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International Journal on Digital Libraries    [328 followers]  Follow
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ISSN (Print) 1432-1300 - ISSN (Online) 1432-5012
• The different roles of ‘Design Process Champions’ for digital libraries in African higher education
• Abstract: The concept of design stakeholders is central to effective design of digital libraries. We report on research findings that identified the presence of a key subset of stakeholders which we term ‘design process champions’. Our findings have identified that these champions can change interaction patterns and the eventual output of the other stakeholders (project participants) in the design process of digital library projects. This empirical research is based upon 38 interviews with key stakeholders and a review of documentary evidence in 10 innovative digital library design projects (e.g. mobile clinical libraries) located in three African universities in Kenya, Uganda, and South Africa. Through a grounded theory approach, two different types of the ‘design process champions’ emerged from the data with varying levels of effectiveness in the design process: (i) domain champions and (ii) multidisciplinary champions. The domain champions assume a ‘siloed’ approach of engagement while the multidisciplinary champions take on a participatory engagement throughout the design process. A discussion of the implications of information specialists functioning as domain champions is highlighted. We conclude by suggesting that the multidisciplinary champions’ approach is particularly useful in supporting sustainability of digital library design projects.
PubDate: 2013-03-28

• On the applicability of word sense discrimination on 201 years of modern english
• Abstract: As language evolves over time, documents stored in long- term archives become inaccessible to users. Automatically, detecting and handling language evolution will become a necessity to meet user’s information needs. In this paper, we investigate the performance of modern tools and algorithms applied on modern English to find word senses that will later serve as a basis for finding evolution. We apply the curvature clustering algorithm on all nouns and noun phrases extracted from The Times Archive (1785–1985). We use natural language processors for part-of-speech tagging and lemmatization and report on the performance of these processors over the entire period. We evaluate our clusters using WordNet to verify whether they correspond to valid word senses. Because The Times Archive contains OCR errors, we investigate the effects of such errors on word sense discrimination results. Finally, we present a novel approach to correct OCR errors present in the archive and show that the coverage of the curvature clustering algorithm improves. We increase the number of clusters by 24 %. To verify our results, we use the New York Times corpus (1987–2007), a recent collection that is considered error free, as a ground truth for our experiments. We find that after correcting OCR errors in The Times Archive, the performance of word sense discrimination applied on The Times Archive is comparable to the ground truth.
PubDate: 2013-03-16

• Can the Web turn into a digital library?
• Abstract: There is no doubt that the enormous amounts of information on the WWW are influencing how we work, live, learn and think. However, information on the WWW is in general too chaotic, not reliable enough and specific material often too difficult to locate that it cannot be considered a serious digital library. In this paper we concentrate on the question how we can retrieve reliable information from the Web, a task that is fraught with problems, but essential if the WWW is supposed to be used as serious digital library. It turns out that the use of search engines has many dangers. We will point out some of the possible ways how those dangers can be reduced and how dangerous traps can be avoided. Another approach to find useful information on the Web is to use “classical” resources of information like specialized dictionaries, lexica or encyclopaedias in electronic form, such as the Britannica. Although it seemed for a while that such resources might more or less disappear from the Web due to attempts such as Wikipedia, some to the classical encyclopaedias and specialized offerings have picked up steam again and should not be ignored. They do sometimes suffer from what we will call the “wishy-washy” syndrome explained in this paper. It is interesting to note that Wikipedia which is also larger than all other encyclopaedias (at least the English version) is less afflicted by this syndrome, yet has some other serious drawbacks. We discuss how those could be avoided and present a system that is halfway between prototype and production system that does take care of many of the aforementioned problems and hence may be a model for further undertakings in turning (part of) the Web into a useable digital library.
PubDate: 2013-03-01

• Symbiosis between the TRECVid benchmark and video libraries at the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision
• Abstract: Audiovisual archives are investing in large-scale digitization efforts of their analogue holdings and, in parallel, ingesting an ever-increasing amount of born-digital files in their digital storage facilities. Digitization opens up new access paradigms and boosted re-use of audiovisual content. Query-log analyses show the shortcomings of manual annotation, therefore archives are complementing these annotations by developing novel search engines that automatically extract information from both audio and the visual tracks. Over the past few years, the TRECVid benchmark has developed a novel relationship with the Netherlands Institute of Sound and Vision (NISV) which goes beyond the NISV just providing data and use cases to TRECVid. Prototype and demonstrator systems developed as part of TRECVid are set to become a key driver in improving the quality of search engines at the NISV and will ultimately help other audiovisual archives to offer more efficient and more fine-grained access to their collections. This paper reports the experiences of NISV in leveraging the activities of the TRECVid benchmark.
PubDate: 2013-03-01

