for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help
Journal Cover International Journal of Drug Policy
  [SJR: 1.074]   [H-I: 49]   [350 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0955-3959
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3089 journals]
  • Down the local: A qualitative case study of daytime drinking spaces in the
           London Borough of Islington
    • Authors: Claire Thompson; Sarah Milton; Matt Egan; Karen Lock
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 52
      Author(s): Claire Thompson, Sarah Milton, Matt Egan, Karen Lock
      Background Recognising the lack of research on daytime drinking practices in areas with managed night-time economies (NTEs), this qualitative study explores the phenomena in the London Borough of Islington; a rapidly gentrifying area with a highly regulated night-time economy (NTE). The objectives were to (i) Characterise the daytime drinking spaces of the local alcohol environment and (ii) Theorise the ways in which these spaces, and the practices and performativities within them, are situated within broader social and economic trends. Methods Adopting a legitimate peripheral participation approach to data collection, 39 licensed premises were visited in Islington and on-site observations carried out between the hours of 12 pm and 6 pm using a semi-structured observation guide. Observations were written-up into detailed fieldnotes, uploaded to NVivo and subject to a thematic analysis. Findings The daytime on-premises alcohol environment was characterised by two main trends: the decline of traditional pubs and a proliferation of hybrid establishments in which alcohol was framed as part of a suite of attractions. The consumption trends that the latter exemplify are implicated in processes of micro-cultural production and ‘hipster capitalism’; and it is via this framing that we explore the way the diverse local drinking spaces were gendered and classed. Hybrid establishments have been regarded as positive in terms of public health, crime and safety. However, they could also help introduce drinking within times and contexts where it was not previously present. Conclusion The intersection of an expanding hipster habitus with Local Authority efforts to tackle ‘determined drunkenness’ create very particular challenges. The operating practices of hybrid venues may feed into current alcohol industry strategies of promoting ‘new moments’ in which consumers can drink. They blur the divisions between work and play and produce temporal and classed divisions of drinking.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T08:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.11.019
      Issue No: Vol. 52 (2017)
       
  • Re-thinking pre-drinking: Implications from a sample of teenagers who
           drink in private settings
    • Authors: James Wilson; Rowan P. Ogeil; Tina Lam; Simon Lenton; Belinda Lloyd; Lucy Burns; Alexandra Aiken; William Gilmore; Tanya Chikritzhs; Richard Mattick; Dan I. Lubman; Steve Allsop
      Pages: 20 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 52
      Author(s): James Wilson, Rowan P. Ogeil, Tina Lam, Simon Lenton, Belinda Lloyd, Lucy Burns, Alexandra Aiken, William Gilmore, Tanya Chikritzhs, Richard Mattick, Dan I. Lubman, Steve Allsop
      Background Pre-drinking is often defined as an economically-minded set of drinking practices engaged in prior to attending public entertainment areas, such as licensed venues. This paper explores motivations and practical considerations that a sample of teenagers describes as significant to ‘pre-drinking’, despite not attending licensed premises during their most recent risky drinking session. Methods Data were derived from the mixed-methods Young Australians Alcohol Reporting System (YAARS) project. 16 participants aged 16–19 were identified as pre-drinking on their most recent risky drinking session, followed by subsequent alcohol consumption in non-licensed venues. 4 members of this subsample also undertook qualitative interviews. Results These data expand on existing understandings of pre-drinking by emphasising the breadth of motivations and practical considerations understood to shape both pre-drinking practices, and subsequent drinking in other public entertainment areas. These primarily included desires for personal enhancement and experiencing freedom over restriction, the dynamics of accessing alcohol and private space, the necessity of opportunism, and concerns regarding parents and other authority figures. Conclusions Analyses of groups obscured by dominant definitions of what constitutes ‘pre-drinking’ illuminate a broader range of motivations and concerns facing young people who drink. Such findings enhance our understanding of young people’s drinking practices, the terminology used to describe them, and the development of relevant policies and interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T08:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.11.024
      Issue No: Vol. 52 (2017)
       
  • Experiences with compulsory drug detention among people who inject drugs
           in Bangkok, Thailand: A qualitative study
    • Authors: Thomas Kerr; Will Small; Prempreeda Pramoj Na Ayutthaya; Kanna Hayashi
      Pages: 32 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 52
      Author(s): Thomas Kerr, Will Small, Prempreeda Pramoj Na Ayutthaya, Kanna Hayashi
      Background Thailand has employed a system of compulsory drug detention centres (CDDCs) where drug users are confined following arrest. Although concerns regarding CDDCs persist, research focused on CDDCs in Thailand is limited. We undertook this study to explore experiences with CDDCs among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Thailand. Methods Data were derived from the Mitsampan Community Research Project, a mixed- methods study involving PWID in Bangkok. Between July 2011 and June 2012, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with PWID who had been exposed to CDDCs. Interviews explored experiences with CDDCs, including conditions and program structure within CDDCs, and the impacts of CDDCs on on-going patterns of drug use. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was conducted. Results Participants included 27 individuals, including 12 women. Participants indicated that CDDCs varied in their design and structure, although most described the conditions as being poor and unsanitary, with overcrowding and limited access to clean water and adequate nutrition. Most participants were placed in military-operated CDDCs and subjected to long hours of physical exercise and forced labour as punishment, which staff perceived as being essential to attaining a drug-free lifestyle. Many participants also experienced severe verbal abuse and violence by staff. Access to healthcare was limited and often denied, and individuals living with HIV/AIDS were typically unable to access antiretroviral therapy. None of the participants described being exposed to evidence-based addiction treatment, and most participants reported returning to drug use immediately upon release. Conclusion This study raises concerns regarding CDDCs in Thailand, including poor conditions and human rights violations within CDDCs, as well as a lack of access to appropriate healthcare and addiction treatment. CDDCs appear to be contributing to the stigmatization of drug users, while also perpetuating drug use rather meeting the intended objective of facilitating “rehabilitation”.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T08:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.11.016
      Issue No: Vol. 52 (2017)
       
