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Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.826
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 178  
 
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ISSN (Print) 0278-7393 - ISSN (Online) 1939-1285
Published by APA Homepage  [86 journals]
  • “Dual-task costs in working memory: An adversarial collaboration”:
           Correction to Doherty et al. (2018).
    • Abstract: Reports an error in "Dual-task costs in working memory: An adversarial collaboration" by Jason M. Doherty, Clement Belletier, Stephen Rhodes, Agnieszka Jaroslawska, Pierre Barrouillet, Valerie Camos, Nelson Cowan, Moshe Naveh-Benjamin and Robert H. Logie (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, Advanced Online Publication, Nov 08, 2018, np). In the article, the copyright attribution was incorrectly listed and should have published under the Creative Commons CC-BY license. The correct copyright is “© 2018 The Author(s).” All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2018-56426-001.) Theories of working memory often disagree on the relationships between processing and storage, particularly on how heavily they rely on an attention-based limited resource. Some posit separation and specialization of resources resulting in minimal interference to memory when completing an ongoing processing task, while others argue for a greater overlap in the resources involved in concurrent tasks. Here, we present four experiments that investigated the presence or absence of dual-task costs for memory and processing. The experiments were carried in an adversarial collaboration in which researchers from three opposing theories collaboratively designed a set of experiments and provided differential predictions in line with each of their models. Participants performed delayed recall of aurally and visually presented letters and an arithmetic verification task either as single tasks or with the arithmetic verification task between presentation and recall of letter sequences. Single- and dual-task conditions were completed with and without concurrent articulatory suppression. A consistent pattern of dual-task and suppression costs was observed for memory, with smaller or null effects on processing. The observed data did not fit perfectly with any one framework, with each model having partial success in predicting data patterns. Implications for each of the models are discussed, with an aim for future research to investigate whether some combination of the models and their assumptions can provide a more comprehensive interpretation of the pattern of effects observed here and in relevant previous studies associated with each theoretical framework. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Aug 2019 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • How does aging impact decision making' The contribution of cognitive
           decline and strategic compensation revealed in a cognitive architecture.
    • Abstract: Older adults often face decline in cognitive resources. How does this impact their decision making—especially under high cognitive demands from concurrent activities' Do older adults’ decision processes uniformly decline with increasing mental strain relative to younger adults, or do they compensate for decline by strategically reallocating resources' Using empirical data and computational modeling, we investigated older and younger adults’ execution of two decision strategies in a multiattribute judgment task, while varying the demands from a concurrent task. One strategy (take-the-best) involves searching attributes in order of importance until one attribute favors one alternative; the other strategy (tallying) requires the integration of attributes favoring each alternative. Although older adults executed both strategies quite accurately, they performed worse and more slowly than younger adults. Moreover, when the concurrent demands increased, both age groups executed the strategies less accurately and more slowly. Crucially, when take-the-best required searching an increasing number of attributes, participants’ accuracy and speed initially decreased with increasing search requirements, but accuracy recovered and the slowing lessened at the highest search requirements; this pattern was particularly prominent in older adults and most pronounced under the highest concurrent demands. Simulations with models in the cognitive architecture ACT-R showed how decline in specific cognitive resources can contribute to older adults’ decrements in strategy execution. However, accommodating older adults’ preserved strategy execution of take-the-best under the highest demands required assuming compensatory shifts in resource allocation. Thus, cognitive decline and strategic compensation applied under highest demands provided complementary accounts for older adults’ decision behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Mar 2019 05:00:00 GMT
       
  • Assessing the temporal learning account of the list-wide proportion
           congruence effect.
    • Abstract: In this article, we assess an alternative account of a key experimental pattern thought to index top-down control. The list-wide proportion congruence effect is the well-documented pattern whereby the congruency effect (i.e., Stroop effect) is attenuated in lists containing mostly incongruent trials relative to lists containing mostly congruent trials. This pattern has typically been interpreted as a signature of a top-down control mechanism that modulates attention to the word dimension based on the global probability of encountering conflict between the word and color. However, Schmidt (2013a, 2013b) has proposed an alternative account that stresses relative temporal differences in responding between mostly incongruent and mostly congruent lists rather than relative differences in the control of attention. To assess this temporal learning account, we evaluate the evidence reported by Schmidt (2013a) and report new analyses of three previously published data sets in which a list-wide proportion congruence effect was observed after controlling for other potential confounds. These analyses targeted three key topics: effects of reaction time (RT) transformations, statistical support for temporal learning, and measurement of temporal rhythm. The evidence for the temporal learning account was neither strong nor consistent, and there was a highly significant list-wide proportion congruence effect that survived multiple attempts to control for temporal learning. Accordingly, we conclude that the temporal learning account is not currently a robust alternative to the global control account in explaining list-wide proportion congruence effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Dec 2018 05:00:00 GMT
       