• What impact do healthcare digital libraries have? An evaluation of national resource of infection control at the point of care using the Impact-ED framework
• Abstract: Over the last decade billions of dollars’ worth of investments have been directed into ICT solutions for healthcare. In particular, new evidence-based digital libraries and web portals designed to keep busy clinicians up to date with the latest evidence were created in the UK and US. While usability and performance of digital libraries were widely researched, evaluation of impact did not seem to be sufficiently addressed. This is of major concern for healthcare digital libraries as their success or failure has a direct impact on patients’ health, clinical practice, government policies and funding initiatives. In order to fill this gap, we developed the Impact-ED evaluation framework measuring impact on four dimensions of digital libraries—content, community, services and technology. Applying a triangulation technique we analysed pre- and post-visit questionnaires to assess the clinical query or aim of the visit and subsequent satisfaction with each visit, mapped it against weblogs analysis for each session and triangulated with data from semi-structured interviews. In this paper, we present the complete description of the Impact-ED framework, a definition of the comparative Impact score and application of the framework to a real-world medical digital library, the National Resource of Infection Control (NRIC, http://www.nric.org.uk), to evaluate its impact at the point of care and demonstrate the generalisability of this novel methodology. We analysed the data from a cohort of 53 users who completed the registration questionnaire, of which 32 completed pre- and post-visit questionnaires of which 72 sets were matched for analysis and five users out of these were interviewed using Dervin’s method. NRIC is generally perceived to be a useful resource with 93 % of users reporting it provides relevant information regularly or occasionally ( $n=28$ ) and provided relevant information in over 65 % of visits ( $n=47$ ). NRIC has a positive impact on user knowledge in over half of visits to the library (52.8 %), NRIC actual impact score $I_{\text{ a}} = 0.65$ and the study revealed several areas for potential development to increase its impact.
PubDate: 2013-03-01

• Developing a video game metadata schema for the Seattle Interactive Media Museum
• Abstract: As interest in video games increases, so does the need for intelligent access to them. However, traditional organizational systems and standards fall short. To fill this gap, we are collaborating with the Seattle Interactive Media Museum to develop a formal metadata schema for video games. In the paper, we describe how the schema was established from a user-centered design approach and introduce the core elements from our schema. We also discuss the challenges we encountered as we were conducting a domain analysis and cataloging real-world examples of video games. Inconsistent, vague, and subjective sources of information for title, genre, release date, feature, region, language, developer and publisher information confirm the importance of developing a standardized description model for video games.
PubDate: 2013-03-01

• Archiving the web using page changes patterns: a case study
• Abstract: A pattern is a model or a template used to summarize and describe the behavior (or the trend) of data having generally some recurrent events. Patterns have received a considerable attention in recent years and were widely studied in the data mining field. Various pattern mining approaches have been proposed and used for different applications such as network monitoring, moving object tracking, financial or medical data analysis, scientific data processing, etc. In these different contexts, discovered patterns were useful to detect anomalies, to predict data behavior (or trend) or, more generally, to simplify data processing or to improve system performance. However, to the best of our knowledge, patterns have never been used in the context of Web archiving. Web archiving is the process of continuously collecting and preserving portions of the World Wide Web for future generations. In this paper, we show how patterns of page changes can be useful tools to efficiently archive Websites. We first define our pattern model that describes the importance of page changes. Then, we present the strategy used to (i) extract the temporal evolution of page changes, (ii) discover patterns, to (iii) exploit them to improve Web archives. The archive of French public TV channels France Télévisions is chosen as a case study to validate our approach. Our experimental evaluation based on real Web pages shows the utility of patterns to improve archive quality and to optimize indexing or storing.
PubDate: 2012-12-01

• SharedCanvas: a collaborative model for digital facsimiles
• Abstract: In this article, we present a model based on the principles of Linked Data that can be used to describe the interrelationships of images, texts and other resources to facilitate the interoperability of repositories of medieval manuscripts or other culturally important handwritten documents. The model is designed from a set of requirements derived from the real world use cases of some of the largest digitized medieval content holders, and instantiations of the model are intended as the description to be provided as input to collection-independent page turning and scholarly presentation interfaces. A canvas painting paradigm, such as in PDF and SVG, was selected due to the lack of a one to one correlation between image and page, and to fulfill complex requirements such as when the full text of a page is known, but only fragments of the physical object remain. The model is implemented using technologies such as OAI-ORE Aggregations and Open Annotations, as the fundamental building blocks of emerging Linked Digital Libraries. The model and implementation are evaluated through prototypes of both content providing and consuming applications. Although the system was designed from requirements drawn from the medieval manuscript domain, it is applicable to any layout-oriented presentation of images of text.
PubDate: 2012-12-01