  • Associations between medical cannabis and other drug use among unstably
           housed women
    • Authors: Meredith C. Meacham; Danielle E. Ramo; Alex H. Kral; Elise D. Riley
      Pages: 45 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 52
      Author(s): Meredith C. Meacham, Danielle E. Ramo, Alex H. Kral, Elise D. Riley
      Background Several studies suggest that U.S. state-level legalization of cannabis for medical purposes may be associated with reductions in opioid use; yet its relationship with stimulant use, particularly in high-risk populations like unstably housed women, has received less attention. The purpose of this study was to estimate independent associations between medical and non-medical use of cannabis and use of stimulants and opioids among unstably housed women. Methods Cross-sectional data were analyzed from 245 women in the SHADOW study, a community based cohort in San Francisco, CA, in which HIV+ women were oversampled (126 HIV+ and 119 HIV-). Results Compared to no cannabis use in the past 6 months (51%), non-medical cannabis use (28%) was associated with a higher adjusted odds of using stimulants (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]=4.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.17–8.70) and opioids (AOR=3.81, 95% CI: 1.78–8.15). Compared to no cannabis use, medical cannabis use (21%) was not significantly associated with stimulant or opioid use. Compared to non-medical cannabis use, however, medical cannabis use was associated with lower adjusted odds of using stimulants (AOR=0.42, 95% CI: 0.18–0.96). These associations were not modified by HIV status. Conclusions Associations between use of cannabis and “street drugs” depend on whether the cannabis is obtained through a medical context. Interventions, research, and policy considering the influence of cannabis on the use of other drugs may benefit by distinguishing between medical and non-medical cannabis use.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T08:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.11.009
      Issue No: Vol. 52 (2017)
       
  • Perceptions about supervised injection facilities among people who inject
           drugs in Philadelphia
    • Authors: Robert E. Harris; Jessica Richardson; Rosemary Frasso; Evan D. Anderson
      Pages: 56 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 52
      Author(s): Robert E. Harris, Jessica Richardson, Rosemary Frasso, Evan D. Anderson
      Background People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for infectious diseases, skin and soft tissue infections, and overdose. However, these harms are all avoidable when sterile injection equipment, hygienic places to inject, and medical care are accessible. Unfortunately, many PWID in the U.S lack these resources. The most vulnerable are forced to inject in public spaces, where individual risks are high and communal harms are sometimes many. Supervised Injection Facilities (SIFs) are an established intervention for reducing these harms. Despite positive experiences in other countries, little research explores how PWID in the U.S. perceive the value of such facilities. Methods We conducted a freelisting exercise with PWID (n=42) and healthcare providers (n=20) at a syringe exchange program (SEP) that provides comprehensive clinical and social services in Philadelphia to inform in-depth semi-structured interviews with PWID (n=19) at the same location. Results Participants expressed support for a potential SIF as a valuable public health intervention. They suggested that an SIF would improve PWID health while reducing the public disorder associated with injecting drugs in public. The latter was especially important to participants without stable housing, whose decision to inject furtively in secluded places was often motivated by desire not to upset community members, and particularly children. These participants acknowledged that such seclusion elevated the risk of fatal overdose. Despite similarly positive perceptions about an SIF, participants with stable housing reported that they would prefer to continue injecting at home. Conclusion Results both confirm and extend prior research about PWID and SIFs. Participants expressed support for SIFs as in prior survey research in the U.S. and in other countries. Facility location and housing status were identified as important determinants of facility use. Results extend prior research by illuminating PWID perceptions in the U.S. including motivations grounded in concern for public order.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T08:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 52 (2017)
       
  • The diverse reasons for using Novel Psychoactive Substances - A
           qualitative study of the users' own perspectives
    • Authors: Christophe Soussan; Martin Andersson; Anette Kjellgren
      Pages: 71 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 52
      Author(s): Christophe Soussan, Martin Andersson, Anette Kjellgren
      Background The increasing number of legally ambiguous and precarious Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) constitutes a challenge for policy makers and public health. Scientific and more in-depth knowledge about the motivations for using NPS is scarce and often consist of predetermined, non-systematic, or poorly described reasons deduced from top-down approaches. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore and characterize the users’ self-reported reasons for NPS use inductively and more comprehensively. Methods The self-reported reasons of a self-selected sample of 613 international NPS users were collected via an online survey promoted at the international drug discussion forum bluelight.org and later analyzed qualitatively using inductive thematic analysis. Results The analysis showed that the participants used NPS because these compounds reportedly: 1) enabled safer and more convenient drug use, 2) satisfied a curiosity and interest about the effects, 3) facilitated a novel and exciting adventure, 4) promoted self-exploration and personal growth, 5) functioned as coping agents, 6) enhanced abilities and performance, 7) fostered social bonding and belonging, and 8) acted as a means for recreation and pleasure. The consumption of NPS was also driven by 9) problematic and unintentional use. Conclusion The present study contributed to a more comprehensive understanding of the users’ own and self-reported reasons for using NPS, which needs to be acknowledged not only in order to minimize drug related harm and drug user alienation but also to improve prevention efforts and reduce the potentially counter-intuitive effects of strictly prohibitive policies.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T08:12:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 52 (2017)
       
  • Effectiveness of policy changes to reduce harm from unrecorded alcohol in
           Russia between 2005 and now
    • Authors: Maria Neufeld; Jürgen Rehm
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 51
      Author(s): Maria Neufeld, Jürgen Rehm
      Background Consumption of unrecorded alcohol (alcohol that is not taxed and reflected in official statistics, but consumed as a beverage) has been identified as one of the main contributors to alcohol-attributable premature mortality in Russia. The problem was highlighted by a recent a mass poisoning with surrogate alcohol occurred in the Siberian city of Irkutsk. Methods Based on key publications and legislative documents, a narrative review was undertaken about alcohol-related harm reduction policies in Russia for the period between 2005 and 2017, as well as the impact of these policies on the recorded and unrecorded alcohol consumption and alcohol market. Results Various policy measures mainly targeting availability and price of recorded and unrecorded alcohol have been introduced since 2005, which generally coincided with the decreases in alcohol-related mortality observed at that time. However, regulations on medicinal and cosmetic products have remained inconsistent providing the foundations for the continued existence of a legal industry of surrogates with broad availability and misuse. Conclusion The Russian experiences of introducing alcohol policies demonstrate that there are effective measures to reduce unrecorded alcohol consumption and attributable harm. The government’s multi-level strategy of alcohol consumption and harm reduction should be pursued stringently and all the possible loop-holes for producers, sellers and distributors of illegal and/or unrecorded alcohol should be eliminated or at least critically reduced.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:25:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2017)
       
