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American Journal of Epidemiology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.713
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 226  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0002-9262 - ISSN (Online) 1476-6256
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [412 journals]
  • Editorial Consultants*
    • PubDate: Thu, 02 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwaa040
      Issue No: Vol. 189, No. 1 (2020)
           BREAST CANCER”
    • Pages: 79 - 79
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwz235
      Issue No: Vol. 189, No. 1 (2020)
  • Invited Commentary: The Disillusionment of Developmental Origins of Health
           and Disease (DOHaD) Epidemiology
    • Authors: Gilman S; Hornig M.
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: The developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) model promises a greater understanding of early development but has left unresolved the balance of risks and benefits to offspring of medication use during pregnancy. Masarwa et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2018;187(8):1817–1827) conducted a meta-analysis of the association between in utero acetaminophen exposure and risks of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A challenge of meta-analyzing results from observational studies is that summary measures of risk do not correspond to well-defined interventions when the individual studies adjusted for different covariate sets, which was the case here. This challenge limits the usefulness of observational meta-analyses for inferences about etiology and treatment planning. With that limitation understood, Masarwa et al. reported a 20%–30% higher risk of ADHD and ASD following prenatal acetaminophen exposure. Surprisingly, most of the original studies did not report diagnoses of ADHD or ASD. As a result, their summary estimates of risk are not informative about children’s likelihood of ADHD and ASD diagnoses. The long-term promise of DOHaD remains hopeful, but more effort is needed in the short-term to critically evaluate observational studies suggesting risks associated with medications used to treat conditions during pregnancy that might have adverse consequences for a developing fetus.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwz214
      Issue No: Vol. 189, No. 1 (2019)
  • Masarwa et al. Respond to “The Disillusionment of Developmental Origins
           of Health and Disease (DOHaD) Epidemiology”
    • Authors: Masarwa R; Perlman A, Levine H, et al.
      Pages: 6 - 7
      Abstract: We thank Gilman and Hornig (1) for their interest in our meta-analysis (2) on the association between acetaminophen use during pregnancy and the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Their arguments raise the possibility of an interesting scientific exchange, and although we agree with some of the arguments made, we would like to clarify some of the issues that have been raised.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwz215
      Issue No: Vol. 189, No. 1 (2019)
  • A Randomized Trial to Evaluate the Effects of Folic Acid and Zinc
           Supplementation on Male Fertility and Livebirth: Design and Baseline
    • Authors: Schisterman E; Clemons T, Peterson C, et al.
      Pages: 8 - 26
      Abstract: The Folic Acid and Zinc Supplementation Trial (FAZST) was a multicenter, double-blind, block-randomized, placebo-controlled trial to determine whether folic acid and zinc supplementation in men improves semen quality and increases livebirth rate among couples seeking infertility treatment (2013–2017). Eligible men were aged 18 years or older with female partners aged 18–45 years, seeking infertility treatment. Men were randomized (1:1) to 5 mg folic acid and 30 mg elemental zinc daily or matching placebo for 6 months. Randomization was stratified by site and intended infertility treatment (in vitro fertilization (IVF), non-IVF/study site, and non-IVF/outside clinic). Follow-up of men continued for 6 months, and female partners were passively followed for a minimum of 9 months. Women who conceived were followed throughout pregnancy. Overall, 2,370 men were randomized during 2013–2017 (1,185 folic acid and zinc, 1,185 placebo); they had a mean age of 33 years and body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2) of 29.8. Most participants were white (82%), well educated (83% with some college), and employed (72%). Participant characteristics were balanced across intervention arms. Study visits were completed by 89%, 77%, and 75% of men at months 2, 4, and 6, respectively. Here we describe the study design, recruitment, data collection, lessons learned, and baseline participant characteristics.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwz217
      Issue No: Vol. 189, No. 1 (2019)
  • Thyroid Incidentalomas in Association With Low-Dose Computed Tomography in
           the National Lung Screening Trial
    • Authors: Loomans-Kropp H; Dunn B, Kramer B, et al.
      Pages: 27 - 33
      Abstract: Advances in cancer screening methods have opened avenues for incidental findings and cancer overdiagnosis. We performed a secondary analysis of the National Lung Screening Trial (enrollment from 2002–2004), a randomized controlled trial comparing low-dose computed tomography (LDCT; n = 26,722) with chest radiography (CXR; n = 26,732) for lung cancer detection, to examine incidental findings related to thyroid cancer (ThCa). Three screening rounds were included, and median follow-up was 6.6 years for LDCT and 6.5 years for CXR. Radiologists reported lung and non-lung-related abnormalities. In the LDCT arm, 5.7%, 4.7%, and 4.5% of participants had abnormalities above the diaphragm (AADs) detected at baseline, year 1, and year 2, respectively, compared with 2.3%, 1.5%, and 1.3% in the CXR arm. In the LDCT arm, 205 AADs (7.0%) were thyroid-related. Overall, 60 ThCas were reported, 35 in the LDCT arm and 25 in the CXR arm (P = 0.2). In the LDCT arm, participants with a prior AAD had a 7.8-fold increased risk (95% confidence interval: 4.0, 15.1) of ThCa compared with those who did not have an AAD. Early and persistent excess of ThCas diagnosed earlier in the LDCT arm suggests overdiagnosis. The use of sensitive screening modalities for early detection of lung cancer might result in the discovery of thyroid incidentalomas.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwz219
      Issue No: Vol. 189, No. 1 (2019)
  • Population-Level Sexual Mixing According to HIV Status and Preexposure
           Prophylaxis Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Montreal, Canada:
           Implications for HIV Prevention
    • Authors: Wang L; Moqueet N, Lambert G, et al.
