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Journal Cover Animal Behaviour
  [SJR: 1.907]   [H-I: 126]   [175 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0003-3472 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8282
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3118 journals]
  • Field experiments with wild primates reveal no consistent dominance-based
           bias in social learning
    • Authors: Jennifer Botting; Andrew Whiten; Mathilde Grampp; Erica van de Waal
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): Jennifer Botting, Andrew Whiten, Mathilde Grampp, Erica van de Waal
      Directed social learning suggests that information flows through social groups in a nonrandom way, with individuals biased to obtain information from certain conspecifics. A bias to copy the behaviour of more dominant individuals has been demonstrated in captive chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, but has yet to be studied in any wild animal population. To test for this bias using a field experiment, one dominant and one low-ranking female in each of three groups of wild vervet monkeys, Chlorocebus aethiops pygerythrus, was trained on alternative methods of opening an ‘artificial fruit’. Following 100 demonstrations from each model, fruits that could be opened either way were presented to each group and all openings were recorded. Overall, the dominant females were not attended to more than low-ranking females during the demonstrations, nor were their methods preferentially used in the test phase. We conclude that these monkeys show no overall bias to copy high-ranking models that would lead to a high-ranking model's behaviour becoming more prevalent in the group than a behaviour demonstrated by a low-ranking model. However, by contrast, there were significant effects of observer monkeys' rank and sex upon the likelihood they would match the dominant model. Additionally we found that the dominant models were more likely to stick to their initially learned method than were low-ranking models.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.025
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Courtship behaviour and display-site sharing appears conditional on body
           size in a lekking bat
    • Authors: C.A. Toth; A.W. Santure; G.I. Holwell; D.E. Pattemore; S. Parsons
      Pages: 13 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): C.A. Toth, A.W. Santure, G.I. Holwell, D.E. Pattemore, S. Parsons
      Leks are aggregations of sexually displaying males visited by receptive females and characterized by intense male–male competition to attract mates. Success in lekking species is often contingent upon male display output and/or lek attendance, with energetically costly displays functioning as an honest indicator of male quality. Furthermore, display spaces are vigorously defended by territorial males, and territory characteristics are often linked to male phenotype. Here we describe the courtship and territorial behaviour of lekking lesser short-tailed bats, Mystacina tuberculata, and both behaviours appear to be conditional on body size. During the breeding season, lekking males occupy and defend small tree hollows and sing for long periods of the night to attract females. Although some males sing alone, others form ‘timeshare’ singing roosts, where multiple males visit sequentially to sing each night. In our study, solitary males were significantly smaller than timeshare males and individually had both higher song outputs and higher roost occupancy rates, although timeshare roosts had higher overall occupancy rates. There appeared to be no fitness difference between the two male groups, and while one timeshare roost contained relatively closely related individuals (which roost settlement simulations indicate was not a chance event), four did not. We discuss factors that may promote timeshare formation, including competition for access to desired roosts and potential by-product mutualisms. Courtship and sexual selection in bats is largely undescribed, and thus our study provides a useful description of behaviour in a little-studied taxon.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T09:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Sex differences in parental defence against conspecific intruders in the
           burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides
    • Authors: Athina Georgiou Shippi; Matthieu Paquet; Per T. Smiseth
      Pages: 21 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): Athina Georgiou Shippi, Matthieu Paquet, Per T. Smiseth
      In species with biparental care, females often provide more care than males. Previous work has focused on sex differences in parental food provisioning and defence against predators. However, parents often also defend their offspring against conspecific intruders, which could be male or female. Thus, there is a need for studies examining sex differences in the behaviour of both caring parents and intruders, and whether sex differences in the behaviour of caring parents depend upon the intruder's sex. We conducted an experiment on the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides where a single female or male resident caring for a brood was confronted with a male or female intruder. Female residents were more successful in defending their brood and engaged in more fights against an intruder than males. Residents engaged in more fights against male intruders and, among those that successfully defended their brood, residents spent more time provisioning food to larvae when confronted with female intruders. There was no evidence that sex differences in the behaviour of caring parents depended upon the intruder's sex. There were no sex differences in any measures of reproductive success among those residents that successfully defended their brood and no sex differences in the life span or mass gain of either residents or intruders. Our study extends the study of sex differences in parental care to the context of defence against conspecific intruders by demonstrating sex differences in the behaviour of both residents and intruders and sex differences in reproductive success in the presence of conspecific intruders.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T09:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.12.011
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Experimental anthropogenic noise impacts avian parental behaviour,
           nestling growth and nestling oxidative stress
    • Authors: Allison S. Injaian; Conor C. Taff; Gail L. Patricelli
      Pages: 31 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): Allison S. Injaian, Conor C. Taff, Gail L. Patricelli
      Human-produced noise, from transport, urbanization and industry, is widespread. Studies of noise pollution show a wide range of effects on birds, such as alterations in communication, parental behaviour, physiology and reproductive success. These human-induced changes are likely to have long-term impacts, such as altered nestling physiology and survival, as well as reduced local population size. Further experimental field studies that simultaneously investigate the effects of noise exposure on avian behaviour, physiology and reproductive success are needed. Here, we used an experimental field study to investigate impacts of short-term traffic noise exposure on parental behaviour (i.e. vigilance and feeding rate), nestling body size and oxidative stress (as measured by oxidative status) and nestling fledging success in tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor. Our results show negative consequences of traffic noise exposure, despite a relatively modest playback regime (6h, every other day). Adults in noise-exposed territories were less vigilant earlier in the nestling period and fed at a higher rate later in the nestling period, compared to controls. However, increased feeding rate in noise-exposed nests did not compensate for noise impacts on nestlings: noise-exposed nestlings were smaller and had higher oxidative status, compared to control nestlings. Noise-exposed nestlings took longer to fledge, but we found no effect of noise on fledging success. These results highlight the potential long-term consequences of short-term noise exposure (decreased nestling size and increased oxidative status) and add to a growing body of literature, showing that noise pollution can negatively impact birds through both direct and indirect pathways.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T09:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Mating behaviour and postcopulatory fertilization patterns in the southern
           blue-ringed octopus, Hapalochlaena maculosa
    • Authors: Peter Morse; Christine L. Huffard; Mark G. Meekan; Mark I. Mccormick; Kyall R. Zenger
      Pages: 41 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): Peter Morse, Christine L. Huffard, Mark G. Meekan, Mark I. Mccormick, Kyall R. Zenger
      Female octopuses are known to store sperm from multiple males they encounter throughout a breeding season, before laying a single clutch with mixed paternity. Although octopuses display a broad range of precopulatory behaviours, and both sperm competition and cryptic female choice have been hypothesized to occur, the current understanding of how these processes influence resulting paternity remains limited. This study aimed to identify behavioural factors associated with paternity patterns and the capacity of females to bias paternity postcopulation to specific males in the southern blue-ringed octopus, Hapalochlaena maculosa. Genetic markers and controlled, sequential, laboratory pairings of genotyped individuals were used to examine paternity patterns and compare them to relative signatures of male sperm remaining in female oviducal glands after egg laying. Multiple paternity was discovered in all 12 laboratory-reared clutches. There was no indication that the relative time spent in copulation affected the resulting paternity. Males that waited for females to terminate the copulation had greater paternity when they were the first candidate male, but this was not the case among second candidate males. The relative quantities of candidate male alleles detected in female oviducal glands after egg laying were consistent with relative paternity of the candidate males in all but three cases. In one of these, sibship analysis revealed that the male that obtained less paternity than expected was in fact the female's full-sibling brother. Although this study found no evidence for female postcopulatory selection of male sperm, anecdotal evidence suggests that female H. maculosa might benefit from polyandry if chemical processes can favour clutch fertilization by unrelated males. Future studies, investigating paternity bias among genotyped males of varying, but known relatedness to the female, might help to validate this pattern.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T09:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Social structure as a strategy to mitigate the costs of group living: a
           comparison of gelada and guereza monkeys
    • Authors: R.I.M. Dunbar
      Pages: 53 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): R.I.M. Dunbar
      In mammals, and especially primates, group size and social complexity are typically correlated. However, we have no general explanation why this is so. I suggest that the answer may lie in one of the costs of group living: mammalian reproductive endocrinology is extremely sensitive to stress, and forms one of the hidden costs of living in groups. Fertility declines with group size widely across the social mammals, including primates, and will ultimately place a constraint on group size. However, some species seem to have been able to mitigate this cost by forming bonded relationships that reduce the impact of experienced aggression, even if rates of aggression remain high. The downside is that they reduce network connectivity and hence risk fragmenting the group by providing fracture lines for group fission. To explore this, I compare network indices and fertility patterns across the same range of group sizes for two species of Old World monkeys, Colobus guereza and Theropithecus gelada: the former relatively unsocial, the latter intensely social with frequent use of grooming-based alliances. Compared to those of the guereza, gelada social networks lose density more slowly, maintain connectedness more effectively and are less likely to fragment as they increase in size. Although fertility declines with group size in both species, in gelada the impact of this effect is deferred to larger group sizes. The differences in fertility and network structure both predict the very different maximum group sizes typical of these two species, as well as the typical sizes at which their groups undergo fission. This finding may explain aspects of wider mammalian sociality.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T09:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Plasticity and personality of parental care in the clown anemonefish
    • Authors: Tina A. Barbasch; Peter M. Buston
      Pages: 65 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): Tina A. Barbasch, Peter M. Buston
      Characterizing individual variation in parental care is critical to understanding how selection shapes and maintains patterns of care, yet little is known about how individual parents vary in their responses to the environment. Reaction norms, functions that describe how phenotypes change across an environmental gradient, provide an elegant framework for studying individual variation in behavioural responses. We use a reaction norm approach to investigate how studying plasticity, which describes variation within an individual through time, and personality, which describes repeatable variation among individuals, together explain individual variation in the parental behaviour of the anemonefish Amphiprion percula. More specifically, we test how resource availability influences individual parental responses to the environment and discuss the consequences for our understanding of plasticity and personality in parental care. Breeding pairs of A. percula were fed either a high or a low food ration and their parental behaviours were monitored. Individuals exhibited plasticity in parental behaviour across the two resource environments. Furthermore, individuals were repeatable in their behaviour through time, as evidenced by significant among-individual variation in intercept. Finally, the slope and elevation of individual reaction norms varied, revealing a level of variation not captured at the population level and providing insight into the potential mechanisms generating individual variation.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T09:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Towards an integrated view of escape decisions in birds: relation between
           flight initiation distance and distance fled
    • Authors: Kunter Tätte; Anders Pape Møller; Raivo Mänd
      Pages: 75 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): Kunter Tätte, Anders Pape Møller, Raivo Mänd