• Interactive context-aware user-driven metadata correction in digital libraries
• Abstract: Personal name variants are a common problem in digital libraries, reducing the precision of searches and complicating browsing-based interaction. The book-centric approach of name authority control has not scaled to match the growth and diversity of digital repositories. In this paper, we present a novel system for user-driven integration of name variants when interacting with web-based information—in particular digital library—systems. We approach these issues via a client-side JavaScript browser extension that can reorganize web content and also integrate remote data sources. Designed to be agnostic towards the web sites it is applied to, we illustrate the developed proof-of-concept system through worked examples using three different digital libraries. We discuss the extensibility of the approach in the context of other user-driven information systems and the growth of the Semantic Web.
PubDate: 2012-12-01

• Joint conference on digital libraries (JCDL) 2011
• PubDate: 2012-12-01

• Automated approaches to characterizing educational digital library usage: linking computational methods with qualitative analyses
• Abstract: The need for automatic methods capable of characterizing adoption and use has grown in operational digital libraries. This paper describes a computational method for producing two, inter-related, user typologies based on use diffusion. Furthermore, a case study is described that demonstrates the utility and applicability of the method: it is used to understand how middle and high school science teachers participating in an academic year-long field trial adopted and integrated digital library resources into their instructional planning and teaching. Use diffusion theory views technology adoption as a process that can lead to widely different patterns of use across a given population of potential users; these models use measures of frequency and variety to characterize and describe such usage patterns. By using computational techniques such as clickstream entropy and clustering, the method produces both coarse- and fine-grained user typologies. As a part of improving the initial coarse-grain typology, clickstream entropy improvements are described that aim at better separation of users. In addition, a fine-grained user typology is described that identifies five different types of teacher-users, including “interactive resource specialists” and “community seeker specialists.” This typology was validated through comparison with qualitative and quantitative data collected using traditional educational field research methods. Results indicate that qualitative analyses correlate with the computational results, suggesting automatic methods may prove an important tool in discovering valid usage characteristics and user types.
PubDate: 2012-12-01

• Computing minimal mappings between lightweight ontologies
• Abstract: As a valid solution to the semantic heterogeneity problem, many matching solutions have been proposed. Given two lightweight ontologies, we compute the minimal mapping, namely the subset of all possible correspondences, that we call mapping elements, between them such that (i) all the others can be computed from them in time linear in the size of the input ontologies and (ii) none of them can be dropped without losing property (i). We provide a formal definition of minimal mappings and define a time efficient computation algorithm which minimizes the number of comparisons between the nodes of the two input ontologies. The experimental results show a substantial improvement both in the computation time and in the number of mapping elements which need to be handled, for instance for validation, navigation, and search.
PubDate: 2012-09-01

• An activity-based costing model for long-term preservation and dissemination of digital research data: the case of DANS
• Abstract: Financial sustainability is an important attribute of a trusted, reliable digital repository. The authors of this paper use the case study approach to develop an activity-based costing (ABC) model. This is used for estimating the costs of preserving digital research data and identifying options for improving and sustaining relevant activities. The model is designed in the environment of the Data Archiving and Networked Services (DANS) institute, a well-known trusted repository. The DANS–ABC model has been tested on empirical cost data from activities performed by 51 employees in frames of over 40 different national and international projects. Costs of resources are being assigned to cost objects through activities and cost drivers. The ‘euros per dataset’ unit of costs measurement is introduced to analyse the outputs of the model. Funders, managers and other decision-making stakeholders are being provided with understandable information connected to the strategic goals of the organisation. The latter is being achieved by linking the DANS–ABC model to another widely used managerial tool—the Balanced Scorecard (BSC). The DANS–ABC model supports costing of services provided by a data archive, while the combination of the DANS–ABC with a BSC identifies areas in the digital preservation process where efficiency improvements are possible.
PubDate: 2012-09-01

• Video digital libraries: contributive and decentralised
• Abstract: Technology usage is changing rapidly and is becoming a more mobile, more social and more multimedia-based experience. This is especially true in the area of content creation where mobile social applications used by crowds of people are challenging traditional ways of creating and distributing content, especially for applications like news dissemination. Libraries have traditionally functioned as repositories where the information content of a society is analysed, curated, organised and stored, acting as a permanent record of what is to be remembered from a society. How can this function be achieved by present-day libraries attempting to cope with mobile, social, multimedia content who’s nature and utility of which change the type of information we wish to curate and store? This information is both dynamic and organic, posing challenges to the more fixed models of information in digital libraries. In this article we describe two digital library systems that archive video content from the sports domain, and which support user annotations and merging of diverse information sources in an integrated way. We report on analysis of the deployment of these two systems and highlight how they extend the traditional role of a (digital) library.
PubDate: 2012-09-01

