Journal Cover
American Political Science Review
Journal Prestige (SJR): 5.587
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 310  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0003-0554 - ISSN (Online) 1537-5943
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [374 journals]
  • Notes from the Editors
    • PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0003055419000388
      Issue No: Vol. 113, No. 3 (2019)
  • PSR volume 113 issue 3 Cover and Front matter
    • PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S000305541900039X
      Issue No: Vol. 113, No. 3 (2019)
  • PSR volume 113 issue 3 Cover and Back matter
    • PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0003055419000406
      Issue No: Vol. 113, No. 3 (2019)
  • Text-As-Data+Study+of+South+India’s+Village+Assemblies&rft.title=American+Political+Science+Review&rft.issn=0003-0554&,+NETHRA+PALANISWAMY&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S0003055419000182">Deliberative Democracy in an Unequal World: A Text-As-Data Study of South
           India’s Village Assemblies
      Pages: 623 - 640
      Abstract: This paper opens the “black box” of real-world deliberation by using text-as-data methods on a corpus of transcripts from the constitutionally mandated gram sabhas, or village assemblies, of rural India. Drawing on normative theories of deliberation, we identify empirical standards for “good” deliberation based on one’s ability both to speak and to be heard, and use natural language processing methods to generate these measures. We first show that, even in the rural Indian context, these assemblies are not mere “talking shops,” but rather provide opportunities for citizens to challenge their elected officials, demand transparency, and provide information about local development needs. Second, we find that women are at a disadvantage relative to men; they are less likely to speak, set the agenda, and receive a relevant response from state officials. And finally, we show that quotas for women for village presidencies improve the likelihood that female citizens are heard.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0003055419000182
      Issue No: Vol. 113, No. 3 (2019)
  • Establishing the Rule of Law in Weak and War-torn States: Evidence from a
           Field Experiment with the Liberian National Police
      Pages: 641 - 657
      Abstract: How to restore citizens’ trust and cooperation with the police in the wake of civil war' We report results from an experimental evaluation of the Liberian National Police’s (LNP) “Confidence Patrols” program, which deployed teams of newly retrained, better-equipped police officers on recurring patrols to rural communities across three Liberian counties over a period of 14 months. We find that the program increased knowledge of the police and Liberian law, enhanced security of property rights, and reduced the incidence of some types of crime, notably simple assault and domestic violence. The program did not, however, improve trust in the police, courts, or government more generally. We also observe higher rates of crime reporting in treatment communities, concentrated almost entirely among those who were disadvantaged under prevailing customary mechanisms of dispute resolution. We consider implications of these findings for post-conflict policing in Liberia and weak and war-torn states more generally.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0003055419000121
      Issue No: Vol. 113, No. 3 (2019)
  • Wealth, Slaveownership, and Fighting for the Confederacy: An Empirical
           Study of the American Civil War
      Pages: 658 - 673
      Abstract: How did personal wealth and slaveownership affect the likelihood Southerners fought for the Confederate Army in the American Civil War' On the one hand, wealthy Southerners had incentives to free-ride on poorer Southerners and avoid fighting; on the other hand, wealthy Southerners were disproportionately slaveowners, and thus had more at stake in the outcome of the war. We assemble a dataset on roughly 3.9 million free citizens in the Confederacy and show that slaveowners were more likely to fight than non-slaveowners. We then exploit a randomized land lottery held in 1832 in Georgia. Households of lottery winners owned more slaves in 1850 and were more likely to have sons who fought in the Confederate Army. We conclude that slaveownership, in contrast to some other kinds of wealth, compelled Southerners to fight despite free-rider incentives because it raised their stakes in the war’s outcome.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0003055419000170
      Issue No: Vol. 113, No. 3 (2019)
  • Policy Ideology in European Mass Publics, 1981–2016
      Pages: 674 - 693
