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Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.826
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 187  
 
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ISSN (Print) 0278-7393 - ISSN (Online) 1939-1285
Published by APA Homepage  [86 journals]
  • “Word–context associations in episodic memory are learned at the
           conceptual level: Word frequency, bilingual proficiency, and bilingual
           status effects on source memory”: Correction to Francis et al. (2018).
    • Abstract: Reports an error in "Word–context associations in episodic memory are learned at the conceptual level: Word frequency, bilingual proficiency, and bilingual status effects on source memory" by Wendy S. Francis, E. Natalia Strobach, Renee M. Penalver, Michelle Martínez, Bianca V. Gurrola and Amaris Soltero (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, Advanced Online Publication, Dec 20, 2018, np). In the article, a formula error in the scoring spreadsheet for bilingual participants in Experiment 3 systematically inflated their accuracy scores. Therefore, statistical information for analyses involving the bilingual sample, and bilingual portions of Table 7 and Figure 3 have been corrected. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2018-63731-001.) Three source-memory experiments were conducted with Spanish–English bilinguals and monolingual English speakers matched on age, education, nonverbal cognitive ability and socioeconomic status. Bilingual language proficiency and dominance were assessed using standardized objective measures. In Experiment 1, source was manipulated visuo-spatially, in Experiment 2, source was manipulated temporally, and in Experiment 3, source was manipulated by presenting stimuli in different modalities. Bilingual source discrimination was more accurate for low-frequency words than for high-frequency words, but it did not differ for the more fluent and less fluent languages (L1 and L2, respectively). These results contrast with the L2 advantage observed in item recognition (Francis & Gutiérrez, 2012; Francis & Strobach, 2013), adding to evidence that the bases of performance for item and source memory differ. The dissociation of word frequency and language effects indicates that word–context associations are made at the conceptual level rather than the word-form level. Bilinguals exhibited more accurate source discrimination than monolinguals, both under intentional and incidental encoding conditions, indicating that this effect cannot be explained entirely by differences in encoding strategies. We reason that relative to monolinguals, bilinguals more efficiently encode associations between word concepts and contexts or other types of information that do not convey meaning preexperimentally. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Sep 2019 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • Influencing the time and space of lexical competition: The effect of
           gradient foreign accentedness.
    • Abstract: This article examines the influence of gradient foreign accentedness on lexical competition during spoken word recognition. Using native and Mandarin-accented English words ranging in degree of foreign accentedness, we investigate the effect of increased accentedness on (a) the size of the competitor space and (b) the strength and duration of competitor activation. Here, we analyze the number of misperceptions in a transcription task, as well as the time course of competitor activation in a Visual World Paradigm eye-tracking task. The transcription data show that as accentedness increases, the number of unique misperceptions increases. This indicates that greater accent strength induces the activation of many additional competitors within the competition space relative to native speech. The eye-tracking data further show that, as accentedness increases, looks to competitors (not produced in the transcription task) increase both in likelihood and duration. This indicates that greater accentedness boosts the strength of competitor activation as well as the duration of the competition process, even when comprehension is ultimately successful, suggesting strong and diffuse competition within the lexicon. The results provide evidence of changes in the underlying dynamics, which lead to the pervasive processing costs associated with foreign-accented speech that are commonly observed in behavioral data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Feb 2019 05:00:00 GMT
       
  • Dissociation between reaction time and pupil dilation in the Stroop task.
    • Abstract: It has been suggested that the Stroop task gives rise to 2 conflicts: the information conflict (color vs. word meaning) and the task conflict (name the color vs. read the word). However, behavioral indications for task conflict (reaction time [RT] congruent condition longer than RT neutral condition) appear under very restricted conditions. We conducted Stroop experiments and measured RT and pupil dilation. The results show a clear dissociation between RT and pupil dilation. We found the regular RT pattern—large interference and small, nonsignificant facilitation. In contrast, pupil dilation showed information conflict—larger pupil dilation to incongruent than to congruent and neutral conditions—and task conflict—larger pupil dilation to the congruent than to the neutral condition. Moreover, pupil indications for task conflict appeared earlier than indications for the information conflict. These results suggest that pupil changes could indicate conflict even in the absence of behavioral indications for the conflict. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Feb 2019 05:00:00 GMT
       
