Journal Cover JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
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   ISSN (Print) 0098-7484 - ISSN (Online) 1538-3598
   Published by American Medical Association Homepage  [13 journals]
  • Highlights for April 25, 2017
    • PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Presidential Immigration Policies—Endangering Health?
    • Authors: Gostin LO; Ó Cathaoir K.
      Abstract: This Viewpoint discusses President Trump’s executive orders on US immigration policy and how they could affect health care, health systems, and public and global health.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Lessons From Canada About Medicaid Block Grants
    • Authors: Sommers BD; Naylor C.
      Abstract: This Viewpoint discusses Canada’s experience with government funding of health care through block grants and what it could mean for the United States as Republican leaders propose the same for Medicaid financing.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Enhancing Transparency at the US Food and Drug Administration
    • Authors: Sharfstein JM; Stebbins M.
      Abstract: This Viewpoint summarizes recommendations made in a 2017 Blueprint for Transparency at the US Food and Drug Administration developed to encourage increased public access to FDA analyses and regulatory decisions.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Promises and Perils of Medical Care Crowdfunding
    • Authors: Young MJ; Scheinberg E.
      Abstract: This Viewpoint discusses the emergence and popularity of crowdfunding campaigns to cover individuals’ direct health care costs, and outlines steps to make crowdfunding more equitable and ethically sustainable.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Navigating Transitions and Charting New Paths
    • Authors: Pizzo PA.
      Abstract: A career in medicine creates an identity and a defining sense of purpose in life. I love being a physician and relish the planned and unexpected challenges and opportunities that have unfolded over time—which for many years seemed endless. But I also observed early in my career what can happen if one doesn’t anticipate transitions, especially in midlife and beyond. While I have come to know this as a physician, I have learned it is also true for individuals in other walks of life, as choices, options, and opportunities become altered and sometimes appear constrained and truncated by physical and cognitive changes or because one has become burned out and needs a change of direction or new path to pursue.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Follow-up of Positive Fecal Test Results
    • Authors: Rutter CM; Inadomi JM.
      Abstract: A large body of research demonstrates that colorectal cancer screening is an effective method for reducing colorectal cancer mortality. Screening can detect cancer at an earlier stage, before it becomes symptomatic, and the detection and removal of adenomas can prevent cancer. Rates of colorectal cancer screening had increased until 2010, at which time approximately 60% of eligible US adults participated in colorectal cancer screening; however, screening has not increased since that time. Colonoscopy is the most commonly used colorectal cancer screening test, but it is an invasive procedure and can be both costly and inconvenient for patients. Many patients prefer less-invasive tests. Increased use of the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) has the potential to expand the use of colorectal cancer screening to a broader range of patients. However, the effectiveness of FIT depends on several layers of adherence including the initial screening test, repeated annual screening among those with negative test results, and follow-up colonoscopy among patients with positive test results.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Screening for the Preeclampsia and the USPSTF Recommendations
    • Authors: Sperling JD; Gossett DR.
      Abstract: Preeclampsia is a condition characterized by the new onset of hypertension after 20 weeks of gestation, with proteinuria, evidence of organ dysfunction, or both in a previously normotensive woman. Preeclampsia and eclampsia complicate up to 10% of pregnancies and remain a leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in the United States. The complications of preeclampsia in part shaped the development of prenatal care in the United States. The timing and frequency of visits were chosen to improve detection of preeclampsia through the measurement of blood pressure at routine prenatal visits.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Association Between Time to Colonoscopy After FIT and CRC Risk
    • Authors: Corley DA; Jensen CD, Quinn VP, et al.
      Abstract: This cohort study evaluates the association between time to colonoscopy after a positive fecal immunochemical test result and risk of colorectal cancer and advanced-stage disease at diagnosis.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Postoperative Troponin T and Mortality and Myocardial Injury After
           Noncardiac Surgery
    • Authors: ; Devereaux PJ, Biccard BM, et al.
      Abstract: This cohort study investigated the association between perioperative high-sensitivity troponin T levels and 30-day mortality and myocardial injury among patients undergoing noncardiac surgery.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Infective Endocarditis Trends in California and New York, 1998-2013
    • Authors: Toyoda N; Chikwe J, Itagaki S, et al.
      Abstract: This population epidemiology study describes trends in incidence and etiologies of infective endocarditis in California and New York State from 1998 through 2013.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • USPSTF Recommendation: Screening for Preeclampsia
    • Authors: ; Bibbins-Domingo K, Grossman DC, et al.
      Abstract: This Recommendation Statement from the US Preventive Services Task Force concludes that pregnant women should be screened for preeclampsia using blood pressure measurements throughout pregnancy.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • USPSTF Evidence Report: Preeclampsia Screening
    • Authors: Henderson JT; Thompson JH, Burda BU, et al.
      Abstract: This Evidence Report and systematic review to support the 2017 US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement on preeclampsia screening summarizes the benefits, accuracy, and harms of screening for preeclampsia.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Mechanical Nasal Dilators to Treat Nasal Valve Compromise
    • Authors: Pawar SS.
