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International Journal of Police Science and Management
Number of Followers: 578  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1461-3557 - ISSN (Online) 1478-1603
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1089 journals]
  • The impact of Crisis Intervention Team Training for police
    • Authors: Kimberly D Hassell
      Pages: 159 - 170
      Abstract: International Journal of Police Science & Management, Volume 22, Issue 2, Page 159-170, June 2020.
      Policing persons with mental illness and/or emotional/behavioral issues is complex and difficult. Police interactions and encounters of this nature are expected to increase due to dwindling budgets and the resulting deficiencies of local mental health systems. Police departments are responding to this growing need by requiring officers to attend Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) Training. CIT Training is designed to teach officers about mental illness and effective strategies and techniques for engaging and de-escalating potentially volatile interactions and encounters. This study was conducted in a large, Midwestern, municipal police department. The data were triangulated and included: (a) CIT Training pre- and post-tests administered to officers (N=323) prior to and upon completion of the required 40-hour CIT Training held during the months of October through December 2016 and February through May 2017; (b) participant observation with police patrol officers in three of the seven police districts (N=127 hours; April 2017 through May 2017); (c) semi-structured interviews with police patrol officers assigned to three of the seven police districts who had completed the CIT Training (N=32 patrol officers; intensive interviews were conducted during participant observation); (d) in-person semi-structured interviews with service providers/practitioners who interact with officers in the context of their working roles and responsibilities (N=27; July 2017 through January 2018); and (e) interviews with Urbantown Police Department (UPD) executive command staff, CIT coordinators and UPD telecommunications personnel (N=10; September 2017 through January 2018). The assessment finds that the CIT Training administered in a large, municipal police department changed officers’ perceptions, as well as their street-level practices with persons with mental illness and/or emotional/behavioral issues. This assessment also finds that police officers are taking fewer persons into custody for involuntary treatment, and are instead transporting more persons for voluntary treatment.
      Citation: International Journal of Police Science & Management
      PubDate: 2020-05-26T10:34:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1461355720909404
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2020)
  • Police spokespersons: A question of organizational representation
    • Authors: Rylan Simpson, Kamali’ilani Wetherell
      Abstract: International Journal of Police Science & Management, Ahead of Print.
      Police spokespersons exist at the core of organizational representation: they are selected to represent their agencies at all levels of engagement on all public platforms. Given their repeated exposure via traditional and electronic media, perceptions of spokesperson characteristics may impact perceptions of police and police organizations more broadly. Using online search queries of publicly available sources, we collected data for 612 spokespersons from 514 municipal police agencies across the United States. Our analyses reveal that spokespersons are overwhelmingly sworn, White men who are middle-aged and mid-rank. Our analyses also reveal some bivariate relationships between spokesperson characteristics (e.g., gender and employment status) and some variation among characteristics across states (e.g., Texas versus Ohio). By identifying and describing spokesperson characteristics at both national and state levels, we extend historical research regarding police spokespersons, contribute to the scholarly understanding of police representation practices, and theorize the relationships between spokespersons, organizations, and contemporary policing issues.
      Citation: International Journal of Police Science & Management
      PubDate: 2020-05-04T10:43:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1461355720918882
  • Police science as an emerging scientific discipline
    • Authors: Christof Nägel, Antonio Vera
      Abstract: International Journal of Police Science & Management, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines the epistemological and institutional configuration of police science. Our results indicate that although police science fulfills the epistemological prerequisites for a scientific discipline, the corresponding institutionalization, which is a necessary condition of its consolidation, has taken place only partially and in a few Western countries. Institutional establishment of police science fails primarily because of the lack of a collective definition of the field, but also because of deficits in the density of interorganizational contacts and the flow of information. This has several theoretical, but also practical implications, mainly on the issue of institutional legitimacy, which are discussed at the end of this article.
      Citation: International Journal of Police Science & Management
      PubDate: 2020-04-23T11:25:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1461355720917413
  • Patriarchal beliefs and perceptions towards women among Indian police
           officers: A study of Uttar Pradesh, India
    • Authors: Saumya Tripathi
      Abstract: International Journal of Police Science & Management, Ahead of Print.