  • Verbatim editing: A general model of recollection rejection.
    • Abstract: Recollection rejection is traditionally defined as using verbatim traces of old items’ presentations to reject new similar test cues, in old/new recognition (e.g., rejecting that couch is old by retrieving verbatim traces of sofa’s presentation). We broaden this conceptualization to include (a) old as well as new similar test cues, (b) using verbatim traces for acceptance as well as rejection, and (c) using illusory verbatim traces of unpresented items (phantom recollection) as well as actual verbatim traces (true recollection). The expanded model describes how true recollection and phantom recollection generate memory decisions by creating matches and mismatches between comparisons of test cues to the content of retrieved verbatim traces versus comparisons of test cues to the content of test questions. This model generates a series of predictions about verbatim editing. Some are intuitive, such as the prection that performance will be more accurate for old cues than for new similar ones. Others are counterintuitive and conflict with an alternative model, such as correct rejections are easier than hits and that correct rejection rates will be more stable over time than hit rates. Meta-analyses of a corpus of conjoint recognition data sets provided support for the model’s predictions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Feb 2019 05:00:00 GMT
       
  • Mark my words: High frequency marker words impact early stages of language
           learning.
    • Abstract: High frequency words have been suggested to benefit both speech segmentation and grammatical categorization of the words around them. Despite utilizing similar information, these tasks are usually investigated separately in studies examining learning. We determined whether including high frequency words in continuous speech could support categorization when words are being segmented for the first time. We familiarized learners with continuous artificial speech comprising repetitions of target words, which were preceded by high-frequency marker words. Crucially, marker words distinguished targets into 2 distributionally defined categories. We measured learning with segmentation and categorization tests and compared performance against a control group that heard the artificial speech without these marker words (i.e., just the targets, with no cues for categorization). Participants segmented the target words from speech in both conditions, but critically when the marker words were present, they influenced acquisition of word-referent mappings in a subsequent transfer task, with participants demonstrating better early learning for mappings that were consistent (rather than inconsistent) with the distributional categories. We propose that high-frequency words may assist early grammatical categorization, while speech segmentation is still being learned. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Jan 2019 05:00:00 GMT
       
  • Visual working memory for letters varies with familiarity but not
           complexity.
    • Abstract: Visual working memory (VWM) is limited in both the capacity of information it can retain and the rate at which it encodes that information. We examined the influence of stimulus complexity on these 2 limitations of VWM. Observers performed a change-detection task with English letters of various fonts or letters from unfamiliar alphabets. Average perimetric complexity (κ)—an objective correlate of the number of features comprising each letter—differed among the fonts and alphabets. Varying the time between the memory array and mask, we used change-detection performance to estimate the number of items held in VWM (K) as a function of encoding time. For all alphabets, K increased over 270 ms (indicating the rate of encoding) before reaching an asymptote (indicating capacity). We found that rate and capacity for each alphabet were unrelated to complexity: Performance was best modeled by assuming that both were limited by number of items (K), rather than by number of features (K × κ). We also found a higher encoding rate and capacity for familiar alphabets (∼45 items s−1; ∼4 items) than for unfamiliar alphabets (∼12 items s−1; ∼1.5 items). We then compared the familiar English alphabet to an unfamiliar artificial character set matched in complexity. Again, rate and capacity was higher for the familiar than for the unfamiliar stimuli. We conclude that rate and capacity for encoding into visual working memory is determined by the number of familiar feature-integrated object representations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Dec 2018 05:00:00 GMT
       
  • The role of working memory for syntactic formulation in language
           production.
    • Abstract: Four picture-description experiments investigated if syntactic formulation in language production can proceed with only minimal working memory involvement. Experiments 1–3 compared the initiation latencies, utterance durations, and errors for syntactically simpler picture descriptions (adjective–noun phrases, e.g., the red book) to those of more complex descriptions (relative clauses, e.g., the book that is red). In Experiment 4, the syntactically more complex descriptions were also lexically more complex (e.g., the book and the car vs. the book). Simpler and more complex descriptions were produced under verbal memory load consisting of 2 or 4 unrelated nouns, or under no load. Across experiments, load actually made production more efficient (as manifested in shorter latencies, shorter durations or both), and sped up the durations of relative clauses more than those of adjective–noun phrases. The only evidence for disproportional disruption of more complex descriptions by load was a greater increase of production errors for these descriptions than for simpler descriptions under load in Experiments 2 and 4. We thus conclude that syntactic formulation in production (for certain constructions or in certain situations) can proceed with minimal working memory involvement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Dec 2018 05:00:00 GMT
       