      Abstract: This commentary discusses a narrative review published in JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery that summarized the efficacy of over-the-counter mechanical nasal dilators to improve airflow through the internal nasal valve.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Immunogenicity of 2 vs 3 Doses of the HPV Vaccine in Girls After 60 Months
    • Authors: Ogilvie G; Sauvageau C, Dionne M, et al.
      Abstract: This study uses long-term follow-up clinical trial data to compare antibody response 60 months after girls younger than 15 years were randomized to 2 vs 3 doses of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Urban-Rural Differences in Diabetes in China
    • Authors: Wang H; Lai Y.
      Abstract: To the Editor The study by Dr Bragg and colleagues reported a 5.9% prevalence of diabetes in China that differs from previous results reported by Yang and colleagues (9.7%) and Xu and colleagues (11.6%). This study concluded that although diabetes was more prevalent in urban areas of China, rural areas demonstrated higher diabetes-related mortality.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Urban-Rural Differences in Diabetes-Associated Mortality in
           China—Reply
    • Authors: Bragg F; Li L, Chen Z.
      Abstract: In Reply The China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) was not designed to be nationally representative, and the 10 study areas were selected from different provinces to capture the diversity of populations in China. Diabetes prevalence in the CKB (5.9%) was lower than in some more recent studies, possibly reflecting increasing temporal trends in diabetes prevalence in China and also the different methods used for diagnosing diabetes in different studies.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Evolocumab Plus Statins and Progression of Coronary Atherosclerosis
    • Authors: Murray SW.
      Abstract: To the Editor Dr Nicholls and colleagues found that adding evolocumab vs placebo to statin treatment among patients with coronary disease resulted in a 1% greater decrease in percent atheroma volume (PAV), measured by serial intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS) imaging, after 76 weeks. Unfortunately, IVUS examinations have inherent variability. Even in the best of laboratories, there are always measurement reproducibility errors but also intraoperator and interoperator variability in the actual plaque measurements.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Evolocumab Plus Statins and Progression of Coronary Atherosclerosis
    • Authors: Alkhalil M; Choudhury RP.
      Abstract: To the Editor The Global Assessment of Plaque Regression With a PCSK9 Antibody as Measured by Intravascular Ultrasound (GLAGOV) trial was designed to determine the effects of proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibition with evolocumab (in statin-treated patients) on progression of coronary atherosclerosis, calculated as the change in PAV.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Evolocumab Plus Statins and Progression of Coronary
           Atherosclerosis—Reply
    • Authors: Nicholls SJ; Somaratne R, Nissen SE.
      Abstract: In Reply The GLAGOV trial found that administration of evolocumab with statin therapy produced a favorable effect on coronary atherosclerosis, characterized by plaque regression, compared with statin monotherapy. Dr Murray questions the magnitude of a reduction of PAV of 0.95% in relation to the precision of the measurement tool. This parameter actually reflects changes in plaque burden as a proportion of the entire vessel wall volume. Given that the majority of this volume is occupied by the lumen, normal arterial wall, and nonmodifiable components of plaque, including fibrous and calcific material, it is likely that only 10% to 15% of the total PAV will reflect potentially modifiable material. The absolute reduction in this parameter compared with statin monotherapy was 1%, which is likely to reflect at least 10% of the modifiable plaque pool diminished in size. This reduction occurred in a relatively short time compared with the life course of plaque development (18 months) and exceeded the difference in plaque volume changes that have previously been reported to be associated with differences in cardiovascular events.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Estimating the Prevalence of Sexual Minority Adolescents
    • Authors: Lunn MR; Obedin-Maliver J, Bibbins-Domingo K.
      Abstract: To The Editor The Viewpoint by Dr Zaza and colleagues on US lesbian, gay, or bisexual (ie, sexual minority) high school students and their health-related behaviors represents “an important starting point” by describing understudied communities at risk for poor health. However, there are limitations in the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) worthy of comment.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Estimating the Prevalence of Sexual Minority Adolescents—Reply
    • Authors: Kann L; Barrios LC.
      Abstract: In Reply Sexual orientation is defined by sexual attraction, sexual identity, and sex of sexual contacts. The national YRBS currently measures sexual identity and sex of sexual contacts and, consistent with National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) recommendations, each construct is measured separately. Sexual orientation typically develops during adolescence and may progress in such a way that sexual identity and sex of sexual contacts may not be concordant. This dissonance between sexual identity and sex of sexual contacts is well documented and, as national YRBS data demonstrate, is not uncommon among youth. Consequently, we defined sexual minority students as those whose sexual identity was gay, lesbian, or bisexual or those who had sexual contact with only the same sex or with both sexes.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Errors in Data Analysis
    • Abstract: In the Research Letter entitled “Pain at 12 Months After Surgery for Breast Cancer” published in the January 1, 2014, issue of JAMA, an error in the original analysis led to the psychological factors (Beck Depression Inventory and Spielberger State and Trait Anxiety Questionnaires) being derived from the 12-month questionnaires rather than from preoperatively acquired scores. Reanalysis for a different project resulted in changes in Tables 1 and 2, including mean values (Table 1) and Spearman correlations (Table 2) for the BDI and State and Trait anxiety sum scores, as well as odds ratios, CIs, and P values (Table 2). The factors predicting persistent pain in the multivariable analysis remained otherwise the same, but at the end of the Results section in the text, “preoperative depression” was replaced by “preoperative trait anxiety.” The conclusions of the study were not affected. This article was corrected online.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Little Evidence to Guide Recommendation of Medical Marijuana
    • Authors: Rubin R.