      Pages: 44 - 54
      Abstract: Using cross-sectional survey data (Engage, 2017–2018) from 1,137 men who have sex with men, ≥16 years old, in Montreal, we compared observed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroconcordance in previous-6-months’ sexual partnerships with what would have been observed by chance if zero individuals serosorted. Of 5 recent partnerships where both individuals were HIV-negative, we compared observed concordance in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use with the counterfactual if zero individuals selected partners based on PrEP use. We estimated the concordance by chance using a balancing-partnerships approach assuming proportionate mixing. HIV-positive respondents had a higher proportion of HIV-positive partners (66.4%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 64.0, 68.6) than by chance (23.9%, 95% CI: 23.1, 24.7). HIV-negative respondents (both on and not on PrEP) had higher proportions of HIV-negative partners (82.9% (95% CI: 81.1, 84.7) and 90.7% (95% CI: 89.6, 91.7), respectively) compared with by chance (76.1%, 95% CI: 75.3, 76.9); however, those on PrEP had a higher proportion of HIV-positive partners than those not on PrEP (17.1% (95% CI: 15.3, 18.9) vs. 9.3% (95% CI: 8.3, 10.4). Those on PrEP also had a higher proportion of partners on PrEP among their HIV-negative partners (50.6%, 95% CI: 42.5, 58.8) than by chance (28.5%, 95% CI: 27.5, 29.4). The relationship between PrEP and sexual-mixing patterns demonstrated by less population-level serosorting among those on PrEP and PrEP-matching warrants consideration during PrEP roll-out.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwz231
      Issue No: Vol. 189, No. 1 (2019)
  • Heterogeneous Exposure Associations in Observational Cohort Studies: The
           Example of Blood Pressure in Older Adults
    • Authors: Odden M; Rawlings A, Khodadadi A, et al.
      Pages: 55 - 67
      Abstract: Heterogeneous exposure associations (HEAs) can be defined as differences in the association of an exposure with an outcome among subgroups that differ by a set of characteristics. In this article, we intend to foster discussion of HEAs in the epidemiologic literature and present a variant of the random forest algorithm that can be used to identify HEAs. We demonstrate the use of this algorithm in the setting of the association between systolic blood pressure and death in older adults. The training set included pooled data from the baseline examination of the Cardiovascular Health Study (1989–1993), the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study (1997–1998), and the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (1998–1999). The test set included data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2002). The hazard ratios ranged from 1.25 (95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.37) per 10-mm Hg increase in systolic blood pressure among men aged ≤67 years with diastolic blood pressure greater than 80 mm Hg to 1.00 (95% confidence interval: 0.96, 1.03) among women with creatinine concentration ≤0.7 mg/dL and a history of hypertension. HEAs have the potential to improve our understanding of disease mechanisms in diverse populations and guide the design of randomized controlled trials to control exposures in heterogeneous populations.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwz218
      Issue No: Vol. 189, No. 1 (2019)
  • Estimating the Intracluster Correlation Coefficient for the Clinical Sign
           “Trachomatous Inflammation—Follicular” in Population-Based Trachoma
           Prevalence Surveys: Results From a Meta-Regression Analysis of 261
           Standardized Preintervention Surveys Carried Out in Ethiopia, Mozambique,
           and Nigeria
    • Authors: Macleod C; Bailey R, Dejene M, et al.
      Pages: 68 - 76
      Abstract: Sample sizes in cluster surveys must be greater than those in surveys using simple random sampling in order to obtain similarly precise prevalence estimates, because results from subjects examined in the same cluster cannot be assumed to be independent. Therefore, a crucial aspect of cluster sampling is estimation of the intracluster correlation coefficient (ρ): the degree of relatedness of outcomes in a given cluster, defined as the proportion of total variance accounted for by between-cluster variation. In infectious disease epidemiology, this coefficient is related to transmission patterns and the natural history of infection; its value also depends on particulars of survey design. Estimation of ρ is often difficult due to the lack of comparable survey data with which to calculate summary estimates. Here we use a parametric bootstrap model to estimate ρ for the ocular clinical sign “trachomatous inflammation—follicular” (TF) among children aged 1–9 years within population-based trachoma prevalence surveys. We present results from a meta-regression analysis of data from 261 such surveys completed using standardized methods in Ethiopia, Mozambique, and Nigeria in 2012–2015. Consistent with the underlying theory, we found that ρ increased with increasing overall TF prevalence and smaller numbers of children examined per cluster. Estimates of ρ for TF were independently higher in Ethiopia than in the other countries.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Sep 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwz196
      Issue No: Vol. 189, No. 1 (2019)
    • Authors: Schomaker M; Kühne F, Siebert U.
      Pages: 77 - 78
      Abstract: In a recent issue of the Journal, Lodi et al. (1) published a landmark paper that provides excellent guidelines on how causal effect estimates from randomized trials can be compared with such estimates from observational studies. They suggest that investigators first harmonize study protocols (“stage 1”) and then follow this with a harmonized data analysis (“stage 2”) and sensitivity analyses (“stage 3”). We propose taking the following considerations into account when designing the target trial protocol.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Sep 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwz194
      Issue No: Vol. 189, No. 1 (2019)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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