  • Individual differences in verbal short-term memory and reading aloud:
           Semantic compensation for weak phonological processing across tasks.
    • Abstract: According to contemporary accounts, linguistic behavior reflects the interaction of distinct representations supporting word meaning and phonology. However, there is controversy about the extent to which this interaction occurs within task-specific systems, specialized for reading and short-term memory (STM), as opposed to between components that support the full range of linguistic tasks. We examined whether individual differences in the efficiency of phonological processing would relate to the application of lexical–semantic knowledge to support verbal STM, single word reading and repetition. In a sample of 83 participants, we related nonword performance in each task (as a marker of phonological capacity in the absence of meaning) to the effects of word imageability (a lexical–semantic variable). We found stronger reliance on lexical–semantic knowledge in participants with weaker phonological processing. This relationship held across tasks, suggesting that lexical–semantic processing can compensate for phonological weakness which would otherwise give rise to poor performance. Our results are consistent with separable yet interacting primary systems for phonology and semantics, with lexical–semantic knowledge supporting pattern completion within the phonological system in a similar way across STM and reading tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Dec 2018 05:00:00 GMT
       
  • Learning faces as concepts rather than percepts improves face recognition.
    • Abstract: Our ability to recognize familiar faces is remarkable. During the process of becoming familiar with new people we acquire both perceptual and conceptual information about them. Which of these two types of information contributes to our ability to recognize a person in future encounters' Previously, we showed that associating faces with person-related conceptual information (e.g., name, occupation) during learning improves face recognition. Here, we provide further evidence and assess several possible accounts to the conceptual encoding benefit in face recognition. In a series of experiments, participants were asked to make perceptual (e.g., how round/symmetric is the face') or conceptual (e.g., how trustworthy/intelligent does the face look') evaluations about faces. We found better face recognition following conceptual than perceptual encoding. We further showed that this effect cannot be attributed to more global than part-based feature processing, more variable ratings, or more elaborative encoding during conceptual than perceptual evaluations. Finally, we showed that the conceptual over perceptual encoding advantage reflects a conceptual encoding benefit rather than a perceptual encoding cost. Overall these findings show that conceptual evaluations do not improve recognition by modifying the perceptual representation of a face (e.g., elaboration, global processing). Instead, we propose that face recognition benefits from representing faces as socially meaningful concepts rather than percepts during learning. These results highlight the importance of linking cognition and perception to understand recognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2018 05:00:00 GMT
       
  • Two routes to memory benefits of guessing.
    • Abstract: Attempting to guess an answer to a memory question has repeatedly been shown to benefit memory for the answer compared to merely reading what the answer is, even when the guess is incorrect. In this study, we investigate 2 potential explanations for this effect in a single experimental procedure. According to the semantic explanation, the benefits of guessing require a clear semantic relationship between the cue, the guess, and the target, and these benefits arise at the stage of guessing. The attentional explanation places the locus of the effect at the stage of feedback presentation and ignores the issue of semantic relatedness. To disentangle the 2 mechanisms, we used homograph cues with at least 2 different meanings (e.g., arms) and asked participants to either study an intact cue−target pair or guess a word related to each cue before being presented with the target. This allowed us to compare memory performance on trials in which participants’ guesses tapped the same meaning of the cue as the later presented target (e.g., a guess legs for a pair arms−hug), versus a different meaning (e.g., weapons). In 4 experiments, we demonstrated that both the semantic and the attentional mechanism operate in the guessing task, but their roles are different: Semantic relatedness supports memory for cue-to-target associations, whereas increased attention to feedback benefits memory for targets alone. We discuss these findings in the context of educational utility of errorful learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2018 05:00:00 GMT
       