      Abstract: This Medical News article discusses the challenges physicians face in recommending medical marijuana.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Acupuncture Effective for Migraine Prophylaxis
    • Authors: Slomski A.
      Abstract: Acupuncture significantly reduced the frequency and severity of migraines without aura, according to a Chinese trial that compared true acupuncture (TA) with 2 control groups—sham acupuncture (SA) and no intervention. The authors of the study, published in JAMA Internal Medicine, report that the clinical benefit persisted over the 24-week trial.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Bariatric Surgery Has Durable Effects in Controlling Diabetes
    • Authors: Slomski A.
      Abstract: Obese patients with type 2 diabetes had superior glycemic control following bariatric surgery compared with patients who received only intensive medical therapy, according to 5-year data from the Surgical Treatment and Medications Potentially Eradicate Diabetes Efficiently (STAMPEDE) trial published in The New England Journal of Medicine. Patients who had surgical therapy also used fewer diabetes medications and had greater weight reduction and improvement in lipid levels and quality of life.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Low-intensity Weight-Maintenance Program Keeps Pounds Off
    • Authors: Slomski A.
      Abstract: A weight-loss program that incorporates a maintenance intervention may help people avoid regaining the 2 to 4 pounds a year that is typical after weight loss. Results of a trial published in Annals of Internal Medicine found that a primarily telephone-based maintenance program modestly slowed participants’ weight regain.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Epidemic Tracking Tool Wins Open Science Prize
    • Authors: Abbasi J.
      Abstract: A tool for tracking viral epidemics developed by Trevor Bedford, PhD, at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, and Richard Neher, PhD, at the University of Basel in Switzerland, was awarded the second annual Open Science Prize, selected from almost 100 other projects from 45 countries submitted for the award. The researchers will receive $230 000 from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the UK-based Wellcome Trust, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to further develop a prototype of their online platform nextstrain.org.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • VA’s Burn Pit Registry Flawed
    • Authors: Abbasi J.
      Abstract: Collectively, burn sites at large US military bases in Iraq and Afghanistan incinerated 60 000 to 85 000 pounds of waste—including plastics, chemicals, petroleum, and human refuse—daily during the 2000s. The practice was banned due to health concerns in 2009.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Consortium to Develop Dementia Biomarkers
    • Authors: Abbasi J.
      Abstract: A new National Institutes of Health (NIH)–funded consortium will work to identify and validate trial-ready biomarkers for small vessel diseases in the brain that contribute to cognitive impairment and dementia. Seven participating research sites across the country will develop their own imaging and fluid-based biomarkers and scale them up across the consortium, explained neurologist Steven M. Greenberg, MD, PhD, who will lead the project’s coordinating center at Massachusetts General Hospital.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Prescribing Patterns and Long-term Opioid Use
    • Abstract: Taking an opioid pain reliever for more than just a few days increases the probability of long-term use, according to a recent study that examined prescribing patterns most likely to result in opioid use for a year or longer.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Geographic Disparities in US Suicide Rates
    • Abstract: As the overall US suicide rate increases, a CDC study showed that the trend toward higher rates in less populated parts of the country and lower rates in large urban areas has become more pronounced.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • ART AIDS AMERICA
    • Authors: Palella FJ; Jr.
      Abstract: This Arts and Medicine essay reviews the 2017 ArtAIDSAmerica Chicago exhibit, which highlights work that expresses the suffering, grief, and anger caused by the AIDS crisis in the pre-ZDV era.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Harvesting
    • Authors: Brooks W.
      Abstract: We harvested over the weekend.Artichokes and grapes. Too many beans to eat. Chard still going strong. The kitchen reeked of basil’s best.Ripe apples soon.The pumpkins turning orange. A colorful collage of carnival squashes. The dry summer hadn’t affected our harvest much.Fences had kept intruders out.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Placebo Effect in Psychotherapy
    • Abstract: Historically, the concepts of the placebo and the placebo effect have been quite broad; only recently have these concepts been narrowed to become virtually synonymous with the administration of inert medications. In the last three decades, investigators have sought to define the conditions under which the placebo effect operates. The 1950’s saw the widespread use of placebo medication as controls in the evaluation of drug effects. A major conclusion from these studies was not only that placebos are indispensable as controls in scientific drug evaluation, but also that placebos are powerful therapeutic tools in themselves. Investigators also expressed the hope that psychological tests and personality profiles could identify those individuals who would react to placebos.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Screening for Preeclampsia During Pregnancy
    • Authors: Jin J.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
 
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