      Rapid human population growth and increasing habitat fragmentation lead to more frequent direct encounters between humans and animals. Consequently, numerous habitats will become less suitable for some species due to an increase in perceived risk of predation. Studies show that different species vary greatly in their tolerance to human disturbance, but these findings are typically only based on flight initiation distance (FID, the distance at which animals flee when approached by a potential predator including a human). The aim of this study was to broaden the general view of escape behaviour by including distance fled (DF) in the analyses. We measured FID and DF in 699 birds belonging to 17 species in Estonian urban and rural settlements. We calculated the relationships between two types of escape decisions and behavioural, environmental and morphological parameters. There was a positive relationship between FID and DF for heavier species, but not for lighter species suggesting mass-dependent differences in the cost of escape. Flock size and starting distance in rural habitats were important predictors of FID while distance to refuge was only positively correlated with DF. Birds in rural habitats escaped earlier and further and exhibited a positive relationship between starting distance and FID, whereas no such trend was seen in urban birds, possibly due to a narrow zone of awareness. Our findings suggest that DF represents an independent and informative additional measure of antipredator behaviour that together with FID provides a more integrated view of the costs of escape. This, in turn, facilitates finding effective ways for mitigating effects of anthropogenic disturbance on wild animals.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T09:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.12.008
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Social behaviour as a predominant driver of sexual, age-dependent and
           reproductive segregation in Mediterranean mouflon
    • Authors: Gilles Bourgoin; Pascal Marchand; A.J. Mark Hewison; Kathreen E. Ruckstuhl; Mathieu Garel
      Pages: 87 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): Gilles Bourgoin, Pascal Marchand, A.J. Mark Hewison, Kathreen E. Ruckstuhl, Mathieu Garel
      Segregation between the sexes or related to age and/or reproductive status is common in many animal taxa, particularly in dimorphic species. The causes of this segregation remain difficult to disentangle, despite numerous attempts. This is probably due to the difficulty of obtaining sufficient data on animal behaviour (e.g. habitat use, activity budgets) and group composition (age/sex and reproductive status) during the various phases of the species' reproductive cycle. Based on an intensive long-term monitoring of a Mediterranean mouflon, Ovis gmelini musimon × Ovis sp., population, we concurrently assessed five hypotheses for segregation linked to forage selection (FSH), reproductive strategy (RSH), social preference (SPH), activity budget (ABH), and weather sensitivity (WSH). We found marked segregation between most age/sex classes. Age-dependent segregation among males was increasingly marked as their age difference increased and segregation between the sexes also increased as males became older and larger. Over the year, segregation between sex, age and reproductive status classes was lowest during the rut. We also observed the highest synchrony of activity in groups composed of individuals of similar age/sex class or reproductive status. Females occurred closer to both secure and high-quality food habitats, especially during the lambing and rearing periods, whereas males used less secure and lower quality habitats as they aged. Differences in habitat use between age/sex classes provided partial or full support for the RSH and FSH. Large males were preferentially observed at higher altitude than females during hot summer days to buffer against heat stress, in agreement with the WSH. A preference for interacting and grouping with peers that express similar activity patterns (ABH and SPH) appears to be the main driver of segregation in this population. Our study confirms the strong multifactorial nature of segregation in ungulates.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T09:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.027
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Understanding the effect of uncertainty on the development of neophobic
           antipredator phenotypes
    • Authors: Maud C.O. Ferrari; Grant E. Brown; Douglas P. Chivers
      Pages: 101 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): Maud C.O. Ferrari, Grant E. Brown, Douglas P. Chivers
      Exposure of prey animals to high background risk environments generates high-risk behavioural phenotypes characterized by prey that often display transient neophobic responses to novel stimuli. To manipulate background risk, researchers have most often used chemical alarm cues from injured conspecifics because these cues provide a general indication of a high-risk environment but no information regarding the identity of the source of the threat. Here, we hypothesized that the expression of neophobia (fear of unknown stimuli) may not be the result of elevated background risk per se, but rather the result of high uncertainty associated with the predation environment. Here we showed that woodfrog, Lithobates sylvaticus, tadpoles exposed to alarm cues alone for several days subsequently displayed neophobic phenotypes. The same was true for tadpoles exposed to alarm cues paired with the odour of a new novel predator each day for several days. However, tadpoles exposed to alarm cues paired with the same predator cue everyday did not develop the neophobic phenotype. This suggests that if the predator environment is certain (i.e. the alarm cue and predator cues always coincide), then the ratio of costs to benefits of neophobia is high and limits its expression. However, if the prey's uncertainty regarding the predator environment is high (i.e. the alarm cues are often associated with new unknown predators), then the potential survival benefits of expressing neophobia likely override the costs. The prey's perception of uncertainty may be a key driver of the expression of neophobic phenotypes.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T09:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.024
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Social information cascades influence the formation of mixed-species
           foraging aggregations of ant-following birds in the Neotropics
    • Authors: Ari E. Martínez; Henry S. Pollock; J. Patrick Kelley; Corey E. Tarwater
      Pages: 25 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Ari E. Martínez, Henry S. Pollock, J. Patrick Kelley, Corey E. Tarwater
      Animals frequently make decisions based on social information obtained from other animals, which can influence interspecific interactions and affect individual fitness. For example, animals eavesdrop on other animals to find profitable food resources, yet the types of cues they use and how these cues influence decisions to approach a resource remain poorly understood. In tropical systems, arthropods inadvertently flushed by army ant, Eciton burchellii, swarms are an important food resource for many bird species, which form mixed-species foraging aggregations at swarms. Competition at swarms is intense and birds vocalize to defend foraging areas, inadvertently producing acoustic social information about the swarm's location. Eavesdropping birds may use these acoustic cues, which provide information about the bird aggregation (i.e. species participating in the aggregation, the size of the aggregation and/or diversity of the aggregation) to assess potential benefits (food resources) and costs (competition for food) of joining an aggregation. To test this hypothesis, we used an acoustic playback experiment to simulate aggregations of birds foraging at ant swarms and we measured community-wide and guild-specific responses of forest birds to playbacks. We included three types of acoustic social information in playbacks that potentially interact to affect an eavesdropping bird's probability of attraction to a swarm: (1) aggregation size, (2) aggregation species richness and (3) degree of specialization on ant swarms for food of birds vocalizing in the aggregation (hereafter ‘dependency’). Using Bayesian generalized linear mixed models, we found that playbacks of obligate ant-following species elicited greater community-wide responses (i.e. attracted more individuals and species) to simulated aggregations compared to playbacks of other, less dependent guilds. We also found that interactions between dependency, species richness and aggregation size influenced the overall community response to playbacks and that species from one guild generally responded to the guild above them (i.e. from less to more specialized). Our results suggest that species evaluate multiple types of acoustic cues representing the costs and benefits of foraging in a mixed-species aggregation at a swarm. We hypothesize that species change from information receivers to information producers upon joining a swarm, ultimately producing an information cascade that further affects the dynamics of feeding aggregations at swarms.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.10.024
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Cohesiveness reduces foraging efficiency in a social herbivore
    • Authors: R.S. Stutz; U.A. Bergvall; O. Leimar; J. Tuomi; P. Rautio
      Pages: 57 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): R.S. Stutz, U.A. Bergvall, O. Leimar, J. Tuomi, P. Rautio
      For social foragers, movement as a group could increase foraging efficiency through collective discovery of high-quality food sources. This would require an efficient mechanism for transferring information about food quality between individuals. Conversely, the constraints of foraging as a cohesive group could decrease efficiency; grouping may persist to serve other functions such as protection from predators. To test what drives cohesion in herbivores, we manipulated patch shape and within-patch pattern of food quality and quantified the effects on group level diet selection by a social herbivore, the fallow deer, Dama dama. We arranged feeders containing fodder in lines or blocks, and manipulated the pattern of food quality within patches by adding tannin, a plant secondary compound that decreases palatability. We quantified the relative consumption of low- and high-tannin food to compare diet selectivity at the group level between patch treatments. If group foraging evolved to increase foraging efficiency, altering the spatial arrangement of food should not affect diet selectivity because information about food location and quality is shared. We found, however, that the herd expressed different levels of selectivity between both patch shapes and food quality patterns. Deer selected better diets in blocks than lines. In lines, the herd selected better diets when quality varied between alternate feeders rather than between the two halves of the patch, suggesting a reliance on personal rather than group information. Deer consumed the most at patch centres in all treatments except in blocks with high-tannin centres, but diet selection was poorer in the latter compared to blocks with low-tannin centres. Aggregation at the centre of patches appears to have restricted exploitation of the best food. Predation pressure and/or resource variability may have favoured the evolution of a foraging strategy that prioritizes social cohesion over effective diet selection.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Acoustic and physical mate guarding have different effects on intruder
           behaviour in a duetting songbird
    • Authors: Jenélle Dowling; Michael S. Webster
      Pages: 69 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Jenélle Dowling, Michael S. Webster
      When males compete for mates, they often defend paternity through mate guarding. In addition to physical guarding, in vocal species, especially duetting birds, individuals may duet with their mates in order to guard them. The acoustic mate-guarding hypothesis posits that duetting deters rivals. We experimentally tested the effectiveness of physical and acoustic mate guarding in a duetting songbird, the red-backed fairy-wren, Malurus melanocephalus, using a novel variation of a classic removal experiment. We temporarily removed males, such that females received either no guarding (mate removed), or only acoustic guarding (mate removed, his duet response played from speaker). We found that rival intrusion rates were highest when all guarding was prevented, slightly lower when only acoustic guarding occurred and lowest when pairs were unmanipulated, and both physical and acoustic guarding occurred. This suggests that both guarding techniques deter intruders, but acoustic guarding less so. Intruder display rate during removals was higher than in unmanipulated trials, regardless of acoustic guarding. Results suggest that acoustic guarding may function as a long-range signal that reduces the likelihood of rival intrusion, but physical guarding is necessary to prevent rivals from courting mates. We confirm that physical and acoustic mate guarding serve as important components of intruder deterrence, although they act at different levels. Our study broadens our understanding of multimodal paternity assurance strategies.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.011
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Observational learning of a spatial discrimination task by rats: learning
           from the mistakes of others'
    • Authors: Tiaza Bem; Bartosz Jura; Bruno Bontempi; Pierre Meyrand
      Pages: 85 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Tiaza Bem, Bartosz Jura, Bruno Bontempi, Pierre Meyrand
      Learning by observing others has been acknowledged as a powerful learning strategy. Whereas in several species observation of fear conditioning or other operational procedures can improve subsequent performance during actual learning, much less attention has been paid to observational learning of spatial discrimination tasks. To this end, we developed a set of procedures in which the spatial memory of adult rats, Rattus norvegicus, was tested in an eight-arm radial maze. Moreover, in view of controversial information concerning the incidence of mistakes made by demonstrators on the effectiveness of observational learning, our observer rats watched experienced or nontrained demonstrators. Food-deprived observers and demonstrators were initially habituated to the maze with all arms baited. Then observers were placed in a mesh cage positioned above the maze while a demonstrator rat was locating the spatial position of three baited arms. Rats observing conspecifics progressively learning the spatial discrimination improved subsequent performance compared to a control group watching an empty maze, but only if the configuration of baited arms presented during demonstration and testing matched. Therefore, rats integrated relevant spatial information during observation and used it efficiently when their spatial discrimination was tested in the maze. However, when the information was provided by trained demonstrators, making no mistakes and visiting only baited arms, observer rats failed to exhibit improved performance. Nevertheless, when given an initial habituation without food rewards, rats were subsequently able to benefit from observation of trained demonstrators thus showing that watching mistakes was not necessary for successful observational learning. Together, these findings indicate that rats can acquire spatial information via observation enabling more pertinent search strategies during testing and that for observation to be beneficial, what is observed must be sufficiently relevant or novel to complement existing knowledge (here initial habituation with or without rewards).

