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Journal Cover   JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
  [SJR: 6.278]   [H-I: 491]   [952 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0098-7484 - ISSN (Online) 1538-3598
   Published by American Medical Association Homepage  [11 journals]
  • JAMA
    • PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Learning to Breathe
    • Authors: Levin E.
      Abstract: Orientation at Rush Medical College was a whirlwind of activity. From being fitted for our white coats, to standing in a line to make sure our immunizations were up to date, and taking a boat tour of Chicago, I almost forgot I would soon embark on my journey toward becoming a physician and a patient advocate.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Highlights for July 21, 2015
    • PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • How the New Neuroscience Will Advance Medicine
    • Authors: Bargmann CI.
      Abstract: This Viewpoint describes recent advances in neuroscience and genetics that will inform new approaches and treatments based on an understanding of the biological processes underlying brain disorders.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Evaluating Research on the Safety of Medical Therapies
    • Authors: Fontanarosa PB; Bauchner H, Golub RM.
      Abstract: Each year JAMA receives many manuscripts that report a relationship between use of a drug, device, or vaccine and adverse outcomes, as well as manuscripts that refute previously reported relationships. Some of the criteria these reports must meet to be considered for publication include that the results must be determined likely to be valid following internal evaluation and external peer review; the findings must be considered novel or consistent with a previously reported biologically plausible relationship; and the issue the study addresses must be important, including assessment of factors such as the prevalence of use of the product, severity of the adverse events, and potential implications for public health.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Differences in Avian Influenza Vaccine Immune Response by Dose and
           Adjuvant Type
    • Authors: Jackson LA; Campbell JD, Frey SE, et al.
      Abstract: This randomized trial compares the immunogenicity and safety of avian influenza A(H7N9) vaccines that differ by adjuvant type and dosing schedule.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Bystander Interventions and Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest
    • Authors: Nichol G; Kim F.
      Abstract: Until recently, most communities reported that outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) had not improved for more than 30 years. This contrasts markedly with the significant and important reductions in mortality associated with care of other acute cardiovascular conditions such as ST-elevation myocardial infarction. In recognition of this discordance, experts previously called for implementation of cardiac resuscitation systems of care that consist of an interconnected community, involving the efforts of emergency medical services (EMS) systems, emergency departments, and hospitals to improve outcomes for patients with cardiac arrest.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Safety of Prescription Drugs
    • Authors: Sharfstein JM; Kesselheim AS.
      Abstract: Drug safety challenges have bedeviled the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for many years, and for good reason. The phased approach to drug development is primarily geared to establishing evidence of efficacy. Hundreds, perhaps thousands, of patients are exposed to an investigational drug in clinical trials. However, it may not be until after approval, when the medication is used by as many as hundreds of thousands of patients, that rare but serious adverse events appear or there is sufficient statistical power to determine whether the drug increases rates of more common potential adverse outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease or diabetes.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Strategies to Improve Survival From Cardiac Arrest: an IOM Report
    • Authors: Becker LB; Aufderheide TP, Graham R.
      Abstract: This Viewpoint introduces a newly released Institute of Medicine report describing many actions that stakeholders across the United States can take to improve outcomes from cardiac arrest.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Competition in the Age of Biosimilars
    • Authors: Chandra A; Vanderpuye-Orgle J.
      Abstract: This Viewpoint discusses how the competition created by biosimilars is different from competition from generic drugs and proposes ways in which public policy might increase the competitive benefits of biosimilars.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Americans with Disabilities Act and HIV/AIDS Discrimination
    • Authors: Crowley JS; Nevins GR, Thompson M.
      Abstract: This Viewpoint discusses the role the Americans with Disabilities Act could play in ensuring that persons with HIV/AIDS can access health care without stigma and discrimination.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Thoracic Park
    • Authors: Hawkins J.
      Abstract: Admission:A tickle, A coughAggravation, Add in AnoxiaAggressive AsthmaAnxiously holding our number atConcession:Cough syrup, Calming vaporsCalling in pills and potionsCraving oxygenConcealing a fast pass to theRides:Rolled to x-rayRespiratory therapyRealization of terminationRe-bargaining to win the Games:Guilty puffs of smokeGeriatric GymnasiumGalvanized, then sterilizedGive us something more thanSouvenirs:Shaded and highlighted billsStained tobacco fingertipsSeason passes just went on sale
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • New Opportunities in Health Broadcasting
    • Abstract: The Federal Communications Commission has issued a ruling on so-called static-less frequency modulation broadcasting, which is designated by the Federal Security Administrator, Paul V. McNutt, as a development which may “provide the greatest stimulus to education our nation has yet experienced.” According to a newspaper release dated May 27, by the Federal Security Agency, the ruling of the Federal Communications Commission gives educational agencies the right to exclusive use of radio bands of ultra-high frequency which were opened up by the commission for the first time in 1938 to commercial broadcasting. More than 300 educational institutions, supported by the National Committee on Education by Radio, favored the proposal that these high frequency bands be assigned exclusively for educational broadcasts. The United States Commissioner of Education, John W. Studebaker, representing state departments of education and 300 educational organizations at the hearing, estimated that the decision would permit as many as 3,000 local broadcasting stations to be erected.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Preventing Stroke in People With Atrial Fibrillation
    • Authors: Berian JR; Livingston EH.