      Abstract: Using new scaling methods and a comprehensive public opinion dataset, we develop the first survey-based time-series–cross-sectional measures of policy ideology in European mass publics. Our dataset covers 27 countries and 36 years and contains nearly 2.7 million survey responses to 109 unique issue questions. Estimating an ordinal group-level IRT model in each of four issue domains, we obtain biennial estimates of the absolute economic conservatism, relative economic conservatism, social conservatism, and immigration conservatism of men and women in three age categories in each country. Aggregating the group-level estimates yields estimates of the average conservatism in national publics in each biennium between 1981–82 and 2015–16. The four measures exhibit contrasting cross-sectional cleavages and distinct temporal dynamics, illustrating the multidimensionality of mass ideology in Europe. Subjecting our measures to a series of validation tests, we show that the constructs they measure are distinct and substantively important and that they perform as well as or better than one-dimensional proxies for mass conservatism (left–right self-placement and median voter scores). We foresee many uses for these scores by scholars of public opinion, electoral behavior, representation, and policy feedback.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0003055419000157
      Issue No: Vol. 113, No. 3 (2019)
  • Electoral Reform and Trade-Offs in Representation
      Pages: 694 - 709
      Abstract: We examine the effect of electoral institutions on two important features of representation that are often studied separately: policy responsiveness and the quality of legislators. Theoretically, we show that while a proportional electoral system is better than a majoritarian one at representing popular preferences in some contexts, this advantage can come at the price of undermining the selection of good politicians. To empirically assess the relevance of this trade-off, we analyze an unusually controlled electoral reform in Switzerland early in the twentieth century. To account for endogeneity, we exploit variation in the intensive margin of the reform, which introduced proportional representation, based on administrative constraints and data on voter preferences. A difference-in-difference analysis finds that higher reform intensity increases the policy congruence between legislators and the electorate and reduces legislative effort. Contemporary evidence from the European Parliament supports this conclusion.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0003055419000145
      Issue No: Vol. 113, No. 3 (2019)
  • The Fingerprints of Fraud: Evidence from Mexico’s 1988 Presidential
    • Authors: FRANCISCO CANTÚ
      Pages: 710 - 726
      Abstract: This paper investigates the opportunities for non-democratic regimes to rely on fraud by documenting the alteration of vote tallies during the 1988 presidential election in Mexico. In particular, I study how the alteration of vote returns came after an electoral reform that centralized the vote-counting process. Using an original image database of the vote-tally sheets for that election and applying Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) to analyze the sheets, I find evidence of blatant alterations in about a third of the tallies in the country. This empirical analysis shows that altered tallies were more prevalent in polling stations where the opposition was not present and in states controlled by governors with grassroots experience of managing the electoral operation. This research has implications for understanding the ways in which autocrats control elections as well as for introducing a new methodology to audit the integrity of vote tallies.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0003055419000285
      Issue No: Vol. 113, No. 3 (2019)
  • Partisan Poll Watchers and Electoral Manipulation
      Pages: 727 - 742
      Abstract: How do parties protect themselves from electoral manipulation' To answer this question, we study the drivers of polling station party representatives’ presence and their impact on electoral outcomes in an environment where electoral irregularities are common. Using election data from the Mexican Chamber of Deputies, we find a robust positive correlation between the presence of party representatives and that party’s vote share. The evidence suggests that this correlation can be attributed to party representatives influencing the electoral results. We also formulate a game theoretic model of the levels of representation chosen by parties in a given precinct and structurally estimate its parameters. We find that parties send their representatives where they expect their opponents to send their own. The finding suggests representatives play a primarily protective role, even when they are often involved in irregularities themselves.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0003055419000108
      Issue No: Vol. 113, No. 3 (2019)
  • Are Moderates Better Representatives than Extremists' A Theory of
           Indirect Representation
      Pages: 743 - 761
      Abstract: Few, if any, elected representatives are capable of unilaterally implementing their platforms. Rather, they choose between options generated by other actors and/or external events. We present a theory of voters’ preferences over representatives who will cast votes on their behalf, and show that in this setting voters’ preferences over candidates’ platforms will not look like voters’ preferences over policies. We demonstrate that these induced preferences for representation tend to favor more extreme representatives, and we present two models of electoral competition in which induced preferences over representatives lead to elite polarization.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0003055419000261