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.10.018
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • The function of ultrasonic vocalizations during territorial defence by
           pair-bonded male and female California mice
    • Authors: Nathaniel S. Rieger; Catherine A. Marler
      Pages: 97 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Nathaniel S. Rieger, Catherine A. Marler
      Acoustic communication is vital to complex social behaviours such as territorial defence. The use of ultrasonic vocalizations, particularly in territorial defence by monogamous species and females, remains understudied. We studied ultrasonic vocalization production and associated aggression in the monogamous, biparental and territorial California mouse, Peromyscus californicus, in which both males and females were found to display similar levels of physical aggression against same-sex intruders. We identified specific ultrasonic vocalization calls that are modulated based on social context: (1) sustained vocalizations, which are long, low-bandwidth calls ranging from 22 to 25kHz, and (2) barks, which are short, high-intensity calls beginning and ending in the audible range. Despite similarities in physical aggression, sex differences emerged in vocal communication. Only resident males, and not females, produced sustained vocalizations prior to the onset of physical aggression, and were found to shorten the duration of individual sustained vocalization calls over both the course of the pre-encounter phase and from the pre-encounter to encounter phase. In addition, the degree of sustained vocalization shortening in males predicted offensive aggression of the resident. Males exhibited shorter sustained vocalization calls during encounters than females. Barks occurred more frequently during female–female physical aggression than in male–male encounters, and correlated highly with defensive aggression by intruders. Finally, a newly identified highly complex call, sweep phrases, was recorded in a subset of both sexes in the pre- and post-encounter phases. The overall results indicate that ultrasonic vocalizations may play an important role in territorial defence during both territorial advertisement and aggression in a monogamous rodent. Overall, this monogamous species showed sex similarities in physical aggression but sex differences in vocal communication and a more sophisticated function for sustained vocalizations than previously recognized.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Worker thelytoky allows requeening of orphaned colonies but increases
           susceptibility to reproductive cheating in an ant
    • Authors: Claudie Doums; Pierre Fédérici; Pascaline Chifflet-Belle; Thibaud Monnin
      Pages: 109 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Claudie Doums, Pierre Fédérici, Pascaline Chifflet-Belle, Thibaud Monnin
      In some social insects, workers can produce females asexually through thelytokous parthenogenesis. This allows them to produce replacement queens (i.e. requeening) if the queen has died, but also to compete with the queen to produce females (i.e. reproductive cheating). For the first time, we experimentally tested the role of worker thelytoky under quasinatural conditions in the ant Cataglyphis cursor, where the queen uses both sexual and thelytokous reproduction. We reared pairs of orphaned and queenright colonies in enclosures for almost 3 months, during which they competed for resources. Orphaned colonies lost more workers than queenright colonies over the course of the experiment, presumably because of the costs of reproductive conflicts between workers. Nevertheless, they produced new queens through worker thelytoky and new colonies through colony fission. This is the first unambiguous demonstration that worker thelytoky allows requeening under natural conditions in this species. We further showed that worker thelytoky results in reproductive cheating in the form of a few workers reproducing in the presence of the queen (in queenright colonies) and a few worker lineages producing more new queens than other lineages (in orphaned colonies). In addition, it also results in rare instances of social parasitism, that is, workers entering and reproducing in foreign colonies. These benefits to workers seem too occasional and too low to drive the evolution of thelytoky in this species. We argue that thelytoky probably evolved in the queen caste, where it allows the production of young queens and confers frequent and large benefits by increasing gene transmission, but is also expressed in workers because of genetic correlations between the two castes.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.013
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Development of object manipulation in wild chimpanzees
    • Authors: Noemie Lamon; Christof Neumann; Klaus Zuberbühler
      Pages: 121 - 130
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Noemie Lamon, Christof Neumann, Klaus Zuberbühler
      Chimpanzees' natural propensity to explore and play with objects is likely to be an important precursor of tool use. Manipulating objects provides individuals with pivotal perceptual-motor experience when interacting with the material world, which may then pave the way for subsequent tool use. In this study, we were interested in the influence of social models on the developmental patterns of object manipulation in young chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, of the Sonso community of Budongo Forest, Uganda. This community is interesting because of its limited tool repertoire, with no records of stick-based foraging in over 20 years of continuous observations. Using cross-sectional data, we found evidence for social learning in that young individuals preferentially played with and explored materials manipulated by their mothers. We also found that object manipulation rates decreased with age, whereas the goal directedness of these manipulations increased. Specifically, stick manipulations gradually decreased with age, which culminated in complete disregard of sticks around the age of 10 years, a pattern not found for other tool materials, which were all used throughout adulthood. Overall, young chimpanzees initially explored and played unselectively with any object found in the environment before becoming increasingly influenced by their mothers' goal-directed object manipulations.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Social conformity in solitary crabs, Carcinus maenas, is driven by
           individual differences in behavioural plasticity
    • Authors: Ines Fürtbauer; Amanda Fry
      Pages: 131 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Ines Fürtbauer, Amanda Fry
      Group living is widespread in the animal kingdom and recent studies into the mechanisms underlying group cohesion and behavioural synchrony have highlighted the importance of between-individual behavioural differences (‘animal personality’). In group-living animals, social conformity occurs when animals compromise their own behaviour to the level of a certain behaviour displayed by another individual or a group, and the degree to which individuals conform can depend upon interindividual differences in behavioural types. Social conformity can increase group cohesion and ultimately predator avoidance and/or resource acquisition for group-living individuals. However, it remains unclear whether similar conformity effects exist in solitary species, many of which form temporary aggregations and, if so, whether changes in behaviour in the presence of conspecifics are dependent on individuals' personalities in solitary contexts. We studied the effects of social context (i.e. the presence of a conspecific) on behaviour in solitary shore crabs, using automated video tracking. Individuals differed consistently in their activity levels within and across contexts and were significantly more active in solitary than dyadic contexts. No differences in activity between same- and opposite-sex dyads were found. Crabs' activity levels were more similar when tested together than when tested alone, indicating a social conformity effect. Furthermore, more active behavioural types decreased their activity to a greater extent when paired with a conspecific. The sex composition of the dyad had no effect on changes in activity. Overall, our findings suggest that social conformity is moderated by individual behavioural differences in a solitary organism. It is often presumed that, over evolutionary time, the social structure of animal populations has important consequences for the evolution of personalities and vice versa. We suggest that studying solitary or facultatively social organisms may allow researchers to tease out causality between personality differences and socioecological dynamics.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Does increasing habitat complexity favour particular personality types of
           juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar'
    • Authors: Kathleen D.W. Church; James W.A. Grant
      Pages: 139 - 146
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Kathleen D.W. Church, James W.A. Grant
      The costs and benefits of a particular behavioural trait, such as boldness or aggression, may vary depending on the physical environment. We tested whether the common practice of adding physical structure (i.e. boulders) to streams to increase salmonid density has behavioural consequences, as open habitats are predicted to favour individuals that are more bold and aggressive. Wild young-of-the-year Atlantic salmon were captured from habitats of varying physical complexity and placed into seminatural stream enclosures for 11 days while their behaviour was observed and tested in both open and structurally complex environments. We found evidence for personality, or consistent individual behavioural differences across contexts, for avoidance and site attachment, with repeatabilities of 0.287 and 0.206, respectively, but not for activity or frequency of aggression. Fish were significantly more active and aggressive in the open habitats, and more site-attached in the complex habitats. Active and aggressive fish also grew more in the wild, while site-attached fish grew less in the wild, but more in the enclosures. However, contrary to our expectation, the complexity of the original habitat was not a significant predictor of personality. Our results suggest stream restorations involving increasing habitat complexity will alter the behaviour of young-of-the-year Atlantic salmon, but will not favour any particular personality types.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Is the quorum threshold for emergent group response in whirligigs absolute
           or proportional'
    • Authors: W.L. Romey; C.D. Kemak
      Pages: 147 - 152
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): W.L. Romey, C.D. Kemak
      Groups of animals sometimes coordinate their individual behaviours to produce an emergent group response. Examples of these quorum responses include stampedes in ungulates and orientation flights in honeybee swarms. In these groups, there may be some individuals who are knowledgeable about the threat or direction to go to, and others who are not. Few experimental studies have convincingly addressed whether the number of knowledgeable individuals to trigger an emergent group response is a fixed (absolute) number or a fixed proportion (percentage) of the group. We tested whether this threshold to produce an emergent group response was absolute or proportional in an experimental study of whirligig beetles (Gyrinidae: Dineutes). When whirligig beetles see an aerial predator, individuals make a startle response. If enough beetles startle, then the whole group makes a flash expansion. In our study, we manipulated the numbers of beetles in a group that were able to see the predator model by covering their eyes. We also manipulated group size (12, 24, 48). Our results reject the absolute hypothesis and support the proportional hypothesis for how many knowledgeable whirligigs it takes in a group to elicit an emergent flash expansion. At all three group sizes the threshold was approximately 10%. We also examined the interaction of the ratio of sighted/unsighted beetles and group size on swarm density, group area and longevity (duration of the flash expansion). Longevity was significantly leptokurtic, as would be expected for a stereotyped display. This is one of the first controlled empirical studies to differentiate between absolute and proportional thresholds in producing an emergent predator avoidance response.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.016
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Colour alone matters: no predator generalization among morphs of an
           aposematic moth
    • Authors: Katja Rönkä; Chiara De Pasqual; Johanna Mappes; Swanne Gordon; Bibiana Rojas
      Pages: 153 - 163
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Katja Rönkä, Chiara De Pasqual, Johanna Mappes, Swanne Gordon, Bibiana Rojas
      Local warning colour polymorphism, frequently observed in aposematic organisms, is evolutionarily puzzling. This is because variation in aposematic signals is expected to be selected against due to predators' difficulties associating several signals with a given unprofitable prey. One possible explanation for the existence of such variation is predator generalization, which occurs when predators learn to avoid one form and consequently avoid other sufficiently similar forms, relaxing selection for monomorphic signals. We tested this hypothesis by exposing the three different colour morphs of the aposematic wood tiger moth, Arctia plantaginis, existing in Finland to local wild-caught predators (blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus). We designed artificial moths that varied only in their hindwing coloration (white, yellow and red) keeping other traits (e.g. wing pattern and size) constant. Thus, if the birds transferred their aversion of one morph to the other two we could infer that their visual appearances are sufficiently similar for predator generalization to take place. We found that, surprisingly, birds showed no preference or aversion for any of the three morphs presented. During the avoidance learning trials, birds learned to avoid the red morph considerably faster than the white or yellow morphs, confirming previous findings on the efficacy of red as a warning signal that facilitates predator learning. Birds did not generalize their learned avoidance of one colour morph to the other two morphs, suggesting that they pay more attention to conspicuous wing coloration than other traits. Our results are in accordance with previous findings that coloration plays a key role during avoidance learning and generalization, which has important implications for the evolution of mimicry. We conclude that, in the case of wood tiger moths, predator generalization is unlikely to explain the unexpected coexistence of different morphs.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.015