  • Motion fluency and object preference: Robust perceptual but fragile memory
           effects.
    • Abstract: In 8 experiments, we investigated motion fluency effects on object preference. In each experiment, distinct objects were repeatedly seen moving either fluently (with a smooth and predictable motion) or disfluently (with sudden and unpredictable direction changes) in a task where participants were required to respond to occasional brief changes in object appearance. Results show that (a) fluent objects are preferred over disfluent objects when ratings follow a moving presentation, (b) there is some evidence that object–motion associations can be learned with repeated exposures, (c) sufficiently potent motions can yield preference for fluent objects after a single viewing, and (d) learned associations do not transfer to situations where ratings follow a stationary presentation, even after deep levels of encoding. Episodic accounts of memory retrieval predict that emotional states experienced at encoding might be retrieved along with the stimulus properties. Though object–emotion associations were repeatedly paired, there was no evidence for emotional reinstatement when objects were seen stationary. This indicates that the retrieval process is a critical limiting factor when considering visuomotor fluency effects on behavior. Such findings have real-world consequences. For example, a product advertised with high perceptual fluency might be preferred at the time, but this preference might not transfer to seeing the object on a shelf. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Dec 2018 05:00:00 GMT
       
  • Dual-task costs in working memory: An adversarial collaboration.
    • Abstract: [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 45(9) of Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition (see record 2019-48991-001). In the article, the copyright attribution was incorrectly listed and should have published under the Creative Commons CC-BY license. The correct copyright is “© 2018 The Author(s).” All versions of this article have been corrected.] Theories of working memory often disagree on the relationships between processing and storage, particularly on how heavily they rely on an attention-based limited resource. Some posit separation and specialization of resources resulting in minimal interference to memory when completing an ongoing processing task, while others argue for a greater overlap in the resources involved in concurrent tasks. Here, we present four experiments that investigated the presence or absence of dual-task costs for memory and processing. The experiments were carried in an adversarial collaboration in which researchers from three opposing theories collaboratively designed a set of experiments and provided differential predictions in line with each of their models. Participants performed delayed recall of aurally and visually presented letters and an arithmetic verification task either as single tasks or with the arithmetic verification task between presentation and recall of letter sequences. Single- and dual-task conditions were completed with and without concurrent articulatory suppression. A consistent pattern of dual-task and suppression costs was observed for memory, with smaller or null effects on processing. The observed data did not fit perfectly with any one framework, with each model having partial success in predicting data patterns. Implications for each of the models are discussed, with an aim for future research to investigate whether some combination of the models and their assumptions can provide a more comprehensive interpretation of the pattern of effects observed here and in relevant previous studies associated with each theoretical framework. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Nov 2018 05:00:00 GMT
       
  • Effects of biased hypothesis generation on self-directed category
           learning.
    • Abstract: Psychologists and educators have long pointed to myriad benefits of self-directed learning. Yet evidence of its efficacy in real-world domains is mixed and it remains unclear how it is constrained by basic perceptual and cognitive processes. Previous work suggests that, in particular, self-directed learning is affected by the way that people generate hypotheses as they learn. This study examines how biased hypothesis generation affects the learning of categorical rules, a basic building block of concept learning, through self-directed selection of training data. In both perceptual and abstract category learning tasks, participants’ hypotheses regarding an unknown classification boundary were influenced by how features were represented. This bias had persistent effects on their ability to learn the underlying categorical relationship despite their opportunity to control the selection of training items. The results demonstrate that self-directed control can be beneficial for both perceptual and abstract category learning, but that the ability to discover rules of a particular form depends on how the learning environment guides the generation of new hypotheses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Nov 2018 05:00:00 GMT
       
