaths reportable to the coroner –
           Use of clinical scenarios to enhance learning
    • Authors: Amanda Charles; Wendy Cross; Debra Griffiths
      Pages: 37 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volume 56
      Author(s): Amanda Charles, Wendy Cross, Debra Griffiths


      PubDate: 2018-03-21T05:45:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 56 (2018)
       
  • Comparison of autopsy findings and injury severity scores in deaths due to
           traumatic asphyxia (perthes syndrome)
    • Authors: M.N. Arslan; Ç. Kertmen; İ. Esen Melez; D.O. Melez
      Pages: 42 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volume 56
      Author(s): M.N. Arslan, Ç. Kertmen, İ. Esen Melez, D.O. Melez
      Traumatic asphyxia is a rare clinical syndrome usually caused by sudden and severe thoracic and/or thoracoabdominal compression. It presents with craniofacial cyanosis, petechiae, and subconjunctival haemorrhages. The present study employed a postmortem retrospective methodology to analyse autopsy findings and accompanying injuries in cases of death due to traumatic asphyxia. Four years of case files from a morgue department at a forensic medicine institute were searched and 53 cases of lethal traumatic asphyxia were found. These cases were then classified into groups and compared using the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and New Injury Severity Score (NISS) indices to measure trauma. Results The individuals had died due to occupational (n = 28; 52.8%), farm (n = 10; 18.9%), traffic (n = 9; 17.0%) or household (n = 6; 11.3%) accidents. At the external examination, conjunctival petechiae (60.4%) and petechiae on the face/neck (52.8%); at the autopsy, subpleural petechiae (58.5%) and petrous ridge hemorrgahe (without skull base fracture) (56.6%) were the most common findings. A finding of petrous ridge hemorrgahe was very common in the cases without any accompanying injuries (Group A in which mean Injury Severity Score was 0.83 ± 0.98). Traumatic asphyxia is usually suspected from the given circumstances before an autosopy is performed. In cases without hospitalisation, any of the following signs may lead the physician to diagnose traumatic asphyxia as the cause of death: petechiae on the upper parts of the body and conjunctiva, petechiae on serous membranes (including subpleural regions), signs of petrous ridge haemorrhage without skull base fracture.

      PubDate: 2018-03-21T05:45:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 56 (2018)
       
  • Relationship between the tensile strengths and diameters of human
           umbilical cords
    • Authors: D.M.G. Fernando; S.M.K. Gamage; S. Ranmohottige; I. Weerakkody; H. Abeyruwan; H. Parakrama
      Pages: 48 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volume 56
      Author(s): D.M.G. Fernando, S.M.K. Gamage, S. Ranmohottige, I. Weerakkody, H. Abeyruwan, H. Parakrama
      Mothers of alleged infanticides might claim that umbilical cord broke during precipitate delivery causing injuries detected on baby at autopsy. There is paucity of evidence regarding this possibility. The objective of the study was to determine relationship between tensile strength and diameter or weight per unit length of cord. Diameters and weights per unit length of fresh umbilical cords were determined. Tensile strengths were measured by Hounsfield Testing Machine. Relationship between tensile strength versus cord diameter and weight per unit length were analyzed. Of 122 cords, average tensile strength, diameter and weight per centimeter were 50.4 N, 7.73 mm and 6.87 g respectively. The tensile strengths were directly proportional to diameter. There was no association between tensile strength and weight per centimeter. Measurement of the diameter of cord is important during autopsy to predict tensile strength and thereby to presume whether cord could have broken by the weight of the baby.

      PubDate: 2018-03-21T05:45:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 56 (2018)
       