      Abstract: Atrial fibrillation is an abnormal heart rhythm that can disrupt the normal flow of blood in the heart.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Children’s Antiretroviral Combo
    • Authors: Voelker R.
      Abstract: A new antiretroviral formulation recently given tentative approval from the FDA will make it easier for children with HIV and AIDS in middle- and low-income countries to take life-saving medication.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Soft Tissue Filler Alert
    • Authors: Voelker R.
      Abstract: The FDA has alerted health professionals of rare but serious injuries that may result from unintentionally injecting soft tissue fillers into facial blood vessels.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Thumbs Up for PCSK9 Inhibitors
    • Authors: Voelker R.
      Abstract: People at risk of cardiovascular disease from elevated cholesterol levels who don’t respond to or cannot tolerate statins may soon have new treatment options.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Untitled, Bronx Storefront, “La Rumba Supermarket”
    • Authors: Cole TB.
      Abstract: The artwork of the Cuban American painter Emilio Sánchez (1921-1999) is best known for its sharply defined patterns of light and shadow on the surfaces of houses, storefronts, and skyscrapers. Untitled, Bronx Storefront, “La Rumba Supermarket” is a painting of a New York grocery store with Cuban references. On many street corners in the city of New York, bodegas with colorful awnings and window ads sell convenience items to regular customers from local neighborhoods. Originally, most bodegas were operated by Spanish-speaking immigrants from Cuba and other parts of the Caribbean. The grocery in Sánchez’ painting is larger than most bodegas—large enough to host a party in the late afternoon. Seen dimly in the doorway of the grocery is a crowd of people standing close together, possibly dancing. The name of the store, La Rumba, refers to a syncopated style of music and dance that originated in Cuba in the 19th century. The most popular rumba dance, the guaguancó, is a flirtation: the woman’s role is to wave her skirt in time with the music to entice her man, but when he moves in closer she blocks him with her hands or dances away.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Attacks on Health Increasing in Conflict-Ridden Countries
    • Authors: Friedrich MJ.
      Abstract: Medical care personnel and facilities have become a target in many countries beset by conflict and civil unrest, according to a new report, “Attacks on Health: Global Report,” which describes violence against health workers, medical facilities, and patients, as well as interference with access to health care that has been occurring from January 2014 to April 2015 in 17 countries, including Syria, Ukraine, South Sudan, and Afghanistan (http://bit.ly/1LkKJQM).
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Liberia Carries Out Vaccination Campaign
    • Authors: Friedrich MJ.
      Abstract: A massive vaccination campaign in Liberia that was suspended because of the Ebola outbreak last year was renewed as part of the effort to restore health care services in the country (http://bit.ly/1QsVC5N). In May of this year, the Liberian government declared the Ebola outbreak to be over and worked with the World Health Organization and other partners to organize a nationwide week-long campaign to vaccinate more than 600 000 children younger than 5 years against measles and polio and provide deworming medicine (http://bit.ly/1AKW4Jg).
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Multipronged Approach Helps Alleviate Poverty
    • Authors: Friedrich MJ.
      Abstract: A holistic strategy to alleviate poverty—called the Graduation Program—can help the world’s poorest households “graduate” from extreme poverty into sustainable standards of living, according to a recent study carried out by an international consortium (Banerjee A et al. Science. 2015;348[6236]:1260799).
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Study Reveals Benefit of Early Antiretroviral Treatment
    • Authors: Friedrich MJ.
      Abstract: Individuals infected with HIV should start antiretroviral therapy (ART) at diagnosis to lower their risk of developing AIDS or other health issues related to HIV infection, according to findings from an interim review of the first large-scale randomized clinical trial of early treatment, the Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment (START) trial, (http://1.usa.gov/1cZVa0l). The START study was initiated in 2009 to determine the most propitious point at which to begin ART for HIV—either early in the course of infection, when the CD4+ cell count is greater than 500 cells/mm3, or later, when it drops below 350 cells/mm3.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Exemptions to Vaccination for Children
    • Authors: Holland MS.
