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Journal Cover JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
  [SJR: 6.278]   [H-I: 491]   [1057 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0098-7484 - ISSN (Online) 1538-3598
   Published by American Medical Association Homepage  [11 journals]
  • Highlights for May 17, 2016
    • PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Preventing Venous Thromboembolism After Surgery
    • Authors: Kreutzer L; Minami C, Yang A.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • JAMA
    • PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Tests in the Diagnosis of Cancer
    • Abstract: There seems to exist at the present time a singular readiness on the part of the medical profession to take up every new diagnostic test as soon as it is proposed. This enthusiasm and the uncritical attitude which accompanies it may perhaps be due to the fact that a number of chemical and biologic reactions introduced into medical diagnosis in the past decade have performed singular and successful service. The search for helpful tests in the diagnosis of cancer has been particularly active, because of the large number of scientific workers interested in the problems of this disease, and of the splendid resources that have been put at the command of the investigators in almost every civilized country. Many times a few seemingly positive data have paved the way for very favorable reports as to the efficiency of some new test, only to be followed by most discouraging condemnation when the field of application was more carefully scrutinized or the statistics were enlarged by a suitable number of observations.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Scent of Dandelion
    • Authors: Wentzel PJ.
      Abstract: I mark my 90th birthdaywith despair amid doggerel sentiments.Only in a rearview mirror equipped to detect the scent of dandelion on the tonguemight I see that moment when the balance tipped—when life became an end unto itselfand misery my companion in every hour.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Covered Wagon
    • Authors: Smith JM.
      Abstract: In the bright vignettes of American life and landscape found in examples of earlier work by Bror Julius Olsson Nordfeldt (1878-1955), upbeat colors and assertive shapes animated his compositions. His paintings were centered in feelings generated by a scene, and he expressively conveyed the individuals and objects in modernist terms.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Mortality in Children and Adolescents, 1990-2013
    • PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Leadless Pacemaker Approved
    • Authors: Voelker R.
      Abstract: A first-of-its-kind pacemaker that regulates heart rate without lead wires has received FDA approval. The Micra Transcatheter Pacing System is a self-contained, 1-inch-long device that is implanted directly into the heart’s right ventricle (
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • New Morcellation System
    • Authors: Voelker R.
      Abstract: The FDA has approved the first tissue containment system for use with certain laparoscopic power morcellators to isolate uterine tissue that isn’t suspected to be cancerous.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Second Biosimilar Approved
    • Authors: Voelker R.
      Abstract: The FDA has approved a second biosimilar drug, infliximab-dyyb, which is indicated for treating several rheumatic diseases. The drug is biosimilar to the tumor necrosis factor α inhibitor infliximab, which originally was licensed in 1998 (
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Impact of Syrian Conflict on Its Children
    • Authors: Friedrich MJ.
      Abstract: Experts estimate that more than 8.4 million people younger than 18 years are in need of humanitarian aid as a result of the 5-year conflict in Syria, including the 2.4 million who have become refugees, according to a recent UNICEF report, No Place for Children: The Impact of 5 Years of War on Syria’s Children and Their Childhood (
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • More Evidence Linking Zika Virus to Birth Defects
    • Authors: Friedrich MJ.
      Abstract: Two new studies provide important information on the link between Zika virus and severe fetal central nervous system complications and death.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • WHO Assesses Environmental Risks to Health
    • Authors: Friedrich MJ.
      Abstract: Nearly a quarter of global deaths are associated with modifiable environmental factors, such as air, water, and soil pollution, climate change, chemical exposures, and UV radiation. Low- and middle-income countries bear the greatest burden of environmentally mediated disease, according to a new report from the World Health Organization (WHO), Preventing Disease Through Healthy Environments: A Global Assessment of the Burden of Disease From Environmental Risks (
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Error in Text
    • Abstract: In the Review entitled “Association Between Vaccine Refusal and Vaccine-Preventable Disease in the United States: A Review of Measles and Pertussis” published in the March 15, 2016, issue of JAMA, there was an error in the text. Under “Vaccine Refusal and Pertussis Outbreaks,” the article states, "The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices currently recommends 5 DTaP doses at age 2, 4, and 6 months, at 15 to 18 months, and again at 4 to 6 years, as well as a Tdap booster in adolescence (between age 11 and 18 years) and adulthood (19 years or older)." It should state, "The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices currently recommends 5 DTaP doses at age 2, 4, and 6 months, at 15 to 18 months, and again at 4 to 6 years, as well as a Tdap booster in adolescence (between age 11 and 12 years), or adulthood (if the adolescent dose was missed), and during every pregnancy." This article was corrected online.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Quelling Zika Fears With Evidence
    • Authors: Voelker R.
      Abstract: This Medical News & Perspectives story discusses Zika virus infection in pregnant women with Christine Curry, MD, PhD, of the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Lead in the Water: A Tale of Social and Environmental Injustice
    • Authors: Gostin LO.