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Food supply fluctuations constrain group sizes of kangaroos and in turn
           shape their vigilance and feeding strategies
    • Authors: François-René Favreau; Anne W. Goldizen; Hervé Fritz; Olivier Pays
      Pages: 165 - 176
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): François-René Favreau, Anne W. Goldizen, Hervé Fritz, Olivier Pays
      Seasonal variation in food resources and predation risk imposes major constraints on herbivores, which must adjust their behaviour to maximize their energy intake and survival. In seasonally driven landscapes, it is not yet clear what the primary drivers are that shape seasonal variation in vigilance and feeding rates. These rates have been shown to vary in relation to various environmental, social and individual factors, but many of these factors also vary through the year, due to variation in food supply. We studied wild female eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, under low predation risk over a year to investigate whether vigilance and feeding rates varied seasonally and whether this variation was mainly driven by food quantity or quality, group size or individuals' reproductive states. Both vigilance and feeding rates varied seasonally, as did food quantity and quality and group size. Vigilance, including antipredator (head orientation away from the group) and exclusive (i.e. vigilance without chewing) vigilance, decreased and feeding rate increased with increasing group size. However, because group size increased with food quality and quantity, food resources emerged as the primary driver of variation in behavioural strategies. These results suggest that the observed effects of group size on the trade-off between food acquisition and safety are in fact corollaries of the seasonal variation in food supply in our study system, in which the risk of predation on adults is low, and hence are by-products of the foraging choices made by kangaroos in response to the dynamics of the quantity and quality of food.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.020
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Doing what your neighbour does: neighbour proximity, familiarity and
           postural alignment increase behavioural mimicry
    • Authors: Petra L. McDougall; Kathreen E. Ruckstuhl
      Pages: 177 - 185
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Petra L. McDougall, Kathreen E. Ruckstuhl
      Nonconscious behavioural mimicry, acting similarly to one's social partner, is thought to be a core component of group cohesion and coordination. However, the mechanisms contributing to this phenomenon are poorly understood. Understanding why behaviour is mimicked in some contexts but not in others is an important step in developing hypotheses about how and why some behaviours spread between social partners. Here we examine mimicry of routine vigilance during grazing episodes in a population of free-ranging bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, rams. Results indicate that vigilance bouts are more likely to be mimicked when neighbouring rams are in closer proximity, more familiar with one another and posturally aligned. Additionally, older rams are more likely than young rams to mimic the vigilance bouts of others, and mimicry occurs more often when the initiating ram is lower ranking than the mimicking ram. We interpret these findings within the framework of biases in attentiveness to particular individuals as a possible mechanism leading to the occurrence of behavioural mimicry.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.009
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Comparing functions of copulation calls in wild olive baboons, Papio
           anubis, using multimodel inference
    • Authors: Yaëlle Bouquet; Claudia Stephan; Caley A. Johnson; Jessica M. Rothman; Christof Neumann; Klaus Zuberbühler
      Pages: 187 - 197
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Yaëlle Bouquet, Claudia Stephan, Caley A. Johnson, Jessica M. Rothman, Christof Neumann, Klaus Zuberbühler
      Female copulation calls are species specific, distinct vocal signals sometimes given during or shortly after mating. Despite being common in primates and despite much empirical work, their function remains largely unclear for most species. Here, we used an information-theoretic approach to examine simultaneously three main competing hypotheses for the evolution of copulation calls. Two of the three hypotheses predict that female copulation calls function to incite competition between males, either directly (the male–male competition hypothesis) or indirectly (the sperm competition hypothesis), while the third predicts that females use calls to choose mating partners (the female choice hypothesis). We collected data on copulations of wild female olive baboons in Kibale National Park, Uganda, to compare the relative support for these hypotheses by modelling whether or not females produced copulation calls after mounts. Our analytical approach enabled us to objectively rank models corresponding to the three hypotheses according to how well our data fitted the models. Our data favoured the sperm competition hypothesis over the female choice hypothesis although much variation in calling remained unexplained. The male–male competition hypothesis seems unlikely given our data. We also discuss the possibility that copulation calls have no function, functions not included in our analysis, or that they are multifunctional, a reflection of the species' social evolution history.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.019
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Tactile information improves visual object discrimination in kea, Nestor
           notabilis, and capuchin monkeys, Sapajus spp.
    • Authors: Paola Carducci; Raoul Schwing; Ludwig Huber; Valentina Truppa
      Pages: 199 - 207
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Paola Carducci, Raoul Schwing, Ludwig Huber, Valentina Truppa
      In comparative visual cognition research, the influence of information acquired by nonvisual senses has received little attention. Systematic studies focusing on how the integration of information from sight and touch can affect animal perception are sparse. Here, we investigated whether tactile input improves visual discrimination ability of a bird, the kea, and capuchin monkeys, two species with acute vision, and known for their tendency to handle objects. To this end, we assessed whether, at the attainment of a criterion, accuracy and/or learning speed in the visual modality were enhanced by haptic (i.e. active tactile) exploration of an object. Subjects were trained to select the positive stimulus between two cylinders of the same shape and size, but with different surface structures. In the Sight condition, one pair of cylinders was inserted into transparent Plexiglas tubes. This prevented animals from haptically perceiving the objects' surfaces. In the Sight and Touch condition, one pair of cylinders was not inserted into transparent Plexiglas tubes. This allowed the subjects to perceive the objects' surfaces both visually and haptically. We found that both kea and capuchins (1) showed comparable levels of accuracy at the attainment of the learning criterion in both conditions, but (2) required fewer trials to achieve the criterion in the Sight and Touch condition. Moreover, this study showed that both kea and capuchins can integrate information acquired by the visual and tactile modalities. To our knowledge, this represents the first evidence of visuotactile integration in a bird species. Overall, our findings demonstrate that the acquisition of tactile information while manipulating objects facilitates visual discrimination of objects in two phylogenetically distant species.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.018
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Bumblebee social learning can lead to suboptimal foraging choices
    • Authors: Aurore Avarguès-Weber; Robert Lachlan; Lars Chittka
      Pages: 209 - 214
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Aurore Avarguès-Weber, Robert Lachlan, Lars Chittka
      Bumblebees are influenced by socially acquired information when deciding on which flowers to forage. In some circumstances, however, this attraction towards conspecifics may lead to suboptimal foraging performance because the presence of multiple pollinators typically results in a faster rate of nectar depletion in the flower. We tested the capacity of bees to learn to avoid flowers occupied by conspecifics when they offered a lower reward than unoccupied similar flowers. Bumblebees were able to discriminate between poorly and highly rewarding flowers by using the presence of a nonsocial cue (a wooden rectangular white block). When poorly rewarding flowers were indicated by social cues (model bees), however, bees did not discriminate between the two flower types except when an additional cue was provided (flower colour). These findings indicate that bumblebees attach particular meaning to conspecific presence on flowers, even when this could lead to suboptimal foraging performance. The relatively lower flexibility in the use of social than nonsocial cues suggests a biased positive value of conspecifics as indicators of rewarded flowers.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.022
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Female–female aggression functions in mate defence in an Asian
           agamid lizard
    • Authors: Yayong Wu; Jose A. Ramos; Xia Qiu; Richard A. Peters; Yin Qi
      Pages: 215 - 222
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Yayong Wu, Jose A. Ramos, Xia Qiu, Richard A. Peters, Yin Qi
      Female–female aggression and its functions are poorly understood compared with male–male aggression. Here, we examined the role of female–female aggression in mate defence in an Asian agamid lizard, Phrynocephalus vlangalii, in which male neighbours are valuable to females in both mating success and resource defence. We provided three social contexts by pairing a resident female with either a neighbour male, unfamiliar male or unfamiliar female, then introduced a tethered unknown female (intruder). We carried out our experiments during and outside the mating season to test the links between female–female aggression and mate defence. The aggressive responses of resident females in these different social contexts were compared by quantifying variation in their territorial displays. Resident females were faster to display to the intruder in the presence of a neighbour male compared with both the unfamiliar male and female. We also found that female lizards signalled faster in the presence of the neighbour male than the other contexts, but only during the mating season. To separate the effects of familiarity from those of sex, we carried out a second experiment in which we paired a resident female with a neighbour male or neighbour female, before introducing a tethered unfamiliar female. In this experiment, resident females responded sooner to intruder females when paired with the neighbour male, although signalling speeds were equivalent. Taken together, our results suggest female–female aggression is used for both resource and mate defence, and so might be under direct selection. Our study highlights that female aggression more broadly requires further work.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.023
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Linking components of complex signals to morphological part: the role of
           anther and corolla in the complex floral display
    • Authors: Avery L. Russell; Kevin B. Mauerman; Rebekah E. Golden; Daniel R. Papaj
      Pages: 223 - 236
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Avery L. Russell, Kevin B. Mauerman, Rebekah E. Golden, Daniel R. Papaj
      Signals used in communication are frequently complex, being composed of multiple signal components that in combination improve information transfer. A variety of morphological parts are typically used to transmit components of any given complex signal. Our understanding of why a given morphological part is used to transmit a given signal component is poor. We hypothesized that the function of a given signal component is improved by its association with its morphological part and that such parts interact functionally to transmit information. In a laboratory study we characterized the function of different floral signal components transmitted by associated floral parts and the interaction of those signal components. Using Solanum houstonii flowers, we focused on two major floral parts, corolla and anthers, involved in signalling bumblebee, Bombus impatiens, visitors. We further examined how experience affected the relationship between signal component and floral part. Floral visits involve a stepwise process in which bees approach, land and acquire pollen. We found that the corolla plays the dominant role in eliciting approaches by bees, whether naïve or experienced. Landing is elicited by corolla signals and, to a lesser but additive degree, anther signals. Following experience, anther signals nearly completely dominate corolla signals in eliciting landing. The anthers convey signals mediating pollen acquisition, regardless of the bee's experience level. Our findings suggest there is selection for specific relationships between signal components and morphological parts, which in turn might drive complex signal evolution.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.021
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Pheromone communication in moths: evolution, behavior, and application,
           Jeremy D. Allison, Ring T. Cardé (Eds.) (2016)
    • Authors: Neil J. Vickers
      Pages: 237 - 238
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Neil J. Vickers