      Abstract: To the Editor In a Viewpoint, Mr Gostin argued that if more children were vaccinated and exemptions made less accessible, outbreaks like the one that occurred in Disneyland would not happen. I disagree with this conclusion.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Exemptions to Vaccination for Children
    • Authors: Gostin LO.
      Abstract: In Reply Measles was eliminated from the United States in 2000 almost entirely due to routine childhood immunizations. The reemergence of measles and other vaccine-preventable diseases is a direct consequence of parents delaying or refusing to have their children vaccinated.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Genomic Technologies Speed Pathogen Detection
    • Authors: Stephenson J.
      Abstract: This article discusses advances in genomic technologies that have improved the efficiency and tractibility of pathogen discovery, detection, and tracking clinical and public health settings.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Back to the Future: Volume as a Quality Metric
    • Authors: Jha AK.
      Abstract: Recently, a group of leading academic institutions asked all hospitals to pledge to minimize the number of patients who undergo certain surgeries performed by surgeons and hospitals who seldom do those procedures. The “Take the Volume Pledge” campaign, initiated by 2 of the most respected experts on quality and safety in the nation, John Birkmeyer, MD, of Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system, and Peter Pronovost, MD, PhD, of Johns Hopkins Medicine, makes a lot of clinical sense (http://bit.ly/1L3PvF1). We know that when patients receive these surgeries at low-volume institutions or in the hands of low-volume surgeons, they tend to fare worse.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Management of Anticoagulation in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation
    • Authors: Moss JD; Cifu AS.
      Abstract: This JAMA Clinical Guidelines Synopsis article summarizes the evidence for management of anticoagulation therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Interactions Between Dicloxacillin and Vitamin K Antagonists
    • Authors: Pottegård A; Henriksen DP, Madsen KG, et al.
      Abstract: This study from Finland used a clinical database to analyze drug interaction outcomes of patients treated with dicloxacillin and vitamin K antagonists.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Single-Gene Genotyping and Personalized Preventive Care
    • Authors: Timmons JA.
      Abstract: To the Editor Dr Nan and colleagues demonstrated that the risk reduction for colorectal cancer afforded by regular use of aspirin (or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs]) was significantly associated with a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located on chromosome 12p12.3.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Single-Gene Genotyping and Personalized Preventive Care
    • Authors: Nan H; Hsu L, Chan AT.
      Abstract: In Reply Dr Timmons raises several important issues. First, he suggests that the differential response to aspirin or NSAIDs observed among 4% of the study participants with the rs2965667 TA or AA genotype (n = 722) may be attributable to chance. However, we used a stringent P value threshold to determine significance of an interaction between genotype and aspirin or NSAID use (P 
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Single-Gene Genotyping and Personalized Preventive Care
    • Authors: Wender RC.
      Abstract: In Reply Dr Timmons provides a compelling argument that using genetic information to guide clinical decisions about the prevention of chronic illnesses, including gene-environment interactions, is complex, requiring far more synthesis of multiple inputs than genotyping alone. I agree.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Neurologically Intact Survival in Bystander-Witnessed Out-of-Hospital
           Cardiac Arrest
    • Authors: Nakahara S; Tomio J, Ichikawa M, et al.
      Abstract: This population epidemiology study uses data from a Japanese national registry to characterize trends in use of chest compression and defibrillation by bystanders and associated rates of neurologically intact survival among patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Cardiac Survival After Bystander and First-Responder CPR Intervention
    • Authors: Malta Hansen C; Kragholm K, Pearson DA, et al.
      Abstract: This epidemiology study uses registry data to investigate the prevalence of bystander- and first responder–initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation in North Carolina and associations with survival after cardiac arrest.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Pioglitazone Use and Risk of Bladder and Other Cancers
    • Authors: Lewis JD; Habel LA, Quesenberry CP, et al.
      Abstract: This pharmacoepidemiology study uses Kaiser Permanente diabetes registry data to investigate associations between prescriptions for pioglitazone and bladder, prostate, breast, and other cancers.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation
    • Authors: Prystowsky EN; Padanilam BJ, Fogel RI.
      Abstract: This review article reports that therapy for atrial fibrillation should include rate control for all patients, but maintenance of sinus rhythm with drugs or catheter ablation should be considered on an individual patient basis.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Costs and Preventing Surgical Site Infection in Colorectal Surgery
    • Authors: Itani KF.
      Abstract: This From The JAMA Network article discusses a retrospective study published in JAMA Surgery reporting the effect of a preventive care bundle on surgical site infection rates and costs in colorectal surgery.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
 
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