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Journal of Applied Psychology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 4.694
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 225  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0021-9010 - ISSN (Online) 1939-1854
Published by APA Homepage  [86 journals]
  • Using practice employment tests to improve recruitment and personnel
           selection outcomes for organizations and job seekers.
    • Abstract: This study introduces the use of practice employment tests during recruitment as a tool with the potential to improve outcomes for both an organization and its (potential) applicants during personnel selection. Synthesizing research on recruitment, selection, job search, adverse impact, signaling theory, and human capital theory, we propose that practice tests reduce information asymmetry regarding the nature of an organization’s assessment procedures, thereby acting as short-term human capital investment opportunities. Using a large sample of potential applicants and applicants who later decided to apply for jobs within a professional occupation in a large organization, we demonstrate that (a) those who took the practice tests scored higher on the actual tests; (b) score gains between practice tests and actual tests were greater for Blacks and Hispanics when compared to Whites; (c) the practice test exhibited a self-selection effect, encouraging those with higher scores to apply; and (d) score gains between practice tests and actual tests were similar to scores observed for those retesting on the actual tests. These findings suggest practice tests may be capable of simultaneously enhancing organizational outcomes (e.g., increased quality of applicants, reduced cost of testing unqualified applicants, and reduced adverse impact) and applicant outcomes (e.g., increased human capital, increased chances of eventual employment, and reduced disappointment and wasted effort from unsuccessful application). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Mar 2019 04:00:00 GMT
  • Ethical leadership as a substitute for justice enactment: An
           information-processing perspective.
    • Abstract: Why do employees perceive that they have been treated fairly by their supervisor' Theory and research on justice generally presumes a straightforward answer to this question: Because the supervisor adhered to justice rules. We propose the answer is not so straightforward and that employee justice perceptions are not merely “justice-laden.” Drawing from theory on information processing that distinguishes between automatic and systematic modes, we suggest that employee justice perceptions are also “ethics-laden.” Specifically, we posit that employees with more ethical supervisors form justice perceptions through automatic processing with little scrutiny of or attention paid to a supervisor’s justice acts. In contrast, employees with less ethical supervisors rely on systematic processing to evaluate their supervisor’s justice enactment and form justice perceptions. Thus, we propose that ethical leadership substitutes for the supervisor’s justice enactment. Our results demonstrate support for the interactive effect of supervisor justice enactment and ethical leadership on employee justice perceptions, and we further demonstrate its consequences for employees’ engagement in discretionary behaviors (citizenship and counterproductive behaviors). Our findings highlight an assumption in the justice literature in need of revision and opens the door to further inquiry about the role of information processing in justice perceptions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Mar 2019 05:00:00 GMT
  • Turning frowns (and smiles) upside down: A multilevel examination of
           surface acting positive and negative emotions on well-being.
    • Abstract: The consensus in the emotional labor literature is that surface acting is “bad” for employees. However, the evidence on which this consensus is based has been derived from contexts emphasizing the display of positive emotions, such as customer service. Despite the acknowledgment that many contexts also require the display of negative emotions, scholarly work has proceeded under the assumption that surface acting is harmful regardless of the valence of the emotion being displayed. In this study, we take a hedonic approach to well-being and challenge the consensus that surface acting is bad for employees by examining its effects on changes in emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction, through changes in positive and negative affect, for both positive and negative emotional displays. Using a within-person approach, we focus on managers, whose occupation calls for displays of both positive and negative emotions. Our 3-week, experience-sampling study of 79 managers revealed that faking positive emotions decreases positive affect, which harms well-being more than authentically displaying such emotions. In contrast and counter to what the extant literature would suggest, faking negative emotions decreases negative affect and increases positive affect, which benefits well-being more than authentically displaying such emotions. We further integrate construal level theory with hedonic approaches of emotion to identify trait construal level as an important boundary condition to explain for whom surface acting is harmful versus beneficial. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Mar 2019 05:00:00 GMT
  • On the importance of a motivational agency variable: Being a formal
           business in developing countries is only helpful for growth if business
           owners show a high degree of personal initiative.
