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American Psychologist
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.594
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 199  
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ISSN (Print) 0003-066X - ISSN (Online) 1935-990X
Published by APA Homepage  [74 journals]
  • Cardiovascular disease: Psychological, social, and behavioral influences:
           Introduction to the special issue.
    • Abstract: Although deaths due to cardiovascular diseases have declined significantly since the 1970s, they remain the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. A large number of cardiovascular risk factors, such as smoking, obesity, and sedentary lifestyle, are modifiable. Psychologists and other behavioral scientists and practitioners are engaged in not only understanding the mechanistic links between behaviors and cardiovascular health but also developing effective interventions for improving health. The purpose of this special issue is to highlight some of the more innovative psychological research in cardiovascular health promotion, disease prevention, and management. Articles included in this issue focus on 2 primary areas. First, cutting-edge research on the current state of knowledge of modifiable health behaviors and their impact on cardiovascular health include articles on e-cigarette use as a putative risk factor, psychological factors involved in adherence to medications, the role of sleep in cardiovascular health, and innovative approaches to enhancing the treatment and recovery of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Second, outstanding research identifying the mechanisms by which psychological factors such as stress, depression, and anxiety impact cardiovascular disease include an overview of the current state of science examining psychological comorbidities that can accompany cardiovascular disease and influence outcomes, discussion of the neurocognitive processes that connect stress appraisal with biological functioning and diseases processes, and the role of genetics on behavioral interventions and clinical decision-making in the context of behavioral weight loss treatments. Our goal with these innovative articles is to stimulate additional advances in cardiovascular behavioral medicine. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Nov 2018 05:00:00 GMT
  • E-cigarette use as a potential cardiovascular disease risk behavior.
    • Abstract: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is rapidly increasing among youth and adults despite limited information regarding the long-term risks or benefits. The potential impact of e-cigarette use on public health is complex. E-cigarettes are sometimes considered as smoking cessation aids and, to the extent that they are successful in this regard, could have a net population benefit for adult smokers. However, limited knowledge exists about the long-term health effects of e-cigarette use, and research has suggested these novel tobacco products may lead to initiation and continued use among vulnerable populations, including youth. The current review aimed to summarize trends and available scientific information about e-cigarette use, focusing on the potential cardiovascular health risks and benefits, characteristics associated with e-cigarette use, and critical areas for future investigation to inform the research and clinical work of psychologists. Psychologists have a leadership role in mitigating health risks from smoking behavior, and there is a need for rigorous research assessing the impact of e-cigarette use on population health. In addition, psychologists are uniquely qualified to understand the underlying processes regarding decision-making and behaviors around e-cigarette use. Collectively, the research of psychologists in this area can have a substantial impact on patient education, policies, and the development of prevention and intervention programs to promote public health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Nov 2018 05:00:00 GMT
  • The role of psychological science in efforts to improve cardiovascular
           medication adherence.
    • Abstract: Poor adherence to cardiovascular disease medications carries significant psychological, physical, and economic costs, including failure to achieve therapeutic goals, high rates of hospitalization and health care costs, and incidence of death. Despite much effort to design and evaluate adherence interventions, rates of adherence to cardiovascular-related medications have remained relatively stagnant. We identify two major reasons for this: First, interventions have not addressed the time-varying reasons for nonadherence, and 2nd, interventions have not explicitly targeted the self-regulatory processes involved in adherence behavior. Inclusion of basic and applied psychological science in intervention development may improve the efficacy and effectiveness of behavioral interventions to improve adherence. In this article, we use a taxonomy of time-based phases of adherence—including initiation, implementation, and discontinuation—as context within which to review illustrative studies of barriers to adherence, interventions to improve adherence, and self-regulatory processes involved in adherence. Finally, we suggest a framework to translate basic psychological science regarding self-regulation into multicomponent interventions that can address multiple and time-varying barriers to nonadherence across the three adherence phases. The field of psychology is essential to improving medication adherence and associated health outcomes, and concrete steps need to be taken to implement this knowledge in future interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Nov 2018 05:00:00 GMT
  • Behavioral interventions for obesity in children and adults: Evidence
           base, novel approaches, and translation into practice.
    • Abstract: Obesity in adults has nearly doubled in the past 30 years and has risen similarly in children and adolescents. Obesity affects all systems of the body, and the serious health consequences of obesity include an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, such as Type 2 diabetes or high blood pressure, which are occurring at ever younger ages. The present article introduces traditional behavioral weight loss strategies designed to change energy-balance behaviors (i.e., dietary and physical activity behaviors) and the contexts within which these interventions have typically been delivered. The applicability of findings from behavioral economics, cognitive processing, and clinical research that may lead to more potent weight loss and weight loss maintenance interventions are also considered. Given the pervasiveness of obesity, this article concludes with a discussion of efforts toward wider scale dissemination and implementation of behavioral treatments designed to address obesity and to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Nov 2018 05:00:00 GMT
  • Sleep and cardiovascular disease: Emerging opportunities for psychology.