  • Content analysis of homeless smokers’ perspectives on established and
           alternative smoking interventions
    • Authors: Susan E. Collins; Victoria E. Orfaly; Teresa Wu; Sunny Chang; Robert V. Hardy; Amia Nash; Matthew B. Jones; Leslie Mares; Emily M. Taylor; Lonnie A. Nelson; Seema L. Clifasefi
      Pages: 10 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 51
      Author(s): Susan E. Collins, Victoria E. Orfaly, Teresa Wu, Sunny Chang, Robert V. Hardy, Amia Nash, Matthew B. Jones, Leslie Mares, Emily M. Taylor, Lonnie A. Nelson, Seema L. Clifasefi
      Background Cigarette smoking is 5 times more prevalent among homeless individuals than in the general population, and homeless individuals are disproportionately affected by smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Homeless smokers report interest in changing their smoking behavior; however, established smoking cessation interventions are neither desirable to nor highly effective for most members of this population. The aim of this study was to document homeless smokers’ perceptions of established smoking interventions as well as self-generated, alternative smoking interventions to elucidate points for intervention enhancement. Methods Participants (N =25) were homeless smokers who responded to semistructured interviews regarding smoking and nicotine use as well as experiences with established and alternative smoking interventions. Conventional content analysis was used to organize data and identify themes. Results Participants appreciated providers’ initiation of conversations about smoking. They did not, however, feel simple advice to quit was a helpful approach. Instead, they suggested providers use a nonjudgmental, compassionate style, offer more support, and discuss a broader menu of options, including nonabstinence-based ways to reduce smoking-related harm and improve health-related quality of life. Most participants preferred engaging in their own self-defined, alternative smoking interventions, including obtaining nicotine more safely (e.g., vaping, using smokeless tobacco) and using behavioral (e.g., engaging in creative activities and hobbies) and cognitive strategies (e.g., reminding themselves about the positive aspects of not smoking and the negative consequences of smoking). Abrupt, unaided quit attempts were largely unsuccessful. Conclusions The vast majority of participants with the lived experience of homelessness and smoking were uninterested in established smoking cessation approaches. They did, however, have creative ideas about alternative smoking interventions that providers may support to reduce smoking-related harm and enhance quality of life. These ideas included providing information about the relative risks of smoking and the relative benefits of alternative strategies to obtaining nicotine and avoiding smoking.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T13:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.09.007
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2017)
       
  • Survey representativeness, quantifying uncertainty, and the importance of
           well-posed questions about the administration of take-home naloxone
    • Authors: Sheila M. Bird
      Pages: 18 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 51
      Author(s): Sheila M. Bird


      PubDate: 2017-11-30T13:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2017)
       
  • ‘I have it just in case’ — Naloxone access and changes
           in opioid use behaviours
    • Authors: Sarah Cercone Heavey; Yu-Ping Chang; Bonnie M. Vest; R. Lorraine Collins; William Wieczorek; Gregory G. Homish
      Pages: 27 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 51
      Author(s): Sarah Cercone Heavey, Yu-Ping Chang, Bonnie M. Vest, R. Lorraine Collins, William Wieczorek, Gregory G. Homish
      Background The past decade has seen over a four-fold increase in deaths from opioid overdose in the United States. To address this growing epidemic, many localities initiated policies to expand access to naloxone (a drug that reverses the effects of opioids); however, little is known how naloxone access affects opioid use behaviours. Methods The present qualitative study used semi-structured, in-depth interviews with inpatients at a substance use treatment centre. All patients who met study inclusion criteria (in treatment for opioid use, between the ages of 18 and 40, able to speak and understand English, and had not previously completed an interview with the research team) were invited to participate. Interviews were conducted until thematic saturation was reached (N=20) and covered the participant’s naloxone knowledge, access, and attitudes, as well as experience(s) with opioid use and opioid overdose, and their naloxone use in the context of opioid overdose. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze interview transcripts. Results Five main themes were uncovered during analysis; first, awareness about naloxone, including, content knowledge and source information for naloxone. Naloxone awareness was very common among opioid users; however, depth of knowledge varied; some participants did not make any efforts to have naloxone available, and others felt that it was “just as important as a clean needle.” The second theme explored how naloxone access intersects with drug selling. The third theme explored naloxone availability while using, including attitudes about naloxone, occasions with no naloxone availability, when naloxone is “good to have,” and when naloxone is a priority for users. The fourth theme examined changes in opioid use behaviours associated with naloxone access. Primarily, participants discussed changing how much heroin they used in a given situation to achieve a bigger high. The final theme explored naloxone behaviours that alter overdose mortality risk, such as how users distinguish when to use naloxone, dis-incentives to naloxone use, and solo opioid use. Conclusion Results indicate that though naloxone awareness was high, there was great variation in the associated attitudes and practices. Participants generally described naloxone as an important resource, but not all were inclined to carry or use it appropriately. Future research needs to examine why different groups of opioid users access naloxone differently, particularly to identify those at risk for experimental opioid use while carrying naloxone.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T13:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.09.015
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2017)
       
  • Nine reasons why ecstasy is not quite what it used to be
    • Authors: Jane Mounteney; Paul Griffiths; Alessandra Bo; Andrew Cunningham; Joao Matias; Alessandro Pirona
      Pages: 36 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 51
      Author(s): Jane Mounteney, Paul Griffiths, Alessandra Bo, Andrew Cunningham, Joao Matias, Alessandro Pirona
      This paper explores the recent resurgence in use of ecstasy/MDMA in Europe and highlights keys areas of continuity and divergence between the ecstasy market of the 1990s and the current MDMA market. Based on a scoping study involving a targeted multi-source data collection exercise on MDMA, it highlights nine areas that have undergone some level of change, linked with both supply and demand for the drug. Factors discussed include: innovation in production techniques; changes in precursor chemical availability; the role of online markets; competition with other stimulants and new psychoactive substances; the increased availability of high-strength MDMA; and the shift from subcultural towards more mainstream use of the drug. The paper proposes that the MDMA on Europe’s contemporary market is in some respects a third generation product with a different consumer profile, with implications that responses developed at the time of the drug’s earlier iteration, may be in need of a review and revamp.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T13:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.09.016
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2017)
       