  • Examining the hierarchical nature of scene representations in memory.
    • Abstract: How are scene representations stored in memory' Researchers have often posited that scene representations have a hierarchical structure with background elements providing a scaffold for more detailed foreground elements. To further investigate scene representation and the role of background and foreground information, we introduced a new stimulus set: chimera scenes, which have the central block of objects belonging to one scene category (foreground), and the surrounding structure belonging to another (background). We used a contextual cueing paradigm and emphasized the relative importance of each by having the target placed on either the background or foreground. In a transfer block, we found that though changes to the background were highly detrimental to search performance for background targets, search performance was only slightly affected by changes to either the foreground or the background for foreground targets. These results indicate that rather than a fixed hierarchy, the structure of scene representations are more aptly captured by a parallel model that stores information flexibly. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Oct 2018 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • Can response congruency effects be obtained in masked priming lexical
           decision'
    • Abstract: In past decades, researchers have conducted a myriad of masked priming lexical decision experiments aimed at unveiling the early processes underlying lexical access. A relatively overlooked question is whether a masked unrelated wordlike/unwordlike prime influences the processing of the target stimuli. If participants apply to the primes the same instructions as to the targets, one would predict a response congruency effect (e.g., book-TRUE faster than fiok-TRUE). Critically, the Bayesian Reader model predicts that there should be no effects of response congruency in masked priming lexical decision, whereas interactive-activation models offer more flexible predictions. We conducted 3 masked priming lexical decision experiments with 4 unrelated priming conditions differing in lexical status and wordlikeness (high-frequency word, low-frequency word, orthographically legal pseudoword, consonant string). Experiment 1 used wordlike nonwords as foils, Experiment 2 used illegal nonwords as foils, and Experiment 3 used orthographically legal hermit nonwords as foils. When the foils were orthographically legal (Experiments 1 and 3; i.e., a standard lexical decision scenario), lexical decision responses were not affected by the lexical status or wordlikeness of the unrelated primes, as predicted by the Bayesian Reader model and the selective inhibition hypothesis in interactive-activation models. When the foils were illegal (Experiment 2), consonant-string primes produced the slowest responses for word targets and the fastest responses for nonword targets. The Bayesian Reader model can capture this pattern, assuming that participants in Experiment 2 were making an orthographic legality decision (i.e., anything legal must be a word) rather than a lexical decision. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Oct 2018 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • Modeling memory dynamics in visual expertise.
    • Abstract: The development of visual expertise is accompanied by enhanced visual object recognition memory within an expert domain. We aimed to understand the relationship between expertise and memory by modeling cognitive mechanisms. Participants with a measured range of birding expertise were recruited and tested on memory for birds (expert domain) and cars (novice domain). Participants performed an old-new continuous recognition memory task whereby on each trial an image of a bird or car was presented that was either new or had been presented earlier with lag j. The Linear Ballistic Accumulator model (LBA; Brown & Heathcote, 2008) was first used to decompose accuracy and response time (RT) into drift rate, response threshold, and nondecision time, with the measured level of visual expertise as a potential covariate on each model parameter. An Expertise × Category interaction was observed on drift rates such that expertise was positively correlated with memory performance recognizing bird images but not car images as old versus new. To then model the underlying processes responsible for variation in drift rate with expertise, we used a model of drift rates building on the Exemplar-Based Random Walk model (Nosofsky, Cox, Cao, & Shiffrin, 2014; Nosofsky & Palmeri, 1997), which revealed that expertise was associated with increases in memory strength and increases in the distinctiveness of stored exemplars. Taken together, we provide insight using formal cognitive modeling into how improvements in recognition memory with expertise are driven by enhancements in the representations of objects in an expert domain. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Oct 2018 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • Properties of familiar face representations: Only contrast positive faces
           contain all information necessary for efficient recognition.
    • Abstract: It is difficult to recognize the identity of a face presented in negative contrast. This difficulty, however, is substantially reduced when only the eye region is contrast positive in an otherwise negative face image, and recognition of these so-called contrast chimeras approaches performance with full positive faces. This apparently similar accuracy has led researchers to suggest that familiar face representations are built around the eye region. The present study used the N250r, an event-related brain potential correlate of repetition priming, to examine whether chimera recognition is similarly efficient as positive face recognition. In a series of 3 experiments, we found a clear N250r for positive but reduced or even absent repetition effects for negative and chimera faces. This finding held true independent of whether the same basic pictures of familiar faces were used as prime and target stimuli (Experiment 1) or not (Experiments 2 and 3). Similar results were also obtained independent of whether positive, negative or chimera primes preceded full positive targets (Experiments 1 and 2) or targets in the same respective contrast format (Experiment 3). These results indicate that only positive faces contain all information necessary for optimal face recognition and that even though contrast chimeras are recognized highly accurately, the underlying processes work less efficiently as compared with normal face recognition. We conclude that familiar face representations are not built around the eyes but comprise detailed information from other regions of the face. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Oct 2018 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • Does semantic long-term memory impact refreshing in verbal working
           memory'
    • Abstract: Attentional refreshing allows the maintenance of information in working memory and has received growing interest in recent years. However, it is still ill-defined and several proposals have been put forward to account for its functioning. Among them, some proposals suggest that refreshing relies on the retrieval of knowledge from semantic long-term memory. To examine such a proposal, the present study examined the impact on refreshing of two effects known to affect the retrieval from semantic long-term memory: word frequency and lexicality. In working memory span tasks, participants had to maintain memoranda varying in either frequency, or lexicality while performing concurrent tasks. By examining recall performance in complex span tasks and response times for the concurrent task in Brown-Peterson tasks, the present study provided evidence that long-term memory effects (a) affected recall without interacting with manipulation of refreshing and (b) did not affect refreshing speed. These findings challenge the idea that refreshing acts through the retrieval of knowledge from semantic long-term memory. Different WM models are discussed to account for these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Oct 2018 04:00:00 GMT
       
 
 
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