  • Usefulness of liver function tests in postmortem samples
    • Authors: Léonard Fumeaux; Maria Pia Scarpelli; Camilla Tettamanti; Cristian Palmiere
      Pages: 51 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volume 56
      Author(s): Léonard Fumeaux, Maria Pia Scarpelli, Camilla Tettamanti, Cristian Palmiere
      Liver function tests have been investigated in the forensic setting in several biological fluids collected at autopsy. Nevertheless, the results of these investigations have provided diverging information on postmortem stability of liver function markers and postmortem reliability of liver function assessment. The first aim of this study was to determine gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, total proteins, and albumin in antemortem and postmortem serum samples in a series of cases that underwent forensic investigations and had both samples available. The second aim was to measure total bilirubin and gamma-glutamyltransferase in cerebrospinal fluid. Preliminary results indicated that femoral (and cardiac) blood postmortem serum concentrations of bilirubin, total proteins, and albumin, as well as femoral blood postmortem serum concentrations of gamma-glutamyltransferase, can be considered to reliably reflect antemortem serum concentrations, thus suggesting that postmortem values could be used as surrogates for antemortem levels. Measurable bilirubin levels were demonstrable in cerebrospinal fluid samples in both preservative-free and sodium fluoride tubes, though with levels varying widely and unpredictably, irrespective of liver disease severity.

      PubDate: 2018-03-21T05:45:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 56 (2018)
       
  • Lethal asphyxiation due to sadomasochistic sex training — How some sex
           partners avoid criminal responsibility even though their actions lead to
           someone's death
    • Authors: Damian Jacob Sendler
      Pages: 59 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volume 56
      Author(s): Damian Jacob Sendler
      Introduction Erotic asphyxiation is a sexual phenomenon in which one partner reduces the other person's brain oxygen level through strangulation. This study analyzes deaths caused by sexually-motivated strangulation to cases of homicidal choking — summarizing criminal penalties for defendants, depending on the presence of drugs, or alcohol intoxication. Methods The mode of analysis involves three sources of data. First, a retrospective chart review of our clinics' two recent cases. Second, a meta-analysis of these materials in relationship to forensic reports obtained from prosecutor's office. Third, we examine the prevalence of death due to strangulation in erotic and non-erotic cases using central court database. Lastly, we provide the summary of interviews involving the country's only forensic unit, which investigates criminal cases involving voluntary and involuntary strangulation. Results In total, we analyzed 15 cases of sexual asphyxiation — 2 of our own; 5 reported in prosecutor's archives; 8 control cases ruled as a non-sexual homicide. The two of our clinical cases describe two victims of voluntary erotic asphyxiation, involving complex sexual environment in which a sexual partner accidentally strangulated the other one during sex. The first case describes a 30 years-old female, who required all of her past sexual partners to choke her with hands in order to reach orgasm. The second case is that of a 41 years-old homosexual male, who was still a novice to kinky play and succumbed to death as a result of being tied with a set of ropes around his neck and body. By combining findings from the analysis of our clinic's cases with 5 files obtained from prosecutor's office — we are able to compare results of these cases to controls (involving homicidal suffocation using the plastic bag). In our cases, the defendants who avoid serving prison time for strangulating in course of erotic play typically exhibit these characteristics — at the time of the killing, they were not under influence of drugs; the deceased had documented (based on witness interview, review of personal items, or medical documentation) long-standing paraphilic disorder. In controls, the likelihood of being convicted of voluntary manslaughter was lower for people who acted under the influence of drugs but higher for those under the influence of alcohol. Conclusions These findings show that documented presence of paraphilic tendencies in the deceased might serve as grounds for not sentencing their sex partners for prison time if they acted to satisfy someone else's kinky needs.

      PubDate: 2018-03-21T05:45:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 56 (2018)
       
  • Rapid molecular identification of necrophagous diptera by means of
           variable-length intron sequences in the wingless gene
    • Authors: Concetta Federico; Debora Lombardo; Noemi La Porta; Anna Maria Pappalardo; Venera Ferrito; Francesco Lombardo; Salvatore Saccone
      Pages: 66 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volume 56
      Author(s): Concetta Federico, Debora Lombardo, Noemi La Porta, Anna Maria Pappalardo, Venera Ferrito, Francesco Lombardo, Salvatore Saccone
      The arrival of arthropods at a corpse exhibits specific temporal patterns, and Diptera play a key role in the initial stages of the decomposition process. Thus, the correct species assignment of the insect larvae found on a decomposing body is an important step in forensic investigations. Here, we describe a molecular procedure to define the species at larval age found on a corpse more quickly and easily than current systems. Our method involves a unique PCR amplification of a DNA segment within the evolutionarily conserved wingless gene, involved in embryo development. The amplified DNA segment contains the fourth intron of wingless, which we found to be variable in length, from about 800 to 3000 bp, among species of necrophagous Diptera. The identification of the amplified segment size in species from Lucilia, Calliphora and Sarcophaga genera, allowed us to determine the species at larval age collected in the early stages of a decomposing body, with a simple PCR amplification and subsequent electrophoresis. This procedure may help in forensic investigations to estimate the minimum Post Mortem Interval (PMI-min) of a body colonized by these larvae, avoiding the use of time-consuming and/or more expensive procedures.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-21T05:45:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 56 (2018)
       