  • Effect of initiating drug treatment on the risk of drug-related poisoning
           death and acquisitive crime among offending heroin users
    • Authors: Matthias Pierce; Sheila M. Bird; Matthew Hickman; John Marsden; Graham Dunn; Toby Seddon; Tim Millar
      Pages: 42 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 51
      Author(s): Matthias Pierce, Sheila M. Bird, Matthew Hickman, John Marsden, Graham Dunn, Toby Seddon, Tim Millar
      Background A recent Cochrane review of randomised trials identified a lack of evidence for interventions provided to drug-using offenders. We use routine data to address whether contact with treatment services reduces heroin users’ likelihood of a future acquisitive offence or drug-related poisoning (DRP) death. Methods Heroin-users were identified from probation assessments and linked to drug-treatment, mortality and offending records. The study cohort was selected to ensure that the subject was not: in prison, in treatment or had recently left treatment. Subjects were classed as initiators if they attended a triage appointment within two weeks of their assessment; non-initiators otherwise. Initiator and non-initiators were compared over a maximum of one year, with respect to their risk of recorded acquisitive offence or DRP-death. Balance was sought using propensity score matching and missing data were accounted for using multiple imputation. Results Nine percent of assessments identified for analysis were classed as initiators. Accounting for observed confounding and missing data, there was a reduction in DRPs associated with initiator assessments, however there was uncertainty around this estimate such that a null-effect could not be ruled out (HR: 0.42, 95% CI 0.17–1.04). There was no evidence of a decrease in the recidivism risk, in fact the analysis showed a small increase (HR: 1.10, 95% CI 1.02–1.18). Conclusion For heroin-using offenders, initial contact with treatment services does not appear to reduce the likelihood of a future acquisitive offence.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T13:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.09.017
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2017)
       
  • The new drugs and the sea: The phenomenon of narco-terrorism
    • Authors: Rita Santacroce; Elisabetta Bosio; Valentina Scioneri; Mara Mignone
      Pages: 67 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 51
      Author(s): Rita Santacroce, Elisabetta Bosio, Valentina Scioneri, Mara Mignone
      Use of psychoactive substances and drug trafficking for funding purposes is a well-known practice acted by terrorist groups. Europe appears to be more and more involved in this mechanism, as both an active and passive element, and increased attention should be payed to this phenomenon by potentially interested actors.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T08:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.10.012
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2017)
       
  • Becoming enwinded: A new materialist take on smoking pleasure
    • Authors: Simone Dennis
      Pages: 69 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 51
      Author(s): Simone Dennis
      What might new materialist perspectives bring to our understanding of smoking pleasure' In this paper, I draw on this thinking to sketch out an alternative, non-unitary smoker who is at the mercy of the whims of the breeze − a yielding I will argue is key to smoking pleasure. With these intentions in mind, rather than thinking of what the biotechnology of cigarettes accomplishes in terms of the chemical delivery of pleasure, or adding to the multiply of social and cultural reasons anthropologists have tendered to account for it, I approach smoking pleasure in and through the medium of the smoky air. This approach permits examination of how nonhuman and human agents, like cigarettes, lungs, hands and other things form momentary and contingent relation in the air, as well as the role of the air itself in ‘enwinding’ the smoker. When smoking pleasure is explored from such a perspective, the smoker can be recast as part of a complex of relations that she does not fully control, rather than the agentic centre or principal arrayer of the nonhuman world. The pleasures of smoking, and the smoker herself, I argue, are emergent and come into being precisely in these relations: ‘the smoker’ originates, terminates, and is defined in and with elements, rather than being surely and certainly attached to a particular smoker subjectivity. Chief among the complex of things and elements that make the smoker and her pleasure is the air itself − and it is the air itself that is my primary informant in this paper.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T08:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2017)
       
  • Symbolic perceptions of methamphetamine: Differentiating between ice and
           shake
    • Authors: Heith Copes; Whitney Tchoula; Jennifer Kim; Jared Ragland
      Pages: 87 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 51
      Author(s): Heith Copes, Whitney Tchoula, Jennifer Kim, Jared Ragland
      Background Although public perceptions of methamphetamine (meth) consider all forms of the drug as the same, this is not true among those who use it. Our aim is to examine how those who use meth perceive two forms of meth (ice and shake) using the theoretical framework of symbolic boundaries. Methods We rely on data collected from a photo-ethnography with people who use methamphetamine in rural Alabama. The ethnography consisted of formal interviews (with 52 participants), informal observations, and photography. Results Participants had a strong preference for ice (49 of 52 preferred ice over shake). In discussing why they prefer ice they point to the various short- and long-term health problems associated with shake. This distinction allowed them to create symbolic definitions of shake as being dirty due to impure chemicals and its users as desperate. Conclusion We argue that this symbolic differentiation of the two forms allows users to frame themselves as rational users (i.e., they avoid the unsafe form of meth) and shape use patterns and prevalence, with shake being used infrequently and often intravenously.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T08:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2017)
       
  • Back to the core: A network approach to bolster harm reduction among
           persons who inject drugs
    • Authors: Martin Bouchard; Sadaf Hashimi; Kristen Tsai; Hugh Lampkin; Ehsan Jozaghi
      Pages: 95 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 51
      Author(s): Martin Bouchard, Sadaf Hashimi, Kristen Tsai, Hugh Lampkin, Ehsan Jozaghi
      Background Injecting drugs safely almost always includes the presence of one’s social network, especially for the prevention of overdose. Yet, the systematic analysis of users’ social networks has yet to be established as a focal method in harm reduction research, and interventions. Methods This study draws from 200 interviews with persons who inject drugs recruited from North America’s first sanctioned supervised injection facility and a drug user’s advocacy group. Respondents were asked about the individuals they personally considered as facilitators of harm reduction, and the relations between them. Collectively, these 200 respondents provided over 900 individuals whom they considered as members of their harm reduction network. The aim was to locate individuals that would potentially make the network denser (harm reduction champions) and users that were situated in the “periphery” of the network, and in practice, further away from the harm reduction core. Results Of the 1135 network members, 63 individuals formed the “core” of the harm reduction network, collectively reaching approximately 70% of individuals in the network. We also uncovered 31 individuals that acted as “articulation points”– these individuals were not as connected, but were more effective at reaching peripheral individuals. Conclusion Former or current injecting drug users that were sampled were surrounded by a relatively rich harm reduction network, but the network approach showed that only a minority of individuals were true harm reduction “champions”. Recruitment of a combination of well-connected harm reduction champions, and strategically connected articulation points, would be most effective in planning network interventions that encourage harm reduction behaviors among this population.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T08:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.10.006
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2017)
       