    • Abstract: This article advances the understanding of when and how formal status of small-scale entrepreneurs can contribute to higher growth in comparison to their informal counterparts. Our integrative framework suggests that both formal status and personal initiative (PI) behavior have a common pathway to predict firm growth. More importantly, formal firms improve their growth perspectives only if the entrepreneurs show a high degree of PI. The integrative framework was tested using longitudinal data with 2 measurement points with a total of 190 formal and informal entrepreneurs in the Sub-Saharan African country of Zimbabwe. Results show that both formal status and PI have indirect effects on firm growth through available resources. Further, PI has a dual-path moderating effect on the indirect effect of formal status to firm growth such that the indirect effect of formal status on firm growth via available resources is strongest when entrepreneurs have high PI, but there is no indirect effect when PI is low. Our research shows the importance of considering the interplay of institutional and psychological factors for explaining firm growth in developing countries. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Mar 2019 05:00:00 GMT
  • The restorative effect of work after unemployment: An intraindividual
           analysis of subjective well-being recovery through reemployment.
    • Abstract: Previous research shows that unemployment has lasting detrimental effects on individuals’ subjective well-being. However, the issue of how well-being evolves after individuals switch back into the labor force has received little theoretical and empirical attention. This study examines the extent to which reemployment restores individuals’ subjective well-being following a period of unemployment. Applying fixed effects models to the large-scale longitudinal data from the British Household Panel Survey, we find that recovery of subjective well-being upon reemployment is fast, complete and enduring, even when individuals take less favorable employment options to return to work. By contrast, transitions into economic inactivity following unemployment are accompanied by persistent scars on subsequent well-being trajectories. This study advances our understanding of well-being development over the entire employment–unemployment–reemployment cycle. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Feb 2019 05:00:00 GMT
  • An eye for an eye' A meta-analysis of negative reciprocity in
    • Abstract: Most models of negative workplace behaviors (NWB) are individual in nature, focusing on individual attitudes (e.g., satisfaction) and general workplace perceptions (e.g., procedural justice) that motivate NWB. Less commonly considered are explorations of relationally based negative workplace behaviors—how NWB from Party A is related to reciprocation of NWB from Party B. Based on 2 competing conceptualizations in the literature, that behavior is reciprocated “in-kind” in an eye for an eye exchange or that behavior tends to escalate or spiral over time, we develop a framework for negative reciprocity that considers NWB in terms of severity, activity, and target. This framework addresses (a) whether Party A’s NWB is associated with behavior of a similar or greater level (i.e., activity and severity) from Party B; and (b) whether Party B’s reciprocating behavior is directed back at Party A (i.e., direct) or transferred onto others (i.e., displaced). We meta-analytically test these relationships with 246 independent samples (N = 96,930) and find strongest support for relationships indicating that NWB from Party A is largely returned in-kind, followed closely by relationships indicative of escalation. We also found that as the frequency of Party A’s NWB increases, so too does the frequency of reciprocity behavior of equal levels. Surprisingly, differences related to the target of the behavior as well as differences based on whether the data were cross-sectional or longitudinal were generally negligible. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Feb 2019 05:00:00 GMT
  • When and why does employee creativity fuel deviance' Key psychological
    • Abstract: Drawing on self-enhancement theory, we propose that, intraindividually, employees tend to give themselves credit when they engage in creativity. Perceived creative credit, in turn, activates multiple psychological motives that ultimately affect deviance. On the one hand, perceived creative credit is associated with greater creativity-driven norm-breaking motives and greater entitlement motives, which in turn should increase deviance. On the other hand, perceived creative credit is associated with greater image preservation motives, which in turn should decrease deviance. A within-person study involving 206 employees and their coworkers conducted over a 10-day period provided broad support for the proposed model. In addition, a between-person variable, namely rewards for creativity, moderated the self-crediting process. The within-person serial mediation relationship between creativity and deviance was positive and significant for employees who perceived low rewards for creativity, but was not significant for those who perceived high rewards for creativity. In other words, rewards for creativity in the workplace effectively nullified this within-person self-crediting mechanism among employees. This study thus illustrates that, within individuals, creativity and deviance are related through perceived creative credit and different psychological motives (i.e., serial mediation). However, the strength of this serial mediation relationship varies depending on the availability of formal rewards for creativity (i.e., moderated serial mediation). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Feb 2019 05:00:00 GMT
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