  • GHB side effects: The need to clearly document drug dose and
           administration history
    • Authors: Francesco Paolo Busardò; Simona Pichini
      Pages: 73 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volume 56
      Author(s): Francesco Paolo Busardò, Simona Pichini


      PubDate: 2018-03-21T05:45:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 56 (2018)
       
  • Poisoning histories in the Italian renaissance: The case of Pico Della
           Mirandola and Angelo Poliziano
    • Authors: Gianni Gallello; Elisabetta Cilli; Fulvio Bartoli; Massimo Andretta; Lucio Calcagnile; Agustin Pastor; Miguel de la Guardia; Patrizia Serventi; Alberto Marino; Stefano Benazzi; Giorgio Gruppioni
      Pages: 83 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volume 56
      Author(s): Gianni Gallello, Elisabetta Cilli, Fulvio Bartoli, Massimo Andretta, Lucio Calcagnile, Agustin Pastor, Miguel de la Guardia, Patrizia Serventi, Alberto Marino, Stefano Benazzi, Giorgio Gruppioni
      Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Angelo Poliziano were two of the most important humanists of the Italian Renaissance. They died suddenly in 1494 and their deaths have been for centuries a subject of debate. The exhumation of their remains offered the opportunity to study the cause of their death through a multidisciplinary research project. Anthropological analyses, together with documentary evidences, radiocarbon dating and ancient DNA analysis supported the identification of the remains attributed to Pico. Macroscopic examination did not reveal paleopathological lesions or signs related to syphilis. Heavy metals analysis, carried out on bones and mummified tissues, showed that in Pico's remains there were potentially lethal levels of arsenic, supporting the philosopher's poisoning theory reported by documentary sources. The arsenic concentrations obtained from analysis of Poliziano's remains, are probably more related to an As chronic exposure or diagenetic processes rather than poisoning.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-12T06:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.03.016
      Issue No: Vol. 56 (2018)
       
  • Involuntary sterilization among HIV-positive Garifuna women from Honduras
           seeking asylum in the United States: Two case reports
    • Authors: Holly G. Atkinson; Deborah Ottenheimer
      Pages: 94 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volume 56
      Author(s): Holly G. Atkinson, Deborah Ottenheimer
      Voluntary sterilization is one of the most widely used forms of contraception by women worldwide; however, involuntary sterilization is considered a violation of multiple human rights and grounds for asylum in the United States. Women have been disproportionately affected by this practice. We report two cases of involuntary sterilization in HIV-positive Garifuna women from Honduras who sought asylum in America and were medically evaluated at the request of their attorneys. Key lessons can be drawn from these cases with regard to the importance of medical evaluations in establishing persecution. These include the need for a detailed account of the events surrounding sterilization, radiologic proof of tubal blockage if at all possible, and confirmation of significant and enduring mental distress as a result of the involuntary sterilization. Immigration attorneys and medical evaluators need to be attuned to the possibility of a history of involuntary sterilization among at risk women seeking asylum in the United States.