  • From ecstasy to MDMA: Recreational drug use, symbolic boundaries, and drug
           trends
    • Authors: Marit Edland-Gryt; Sveinung Sandberg; Willy Pedersen
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 50
      Author(s): Marit Edland-Gryt, Sveinung Sandberg, Willy Pedersen
      Background Ecstasy pills with MDMA as the main ingredient were introduced in many European countries in the 1980s, and were often linked to the rave and club scenes. However, use gradually levelled off, in part as a response to increased concerns about possible mental health consequences and fatalities. Extensive use of MDMA now seems to be re-emerging in many countries. In this study, we investigated the cultural and social meaning associated with MDMA use in Oslo, Norway, with an emphasis on how users distinguish MDMA crystals and powder from “old ecstasy pills”. Methods Qualitative in-depth interviews (n=31, 61,3% males) were conducted with young adult party-goers and recreational MDMA/ecstasy users (20–34 years old, mean age 26.2 years). Results Research participants emphasised three important perceived differences between the MDMA crystals and ecstasy pills: (i) The effects of MDMA were described as better than ecstasy; (ii) MDMA was regarded as a safer drug; (iii) Users of MDMA crystals were described as more distinct from and less anchored in out-of-fashion rave culture than those using ecstasy. These differences were an important part of the symbolic boundary work MDMA users engaged in when justifying their drug use. Conclusion MDMA has re-emerged as an important psychoactive substance in Oslo’s club scene. One important reason for this re-emergence seems to be its perceived differentiation from ecstasy pills, even though the active ingredient in both drugs is MDMA. This perceived distinction between MDMA and ecstasy reveals the importance of social and symbolic meanings in relation to psychoactive substance use. Insights from this study can be important in terms of understanding how trends in drug use develop and how certain drugs gain or lose popularity.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T13:37:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.07.030
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2017)
       
  • Cannabis for personal use in the Supreme Court of Mexico: Legal case and
           potential for policy change
    • Authors: Andrés Aguinaco; Aram Barra
      Pages: 9 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 50
      Author(s): Andrés Aguinaco, Aram Barra
      This viewpoint outlines how the legal case used by the authors in the litigation strategy of the “SMART Case” on medical marihuana, which was ruled positively by Mexico’s Supreme Court on November 4th, 2015. The main objective of the text is to share key arguments that may be used by other litigation strategies around the world.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:25:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.07.031
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2017)
       
  • ‘Affording’ new approaches to couples who inject drugs: A novel
           fitpack design for hepatitis C prevention
    • Authors: Suzanne Fraser; Carla Treloar; Sandra Gendera; Jake Rance
      Pages: 19 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 50
      Author(s): Suzanne Fraser, Carla Treloar, Sandra Gendera, Jake Rance
      Background In the West, hepatitis C is predominantly transmitted via the sharing of contaminated drug-injecting equipment. Although the majority of this sharing occurs between sexual partners, the responsibility for avoiding transmission has long been conceived as an individual responsibility, with prevention measures such as the distribution of sterile injecting equipment such as injecting packs (‘fitpacks’) aimed at individuals without regard for the social contexts of injecting. In this article we draw on the work of Bruno Latour to reconceptualise the fitpack. We argue that the fitpack is not inert or neutral in its meaning or effects, that instead it ‘affords’ particular meanings and actions, for example, that injecting is an individual practice and safety an individual responsibility. Method To challenge these affordances, we developed a new fitpack prototype aimed at couples, along with related health promotion messages. We asked 13 couples who inject drugs to examine and reflect on these new objects and messages. Results Overall, we found a high level of support for the broad idea of couples-oriented materials, as well as for our prototype and associated materials. Participants identified opportunities for improving the materials and commented on implications of the symbols and language used. Together the interviews demonstrated ways in which the new fitpacks and messages could afford couples-oriented safe injecting, and better recognition of relationships that are often dismissed by researchers and health care providers as insincere. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that first, there is a need and desire for a greater range in harm reduction resources. Second, it is essential to find ways of better acknowledging the validity and value of relationships between people who inject. Third, and more broadly, recognition must be given to the role of technological objects in materialising meanings and, as Latour might put it, ‘moralities’, and in turn to interrogating these meanings and moralities.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T13:22:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2017)
       
  • Common and differential factors associated with abstinence and poly drug
           use among Australian adolescents
    • Authors: Simone Pettigrew; Michelle Jongenelis; David Lawrence; Wavne Rikkers
      Pages: 41 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 50
      Author(s): Simone Pettigrew, Michelle Jongenelis, David Lawrence, Wavne Rikkers
      Background Social norms relating to youth substance use are changing. In Australia, alcohol use among adolescents has fallen dramatically and tobacco and cannabis use have also reduced, albeit more moderately. The aim of the present study was to identify (i) factors associated with compliance with recommendations for zero intake of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis and (ii) factors associated with poly drug use (intake of all three substances). Methods As part of the Young Minds Matter Study, a self-report survey was administered to 1661 Australian adolescents aged 15–17 years. The survey included items relating to: substance use; psychological, social, and protective factors; and demographic characteristics. Probit regression analyses were conducted to generate a model of factors associated with abstinence from all three substances and a model of factors associated with the use of all three substances. Results While there were substantial differences between the two models indicating that different factors may influence the initiation of substance use versus poly drug use, there were also several common factors that operated in opposite directions. These were child age, degree of parental supervision and monitoring, the experience of externalising problems, and a diagnosis of major depression. Conclusion The results highlight the potential utility of targeting high-risk youth by identifying (i) parents’ supervision and monitoring behaviours and (ii) children’s externalising problems and symptoms of depression. Directly addressing these factors in substance-use interventions may delay or prevent initiation while also reducing the likelihood of adolescents engaging in poly drug use.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T13:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.09.011
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2017)
       
  • Exploring the relationship between online buyers and sellers of image and
           performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs): Quality issues, trust and
           self-regulation
    • Authors: Katinka van de Ven; Rosa Koenraadt
      Pages: 48 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 50
      Author(s): Katinka van de Ven, Rosa Koenraadt
      Background Online drug markets are expanding the boundaries of drug supply including the sale and purchase of image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs). However, the role of the internet in IPED markets, and in particular the ways in which these substances are supplied via the surface web, has rarely been considered. This article examines the online IPED market in order to inform drug policy and to provide a nuanced understanding of retailers involved, particularly exploring the relationship between buyers and sellers. Methods This paper is based on two extensive research projects conducted in the Netherlands and Belgium. The first project focuses on muscle drugs and is based on 64 IPED dealing cases, semi-structured interviews with authorities (N=32), and dealers (N=15), along with an analysis of 10 steroid-selling websites. The second research project primarily focuses on weight loss drugs and sexual enhancers in the Netherlands, and relies on interviews with authorities (N=38), suppliers (N=30), and consumers (N=10), analysis of 69 criminal case files, and an online analysis. Results In the literature, the illicit online sale of IPEDs is generally associated with illegal online pharmacies that try to mislead buyers. While confirmed in our research, we also illustrate that there are online suppliers who invest in customer relationships and services, and that users are aware of the illegal nature of their business. These e-vendors incorporate a ‘social supply business model’ by providing the best possible service to their customers and attempting to minimise risks in order to attract, satisfy and maintain customers. Conclusion As it is likely that users will continue to make use of the internet to order IPEDs, regardless of closing down selling websites, it is first of all important to counteract these online sources by educating all types of consumers and providing harm reduction services.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T13:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2017)
       