      The objective of this study was to explore the association between patriarchal beliefs and perceptions regarding gender equity among Indian police officers. Using convenience and systematic random sampling, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with 190 police officers from Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. The survey collected information about patriarchal beliefs, perception regarding gender equity, as well as social demographic characteristics including age, education, gender, work experience, working shifts/hours, place of residence and family system. Multiple linear regressions were used to predict patriarchal beliefs, utilizing the independent variable of perceptions regarding gender equity. Police officials held a high degree of patriarchal belief and inequitable perceptions regarding the gender roles of women. Multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for key sociodemographic variables, demonstrated a statistically significant association between the police officers’ patriarchal beliefs and their perceptions of gender equity. These findings emphasize the need for greater representation of female police officers and gender-inclusive training for all police officers in providing services to women. Gender-sensitive interventions may help facilitate positive change for police officers that hold strong patriarchal perceptions towards women and who may make it more difficult for women to successfully submit gender-based complaints.
      Citation: International Journal of Police Science & Management
      PubDate: 2020-04-06T12:26:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1461355720905612
  • An examination of police cadets’ perceptions of corruption
    • Authors: Nebi Cetinkaya, Idris Guclu, M. Murat Ozer
      Abstract: International Journal of Police Science & Management, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this paper is to examine police cadets’ perceptions of the seriousness of police corruption. This study attempts to explore and delineate a variety of factors that may influence police cadets’ perceptions about some basic types of corruption. A comparison between future supervisors’ and line officers’ perceptions of specific aspects of corruption is lacking. A quantitative research design was used for data collection. The results of this study indicated that there were significant differences in police cadets’ perceptions of the seriousness of corruption based on their parents’ education level, occupation, and income. In addition, the findings revealed that cadets’ sociodemographic background, such as parents’ education level and type of occupation, as well as the cadet’s organizational affiliations, such as their respective police training school, had significant effects on their perceptions of seriousness involving corruption scenarios. This study provided important and useful information for policy-makers and leadership cadres responsible for police training.
      Citation: International Journal of Police Science & Management
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T10:40:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1461355720911944
  • Alasdair MacIntyre’s challenge: Police corruption, management ethics,
           and the indispensable virtues of integrity and constancy
    • Authors: David Loomis, Steven Loomis
      Abstract: International Journal of Police Science & Management, Ahead of Print.
      This paper investigates some of the information conditions necessary for the preservation of police officers’ individual and collective moral agency, particularly the virtues of integrity and constancy, which can diminish in markedly rule-based, informationally impoverished, or corrupt work environments. We focus on one particular work from philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre, who explores the threat of social structures to moral agency by using the hypothetical case of J whose job it was to make the trains run on time while avoiding questions about the cargo. J’s supervisors and the broader social structure he occupies inhibited his capacity to be a full moral agent. In order to illustrate the relevance and application of MacIntyre’s argument to policing and the good justice, including the wider philosophical and economic problems of compartmentalization of moral agency, we draw from his framework to consider our own case study in policing inspired by a challenging era within the recent history of the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department (USA). Implications for leadership and management in policing are discussed.
      Citation: International Journal of Police Science & Management
      PubDate: 2020-03-20T02:04:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1461355720909405
  • Militarization of police: a comparison of police paramilitary units in
           Canadian and the United States
    • Authors: K Cyr, Rosemary Ricciardelli, Dale Spencer
      First page: 137
      Abstract: International Journal of Police Science & Management, Ahead of Print.
      In comparison with Canada, the more pronounced ability to acquire special weapons and tactics (SWAT) equipment in the United States suggests the resulting proliferation of SWAT teams with adequate material resources is likely to continue. This proliferation has stimulated media and public discourses against the “militarization” of police. In Canada, however, the amalgamation of SWAT teams has led to increased standardization in SWAT training, member specialization and protocols of applied practice. We argue that, in comparison with the United States, the proliferation of paramilitary activity is limited in the Canadian policing landscape by public safety governance structures, acquisition processes, and judicial scrutiny. In consequence, Canadian police services are better positioned than their counterparts in the United States to withstand the public scrutiny tied to police tactical responses.
      Citation: International Journal of Police Science & Management
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T03:52:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1461355719898204
  • Stress management and health promotion intervention program for police
    • Authors: Dimitra Liakopoulou, Xanthi Tigani, Liza Varvogli, George P Chrousos, Christina Darviri
      First page: 148
      Abstract: International Journal of Police Science & Management, Ahead of Print.