      Issue No: Vol. 113, No. 3 (2019)
  • Signaling with Reform: How the Threat of Corruption Prevents Informed
      Pages: 762 - 777
      Abstract: Lobbying is a potential source of corruption but is also a valuable source of information for policy-makers. We analyze a game-theoretic model that shows how the threat of corruption affects the incentives of noncorrupt politicians to enlist the help of lobbyists to make more informed decisions. Politicians face a dilemma because voters cannot always tell whether a politician allows access to lobbyists to solicit corruption or to seek information. Thus, a noncorrupt politician may deny access to lobbyists to signal that she is noncorrupt even though doing so impedes her ability to make good policy. This signaling may decrease the welfare of the voters depending on the value of the lost policy information relative to the value of screening out corrupt politicians.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0003055419000169
      Issue No: Vol. 113, No. 3 (2019)
  • Imperial Politics, English Law, and the Strategic Foundations of
           Constitutional Review in America
    • Authors: SEAN GAILMARD
      Pages: 778 - 795
      Abstract: In the colonial period of American history, the British Crown reviewed, and sometimes nullified, acts of colonial assemblies for “repugnancy to the laws of England.” In this way, Crown review established external, legal constraints on American legislatures. I present a formal model to argue that Crown legislative review counteracted political pressure on imperial governors from colonial assemblies, to approve laws contrary to the empire’s interests. Optimal review in the model combines both legal and substantive considerations. This gives governors the strongest incentive to avoid royal reprisal by vetoing laws the Crown considered undesirable. Thus, review of legislation for consistency with higher law helped the Crown to grapple with agency problems in imperial governance, and ultimately achieve more (but still incomplete) centralized control over policy. I discuss the legacy of imperial legislative review for early American thinking about constitutional review of legislation by courts.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0003055419000212
      Issue No: Vol. 113, No. 3 (2019)
  • Making Offenders Vote: Democratic Expressivism and Compulsory Criminal
      Pages: 796 - 809
      Abstract: Is criminal disenfranchisement compatible with a democratic political order' This article considers this question in light of a recently developed view that criminal disenfranchisement is justified because it expresses our commitment to democratic values. We call this view expressive disenfranchisement and refer to the general conception in which it is grounded as democratic expressivism. Contra supporters of expressive disenfranchisement, we argue that democratic expressivism does not offer a sound justification of criminal disenfranchisement. Additionally, we argue that, insofar as one really cares about answering serious criminal wrongs via an expression of democratic values, criminal disenfranchisement should be abandoned and replaced with a policy that temporarily obliges the relevant criminals to vote. Democratic expressivists should, in other words, move from supporting the disenfranchisement of serious offenders to endorsing a policy of compulsory criminal voting for a finite period of time.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0003055419000297
      Issue No: Vol. 113, No. 3 (2019)
  • The Politics of Decolonial Interpretation: Tradition and Method in
           Contemporary Arab Thought
      Pages: 810 - 823
      Abstract: What is the relationship between interpretive methods and decolonizing projects' Decolonial thinkers often invoke pre-colonial traditions in their efforts to fashion “national cultures”— modes of being, understanding, and self-expression specific to a de-colonizing collectivity’s experience. While the substantive contributions of precolonial traditions to decolonial thought have received well-deserved attention in postcolonial and comparative political theory, this paper focuses on the role that interpretive methods play in generating the emancipatory sensibilities envisioned by decolonial thinkers. It draws on the contemporary Moroccan philosopher Mohammed ‘Abed Al-Jabri’s interpretive method to show that its decolonial potential lies in its “reader-centric” approach. This approach is concerned with transforming its postcolonial reader’s relationship to precolonial traditions, and not only with establishing the truth of historical texts or making use of their insights in the present as is more common in political-theoretical modes of interpretation. It does so through a tripartite process of disconnection, reconnection, and praxis.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S000305541900011X
      Issue No: Vol. 113, No. 3 (2019)
  • Constructivism and the Logic of Political Representation
    • Authors: THOMAS FOSSEN
      Pages: 824 - 837