      Abstract: In 1854, British physician John Snow famously wrote, “The most terrible outbreak of cholera which ever occurred in this kingdom, is probably that which took place in Broad Street, Golden Square, and the adjoining streets, a few weeks ago.” ( Snow linked cholera to polluted water flowing from the Broad Street pump. City officials removed the pump handle and the cholera epidemic suddenly ended. Cholera is one of many gastrointestinal illnesses caused by drinking water carrying disease-causing microbes. In 2000, for example, hundreds of Milwaukee residents became ill when they drank city water contaminated with cryptosporidium (
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Firearm Access and Risk of Suicide
    • Authors: Kels CG.
      Abstract: To the Editor In their Viewpoint on gun possession and suicide risk, Dr Swanson and colleagues offered a commonsense approach to suicide prevention by limiting access to firearms during times of heightened risk. Their research and policy framework seeks to transcend divisive political debates in favor of assessing and mitigating specific periods of vulnerability.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Firearm Access and Risk of Suicide
    • Authors: Swanson JW; Bonnie RJ, Appelbaum PS.
      Abstract: In Reply Mr Kels highlights a confusing aspect of federal and state laws that disqualify certain people from accessing firearms. What types of involuntary mental health interventions result in a gun-prohibiting record that is reportable to the NICS' The question is difficult to answer because commitment practices vary substantially by state and locality.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Error in Collaborator Name
    • Abstract: In the Original Investigation entitled “Effect of Insulin Glargine Up-titration vs Insulin Degludec/Liraglutide on Glycated Hemoglobin Levels in Patients With Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes: The DUAL V Randomized Clinical Trial,” published in the March 1, 2016, issue of JAMA, a collaborator name contained an error: Stelios Tigkas should be corrected to Stelios Tigas. This article was corrected online.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Leprosy as a Cause of Distal Symmetric Polyneuropathy
    • Authors: Callaghan BC; Price RS, Feldman EL.
      Abstract: In Reply We agree with Dr Brown that leprosy should be considered as a cause of peripheral neuropathy in patients living in countries where leprosy is endemic and those who have emigrated from those areas, particularly because it is treatable with multidrug antimycobacterial treatment. A mononeuropathy is the most common presentation of leprosy, but lepromatous leprosy can present with more widespread involvement mimicking a distal symmetric polyneuropathy. However, the incidence of leprosy in the United States in 2010 was only 0.0001%. The table of causes of distal symmetric polyneuropathy in our article was meant to focus on common causes of polyneuropathy that would present to primary care physicians in the United States. In that context, leprosy remains a rare cause of polyneuropathy, much less common than any of the other conditions listed. For primary care physicians, the focus should remain on evaluating patients for common causes such as diabetes, prediabetes, alcohol abuse, and inherited conditions. The clinical history, including an in-depth alcohol and family history, and the neurologic examination are the most important components of the polyneuropathy evaluation. Routine laboratory evaluations should include complete blood cell count, comprehensive metabolic panel, glucose tolerance test, vitamin B12 level, and serum protein electrophoresis with immunofixation.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Early Azithromycin Treatment to Prevent Severe LRTIs in
    • Authors: Bacharier LB; Guilbert TW, Martinez FD.
      Abstract: In Reply Dr Fleming-Dutra and colleagues express concerns about our study demonstrating the efficacy of early azithromycin use in the prevention of severe LRTI among children with prior severe LRTIs. We disagree with their conclusions.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Leprosy as a Cause of Distal Symmetric Polyneuropathy
    • Authors: Brown JD.
      Abstract: To the Editor The review article on distal symmetric polyneuropathy by Dr Callaghan and colleagues did not address leprosy (Hansen disease), which may be the most common treatable peripheral nerve disorder worldwide. The major features of leprosy are anesthetic skin lesions, neuropathy, and positive skin smears for Mycobacterium leprae bacilli. The lepromatous form of leprosy is a slow, progressive, widespread disease of skin and nerves manifesting as bilateral, symmetrical, distal polyneuropathy. The tuberculoid and borderline forms of leprosy typically cause focal mononeuropathies and polyneuropathies. If untreated, the associated neuropathy causes deformity and permanent disability; however, early treatment is associated with good outcomes.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Surveillance Imaging in Patients in Remission From Lymphoma
    • Authors: Nabhan C; Smith SM, Cifu AS.
      Abstract: This JAMA Clinical Guidelines Synopsis summarizes the National Comprehensive Cancer Network’s and European Society of Medical Oncology’s recent recommendations on follow-up imaging in patients in remission from Hodgkin and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Oral Anticoagulants for Atrial Fibrillation
    • Abstract: This Medical Letter review summarizes the newly available oral anticoagulants and compares them with commonly prescribed warfarin.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Sexual Harassment and Discrimination Experiences of Academic Medical
           Junior Faculty
    • Authors: Jagsi R; Griffith KA, Jones R, et al.
      Abstract: This survey study of recent National Institutes of Health career development (K) award recipients assessed the proportion who reported gender bias and advantage and sexual harrassment in their professional careers.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Early Azithromycin Treatment to Prevent Severe LRTIs in Children
    • Authors: Fleming-Dutra KE; Friedman CR, Hicks LA.