    • Abstract: Sleep disturbances and disorders have been implicated in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Converging evidence suggests that psychosocial factors that confer risk or resilience to cardiovascular disease (CVD) are also related to sleep. Profound differences in sleep among racial/ethnic minorities compared with non-Hispanic Whites in the United States suggest that sleep, and its interplay with psychosocial factors, may contribute to observed disparities in CVD and in health and functioning more broadly. Less understood is the extent to which sleep and psychosocial factors interact to influence the pathophysiology and clinical course of CVD. This article reviews observational and experimental evidence linking short sleep duration and insomnia, both modifiable sleep disturbances, to CVD, including key physiological mechanisms. Also reviewed is evidence of significant interrelationships among sleep, race/ethnicity, and psychosocial factors known to confer risk or resilience to CVD, including depression, psychological stress, and close interpersonal relationships. It is proposed that a transdisciplinary research framework that integrates knowledge, methods, and measures from the fields of psychology and sleep research may be used to catalyze advances in the prevention and treatment of CVD. Also discussed are promising new directions, expected challenges, and the importance of training in transdisciplinary science and research approaches. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Nov 2018 05:00:00 GMT
  • Living with heart despite recurrent challenges: Psychological care for
           adults with advanced cardiac disease.
    • Abstract: The number of people living with advanced heart disease is increasing rapidly as a result of improvements in cardiac treatments, better long-term survival from primary cardiac events, and the increase in the demographic of Americans over the age of 65. Successful living with advanced heart disease now often means patients must manage recurrent challenges to health and function from hospitalizations, exacerbations of illness, and cardiac procedures. Depression, anxiety and strain on intimate relationships are familiar problems for people with advanced heart disease that often go untreated. Though these problems have been studied in populations with acute coronary syndrome, there has been less attention focused on people in later stages of cardiac disease progression. Innovative psychological approaches are needed to address the emotional and behavioral challenges for patients coping with heart failure, implantable cardioverter defibrillators, ventricular assist devices, and heart transplant. This article describes common psychological difficulties for adults living with advanced heart disease and potential psychological targets for intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Nov 2018 05:00:00 GMT
  • Selected psychological comorbidities in coronary heart disease: Challenges
           and grand opportunities.
    • Abstract: Evidence of popular interest in the interrelationships between mind, body, and heart disease dates to Ancient Grecian times and paved the way for modern-day scientific inquiry into the relationships between psychological comorbidities in coronary heart disease. Although the systematic evidence has suggested an association of poor medical prognosis and lower quality of life among patients with coronary heart disease with comorbid psychological conditions, the mechanisms are less well understood. In this selective review article, the epidemiology, mechanisms, screening, and treatment recommendations for 4 common psychological conditions (depression, anxiety, stress, and insomnia) comorbid with coronary heart disease are presented. We focus on the grand challenges and unprecedented opportunities for research in this area considering the methodological and technological innovations of the 21st century. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Nov 2018 05:00:00 GMT
  • Host in the machine: A neurobiological perspective on psychological stress
           and cardiovascular disease.
    • Abstract: Psychological stress still attracts scientific, clinical, and public interest because of its suspected connection to health, particularly cardiovascular health. Psychological stress is thought to arise from appraisal processes that imbue events and contexts with personal significance and threat-related meaning. These appraisal processes are also thought to be instantiated in brain systems that generate and control peripheral physiological stress reactions through visceral motor (brain-to-body) and visceral sensory (body-to-brain) mechanisms. In the short term, physiological stress reactions may enable coping and adaptive action. Among some individuals, however, the patterning of these reactions may predict or contribute to pathology in multiple organ systems, including the cardiovascular system. At present, however, we lack a precise understanding of the brain systems and visceral control processes that link psychological appraisals to patterns of stress physiology and physical health. This understanding is important: A mechanistic account of how the brain connects stressful experiences to bodily changes and health could help refine biomarkers of risk and targets for cardiovascular disease prevention and intervention. We review research contributing to this understanding, focusing on the neurobiology of cardiovascular stress reactivity and cardiovascular health. We suggest that a dysregulation of visceral motor and visceral sensory processes during stressful experiences may confer risk for poor cardiovascular health among vulnerable individuals. We further describe a need for new interpretive frameworks and markers of this brain–body dysregulation in cardiovascular behavioral medicine. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Nov 2018 05:00:00 GMT
  • Precision behavioral medicine: Implications of genetic and genomic
           discoveries for behavioral weight loss treatment.
    • Abstract: This article reviews the concept of precision behavioral medicine and the progress toward applying genetics and genomics as tools to optimize weight management intervention. We discuss genetic, epigenetic, and genomic markers, as well as interactions between genetics and the environment as they relate to obesity and behavioral weight loss to date. Recommendations for the conditions under which genetics and genomics could be incorporated to support clinical decision-making in behavioral weight loss are outlined and illustrative scenarios of how this approach could improve clinical outcomes are provided. It is concluded that there is not yet sufficient evidence to leverage genetics or genomics to aid the treatment of obesity but the foundations are being laid. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Nov 2018 05:00:00 GMT
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