      Abstract: There are at least two politically salient senses of “representation”—acting-for-others and portraying-something-as-something. The difference is not just semantic but also logical: relations of representative agency are dyadic (x represents y), while portrayals are triadic (x represents y as z). I exploit this insight to disambiguate constructivism and to improve our theoretical vocabulary for analyzing political representation. I amend Saward’s claims-based approach on three points, introducing the “characterization” to correctly identify the elements of representational claims; explaining the “referent” in pragmatic, not metaphysical terms; and differentiating multiple forms of representational activity. This enables me to clarify how the represented can be both prior to representation and constituted by it, and to recover Pitkin’s idea that representatives ought to be “responsive” to the represented. These points are pertinent to debates about the role of representatives, the nature of representative democracy, and the dynamics of revolutionary movements.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0003055419000273
      Issue No: Vol. 113, No. 3 (2019)
  • Declaring and Diagnosing Research Designs
      Pages: 838 - 859
      Abstract: Researchers need to select high-quality research designs and communicate those designs clearly to readers. Both tasks are difficult. We provide a framework for formally “declaring” the analytically relevant features of a research design in a demonstrably complete manner, with applications to qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods research. The approach to design declaration we describe requires defining a model of the world (M), an inquiry (I), a data strategy (D), and an answer strategy (A). Declaration of these features in code provides sufficient information for researchers and readers to use Monte Carlo techniques to diagnose properties such as power, bias, accuracy of qualitative causal inferences, and other “diagnosands.” Ex ante declarations can be used to improve designs and facilitate preregistration, analysis, and reconciliation of intended and actual analyses. Ex post declarations are useful for describing, sharing, reanalyzing, and critiquing existing designs. We provide open-source software, DeclareDesign, to implement the proposed approach.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0003055419000194
      Issue No: Vol. 113, No. 3 (2019)
  • Individual Life Horizon Influences Attitudes Toward Democracy
      Pages: 860 - 867
      Abstract: Support for democracy in the population is considered critical for the emergence and stability of democracy. Macro-determinants and retrospective experiences have been shown to affect the support for democracy at the individual level. We investigate whether and how the individual life horizon, in terms of the prospective length of life and age, affects individual attitudes toward democracy. Combining information from period life tables with individual survey response data spanning more than 260,000 observations from 93 countries over the period 1994–2014, we find evidence that the expected remaining years of life influence the attitudes toward a democratic political regime. The statistical identification decomposes the influence of age from the influence of the expected proximity to death. The evidence shows that support for democracy increases with age but declines with expected proximity to death, implying that increasing longevity might help fostering the support for democracy. Increasing age while keeping the remaining years of life fixed as well as increasing remaining years of life for a given age group both contribute to the support for democracy.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0003055419000200
      Issue No: Vol. 113, No. 3 (2019)
  • Yes, Human Rights Practices Are Improving Over Time
      Pages: 868 - 881
      Abstract: To document human rights, monitoring organizations establish a standard of accountability, or a baseline set of expectations that states ought to meet in order to be considered respectful of human rights. If the standard of accountability has meaningfully changed, then the categorized variables from human rights documents will mask real improvements. Cingranelli and Filippov question whether the standard of accountability is changing and whether data on mass killings are part of the same underlying conceptual process of repression as other abuses. These claims are used to justify alternative models, showing no improvement in human rights. However, by focusing on the coding process, the authors misunderstand that the standard of accountability is about how monitoring organizations produce documents in the first place and not how academics use published documents to create data. Simulations and latent variables that model time in a substantively meaningful way validate the conclusion that human rights are improving.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S000305541900025X
      Issue No: Vol. 113, No. 3 (2019)
  • When Do Citizens Respond Politically to the Local Economy' Evidence
           from Registry Data on Local Housing Markets – CORRIGENDUM
      Pages: 882 - 882
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0003055419000303
      Issue No: Vol. 113, No. 3 (2019)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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