      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Chimpanzees gesture to humans in mirrors: using reflection to dissociate
           seeing from line of gaze
    • Authors: Robert Lurz; Carla Krachun; Lindsay Mahovetz; McLennon J.G. Wilson; William Hopkins
      Pages: 239 - 249
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Robert Lurz, Carla Krachun, Lindsay Mahovetz, McLennon J.G. Wilson, William Hopkins
      There is much experimental evidence suggesting that chimpanzees understand that others see. However, previous research has never experimentally ruled out the alternative explanation that chimpanzees are just responding to the geometric cue of ‘direct line of gaze’, the observable correlate of seeing in others. Here, we sought to resolve this ambiguity by dissociating seeing from direct line of gaze using a mirror. We investigated the frequency of chimpanzees' visual gestures towards a human experimenter who could see them (as a result of looking into a mirror) but who lacked a direct line of gaze to them (as a result of having his/her head turned away). Chimpanzees produced significantly more visual gestures when the experimenter could see them than when he/she could not, even when the experimenter did not have a direct line of gaze to them. Results suggest that chimpanzees, through a possible process of experience projection based on their own prior experience with mirrors, infer that an experimenter looking at the mirror can see them. We discuss our results in relation to the theory of mind hypothesis that chimpanzees understand seeing in others, and we evaluate possible alternative low-level explanations.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.014
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Social costs are an underappreciated force for honest signalling in animal
           aggregations
    • Authors: Michael S. Webster; Russell A. Ligon; Gavin M. Leighton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour
      Author(s): Michael S. Webster, Russell A. Ligon, Gavin M. Leighton
      Animals in social aggregations use signals of quality or motivation to attract mates and intimidate rivals. Theory indicates that honesty can be maintained in these signals if the costs of signalling affect low-quality individuals more than they affect high-quality individuals. Considerable research has focused on identifying the nature of those costs and their ability to maintain honest signals. Much of this research, particularly in recent years, has focused on receiver-independent physiological costs of signal production. Less research attention has been paid to receiver-dependent costs that might arise from conspecific responses to signals. Here we survey the literature on these different types of costs, focusing in particular on case studies from a diversity of taxa. We find that signals often do carry significant physiological production costs, but this is not universal, as many signals appear to be physiologically inexpensive to produce. More importantly, very few studies have tested the key prediction that physiological production costs differentially affect low-quality individuals over high-quality individuals. In contrast, research from a diversity of taxa indicates that signals such as coloration and vocalizations often affect agonistic interactions, which in turn affect the production of signals, and that deceptive signallers receive more aggression than do honest signallers in at least some systems. Social costs are a plausible but understudied mechanism for maintaining honest signalling.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T09:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.12.006
       