      PubDate: 2018-04-12T06:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.03.018
      Issue No: Vol. 56 (2018)
       
  • Identification of pre-impact conditions of a cyclist involved in a
           vehicle–bicycle accident using an optimized MADYMO reconstruction
           combined with motion capture
    • Authors: Jie Sun; Zhengdong Li; Shaoyou Pan; Hao Feng; Yu Shao; Ningguo Liu; Ping Huang; Donghua Zou; Yijiu Chen
      Pages: 99 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volume 56
      Author(s): Jie Sun, Zhengdong Li, Shaoyou Pan, Hao Feng, Yu Shao, Ningguo Liu, Ping Huang, Donghua Zou, Yijiu Chen
      The aim of the present study was to develop an improved method, using MADYMO multi-body simulation software combined with an optimization method and three-dimensional (3D) motion capture, for identifying the pre-impact conditions of a cyclist (walking or cycling) involved in a vehicle–bicycle accident. First, a 3D motion capture system was used to analyze coupled motions of a volunteer while walking and cycling. The motion capture results were used to define the posture of the human model during walking and cycling simulations. Then, cyclist, bicycle and vehicle models were developed. Pre-impact parameters of the models were treated as unknown design variables. Finally, a multi-objective genetic algorithm, the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II, was used to find optimal solutions. The objective functions of the walk parameter were significantly lower than cycle parameter; thus, the cyclist was more likely to have been walking with the bicycle than riding the bicycle. In the most closely matched result found, all observed contact points matched and the injury parameters correlated well with the real injuries sustained by the cyclist. Based on the real accident reconstruction, the present study indicates that MADYMO multi-body simulation software, combined with an optimization method and 3D motion capture, can be used to identify the pre-impact conditions of a cyclist involved in a vehicle–bicycle accident.

      PubDate: 2018-04-12T06:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.03.014
      Issue No: Vol. 56 (2018)
       
  • Paternity tests in Mexico: Results obtained in 3005 cases
    • Authors: M.E. García-Aceves; O. Romero Rentería; X.X. Díaz-Navarro; H. Rangel-Villalobos
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volume 55
      Author(s): M.E. García-Aceves, O. Romero Rentería, X.X. Díaz-Navarro, H. Rangel-Villalobos
      National and international reports regarding the paternity testing activity scarcely include information from Mexico and other Latin American countries. Therefore, we report different results from the analysis of 3005 paternity cases analyzed during a period of five years in a Mexican paternity testing laboratory. Motherless tests were the most frequent (77.27%), followed by trio cases (20.70%); the remaining 2.04% included different cases of kinship reconstruction. The paternity exclusion rate was 29.58%, higher but into the range reported by the American Association of Blood Banks (average 24.12%). We detected 65 mutations, most of them involving one-step (93.8% and the remaining were two-step mutations (6.2%) thus, we were able to estimate the paternal mutation rate for 17 different STR loci: 0.0018 (95% CI 0.0005–0.0047). Five triallelic patterns and 12 suspected null alleles were detected during this period; however, re-amplification of these samples with a different Human Identification (HID) kit confirmed the homozygous genotypes, which suggests that most of these exclusions actually are one-step mutations. HID kits with ≥20 STRs detected more exclusions, diminishing the rate of inconclusive results with isolated exclusions (<3 loci), and leading to higher paternity indexes (PI). However, the Powerplex 21 kit (20 STRs) and Powerplex Fusion kit (22 STRs) offered similar PI (p = 0.379) and average number of exclusions (PE) (p = 0.339) when a daughter was involved in motherless tests. In brief, besides to report forensic parameters from paternity tests in Mexico, results describe improvements to solve motherless paternity tests using HID kits with ≥20 STRs instead of one including 15 STRs.

      PubDate: 2018-03-21T05:45:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 55 (2018)
       
  • Association between histological alterations in the thymus and sudden
           infant death syndrome
    • Authors: Ivan Varga; Ildikó Bódi; Veronika Mešťanová; Martin Kováč; Martin Klein
      Pages: 8 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volume 55
      Author(s): Ivan Varga, Ildikó Bódi, Veronika Mešťanová, Martin Kováč, Martin Klein
      Introduction Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) involves the death of an infant during the first year of life and it is among the leading causes of infant mortality worldwide. One hypothesis regarding the pathogenesis of SIDS is that it results from a combination of three independent factors: endogenous vulnerability, a critical time window during postnatal development, and exogenous stressors. This hypothesis is known as the “triple-risk model”. Methods In this study, we used an immunohistological approach to compare the cellular microenvironments of thymuses from 19 infants whose sudden death was classified as SIDS and a control group, which consisted of thymuses from age-matched children undergoing surgery for various congenital heart defects. We hypothesized that morphological signs of stress-related thymic involution would be present. Results Based on our observations, we found evidence that the proliferation and maturation of T-lymphocytes in the thymuses of infants with SIDS were suppressed. We observed enhanced macrophage activity, suggesting an increase in the apoptosis of lymphocytes and decrease in number of thymic dendritic cells and myoid cells. Significant apoptosis of thymic lymphocytes without cell regeneration typically leads to atrophy of the thymus. All cellular events we observed resemble the initial stage of stress-related thymic involution. Conclusion These results support the “triple-risk model,” suggesting that certain exogenous stressors might be involved in the pathogenesis of SIDS. This was probably not recognized during the autopsies of infants who died suddenly.