  • “Caught with a body” yet protected by law' Calling 911 for opioid
           overdose in the context of the Good Samaritan Law
    • Authors: Amanda D. Latimore; Rachel S. Bergstein
      Pages: 82 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 50
      Author(s): Amanda D. Latimore, Rachel S. Bergstein
      Background To address soaring opioid overdose fatality rates, 41U.S. states have passed Good Samaritan Laws (GSLs) extending legal immunity to overdose bystanders who call for emergency assistance. This study, conducted during the period that followed implementation of a GSL, aimed to characterize current factors determining the decision to call for emergency medical help (911) at the scene of an overdose with specific attention to exploring the role of the GSL as one such factor in decision-making. Methods We conducted 22 in-depth interviews with needle exchange program clients in Baltimore, MD. Results Most participants reported calling 911 or witnessing a 911 call after drug overdose, but widely remained fearful of arrest for drug or paraphernalia possession, homicide, outstanding warrants, and/or trespassing. These concerns were underpinned by a history of police maltreatment and threat, and strong distrust of police; concerns which were specifically related to perceptions of police conduct at the scene of an overdose as well as perceptions of police conduct in general. Additional considerations included: fear of losing housing, informal shelter or custody of children; encountering social stigma; and facing violent and fatal repercussions at the hands of local drug dealers. Additionally, some participants did not perceive a significant enough medical risk to call 911. Two thirds of participants were unaware of the GSL. Some believed a GSL would positively impact law enforcement behaviour and increase the likelihood of a bystander call; but due to distrust of police, others believed the GSL would have little influence on bystander decisions. Conclusion Insights from overdose bystanders during the post-implementation period of a Good Samaritan Law demonstrate persistent deterrents to bystanders calling 911 after overdose. Additional measures are needed to align policy aims with lived experiences of overdose bystanders, and to achieve overdose prevention aims.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T13:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2017)
       
  • Legal cannabis laws, home cultivation, and use of edible cannabis
           products: A growing relationship'
    • Authors: Jacob T. Borodovsky; Alan J. Budney
      Pages: 102 - 110
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 50
      Author(s): Jacob T. Borodovsky, Alan J. Budney
      Background Over half of U.S. states have enacted legal cannabis laws (LCL). In parallel, edible cannabis products (i.e., edibles) have presented new regulatory challenges. LCL provisions that dictate access to cannabis (e.g., home cultivation (HC) or dispensaries (DSP)) may impact edible production and use. This study examined relationships among HC and DSP provisions, cannabis cultivation, and edible use. Methods An online cannabis use survey was distributed using Facebook. Data were collected from 1813 cannabis-using adults. U.S. states were classified as states without LCL (Non-LCL) or LCL states that: (1) only permit DSP (LCL DSP-only), (2) only permit HC (LCL HC-only), or (3) permit HC and DSP (LCL HC+DSP). Analyses tested associations among these classifications, cannabis growing, and edible use and procurement. Results Individuals in LCL HC-only and LCL HC+DSP states were more likely to report currently growing cannabis at home (OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.7, 6.2; OR: 3.9, 95% CI: 2.4, 6.3, respectively) and past-month edible use (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.4, 3.4; OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 2.2, 3.9, respectively) than individuals in LCL DSP-only states. Regardless of state, those who had grown cannabis were more likely to have made edibles than those who had never grown cannabis (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.8, 2.6). Individuals in LCL HC-only states were more likely to have made edibles in the past month than individuals from Non-LCL (OR: 2.75, 95% CI: 1.5, 5.3) and DSP-only states (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.0, 4.4). Individuals in LCL HC+DSP states were more likely to have purchased edibles in the past month than individuals from Non-LCL (OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 2.4, 5.6) and DSP-only states (OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.8, 5.5). Conclusion Specific LCL provisions may differentially affect individuals’ propensity to grow cannabis and make, buy, and use edible cannabis products. Permitting home cultivation contributes to a greater likelihood of growing cannabis. Those who grow cannabis economize the plant by creating homemade edible cannabis products. Conversely, permitting dispensaries increases the likelihood of purchasing edibles. The psychoactive effects of edibles with unknown and variable cannabinoid content will be unpredictable. Policymakers should carefully consider how specific LCL provisions can affect patterns of cannabis edible product access and quality.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T13:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.09.014
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2017)
       
  • Materialising drugged pleasures: Practice, politics, care
    • Authors: Fay Dennis; Adrian Farrugia
      Pages: 86 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 49
      Author(s): Fay Dennis, Adrian Farrugia


      PubDate: 2017-11-30T13:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2017)
       
  • Conceiving of addicted pleasures: A ‘modern’ paradox
    • Authors: Fay Dennis
      Pages: 150 - 159
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 49
      Author(s): Fay Dennis
      Drawing on research with people who inject drugs in London, UK, this article will explore how participants conceived of pleasure, and try to understand some of the tensions that ensued. There is a strong sense in participants’ accounts that drug use is at points pleasurable but it should not, or rather, could not be conceived of in this way. As such, the article will reflect on several situations in which pleasure came up during fieldwork but was quickly redirected towards addiction using terms such as ‘denial’. Trying to make sense of this seemingly paradoxical dynamic, in which pleasure can be addictive, but addiction cannot be pleasurable, I turn to some of the practices that actively keep pleasure and addiction apart, indeed, in some areas of the addiction sciences, antithetical. That is, a singular account of pleasure is produced as freely chosen (of the ‘free’ subject) in opposition to the determined nature of addiction (of the automated brain or object). These realities materialise in participants’ accounts, but due to their constructed nature they also collapse and multiply. This ‘hybridisation’ is what Bruno Latour refers to as the paradox of the Moderns. Considering pleasure, however, as both natural and cultural, it is better conceived of as always in tension, expressed by participants as ‘mixed feelings’, ‘love/hate’, ‘sweet and sour’, ‘good things and bad things’. Against a backdrop of neglect, especially within the context of injecting drug use, such conceptualisation can help acknowledge pleasure where it is least conceivable and yet perhaps has the most to offer.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T13:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.07.007
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2017)
       