  • Editors Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135


      PubDate: 2018-01-16T09:21:20Z
       
  • Association Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135


      PubDate: 2018-01-16T09:21:20Z
       
  • Are all motivation tests the same' The effect of two adaptations to a
           three-chamber consumer demand study in ferrets
    • Authors: Marsinah L. Reijgwart; Claudia M. Vinke; Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen; Miriam van der Meer; Nico J. Schoemaker; Yvonne R.A. van Zeeland
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Marsinah L. Reijgwart, Claudia M. Vinke, Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen, Miriam van der Meer, Nico J. Schoemaker, Yvonne R.A. van Zeeland
      Ferrets, Mustela putorius furo, are increasingly used in infectious disease studies, particularly in influenza research. Which specific housing conditions and environmental enrichments are of particular importance for ferrets have not been part of a systematic evaluation. The motivation ferrets showed to reach different enrichments was assessed in multiple consumer demand study set-ups. To address the question whether these consumer demand set-ups give similar results, we assessed the effects of two ways of offering enrichments concurrently instead of consecutively. Six ovariectomized female ferrets were successively tested in a seven-chamber (7Ch), three-chamber (3Ch) and three-chamber ‘all-but-one’ (ABO) set-up. We compared the maximum price paid, visit number, visit duration and interaction time with the enrichments in the 3Ch versus the 7Ch and ABO set-ups, respectively. Compared to the 3Ch set-up, the ferrets in the ABO and 7Ch set-up showed a lower motivation to access, paid fewer and shorter visits to and interacted less with the enrichments. In the 7Ch, the ferrets especially showed a lower motivation for the less preferred enrichments and the empty chamber. These findings indicate that testing all the enrichments concurrently in the 7Ch set-up forced the ferrets to make more economic decisions, thereby providing more valuable information on how different enrichments are valued relative to one other. Adding preferred enrichment items to the home chamber, as was done in the ABO set-up, might have reduced the motivation to access or look for additional enrichment items. However, this set-up might not have a closed economy, making the ABO set-up unsuitable. Based on these findings, we advise testing all the enrichment categories concurrently instead of consecutively and keeping the number of items in the home cage to a minimum when performing a consumer demand study, as this appears the most optimal set-up to determine motivational priorities for resources in ferrets.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:10:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.10.026
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2017)
       
  • Social networks of spotted hyaenas in areas of contrasting human activity
           and infrastructure
    • Authors: Lydia E. Belton; Elissa Z. Cameron; Fredrik Dalerum
      Pages: 13 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Lydia E. Belton, Elissa Z. Cameron, Fredrik Dalerum
      In group-living animals, the structure of social interactions among group members can have important consequences for individual fitness. Changes in resource abundance can influence social interactions with an expected weakening of social ties during times of resource scarcity. Although human activity and infrastructure often impose a disturbance on animal populations, they can also be a source of reliable resources that are relatively easy to access. We evaluated whether the social networks differed between four spotted hyaena, Crocuta crocuta, clans experiencing contrasting levels of human activity and infrastructure in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. The clan living in an area of high human activity and infrastructure had a less dense social network than the other clans, and the clan living in an area with limited human activity and infrastructure had shorter path lengths than the other clans, suggesting that it had more closely associated individuals. Our results did not support substantial differences between clans in the relative social network positions of animals from different age and rank classes. Contrary to our expectations, we suggest that anthropogenic resources may have weakened the social cohesiveness within spotted hyaena clans. We also argue that our study supports previous suggestions that there may be individual variation within broader classes of rank, age and sex in the position of individual animals in social networks.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:10:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.10.027
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2017)
       
  • Lateralization of spontaneous behaviours in the domestic cat, Felis
           silvestris
    • Authors: Louise J. McDowell; Deborah L. Wells; Peter G. Hepper
      Pages: 37 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Louise J. McDowell, Deborah L. Wells, Peter G. Hepper
      Recent research has drawn attention to the link between lateral bias and cerebral functional asymmetry in animals. Most studies of animal laterality have focused on limb use arising from forced experimental challenges as opposed to spontaneous behaviours. This study explored, for the first time, the expression of lateralized spontaneous behaviour in the domestic cat, a species that exhibits motor bias in the form of paw preferences. The side used by 44 pet cats to perform three spontaneous behaviours (lying side, stepping down a flight of stairs, stepping over a raised object) was recorded. Paw preferences were also assessed using a more traditional forced food reaching challenge. Cats showed a significant lateral bias for food reaching, stepping down and stepping over. Those with a paw preference, however, did not differ significantly in their tendency towards left or right sidedness. The direction of the cats' side preferences was significantly correlated for most measures, whether forced or spontaneous. The strength of the cats' motor bias was significantly related to the task; animals displayed a weaker lateral bias for lying side than any other measure. The study revealed a sex split in the direction, although not the strength, of the cats' lateral bias for food reaching, stepping down and stepping over. Males showed a significant preference for using their left paw on these measures, while females were more inclined to use the right one. The study provides the first evidence that the domestic cat displays motor laterality on specific spontaneous behaviours, and that the direction, although not the strength, of these lateral biases is largely consistent with that of an experimental task. The results suggest that the more forced food-reaching test traditionally used to assess motor bias in the cat offers a biologically valid measure of limb use in this species.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:10:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2017)
       