      PubDate: 2018-03-21T05:45:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 55 (2018)
       
  • Bayesian networks of age estimation and classification based on dental
           evidence: A study on the third molar mineralization
    • Authors: Emanuele Sironi; Vilma Pinchi; Francesco Pradella; Martina Focardi; Silvia Bozza; Franco Taroni
      Pages: 23 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volume 55
      Author(s): Emanuele Sironi, Vilma Pinchi, Francesco Pradella, Martina Focardi, Silvia Bozza, Franco Taroni
      Not only does the Bayesian approach offer a rational and logical environment for evidence evaluation in a forensic framework, but it also allows scientists to coherently deal with uncertainty related to a collection of multiple items of evidence, due to its flexible nature. Such flexibility might come at the expense of elevated computational complexity, which can be handled by using specific probabilistic graphical tools, namely Bayesian networks. In the current work, such probabilistic tools are used for evaluating dental evidence related to the development of third molars. A set of relevant properties characterizing the graphical models are discussed and Bayesian networks are implemented to deal with the inferential process laying beyond the estimation procedure, as well as to provide age estimates. Such properties include operationality, flexibility, coherence, transparence and sensitivity. A data sample composed of Italian subjects was employed for the analysis; results were in agreement with previous studies in terms of point estimate and age classification. The influence of the prior probability elicitation in terms of Bayesian estimate and classifies was also analyzed. Findings also supported the opportunity to take into consideration multiple teeth in the evaluative procedure, since it can be shown this results in an increased robustness towards the prior probability elicitation process, as well as in more favorable outcomes from a forensic perspective.

      PubDate: 2018-03-21T05:45:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 55 (2018)
       
  • Cerbera odollam toxicity: A review
    • Authors: Ritesh G. Menezes; Muhammad Shariq Usman; Syed Ather Hussain; Mohammed Madadin; Tariq Jamal Siddiqi; Huda Fatima; Pradhum Ram; Syed Bilal Pasha; S. Senthilkumaran; Tooba Qadir Fatima; Sushil Allen Luis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Ritesh G. Menezes, Muhammad Shariq Usman, Syed Ather Hussain, Mohammed Madadin, Tariq Jamal Siddiqi, Huda Fatima, Pradhum Ram, Syed Bilal Pasha, S. Senthilkumaran, Tooba Qadir Fatima, Sushil Allen Luis
      Cerbera odollam is a plant species of the Apocynaceae family. It is often dubbed the ‘suicide tree’ due to its strong cardiotoxic effects, which make it a suitable means to attempt suicide. The plant grows in wet areas in South India, Madagascar, and Southeast Asia; and its common names include Grey Milkwood, Pong-pong and Othalanga Maram. The poison rich part of the plant is the kernel which is present at the core of its fruit. The bioactive toxin in the plant is cerberin, which is a cardiac glycoside of the cardenolide class. Cerberin has a mechanism of action similar to digoxin; hence, Cerbera odollam toxicity produces symptoms similar to acute digoxin poisoning. Ingestion of its kernel causes nausea, vomiting, hyperkalemia, thrombocytopenia, and ECG abnormalities. Currently, in hospitalized patients with confirmed Cerbera odollam exposure, the mortality rate is 12%. Exposure to high doses of Cerbera odollam carry the highest mortality. However, suicides and homicides resulting from Cerbera odollam toxicity probably remain undetected. Initial management includes administration of atropine followed by temporary pacemaker insertion. Administration of digoxin immune fab may also have a role in severe cases.

