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Journal Cover American Psychologist
  [SJR: 1.79]   [H-I: 176]   [193 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0003-066X - ISSN (Online) 1935-990X
   Published by APA Homepage  [74 journals]
  • For whose benefit' Comment on the psychobiography special section
           (2017).
    • Abstract: This commentary addresses a recent special section on psychobiography that appeared in the pages of the July–August 2017 American Psychologist. The claims made by the authors of these articles raise a number of serious ethical, scientific, and historical concerns about psychobiography. These concerns include the potential public harm from the indiscriminate analysis of public figures; the inherent problem of publicly analyzing individuals without their participation or consent; overly deterministic conclusions of such analyses; difficulties analyzing figures from a distance and in retrospect; the impossibility of validating psychological theories through singular accounts; the presumption that psychological knowledge is ahistorical; the highly selective nature of psychobiography; and a focus on largely White, male figures as historically significant. These issues highlight the potential risks of this approach for both individuals under analysis and the broader public, while also questioning the professed benefit of psychobiography to psychological science and its value to historical scholarship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Apr 2018 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • Advancing psychobiography: Reply to Young and Collins (2018).
    • Abstract: In this reply to Young and Collins (2018), the author responds to 3 primary concerns raised about integrating psychobiography into mainstream psychology: appropriate historical context and historiographic research methods, avoiding deterministic conclusions and the role of psychobiography in theory testing, and ethical concerns related to lack of informed consent of the identified subject. The author appreciates the thoughtful comments of Young and Collins and hopes that discussion and debate about psychobiography will continue in the literature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Apr 2018 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • Howard B. Eichenbaum (1947–2017).
    • Abstract: Presents an obituary of Howard B. Eichenbaum (1947–2017). Eichenbaum, a world leader in the study of memory and the brain, died in Boston, Massachusetts, on July 21, 2017, at age 69, following recent spine surgery. Eichenbaum was a hugely creative and integrative scientist whose work combined cognitive and lesion analyses with high-density neuronal recordings, providing insights into brain computations and representations that help bridge psychological and physiological mechanisms of memory. His theories and original and elegant experiments in animals have greatly advanced our knowledge of the nature and brain mechanisms of memory in animals and humans alike. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Apr 2018 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • Gerald “Jerry” Goldstein (1931–2017).
    • Abstract: Presents an obituary of Gerald “Jerry” Goldstein (1931–2017). Jerry passed away at his home in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on April 8, 2017. Goldstein was famous for his contributions to the establishment of clinical neuropsychology as a science and professional specialty. In addition to his extraordinary service to the specialty, he made important contributions to the neuropsychology of alcoholism and schizophrenia, as well as to neuropsychological rehabilitation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Apr 2018 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • C. Keith Conners (1933–2017).
    • Abstract: Presents an obituary of C. Keith Conners (1933–2017) who passed away of heart failure in Durham, North Carolina, on July 6, 2017. Conners was a pioneer in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) research and treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Apr 2018 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • Eugene T. Gendlin (1926–2017).
    • Abstract: Presents an obituary of Eugene T. Gendlin (1926 –2017) who passed on May 1, 2017, at the age of 90 in Spring Hill, New York. Gendlin, an American philosopher and psychologist, is perhaps best known for his impact on psychology, psychotherapy, and research on the effectiveness of psychotherapy even though he regarded himself first as a philosopher. He established the subfield of experiential psychotherapy and was the founding editor of the American Psychological Association’s (APA) Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice journal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Apr 2018 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • Dorothy G. Singer (1927–2016).
    • Abstract: Presents an obituary of Dorothy G. Singer (1927–2016) who passed away on November 19, 2016, at Yale New Haven Hospital, at the age of 89. Singer was a professor, research scientist, consultant, child therapist, and author. As the author or coauthor of more than 25 books and 200 scientific and popular articles, Singer brought new insights to child development, particularly in the areas of imaginative play and the effects of TV on children. She was a tireless advocate for the power of play in children’s lives. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Apr 2018 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • Memory creation and modification: Enhancing the treatment of psychological
           disorders.
    • Abstract: Modification of the ongoing influence of maladaptive cognitive, emotional, and behavioral patterns is a fundamental feature of many psychological treatments. Accordingly, a clear understanding of the nature of memory adaptation and accommodation to therapeutic learning becomes an important issue for (1) understanding the impact of clinical interventions, and (2) considering innovations in treatment strategies. In this article, we consider advances in the conceptualization of memory processes and memory modification research relative to clinical treatment. We review basic research on the formation of memories, the way in which new learning is integrated within memory structures, and strategies to influence the nature and degree to which new learning is integrated. We then discuss cognitive/behavioral and pharmacological strategies for influencing memory formation in relation to disorder prevention or treatment. Our goal is to foster awareness of current strategies for enhancing therapeutic learning and to encourage research on potential new avenues for memory enhancement in service of the treatment of mental health disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 05:00:00 GMT
       