  • Could cannabis liberalisation lead to wider changes in drug policies and
           outcomes'
    • Authors: Brendan Hughes; Lucas Wiessing; Don Des Jarlais; Paul Griffiths
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy
      Author(s): Brendan Hughes, Lucas Wiessing, Don Des Jarlais, Paul Griffiths
      Cannabis policies are changing in some countries. This may have consequences that extend beyond cannabis-specific outcomes, such as an impact on the consumption patterns of other substances. Changes in cannabis policies may also influence policy responses to other drugs, as countries re-assess the balance between law enforcement and public health objectives. If this happens, it could have important health and social consequences, especially in those countries where a ‘war on drugs’ policy perspective has inhibited investment in evidence based responses in areas such as treatment and harm reduction. The burden of disease associated with opioid use for example is large and this is an area in which treatment and harm reduction have been shown to deliver benefits. Thus if the changes in cannabis policies result in a greater willingness to invest in effective interventions for other drugs, the potential net health gains could be considerable. On the other hand, if cannabis policy changes are associated with an increase in health risk behaviours, such as driving under the influence or increased use of harmful substances such as tobacco, then significant increased health costs could result. To date most attention has been focused on recent cannabis sales liberalisation in the Americas, but experiences from elsewhere are also informative. In Europe, for example, moves towards decriminalisation of drug possession are resulting in lower rates of incarceration and arguably have reduced barriers to treatment uptake. Robust monitoring and assessment of the impact of these different policy changes is crucial to evaluating and understanding their results. It is important that such monitoring is international in scope, is not limited to issues around the use of cannabis only, and considers the interactions that may exist between cannabis policies and the approaches taken to other substances.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T08:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.10.004
       
  • ‘Enjoying the kick’: Locating pleasure within the drug
           consumption room
    • Authors: Tristan Duncan; Cameron Duff; Bernadette Sebar; Jessica Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy
      Author(s): Tristan Duncan, Cameron Duff, Bernadette Sebar, Jessica Lee
      Background Harm reduction policy and praxis has long struggled to accommodate the pleasures of alcohol and other drug use. Whilst scholars have consistently highlighted this struggle, how pleasure might come to practically inform the design and delivery of harm reduction policies and programs remains less clear. The present paper seeks to move beyond conceptual critiques of harm reduction’s ‘pleasure oversight’ to more focused empirical analysis of how flows of pleasure emerge, circulate and, importantly, may be reoriented in the course of harm reduction practice. Methods We ground our analysis in the context of detailed ethnographic research in a drug consumption room in Frankfurt, Germany. Drawing on recent strands of post-humanist thought, the paper deploys the concept of the ‘consumption event’ to uncover the manner in which these facilities mediate the practice and embodied experience of drug use and incite or limit bodily potentials for intoxication and pleasure. Results Through the analysis, we mapped a diversity of pleasures as they emerged and circulated through events of consumption at the consumption room. Beyond the pleasurable intensities of intoxication’s kick, these pleasures were expressed in a range of novel capacities, practices and drug using bodies. In each instance, pleasure could not be reduced to a simple, linear product of drug use. Rather, it arose for our participants through distinctive social and affective transformations enabled through events of consumption at the consumption room and the generative force of actors and associations of which these events were composed. Conclusion Our research suggests that the drug consumption room serves as a conduit through which its clients can potentially enact more pleasurable, productive and positive relations to both themselves and their drug use. Acknowledging the centrality of pleasure to client engagement with these facilities, the paper concludes by drawing out the implications of these findings for the design and delivery of consumption room services.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:25:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.07.005
       
  • The need for accuracy and validity in research on nightlife and drinking:
           A commentary on Devilly et al. and recommendations for future research
    • Authors: Peter Miller; Tanya Chikritzhs Nicolas Droste Amy Pennay Stephen Tomsen
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 50
      Author(s): Peter G. Miller, Tanya Chikritzhs, Nicolas Droste, Amy Pennay, Stephen Tomsen
      Research on nightlife and drinking faces many unique challenges, and validity in research is an important concern. A recent publication by Devilly et al. entitled “SmartStart: Results of a large point of entry study into preloading alcohol and associated behaviours” contains definitions and assumptions about prior work that require more careful consideration. Important issues include: using a definition of pre-drinking which is the same as previous work so that valid comparison can be made, reporting of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels that comply with other work, accurate reporting of response rates, and careful consideration of sampling approaches to maximise ethical integrity. Ensuring consistency of definition and accurate representation of previous literature regarding BAC, pre-drinking and energy drink use, is important for supplying the broader community with reliable information on which policy decisions can be made.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T13:22:48Z
       
  • From mundane medicines to euphorigenic drugs: How pharmaceutical pleasures
           are initiated, foregrounded, and made durable
    • Authors: Henry Bundy; Gilbert Quintero
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2017
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy
      Author(s): Henry Bundy, Gilbert Quintero
      Background Examining how pharmaceuticals are used to induce pleasure presents a unique opportunity for analyzing not only how pleasure is assembled and experienced through distinct consumption practices but also how mundane medicines can become euphorigenic substances. Methods Drawing on qualitative research on the non-medical use of prescription drugs by young adults in the United States, this paper utilizes Actor–Network Theory (ANT) to examine how prescription medicines come to produce pleasure. Results Our research found an indeterminacy of experience as individuals were initiated into prescription drug pleasures. We also found that euphorigenic effects coalesce and are foregrounded through subsequent use, and that pleasure and other forms of gratification are made durable through repeated and deliberate pharmaceutical consumption. Conclusion Understanding how individuals are socialized into pharmaceutical pleasure, and how assemblages act to constitute the euphorigenic potential of pharmaceutical misuse, may allow for more context-appropriate intervention efforts. We suggest that the euphorigenic properties ascribed to prescription drugs are not inherent in their pharmaceutical formulations, but instead emerge through interactions within networks of heterogeneous actants.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T13:22:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.08.006
       
