Journal Cover American Journal of Epidemiology
  [SJR: 3.047]   [H-I: 201]   [169 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0002-9262 - ISSN (Online) 1476-6256
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [392 journals]
  • Secondhand Smoke and Women’s Cognitive Function in China
    • Authors: Pan X; Luo Y, Roberts A.
      Pages: 911 - 918
      Abstract: Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is known to be harmful to health. However, the association between household SHS and cognitive function among middle-aged and older women in China is understudied. Lagged dependent variable regression was used to examine the association between household SHS exposure and the cognitive function of married women who had been exposed to SHS, using data from 2 waves of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, 2011–2013). Controlling for age, educational attainment, geographic residence, household expenditures, and chronic conditions (i.e., hypertension, diabetes, and depressive symptoms), the results indicated that longer SHS exposure was associated with a greater decline in memory over 2 years. After comparing differences across age groups, this pattern was significant for women aged 55–64 years. Furthermore, those who were illiterate, lived in rural areas, and reported depressive symptoms had a greater decline in memory. With evidence linking household SHS exposure with a higher risk of cognitive decline, effective education and public health intervention programs are urgently needed. Stronger tobacco control regulations and education about the dangers of household SHS are viable strategies to reduce the impending dementia epidemic in China.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx377
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Invited Commentary: Secondhand Smoke—an Underrecognized Risk Factor
           for Cognitive Decline
    • Authors: Anstey K; Chen R.
      Pages: 919 - 921
      Abstract: Pan et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2018;187(5):911–918) reported findings that exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) was associated with cognitive decline over the course of 2 years among middle-aged and older Chinese women who never smoked, and they also reported a dose-response relationship. SHS exposure affects vulnerable people disproportionately because they have less control or choice over their living and working environment. Smoking is an established risk factor for dementia, but recent evidence reports on dementia-risk increase have not included SHS. Many epidemiologic studies collect data on smoking but not SHS exposure. SHS may be one of the most prevalent and modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline and therefore represents a major potential target for reduction of dementia risk. Given the high prevalence of smoking in China and other parts of the world, there is an urgent need to raise awareness of SHS reduction as part of global and national strategies to reduce cognitive decline and dementia and to introduce legislation that protects nonsmokers and vulnerable children and adults from SHS.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx378
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Pan et al. Respond to “Secondhand Smoke and Cognitive Decline”
    • Authors: Pan X; Luo Y, Roberts A.
      Pages: 922 - 923
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx379
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Associations Between the Built Environment and Objective Measures of
           SleepThe Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
    • Authors: Johnson D; Hirsch J, Moore K, et al.
      Pages: 941 - 950
      Abstract: Although dense neighborhood built environments support increased physical activity and lower obesity, these features may also disturb sleep. Therefore, we sought to understand the association between the built environment and objectively measured sleep. From 2010 to 2013, we analyzed data from examination 5 of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a diverse population from 6 US cities. We fit multilevel models that assessed the association between the built environment (Street Smart Walk Score, social engagement destinations, street intersections, and population density) and sleep duration or efficiency from 1-week wrist actigraphy in 1,889 individuals. After adjustment for covariates, a 1-standard-deviation increase in Street Smart Walk Score was associated with 23% higher odds of short sleep duration (≤6 hours; odds ratio = 1.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.0, 1.4), as well as shorter average sleep duration (mean difference = −8.1 minutes, 95% confidence interval: −12.1, −4.2). Results were consistent across other built environment measures. Associations were attenuated after adjustment for survey-based measure of neighborhood noise. Dense neighborhood development may have multiple health consequence. In promoting denser neighborhoods to increase walkability, it is important to also implement strategies that reduce the adverse impacts of this development on sleep, such as noise reductions efforts.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx302
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Differential Susceptibility in Ambient Particle–Related Risk of
           First-Ever Stroke: Findings From a National Case-Crossover Study
    • Authors: Guan T; Xue T, Liu Y, et al.
      Pages: 1001 - 1009
      Abstract: Different populations may respond differently to exposure to ambient fine particulate matter, defined as particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM2.5); however, less is known about the distribution of susceptible individuals among the entire population. We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study to assess associations between stroke risk and exposure to PM2.5. During 2013–2015, 1,356 first-ever stroke events were derived from a large representative sample, the China National Stroke Screening Survey (CNSSS) database. Daily PM2.5 average exposures with a spatial resolution of 0.1° were estimated using a data assimilation approach combining satellite measurements, air model simulations, and monitoring values. The distribution of susceptibility was derived according to individual-specific associations with PM2.5 modified by different combinations of individual-level characteristics and their joint frequencies among all of the CNSSS participants (n = 1,292,010). We found that first-ever stroke was statistically significantly associated with PM2.5 (per 10-μg/m3 increment of exposure, odds ratio = 1.049, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.038, 1.061). This association was modified by demographic (e.g., sex), lifestyle (e.g., overweight/obesity), and medical history (e.g., diabetes) variables. The combined association with PM2.5 varied from 0.966 (95% CI: 0.920, 1.013) to 1.145 (95% CI: 1.080, 1.215) per 10-μg/m3 increment in different subpopulations. We found that most of the CNSSS participants were at increased risk of PM2.5-related stroke, while only a small proportion were highly susceptible.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy007
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • A Note on G-Estimation of Causal Risk Ratios
    • Authors: Dukes O; Vansteelandt S.