  • Word–context associations in episodic memory are learned at the
           conceptual level: Word frequency, bilingual proficiency, and bilingual
           status effects on source memory.
    • Abstract: [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 45(10) of Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition (see record 2019-53018-001). In the article, a formula error in the scoring spreadsheet for bilingual participants in Experiment 3 systematically inflated their accuracy scores. Therefore, statistical information for analyses involving the bilingual sample, and bilingual portions of Table 7 and Figure 3 have been corrected. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Three source-memory experiments were conducted with Spanish–English bilinguals and monolingual English speakers matched on age, education, nonverbal cognitive ability and socioeconomic status. Bilingual language proficiency and dominance were assessed using standardized objective measures. In Experiment 1, source was manipulated visuo-spatially, in Experiment 2, source was manipulated temporally, and in Experiment 3, source was manipulated by presenting stimuli in different modalities. Bilingual source discrimination was more accurate for low-frequency words than for high-frequency words, but it did not differ for the more fluent and less fluent languages (L1 and L2, respectively). These results contrast with the L2 advantage observed in item recognition (Francis & Gutiérrez, 2012; Francis & Strobach, 2013), adding to evidence that the bases of performance for item and source memory differ. The dissociation of word frequency and language effects indicates that word–context associations are made at the conceptual level rather than the word-form level. Bilinguals exhibited more accurate source discrimination than monolinguals, both under intentional and incidental encoding conditions, indicating that this effect cannot be explained entirely by differences in encoding strategies. We reason that relative to monolinguals, bilinguals more efficiently encode associations between word concepts and contexts or other types of information that do not convey meaning preexperimentally. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2018 05:00:00 GMT
       
  • Enter sandman: Compound processing and semantic transparency in a
           compositional perspective.
    • Abstract: Effects of semantic transparency, reflected in processing differences between semantically transparent (teabag) and opaque (ladybird) compounds, have received considerable attention in the investigation of the role of constituents in compound processing. However, previous studies have yielded inconsistent results. In the present article, we argue that this is due to semantic transparency’s often being conceptualized only as the semantic relatedness between the compound and constituent meanings as separate units. This neglects the fact that compounds are inherently productive constructions. We argue that compound processing is routinely impacted by a compositional process aimed at computing a compositional meaning, which would cause compositional semantic transparency effects to emerge in compound processing. We employ recent developments in compositional distributional semantics to quantify relatedness- as well as composition-based semantic transparency measures and use these to predict lexical decision times in a large-scale data set. We observed semantic transparency effects on compound processing that are not captured in relatedness terms but only by adopting a compositional perspective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2018 05:00:00 GMT
       
  • Eye position reflects the spatial coding of numbers during magnitude
           comparison.
    • Abstract: Behavioral studies have reported interactions between number processing and spatial attention, suggesting that number processing involves shifting attention along a mental continuum on which numbers are represented in ascending order. However, direct evidence for attention shifts remains scarce, the respective contribution of the horizontal and vertical axes is unclear, and little is known about the time course of attention shifts during mental manipulation of numbers. In the present study, we used an eye-tracking device with a high spatiotemporal resolution to measure gaze patterns in a task that required participants to compare number words (20 to 70) to a fixed reference (45) while looking at a blank screen (Experiment 1) or at colorful pictures (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 revealed late attention shifts evoking an epiphenomenon rather than a functional process because they occurred after the response. Experiment 2 revealed horizontal and vertical attention shifts emerging during the first stages of the comparison process. A leftward and downward ocular drift was observed while participants were listening to numbers smaller than the reference compared to numbers larger than the reference. The results showed that earlier shifts were observed when numbers were far from the reference because the decade was sufficiently discriminating to allow a fast decision. In contrast, close numbers were associated with later attention shifts because their proximity with the reference required processing the unit. We conclude that number comparison is a dynamic process that exploits visual imagery mechanisms to magnify the position of numbers on a two-dimensional space representing their magnitude. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2018 05:00:00 GMT
       
  • Training articulation sequences: A first systematic modulation of the
           articulatory in–out effect.
    • Abstract: People prefer words with consonant articulation locations moving inward, from the front to the back of the mouth (e.g., menika), over words with consonant articulation locations moving outward, from the back to the front of the mouth (e.g., kemina). Here, we modulated this in–out effect by increasing the fluency of one consonant direction. Participants (total N = 735) memorized either inward or outward moving words. Afterward they evaluated different inward and outward words. In Experiment 1, training 60 outward (compared to inward) words led to a marginally significant attenuation of the in–out effect. In Experiment 2 and a preregistered replication (Experiment 3), training 120 inward words increased the size of the in–out effect, while training 120 outward words reversed the in–out effect. Experiment 4 confirms that consonant direction training affects fluency and rules out alternative explanations. Together, these experiments further supports a fluency explanation of the in–out effect and shows that abstract oral motor sequences can be learned implicitly. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Dec 2018 05:00:00 GMT
       
 
 
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