      Police are exposed to considerable amounts of stress while undertaking their work; confronting not only a plethora of stress factors common to the field of work, but also frequently experienced violence, aggression, environmental stressors and traumatic events, thus leading to poor physical and mental health. This study aims to expand evidence on the role of stress management in police forces. The study concerns a randomized control trial in a sample of police officers (N = 54) randomly separated into intervention and control groups. The intervention group (N = 27) underwent Pythagorean Self-Awareness Intervention (PSAI), a novel 8-week non-pharmaceutical self-referring intervention, whereas the control group completed self-reported questionnaires that were used pre- and post-intervention in both groups. The majority of participants were males in their mid-30s, with tertiary education, married, and had been working in police forces for more than a decade; more than half were shift workers. Statistical analyses revealed beneficial changes in the intervention group for the variables anger in, negative affect, cognitive speed and verbal memory compared with the control group. We aspire to the introduction of PSAI as a method that have beneficial effects on police stress, cognitive amelioration and management of negative feelings and anger.
      Citation: International Journal of Police Science & Management
      PubDate: 2020-01-22T10:40:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1461355719898202
  • The impact of individual differences on investigative hypothesis
           generation under time pressure
    • Authors: Sunghwan Kim, Laurence Alison, Paul Christiansen
      First page: 171
      Abstract: International Journal of Police Science & Management, Ahead of Print.
      When decisions are made under time pressure, individuals tend to reduce the number of hypotheses generated to explain and solve problems. This research investigates the extent to which individual differences in (a) domain-specific experience, (b) fluid intelligence, (c) need for closure (NFC), and (d) time urgency moderated the effect of time pressure on investigative hypothesis generation. Korean detectives (N = 133) participated in simulated investigative scenarios. To induce the perception of time pressure, one group was informed that the task would have to be completed under time pressure (N = 66), whereas the other group did not receive this instruction (N = 67); although both groups had the same amount of time). Outcomes included the number and quality of hypotheses generated for solving the case. The quality of hypotheses generated was measured against criteria established by expert detectives. Results revealed that time pressure directly decreased the quantity and quality of hypotheses generated. In the relationships, low time urgency moderated the effect of time pressure on the number and quality of hypotheses generated, also low NFC moderated the impact of time pressure on the number of hypotheses generated. Furthermore, the most experienced detectives were least affected by the negative association between time pressure and the quality of hypotheses generated. The findings suggest lower time urgency, lower NFC and more experience are adaptive ‘protective’ factors against the negative impact of time pressure on hypothesis generation within high stakes and uncertain situations such as rape investigations.
      Citation: International Journal of Police Science & Management
      PubDate: 2020-03-04T07:04:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1461355720905716
  • The relationship between psychological wellbeing, social support, and
           personality in an English police force
    • Authors: Patricia C Jackman, Hannah Henderson, Georgia Clay, Adam H Coussens
      First page: 183
      Abstract: International Journal of Police Science & Management, Ahead of Print.
      Police employees are exposed to a variety of complex, work-related stressors and are susceptible to experiencing reduced psychological wellbeing. To advance understanding of the personal and social factors underpinning psychological wellbeing in this population, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological wellbeing, perceived support from colleagues, received support from colleagues and personality factors in police employees. A sample of 381 police employees from a county police force in England completed an online questionnaire assessing: psychological wellbeing; perceived support; received support; and personality factors. Psychological wellbeing was significantly and positively associated with perceived support from colleagues, received support from colleagues, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience. Further investigation of these relationships using multiple logistic regression analysis found that perceived support from colleagues, received support from colleagues, extraversion, and emotional stability significantly predicted psychological wellbeing. Given growing concerns about psychological wellbeing in police forces, the findings could help to inform the promotion of psychological wellbeing across operational and non-operational police employees. The results suggest that increasing both perceptions of available support and the amount of support received among employees in police forces is important for enhancing psychological wellbeing in this population. Furthermore, police employees with lower levels of extraversion and emotional stability should also be considered for additional support to promote psychological wellbeing.
      Citation: International Journal of Police Science & Management
      PubDate: 2020-03-16T10:15:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1461355720907620
  • Childhood family violence and officer responses to officer-involved
           domestic violence: Effects of cumulative and resolved trauma
    • Authors: Stephanie Grace Prost, Daniel G. Saunders, Karen Oehme
      First page: 194
      Abstract: International Journal of Police Science & Management, Ahead of Print.