      PubDate: 2018-05-14T17:52:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.05.007
       
  • Aims &amp; Scope/Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volume 56


      PubDate: 2018-05-14T17:52:43Z
       
  • Medico-legal aspects of disabilities due to orthopedic injuries and
           compensations in Egypt
    • Authors: Sherien Salah Ghaleb; Dalia Abd Elwhab Hassan; Alla Mohamed Shehab; Soad Abd El-Ghafar Mohamed Hassan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Sherien Salah Ghaleb, Dalia Abd Elwhab Hassan, Alla Mohamed Shehab, Soad Abd El-Ghafar Mohamed Hassan
      Disability is a complex problem that results in detrimental effects on the victim. The number of disabled has increased considerably. The development constitutes a good reason for paying more specific attention to society's growing number of disabled. The physician's duties are not only to describe the anatomic and physiological defects present in the injured individual, but also to answer questions regarding the patient ability to perform specific economic or social function. This study aimed to clear up some of the problems or difficulties that may face the medico-legal physician or any personal that may be concerned with the process of evaluation. In the other words the aim of work is to design a new strategy for evaluating the degree of permanent infirmities and their compensation. The study investigates the pattern of disability in cases referred for medico-legal examination in department of Cairo and the chief's office of medico-legal administration in ministry of justice. The study included 200 cases of disabled. Male gender was more predominate than female gender (were male 78% - female 22%) and the working group (18–60) were the most frequent age group identified as victims of traumatic injuries. It was recommended the overall development plans of the country should have a positive role in prevention and decrease this problem.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T06:19:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.04.008
       
  • Erratum to ‘Estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) based on empty
           puparia of Phormia regina (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and third
           larval stage of Necrodes littoralis (L.) (Coleoptera: Silphidae) –
           Advantages of using different PMI indicators’ [J Forensic Leg Med,
           55(2018), 95–98]
    • Authors: D. Bajerlein; D. Taberski; S. Matuszewski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
      Author(s): D. Bajerlein, D. Taberski, S. Matuszewski


      PubDate: 2018-04-15T06:19:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.04.001
       
  • Femur loading in feet-first fall experiments using an anthropomorphic test
           device
    • Authors: Angela Thompson; Gina Bertocci; Craig Smalley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Angela Thompson, Gina Bertocci, Craig Smalley
      Background Femur fractures are a common orthopedic injury in young children. Falls account for a large portion of accidental femur fractures in young children, but there is also a high prevalence of femur fractures in child abuse, with falls often provided as false histories. Objective information regarding fracture potential in short distance fall scenarios may aid in assessing whether a child's injuries are the result of abuse or an accidental fall. Knowledge of femur loading is the first step towards understanding likelihood of fracture in a fall. Objective Characterize femur loading during feet-first free falls using a surrogate representing a 12-month-old child. Methods The femur and hip joint of a surrogate representing a 12-month-old were modified to improve biofidelity and measure femur loading; 6-axis load cells were integrated into the proximal and distal femur. Femur modification was based upon CT imaging of cadaveric femurs in children 10–14 months of age. Using the modified 12-month-old surrogate, feet-first free falls from 69 cm and 119 cm heights onto padded carpet and linoleum were conducted to assess fall dynamics and determine femur loading. Femur compression, bending moment, shear and torsional moment were measured for each fall. Results Fall dynamics differed across fall heights, but did not substantially differ by impact surface type. Significant differences were found in all loading conditions across fall heights, while only compression and bending loads differed between carpet and linoleum surfaces. Maximum compression, bending, torsion and shear occurred in 119 cm falls and were 572 N, 23 N-m, 11 N-m and 281 N, respectively. Conclusions Fall dynamics play an important role in the biomechanical assessment of falls. Fall height was found to influence both fall dynamics and femur loading, while impact surface affected only compression and bending in feet-first falls; fall dynamics did not differ across carpet and linoleum. Improved pediatric thresholds are necessary to predict likelihood of fracture, but morphologically accurate representation of the lower extremity, along with accurate characterization of loading in falls are a crucial first step.

      PubDate: 2018-04-12T06:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.03.017
       
  • Aims &amp; Scope/Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volume 55


      PubDate: 2018-03-21T05:45:40Z
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 23.20.240.193
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-