• Towards the disintermediation of creative music search: analysing queries to determine important facets
• Abstract: Creative professionals search for music to accompany moving images in films, advertising, television. Some larger music rights holders (record companies and music publishers) organise their catalogues to allow online searching. These digital libraries are organised by various subjective musical facets as well as by artist and title metadata. The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of written queries relating to creative music search, contextualised and discussed within the findings of text analyses of a larger research project whose aim is to investigate meaning making in this search process. A facet analysis of a collection of written music queries is discussed in relation to the organisation of the music in a selection of bespoke search engines. Subjective facets, in particular Mood, are found to be highly important in query formation. Unusually, detailed Music Structural aspects are also key. These findings are discussed in relation to disintermediation of this process. It is suggested that there are barriers to this, both in terms of classification and also commercial/legal factors.
PubDate: 2012-08-01

• Exact and approximate rhythm matching algorithms
• Abstract: An interesting problem in music information retrieval is to classify songs according to rhythms. A rhythm is represented by a sequence of “Quick” (Q) and “Slow” (S) symbols, which correspond to the (relative) duration of notes, such that S = 2Q. Christodoulakis et al. presented an efficient algorithm that can be used to classify musical sequences according to rhythms. In this article, the above algorithm is implemented, along with a naive brute force algorithm to solve the same problem. The theoretical time complexity bounds are analyzed with the actual running times achieved by the experiments, and the results of the two algorithms are compared. Furthermore, new efficient algorithms are presented that take temporal errors into account. This, the approximate pattern matching version, could not be handled by the algorithms previously presented. The running times of two algorithmic variants are analyzed and compared and examples of their implementation are shown.
PubDate: 2012-08-01

• Introduction to the focused issue on music DLs
• PubDate: 2012-08-01

• The digital curation of ethnic music audio archives: from preservation to restoration
• Abstract: In the sound archive field, a long-term maintenance of the collective human memory in its original form is not sustainable. All physical carriers are subject to degradation and the information stored on such carriers is bound to vanish. Only a re-mediation of the original documents can prevent precious knowledge from being permanently lost. In particular, ethnic music audio documents are often recorded on non-professional carriers by means of amateur recording system, or, more in general, in fieldwork circumstances. Thus, the preservation of the carrier and the restoration of the audio signal are crucial to avoid the permanent loss of the musical heritage, which is already heavily corrupted. This article describes the protocols defined, the processes undertaken, the results ascertained from several audio documents preservation/restoration projects carried out in the ethnic music field, and the techniques used. In particular: (i) a number of recommendations are given for the re-recording process, and (ii) an audio restoration environment (constituted by three audio restoration tools), developed using the VST plug-in architecture and optimized for different audio carriers (cylinders, shellac discs, tapes) is detailed. The experimental results and the perceptual assessment presented show the effectiveness of the restoration environment developed by the author.
PubDate: 2012-08-01

• A spatial hypertext-based, personal digital library for capturing and organizing musical moments
• Abstract: We describe the design, development, and evaluation of a personal digital music library application designed to assist musicians in capturing, developing, and managing their musical ideas over time. The target user group is musicians who primarily use audio and text for composition and arrangement, rather than with formal music notation. The software design was guided by a formative user study which suggested five requirements for the software to support: capturing, overdubbing, developing, archiving, and organizing. This led to a spatial hypermedia approach forming the basis for the developed application. Furthermore, the underlying spatial data-model was exploited to give raw audio compositions a hierarchical structure, and—to aid musicians in retrieving previous ideas—a search facility was provided to support both query by humming and text-based queries. A user evaluation of the implemented environment indicated that the target musicians would find the hypermedia environment useful for capturing and managing their moments of musical creativity. More specifically, they would make use of the query by humming facility and the hierarchical track organization, but not the overdubbing facility as implemented.
PubDate: 2012-08-01

• The EthnoMuse digital library: conceptual representation and annotation of ethnomusicological materials
• Abstract: The paper presents two vital aspects of the EthnoMuse digital library. We first present the development of a flexible data model through FRBRoo and CIDOC CRM conceptualization of processes and relations in folk song and music realizations. The approach is novel in that it conceptualizes and integrates various folkloristic and ethnomusicological materials, and also standardizes the workflow of production and post-production processes related to recording and documenting of folk song and music. We also present how novel music information retrieval techniques were integrated into the library to provide support for annotation of its contents. Two case studies are presented: automatic segmentation and labeling of field recordings, and transcription of bell chiming recordings.
PubDate: 2012-08-01

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