  • Psychedelic pleasures: An affective understanding of the joys of tripping
    • Authors: Frederik
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2017
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy
      Author(s): Frederik Bøhling
      Background This paper considers the pleasures of psychedelic drugs and proposes a Deleuzian understanding of drugged pleasures as affects. In spite of a large body of work on psychedelics, not least on their therapeutic potentials, the literature is almost completely devoid of discussions of the recreational practices and pleasures of entheogenic drugs. Yet, most people do not use psychedelics because of their curative powers, but because they are fun and enjoyable ways to alter the experience of reality. Methods In the analytical part of the paper, I examine 100 trip reports from an internet forum in order to explore the pleasures of tripping. Results The analyses map out how drugs such as LSD and mushrooms – in combination with contextual factors such as other people, music and nature – give rise to a set of affective modifications of the drug user’s capacities to feel, sense and act. Conclusion In conclusion it is argued that taking seriously the large group of recreational users of hallucinogens is important not only because it broadens our understanding of how entheogenic drugs work in different bodies and settings, but also because it may enable a more productive and harm reductive transmission of knowledge between the scientific and recreational psychedelic communities.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T22:18:16Z
       
  • Desiring assemblages: A case for desire over pleasure in critical drug
           studies
    • Authors: Peta Malins
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy
      Author(s): Peta Malins
      While critical drug researchers have long pushed for an acknowledgement of pleasure in discourses of drug use, few have explored the alternative possibilities offered by Deleuze and Guattari’s concept of desire. In this paper I map out some of the conceptual differences between pleasure and desire and explore the opportunities opened up by attending more closely to desire in critical drug studies. I suggest that while discourses of pleasure do make an important intervention into and against dominant narratives of risk, harm, and addiction, they may inadvertently be working to keep in place the very binaries and forms of neoliberal western subjectivity that support those narratives. I argue that a Deleuzo–Guattarian ontology of desire is a better tool with which to make sense of the complex relations that form between drugs and bodies, challenge medical and criminal responses to drug use, and bring forth assemblages that enhance, rather than diminish, bodily capacities.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T13:42:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.07.018
       
  • Making medicine; producing pleasure: A critical examination of medicinal
           cannabis policy and law in Victoria, Australia
    • Authors: Kari Lancaster; Kate Seear; Alison Ritter
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2017
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy
      Author(s): Kari Lancaster, Kate Seear, Alison Ritter
      Several jurisdictions around the world have introduced policies and laws allowing for the legal use of cannabis for therapeutic purposes. However, there has been little critical discussion of how the object of ‘medicinal cannabis’ is enacted in policy and practice. Informed by Carol Bacchi’s poststructuralist approach to policy analysis and the work of science and technology studies scholars, this paper seeks to problematise the object of ‘medicinal cannabis’ and examine how it is constituted through governing practices. In particular, we consider how the making of the object of ‘medicinal cannabis’ might constrain or enact discourses of pleasure. As a case example, we take the Victorian Law Reform Commission’s review of law reform options to allow people in the Australian state of Victoria to be treated with medicinal cannabis. Through analysis of this case example, we find that although ‘medicinal cannabis’ is constituted as a thoroughly medical object, it is also constituted as unique. We argue that medicinal cannabis is enacted in part through the production of another object (so-called ‘recreational cannabis’) and the social and political meanings attached to both. Although both ‘substances’ are constituted as distinct, ‘medicinal cannabis’ relies on the ‘absent presence’ of ‘recreational cannabis’ to define and shape what it is. However, we find that contained within this rendering of ‘medicinal cannabis’ are complex enactments of health and wellbeing, which open up discourses of pleasure. ‘Medicinal cannabis’ appears to challenge the idea that the effects of ‘medicine’ cannot be understood in terms of pleasure. As such, the making of ‘medicinal cannabis’ as a medical object, and its invocation of broad notions of health and wellbeing, expand the ways in which drug effects can be acknowledged, including pleasurable and desirable effects, helping us to think differently about both medicine and other forms of drug use.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T13:42:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.07.020
       
  • Thinking with pleasure: Experimenting with drugs and drug research
    • Authors: Kane Race
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2017
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy
      Author(s): Kane Race
      Within the field of drug and alcohol studies, researchers think about pleasure or against it; we analyse, consider, investigate, invoke or ignore it. The philosophically inclined may think of pleasure or write on it, but in each of these scenarios pleasure is kept at an arm’s length while the researcher appears to remain unmoved – detached observers, objective scientists, conceptual experts, program directors, sharp critics, policy advocates – sober judges whose sovereignty is secured by the formal conventions of positivist research, established theory, institutional authority and/or disciplinary knowledge. This paper asks what happens when pleasure is allowed to emerge as a constitutive element in the relations of drug and alcohol research. What happens when we conceive our work as thinking with pleasure, rather than simply researching pleasure or thinking about it' I return to the later work of Foucault, reading it alongside conceptions of the experiment drawn from Science and Technology Studies, arguing that both the pleasures of drug consumption and drug research might be conceived more generatively as mutually implicated in events.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T13:42:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.07.019
       
  • Risky pleasures and drugged assemblages: Young people’s consumption
           practices of AOD in Madrid
    • Authors: Montserrat Cañedo; Enrique Moral
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2017
      Source:International Journal of Drug Policy
      Author(s): Montserrat Cañedo, Enrique Moral
      Background Drawing on a research project that we carried out on the functionality of “excessive” consumption practices in the lifestyles of young people in Madrid, this article aims to understand how (dis)pleasurable states emerge during young people’s consumption of alcohol and other drugs. Methods This article claims that these states derive from “drugged assemblages,” that is, a set of (human and non-human) actants that intra-act to produce different effects. Although pleasure can be one of these effects, it is not always guaranteed: consumption practices are assemblages that fluctuate between pleasure and displeasure, and the former can be reached or not depending on the characteristics acquired by the assemblage. It is this fluctuation that makes pleasures “risky.” Drugged assemblages also configure and are configured by specific spatial-temporal and material apparatuses or dispositifs. We will analyse botellones, night-clubs and raves as examples of this kind of dispositif, focusing on how they work as a holistic frame where drugged assemblages emerge. Results Finally, we will focus on the different strategies and practices that young people, in constant intra-action with other agencies, develop in order to achieve and keep a “controlled loss of control” within the limits and potentials offered by these contexts, in a constant effort to avoid the risks that may result from the blurred line that divides pleasure and displeasure. Conclusion In this sense, we will argue that, despite the criticisms it has received, it is possible to make Measham’s concept of “controlled loss of control” compatible with a post-humanist theoretical framework.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T13:37:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.08.002
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 54.227.127.109
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2016