  • Thermal parental effects on offspring behaviour and their fitness
           consequences
    • Authors: Stephanie McDonald; Lisa E. Schwanz
      Pages: 45 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Stephanie McDonald, Lisa E. Schwanz
      Environmental and developmental conditions can drive substantial variation in offspring behaviour and developmental trajectory. While incubation temperature is well known to influence development in oviparous animals, little is known of the role of parental temperature on offspring phenotype (i.e. thermal parental effects). Following exposure of male and gravid female jacky dragons, Amphibolurus muricatus, to one of two thermal treatments (short-bask versus long-bask) and incubation of their eggs at a constant temperature, we examined whether the preovipositional parental treatment influenced offspring performance-related behaviours. We detected main and interactive effects of parental treatment on offspring behaviours including feeding, exploration and antipredator. Sex-specific effects of parental treatment included long-bask sons being more likely to feed and being bolder following predatory attack than short-bask sons, while the differences between treatments for daughters were smaller. Behaviours were not consistent between 1 week and 1 month of age and showed little correlation across behavioural contexts. Some behaviours emerged as promising mechanisms of documented parental effects on offspring growth and survival in these individuals. In particular, boldness among long-bask sons in an antipredator context may be linked to their greater rates of growth posthatching. Overall, our findings suggest that thermal parental effects influence variation in animal behaviours relevant for subsequent fitness outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:10:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2017)
       
  • Susceptibility to ecological traps is similar among closely related taxa
           but sensitive to spatial isolation
    • Authors: Bruce A. Robertson; Isabel A. Keddy-Hector; Shailab D. Shrestha; Leah Y. Silverberg; Clara E. Woolner; Ian Hetterich; Gábor Horváth
      Pages: 77 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Bruce A. Robertson, Isabel A. Keddy-Hector, Shailab D. Shrestha, Leah Y. Silverberg, Clara E. Woolner, Ian Hetterich, Gábor Horváth
      Ecological traps are maladaptive behavioural scenarios in which animals prefer to settle in habitats with the lowest survival and/or reproductive success. Aquatic insect species, for example, are attracted to sources of horizontally polarized light associated with natural water bodies, but today they commonly prefer to lay their eggs upon asphalt roads and buildings that reflect an unnaturally high percentage of polarized light. Ecological traps are a rapidly emerging threat to the persistence of animal populations, but the degree to which species vary in their susceptibility to them remains uninvestigated. We designed a field experiment to (1) assess the relative susceptibility of aquatic flies (Diptera) to a single maladaptive behavioural cue: variation in degree of horizontally polarized light (d), and (2) quantify how the isolation of an ecological trap from a high-quality habitat affects its relative attractiveness. We exposed wild dipterans to experimental test surfaces varying in d at three distances from natural streams and mapped behavioural reaction norms of habitat preference as a function of d and distance from high-quality habitat. All seven of the dipteran families were captured most in traps with progressively higher d values, especially those (d =90–100%) that exceeded that of natural water bodies (30–80%). In most taxa, the height and slope of numerical responses to d were influenced by the distance of an ecological trap from a natural water body. Our results illustrate that dipterans have broadly evolved the use of a habitat selection behaviour that treats more strongly polarized light sources as indicative higher-quality habitats, making them broadly susceptible to ecological traps driven by polarized light pollution. We also found that the spatial isolation of ecological traps from higher-quality, but less attractive, habitats can either increase or reduce species' susceptibility to them.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:10:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.10.023
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2017)
       
  • Differential effects of predator cues versus activation of fight-or-flight
           behaviour on reproduction in the cricket Gryllus texensis
    • Authors: S.A. Adamo; R. McKee
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 134
      Author(s): S.A. Adamo, R. McKee
      How prey animals determine predation risk remains uncertain. We propose that one signal of high predation risk is repeated activation of fight-or-flight behaviour. We activated escape runs in the cricket Gryllus texensis by blowing air on the cerci. Escape runs were induced for 5min, three times per day, three times per week for 4 weeks. Repeated fight-or-flight behaviour led to a loss in mass and decreased life span, suggesting a decline in somatic maintenance. However, there was an increase in egg laying, which we interpret as terminal reproductive investment. Stress responses remained robust. Octopamine (OA), a stress neurohormone in insects, increased in concentration in the haemolymph after running, and the magnitude of the increase was the same even after repeated activation (i.e. there was no habituation of the response). There was also no increase in basal OA haemolymph levels. In a second experiment, crickets were exposed to a mantid (predator, Tenodera sinensis), a walking stick (nonpredator, Carausius morosus), or an empty container. None of the crickets exhibited fight-or-flight behaviour. However, mantid-exposed crickets decreased egg laying. There was no decrease in life span or mass. There was no change in basal levels of OA, or in the magnitude of the OA increase after running. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that repeated fight-or-flight behaviour induces reproductive responses that would be adaptive for a shortened life span. These responses differ from those produced by predator cues alone. Even short-lived animals, such as crickets, appear to alter reproduction depending on the relative predation risk and their residual reproductive potential.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T14:35:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.09.027
      Issue No: Vol. 134 (2017)
       
  • Male hyraxes increase countersinging as strangers become ‘nasty
           neighbours’
    • Authors: Yael Goll; Vlad Demartsev; Lee Koren; Eli Geffen
      Pages: 9 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 134
      Author(s): Yael Goll, Vlad Demartsev, Lee Koren, Eli Geffen
      Many territorial animals interact less aggressively with neighbours than with strangers, a phenomenon known as the ‘dear enemy’ effect, although some species show the opposite behaviour. Rock hyraxes, Procavia capensis, are social mammals that communicate via a rich acoustic repertoire. Male hyraxes produce elaborate advertisement calls (i.e. songs) both spontaneously and in response to occasional attention-grabbing events (e.g. pup screams, agonistic interaction), as well as to conspecific male songs. When replying to conspecific songs, male hyraxes tend to respond more to familiar males than to strangers, reflecting the ‘nasty neighbour’ effect. Our study relates to the general question of why some species respond aggressively towards neighbours, while others are more aggressive towards strangers. We hypothesized that male hyraxes eventually familiarize themselves with a stranger, subsequently perceiving its intentions as highly threatening and deserving of a vocal response. To simulate the presence of a stranger in the area we exposed wild hyrax groups to playbacks of natural songs of unfamiliar hyraxes. Male rock hyraxes became more likely to reply to a stranger's song over time, but this was independent of the number of times they heard the song. This suggests that either (1) the threat presented by a stranger increases when it is no longer perceived as transient or (2) because listeners do not physically encounter the stranger, they perceive replying aggressively as a low-risk response. Our work implies that species may demonstrate a range of condition-dependent behaviours instead of a dichotomy between the ‘nasty neighbour’ and ‘dear enemy’ strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T14:35:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 134 (2017)
       
  • Juvenile coral reef fish alter escape responses when exposed to changes in
           background and acute risk levels
    • Authors: Ryan A. Ramasamy; Bridie J.M. Allan; Mark I. McCormick; Douglas P. Chivers; Matthew D. Mitchell; Maud C.O. Ferrari
      Pages: 15 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 134
      Author(s): Ryan A. Ramasamy, Bridie J.M. Allan, Mark I. McCormick, Douglas P. Chivers, Matthew D. Mitchell, Maud C.O. Ferrari
      The response of prey to predation threats is often plastic and can vary with the individual's perceived level of threat. To determine whether prey escape responses can be modulated by background levels of risk or short-term acute risk, we maintained juvenile damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, under high- or low-risk background conditions for several days and then exposed them to an acute risk (high-risk alarm cues or a low-risk saltwater control) minutes prior to startling them with a mechanical disturbance. Fish responded in one of two ways: they either made a C-start escape response or backed away from the threat. While exposure to either background high risk or acute high risk increased the proportion of C-starters, surprisingly the frequency of C-starters decreased when background high risk and acute risk types were combined. Exposure to an acute high-risk cue increased the escape performance for both types of escape responses. However, when the acute high-risk cue occurred within high-risk background conditions, this only increased the performance of C-start escape responses. Non-C-starters reacted similarly in both background risk conditions. Background risk and acute risk acted in a simple additive manner, as seen by the lack of interaction between the two factors. Results showed that escape responses are amplified as the level of perceived risk increases.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T14:35:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.09.026
      Issue No: Vol. 134 (2017)
       