      Law enforcement officers who witness or experience abuse in their family of origin are at higher risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol abuse. These trauma effects may, in turn, affect officers’ responses to domestic violence victims who call on them for help. The purpose of this study was to examine how these childhood traumas, PTSD, and alcohol abuse affect officers’ supportive responses to victims and perpetrators of officer-involved domestic violence (OIDV). We hypothesized that officers who witnessed or experienced family of origin violence would have higher levels of PTSD and abusive drinking than those without trauma. Furthermore, we hypothesized that officers with resolved trauma (i.e., no current PTSD or abusive drinking) would be more likely to support victims of OIDV than officers with unresolved trauma. Survey respondents were law enforcement officers (n = 1661) in police and sheriff’s departments throughout the United States. Results partially supported the hypotheses regarding the separate and cumulative effects of witnessing family violence and experiencing child abuse. In addition, officers who endured these childhood traumas, but resolved these concerns reported a significantly greater average likelihood of helping an OIDV victim than those with unresolved trauma. Implications include the promotion of employee assistance programs and professional counselors to support officers with unresolved trauma, which may lead to improved responses to OIDV.
      Citation: International Journal of Police Science & Management
      PubDate: 2020-03-19T12:25:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1461355720907641
  • Policing through social media: A qualitative exploration
    • Authors: Seth Wyatt Fallik, Ross Deuchar, Vaughn J Crichlow, Hannah Hodges
      First page: 208
      Abstract: International Journal of Police Science & Management, Ahead of Print.
      Social media, in the past decade, has been used to hold police accountable for their actions. There has been, however, a paucity of empirical research into how law enforcement uses social media. To explore this issue, this paper uses qualitative data emerging from ethnographic research conducted in a Southern American state. Participant observations of police officer deployments were paired with semi-structured interviews with officers from three law enforcement agencies. The extent and ways in which these officers used social media is explored. Findings indicate that social media is used to bring positive attention to law enforcement agencies and aid criminal investigations. Although the positive impact of social media was highlighted in these experiences, persistent problems and challenges also featured in the data. Finally, officer insights were drawn upon to make recommendations for future policing policy and research.
      Citation: International Journal of Police Science & Management
      PubDate: 2020-03-25T10:38:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1461355720911948
  • What does it mean when we ask the public if they are ‘confident’ in
           policing' The trust, fairness, presence model of ‘public
    • Authors: Kevin Morrell, Ben Bradford, Basit Javid
      First page: 111
      Abstract: International Journal of Police Science & Management, Ahead of Print.
      ‘Confidence’ is widely taken to be a crucial measure of the relationship between citizens and public services such as policing. It is acknowledged that confidence is multifaceted and hard to measure, but often discussions are based on one ‘headline’ rating of a single item, for instance: ‘What is your level of confidence in…’. The subsequent focus for research is explaining what might drive ‘confidence’, or what it might predict. We are interested in a more fundamental question: what does it mean when we ask the public if they are ‘confident’ in policing' To answer this, we analyse extensive and detailed survey data specifically designed to measure public confidence, within the jurisdiction of a UK police force – West Midlands Police. We develop then validate a three-part model of confidence as trust, fairness and presence, and find good evidence to support this model across different waves of the survey. This extends existing literature with implications for policy.
      Citation: International Journal of Police Science & Management
      PubDate: 2019-12-16T11:33:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1461355719891197
  • Police retention and storage of evidence in England and Wales
    • Authors: Carole McCartney, Louise Shorter
      First page: 123
      Abstract: International Journal of Police Science & Management, Ahead of Print.
      Central to the operation of the appellate system, is the ability of individuals who claim that their conviction is in error, to revisit and re-examine evidence gathered during the investigation, as well as that relied upon at their trial. High-profile miscarriages of justice have often only been remedied when there has been defence access to materials post conviction. There is also an imperative for forces to retain evidence in investigations in which no perpetrator has been detected or convicted, to facilitate cold case reviews. In order to give effect then to an appellate system and enable cold case reviews, evidence needs to be retained and properly stored. If materials are not retained and stored correctly, then re-investigations are rendered impossible. Retention is especially critical in respect of physical materials that could be subject to forensic examination. With the progress of science and technology, and the interpretation of results, it is essential that such physical (and now, often digital) materials are retained for future (re)evaluation. From analysis of responses to a Freedom of Information request to all police forces in England and Wales, and qualitative interviews with criminal justice stakeholders, this article examines the retention and storage of materials, and considers the operation and future of the Forensic Archive Ltd. It details a worrying picture of inconsistency, with confusion over what should be retained, and how. It concludes that justice demands that we accept that the proper retention and storage of materials is fundamental to the fair and effective operation of our criminal justice system, and ensures that the Court of Appeal can fulfil its remit in addressing wrongful convictions and forces can pursue justice in cold cases.
      Citation: International Journal of Police Science & Management
      PubDate: 2019-12-26T11:36:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1461355719891741
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