  • Improving adjustment and resilience in children following a disaster:
           Addressing research challenges.
    • Abstract: There is compelling evidence of the potential negative effects of disasters on children’s adjustment and functioning. Although there is an increasing base of evidence supporting the effectiveness of some interventions for trauma following disaster, more research is needed, particularly on interventions that can be delivered in the early aftermath of disaster as well as those that can address a broader range of adjustment difficulties such as bereavement that may be experienced by children after a disaster. This article identifies gaps in the knowledge of how best to intervene with children following disasters. Key challenges in conducting research in disaster contexts, including obtaining consent, designing rigorous studies, and obtaining funding quickly enough to conduct the study, are discussed. Several strategies hold promise to address research challenges in disasters, including using alternative designs (e.g., propensity scores, matched control groups, group-level assignment), working with schools and communities, and studying implementation of nontraditional modes of intervention delivery. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Feb 2018 05:00:00 GMT
       
  • Civilization and its discontented: Links between youth victimization,
           beliefs about government, and political participation across seven
           American presidencies.
    • Abstract: Promoting trust in public officials and active political engagement is vital to sustaining a well-functioning democracy. Developmental psychologists propose that youths’ beliefs about government and participation in politics are rooted in personal experiences within their communities. Previous studies have focused on how positive experiences within youths’ families, schools, and communities facilitate greater social trust and political participation. However, less is known about how negative interpersonal experiences—such as criminal victimization—intersect with youths’ beliefs about the trustworthiness, competence, and knowledge of government officials, and their participation in political activity. Using data from 39 waves of the Monitoring the Future study, the current study examined associations among youth victimization, beliefs about government, and participation in various political activities. Adolescents (N = 109,574; 50.9% female) enrolled in 12th grade across the United States reported on whether they had experienced various types of victimization during the previous year, their beliefs about government, and their participation in multiple forms of political activity. Adolescents who reported more frequent victimization experiences endorsed significantly greater discontent with government and were significantly more engaged in various forms of political activity. The magnitude and direction of these effects were generally consistent across different types of victimization, different demographic subgroups of youth, and different sociohistorical periods. Findings are interpreted from a social contract theory perspective, followed by a discussion of implications for building psychological theory and informing public policy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Jan 2018 05:00:00 GMT
       
  • Do we overemphasize the role of culture in the behavior of racial/ethnic
           minorities' Evidence of a cultural (mis)attribution bias in American
           psychology.
    • Abstract: Although culture influences all human beings, there is an assumption in American psychology that culture matters more for members of certain groups. This article identifies and provides evidence of the cultural (mis)attribution bias: a tendency to overemphasize the role of culture in the behavior of racial/ethnic minorities, and to underemphasize it in the behavior of Whites. Two studies investigated the presence of this bias with an examination of a decade of peer reviewed research conducted in the United States (N = 434 articles), and an experiment and a survey with psychology professors in the United States (N = 361 psychologists). Archival analyses revealed differences in the composition of samples used in studies examining cultural or noncultural psychological phenomena. We also find evidence to suggest that psychologists in the United States favor cultural explanations over psychological explanations when considering the behavior and cognition of racial/ethnic minorities, whereas the opposite pattern emerged in reference to Whites. The scientific ramifications of this phenomenon, as well as alternatives to overcome it, are discussed in detail. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Jan 2018 05:00:00 GMT
       
  • Compelled disclosure of college sexual assault.
    • Abstract: Sexual assault is a widespread problem on college campuses. In response, many institutions are developing policies mandating that certain employees report any student disclosure of sexual assault to university officials (and, in some cases, to police), with or without the survivor’s consent. These policies, conceptualized here as compelled disclosure, have been prompted and shaped by federal law and guidance, including Title IX and The Clery Act. Proponents of compelled disclosure assert that it will increase reports—enabling universities to investigate and remedy more cases of sexual assault—and will benefit sexual assault survivors, university employees, and the institution. However, many questions remain unanswered. How broad (or narrowly tailored) are contemporary compelled disclosure mandates in higher education' Do any empirical data support assumptions about the benefits of these policies' Are there alternative approaches that should be considered, to provide rapid and appropriate responses to sexual violence while minimizing harm to students' The current article begins with an overview of federal law and guidance around compelled disclosure. Next, a content analysis of a stratified random sample of 150 university policies provides evidence that the great majority require most, if not all, employees to report student sexual assault disclosures. A review of the literature then suggests that these policies have been implemented despite limited evidence to support assumptions regarding their benefits and effectiveness. In fact, some findings suggest negative consequences for survivors, employees, and institutions. The article concludes with a call for survivor-centered reforms in institutional policies and practices surrounding sexual assault. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Jan 2018 05:00:00 GMT
       
 
 
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