  • Climatic, social and reproductive influences on behavioural
           thermoregulation in a female-dominated lemur
    • Authors: Timothy M. Eppley; Julia Watzek; Katie Hall; Giuseppe Donati
      Pages: 25 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 134
      Author(s): Timothy M. Eppley, Julia Watzek, Katie Hall, Giuseppe Donati
      It is well established that social rank in a large group confers a higher adaptive value to a dominant individual relative to others, although there is scant evidence that members of small social groups either have similar social standing or maintain strict dominance. We aimed to determine whether members of small social groups, using the southern bamboo lemur, Hapalemur meridionalis, as a model, gain rank-related benefits. We first established a dominance hierarchy through a network-based analysis of win–loss interactions, which showed that adult females maintained social dominance within their groups, similar to many strepsirrhine species. To address whether dominant individuals gained rank-related benefits, we then explored how social dynamics may permit access to resting huddles, which provide a physiological benefit. Social thermoregulation, i.e. huddling, is a behavioural energy conservation mechanism, and among many mammals is a direct response to decreasing ambient temperatures. As such, huddling behaviour may have evolved among social animals because of its potential direct and indirect benefits. To examine the effect of dominance rank within small social groups on huddling inclusion, we used generalized linear mixed-effects models to predict the likelihood of huddling occurring during resting bouts from climatic (e.g. temperature, precipitation), social (e.g. affiliation, dominance rank, grooming) and reproductive (e.g. access, infant protection) variables. We found that lower temperatures, especially during shorter resting bouts, increased the likelihood of huddling. Grooming between partners with a high discrepancy in rank increased huddling. Additionally, huddling increased during the reproductive season, potentially offering greater opportunity for males to gain favour with sexually receptive females, and when new-borns were present, providing essential thermal maintenance and potential antipredator protection to infants. Together, our results suggest that even in small social groups, females gain rank-related benefits by controlling access to huddles, i.e. the intrinsic benefits of social thermoregulation.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T14:35:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 134 (2017)
       
  • Incubation onset maintains survival of most embryos and growth and
           survival of late-hatched young
    • Authors: Robert A. Aldredge
      Pages: 35 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 134
      Author(s): Robert A. Aldredge
      Hatching asynchrony occurs primarily as a consequence of the timing of embryonic development. Despite over 50 years of study, it is unclear why, ultimately, most birds initiate embryonic development (incubation) before all eggs are laid. One hypothesis focuses on prehatching (embryo) survival and predicts that early incubation maximizes embryo survival by reducing exposure of unincubated eggs (egg viability hypothesis). Another set of hypotheses focuses on posthatching growth and survival and predicts that females time incubation to maximize the number or quality of hatched offspring that fledge (adaptive hatching pattern hypotheses). I experimentally manipulated when females could begin incubation to test how timing of embryonic development influences prehatching survival and posthatching growth and survival in the house sparrow, Passer domesticus. Despite high embryo survival in both naturally asynchronous and experimentally synchronized nests, early incubation appeared to maximize embryo survival in all but the earliest-laid eggs, suggesting that house sparrows begin incubation too late to maximize survival of all embryos. Early incubation had little effect on overall (i.e. mean) patterns of posthatching growth and survival. However, early incubation increased the initial variation in offspring size because last-hatched young were relatively small when all eggs had completed hatching. Nestlings that were small at hatch completion grew slowly and exhibited a reduced probability of survival, suggesting that house sparrows begin incubation too early to maximize growth and survival of hatched offspring. These results suggest that timing of incubation neither maximizes embryo survival nor maximizes posthatching growth and survival. Instead, early incubation appears to be a trade-off between maintaining both embryo survival and growth and survival of late-hatched offspring. Thus, house sparrow females likely time incubation as an adaptive strategy to maximize the number of embryos that survive the incubation and nestling periods to fledge.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T14:35:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.09.022
      Issue No: Vol. 134 (2017)
       
  • Edge weight variance: population genetic metrics for social network
           analysis
    • Authors: David B. McDonald; Elizabeth A. Hobson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 December 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour
      Author(s): David B. McDonald, Elizabeth A. Hobson
      We present novel metrics for analysis of weighted social networks that focus explicitly on the distribution of edge weights at hierarchical scales from node to egonet to community and to the network as a whole. The formulae are adapted from existing measures, originally developed in the context of population genetics to analyse variance in gene frequencies at different levels of organization. Our metrics, including ‘effective degree’ (by analogy to effective number of alleles), ‘concentration’ (by analogy to the inbreeding coefficient), ‘observed’ and ‘expected edge weight diversity’ (by analogy to observed and expected gene diversity) and F statistics allow one to partition the variance in edge weights among hierarchical levels of organization within networks. They provide a quantitative method for addressing issues as diverse as disease transmission, social complexity, the spread of learned behaviours and the evolution of cooperation. We illustrate the utility of these new metrics by applying them to three empirical social networks: long-tailed manakins, Chiroxiphia linearis, monk parakeets, Myiopsitta monachus, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T18:02:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.017
       
  • Editors Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 134


      PubDate: 2017-12-24T18:02:18Z
       
  • Association Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 134


      PubDate: 2017-12-24T18:02:18Z
       
  • Publisher's Note on “Evidence of sexually selected infanticide in an
           endangered brown bear population”
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 134


      PubDate: 2017-12-24T18:02:18Z
       
  • Consistent individual variation across interaction networks indicates
           social personalities in lemurs
    • Authors: Ipek G. Kulahci; Asif A. Ghazanfar; Daniel I. Rubenstein
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour
      Author(s): Ipek G. Kulahci, Asif A. Ghazanfar, Daniel I. Rubenstein
      Group members interact with each other during multiple social behaviours that range from aggressive to affiliative interactions. It is not known, however, whether an individual's suite of social behaviours consistently covaries through time and across different types of social interactions. Consistent social behaviour would be advantageous in groups, especially when individuals need to remember their group members' social roles and preferences in order to keep track of social relationships and predict conspecifics' future behaviour. Here, we address whether social behaviour of ringtailed lemurs, Lemur catta, is consistent through time and across four interaction networks (aggression, grooming, contact calling, scent marking). We quantified variation in social behaviour through four network centrality measures including outdegree, outstrength, betweenness and eigenvector centrality. Comparing lemurs' measures across 2 years revealed that network centrality remained consistent between years. Lemurs' centrality also stayed consistent across interaction networks: individuals with high centrality in one interaction network also had high centrality in the other networks, even when we controlled for sex-based variation in social behaviour. Thus, regardless of their sex, some individuals were highly social and frequently groomed others, initiated aggressive interactions and responded to others' contact calls and scent marks. Lemurs also had preferred social partners they frequently interacted with across years and across multiple behaviours. In particular, lemurs frequently responded to the contact calls and the scent marks of the conspecifics they had frequently groomed. Together, these results demonstrate that individual variation in lemur social behaviour is not context specific, but instead persists through time and across multiple social interactions. Such consistent behaviour provides evidence of social personalities, which may influence individuals' interaction styles, including how socially active they are and with whom they interact.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:10:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.012
       
  • Where should we meet' Mapping social network interactions of sleepy
           lizards shows sex-dependent social network structure
    • Authors: Orr Spiegel; Andrew Sih; Stephan T. Leu; C. Michael Bull
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour
      Author(s): Orr Spiegel, Andrew Sih, Stephan T. Leu, C. Michael Bull
      Social network analyses allow researchers to describe patterns of social interactions and their consequences in animal societies. Since direct observations in natural settings are often difficult, researchers often use tracking technologies to build proximity-based social networks. However, because both social behaviour (e.g. conspecific attraction) and environmental heterogeneity (e.g. resources attracting individuals independently) affect rates of interaction, identifying the processes that shape social networks is challenging. We tracked sleepy lizards, Tiliqua rugosa, using global positioning system (GPS) telemetry to investigate whether they show conspecific attraction or avoidance beyond any shared space use driven by environmental heterogeneity. Since these lizards have strong pair bonds and nonoverlapping core home ranges, we predicted different interaction rates between inter- and intrasex dyads and compared social network indices among dyad types (male–male, female–female and intersex) using node-identity permutation tests. We also mapped interactions onto the home ranges (using distance from the centre as an index) and contrasted observed social networks with those expected from a spatially explicit null model. We found that dyad types differed in their interaction patterns. Intersex dyads had stronger connections (higher edge weight) than a null expectation, and stronger than for same-sex dyads. Same-sex dyads did not differ in edge weight from the null expectation, but were significantly more common (higher degree). Males had larger home ranges than females and consequently male–male dyads interacted further away from their home range centres. Moreover, the locations of these interactions also differed from the null expectations more strongly than other dyad types. Hence, we conclude that males predominantly interacted with each other at the peripheries of their home range, presumably reflecting territorial behaviour. By applying a novel analysis technique, we accounted for the nonsocial component of space use and revealed sex-specific interaction patterns and the contribution of conspecific attraction to the social structure in this species. More generally we report how mapping the locations of nonrandom interaction rates provides broad information on the behaviours they represent.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:10:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.001
       
  • Guidelines for the treatment of animals in behavioural research and
           teaching
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour


      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:10:15Z
       
 
 
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