      Abstract: To the Editor The study by Dr Bacharier and colleagues found that using azithromycin in preschool children with a history of wheezing and respiratory tract infection (RTI) prevented progression to “severe” lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI). The authors defined severe LRTI as needing intensive rescue albuterol treatments; it was not defined as pneumonia, the classic definition of severe LRTI. Although azithromycin limited the need for intensive rescue albuterol, it did not prevent urgent care or emergency visits, hospitalizations, or future RTI episodes, arguably the most important prevention outcomes.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Physician-Surrogate Discordance in Prognosis of Critically Ill Patients
    • Authors: White DB; Ernecoff N, Buddadhumaruk P, et al.
      Abstract: This study used survey and qualitative methods to characterize the frequency of and reasons for discordance in estimates of prognosis of critically ill patients made by physicians and surrogate decision makers.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Surgical Outcomes and Expenditures at Critical Access Hospitals
    • Authors: Ibrahim AM; Hughes TG, Thumma JR, et al.
      Abstract: This hospital epidemiology study used MEDPAR file data to compare surgical outcomes and Medicare expenditures at critical access vs non–critical access hosptials.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Histologic Changes in the Esophagus in Patients With GERD
    • Authors: Dunbar KB; Agoston AT, Odze RD, et al.
      Abstract: This study characterizes the histologic features of esophageal inflammation in patients with acute gastroesophageal reflux disease during and after discontinuation of proton pump inhibitor treatment.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Measuring Hospital Venous Thromboembolism Prevention Efforts
    • Authors: Yang AD; Bilimoria KY.
      Abstract: This commentary discusses a cohort study published in JAMA Surgery that investigated the association between inpatient surveillance for venous thromboembolism and risk of postdischarge venous thromboembolism.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Turning the Pathogenesis of Acute Peptic Esophagitis Inside Out
    • Authors: Kahrilas PJ.
      Abstract: In this issue of JAMA, Dunbar and colleagues report findings from a unique experiment in which they withdrew proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy from 12 patients with high-grade esophagitis whose esophageal erosions had been successfully treated by that therapy to observe the histopathological events leading to acute (recurrent) peptic esophagitis. Within 2 weeks, 11 of the patients had developed recurrent erosive esophagitis as well as a substantial worsening of reflux symptoms. All of the classic histopathological findings and physiological consequences of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) were reproduced: basal cell hyperplasia, papillary elongation, and dilated intercellular spaces in the esophageal squamous cell epithelium; increased distal esophageal acid exposure and reduced mucosal impedance on reflux monitoring studies.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Early Prophylactic High-Dose rhEPO for Very Preterm Infants
    • Authors: Natalucci G; Latal B, Koller B, et al.
      Abstract: This randomized clinical trial assesses whether prophylactic early high-dose recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) improves neurodevelopmental outcome for preterm infants at 2 years’ corrected age.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Toward a Patient-Centered Value Framework in Oncology
    • Authors: Basch E.
      Abstract: Cancer drugs are toxic and expensive. Their benefits are often difficult to measure, vary substantially between patients, and too often are quite modest in improving outcomes. Multiple approaches have been developed recently to quantify and combine these treatment characteristics (harms, costs, and benefits) into composite “value” metrics that enable crosstreatment comparisons, formulary prioritization, and assessments of whether pricing is reasonable.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Communication With Family Caregivers in the Intensive Care Unit
    • Authors: Azoulay E; Kentish-Barnes N, Nelson JE.
      Abstract: Shared decision making is increasingly accepted as an optimal model for defining overall goals of care and making major health care decisions affected by the values and preferences of patients. For patients with advanced illness or who are incapacitated, families and other surrogates are often asked to participate in this collaborative process. Meaningful participation in health care decision making requires that these surrogates have sufficient information to weigh the potential benefits and burdens of treatment, including an understanding of likely outcomes.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Reducing Variation in the “Standard of Care” for Cancer
    • Authors: Corley DA; Haas JS, Kobrin S.
      Abstract: This Viewpoint examines differences in the funding, quality, and reporting standards for breast, colorectal, and cervical cancer screening.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cancer Value Frameworks for Patients, Payers, and Physicians
    • Authors: Chandra A; Shafrin J, Dhawan R.
      Abstract: This Viewpoint describes differences between various cancer value frameworks and provides recommendations for improving them for clinicians, patients, and payers.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • My Name Is Not “Interpreter”
    • Authors: Montenegro RE.
      Abstract: The day I completed my sociology dissertation, I felt like a king. I was one step closer to finally accomplishing my dream of becoming a physician-scientist. To complement this feeling of royalty, my wife and I found ourselves invited to an upscale restaurant—a faculty member’s treat for this joyous occasion.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Colorectal Cancer Screening Guidelines
    • Authors: Winawer SJ; Fischer SE, Levin B.
      Abstract: This Viewpoint discusses the need to account for clinician and patient adherence to colorectal cancer screening recommendations and barriers to implementation of screening programs in the choice of which tests to recommend in screening guidelines
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • The New Era of Informed Consent
    • Authors: Spatz ES; Krumholz HM, Moulton BW.
      Abstract: This Viewpoint discusses the benefits of developing a patient-centered informed consent standard and the resources it would take to achieve it in practice.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT
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