      Pages: 1079 - 1084
      Abstract: G-estimation is a flexible, semiparametric approach for estimating exposure effects in epidemiologic studies. It has several underappreciated advantages over other propensity score–based methods popular in epidemiology, which we review in this article. However, it is rarely used in practice, due to a lack of off-the-shelf software. To rectify this, we show a simple trick for obtaining G-estimators of causal risk ratios using existing generalized estimating equations software. We extend the procedure to more complex settings with time-varying confounders.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx347
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN PREPREGNANCY BODY MASS INDEX AND RISK OF PRETERM
           DELIVERY IN A CHINESE POPULATION
    • Authors: Chen Y; Tao F, Xu D.
      Pages: 1123 - 1124
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy016
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Inverse Probability Weights for the Analysis of Polytomous Outcomes
    • Authors: Richardson D; Kinlaw A, Keil A, et al.
      Pages: 1125 - 1127
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy020
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • RE: “CURRENT CHALLENGES AND NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR GENE-ENVIRONMENT
           INTERACTION STUDIES OF COMPLEX DISEASES”
    • Authors: Carrick D; Dickherber A, Divi R.
      Pages: 1128 - 1129
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy037
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • RE: “A MULTINOMIAL REGRESSION APPROACH TO MODEL OUTCOME
           HETEROGENEITY”
    • Authors: Begg C; Seshan V, Zabor E.
      Pages: 1129 - 1130
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy032
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • THE AUTHORS REPLY
    • Authors: Sun B; VanderWeele T, Tchetgen Tchetgen E.
      Pages: 1130 - 1131
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy029
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • RE: “PROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY OF UTERINE FIBROIDS AND MISCARRIAGE
           RISK”
    • Authors: Nezhat C; Pfeifer S, Bhagavath B, et al.
      Pages: 1131 - 1132
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy031
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • THE AUTHORS REPLY
    • Authors: Hartmann K; Velez Edwards D, Savitz D, et al.
      Pages: 1133 - 1134
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy033
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • RE: “MODELING RISK-FACTOR TRAJECTORIES WHEN MEASUREMENT TOOLS CHANGE
           SEQUENTIALLY DURING FOLLOW-UP IN COHORT STUDIES: APPLICATION TO DIETARY
           HABITS IN PRODROMAL DEMENTIA”
    • Pages: 1135 - 1135
      PubDate: Tue, 01 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy079
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Opportunities for Epidemiologists in Implementation Science: A Primer
    • Authors: Neta G; Brownson R, Chambers D.
      Pages: 899 - 910
      Abstract: The field of epidemiology has been defined as the study of the spread and control of disease. However, epidemiology frequently focuses on studies of etiology and distribution of disease at the cost of understanding the best ways to control disease. Moreover, only a small fraction of scientific discoveries are translated into public health practice, and the process from discovery to translation is exceedingly slow. Given the importance of translational science, the future of epidemiologic training should include competency in implementation science, whose goal is to rapidly move evidence into practice. Our purpose in this paper is to provide epidemiologists with a primer in implementation science, which includes dissemination research and implementation research as defined by the National Institutes of Health. We describe the basic principles of implementation science, highlight key components for conducting research, provide examples of implementation studies that encompass epidemiology, and offer resources and opportunities for continued learning. There is a clear need for greater speed, relevance, and application of evidence into practice, programs, and policies and an opportunity to enable epidemiologists to conduct research that not only will inform practitioners and policy-makers of risk but also will enhance the likelihood that evidence will be implemented.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx323
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Perceived Interpersonal Discrimination and Older Women’s Mental Health:
           Accumulation Across Domains, Attributions, and Time
    • Authors: Bécares L; Zhang N.
      Pages: 924 - 932
      Abstract: Experiencing discrimination is associated with poor mental health, but how cumulative experiences of perceived interpersonal discrimination across attributes, domains, and time are associated with mental disorders is still unknown. Using data from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (1996–2008), we applied latent class analysis and generalized linear models to estimate the association between cumulative exposure to perceived interpersonal discrimination and older women’s mental health. We found 4 classes of perceived interpersonal discrimination, ranging from cumulative exposure to discrimination over attributes, domains, and time to none or minimal reports of discrimination. Women who experienced cumulative perceived interpersonal discrimination over time and across attributes and domains had the highest risk of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score ≥16) compared with women in all other classes. This was true for all women regardless of race/ethnicity, although the type and severity of perceived discrimination differed across racial/ethnic groups. Cumulative exposure to perceived interpersonal discrimination across attributes, domains, and time has an incremental negative long-term association with mental health. Studies that examine exposure to perceived discrimination due to a single attribute in 1 domain or at 1 point in time underestimate the magnitude and complexity of discrimination and its association with health.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx326
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Fish Intake, Genetic Predisposition to Alzheimer Disease, and Decline in
           Global Cognition and Memory in 5 Cohorts of Older Persons
    • Authors: Samieri C; Morris M, Bennett D, et al.
      Pages: 933 - 940
      Abstract: Fish are a primary source of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, which may help delay cognitive aging. We pooled participants from the French Three-City study and 4 US cohorts (Nurses’ Health Study, Women’s Health Study, Chicago Health and Aging Project, and Rush Memory and Aging Project) for whom diet and cognitive data were available (n = 23,688 white persons, aged ≥65 years, 88% female, baseline year range of 1992–1999, and median follow-up range of 3.9–9.1 years) to investigate the relationship of fish intake to cognitive decline and examine interactions with genes related to Alzheimer disease. We estimated cohort-specific associations between fish and change in composite scores of global cognition and episodic memory using linear mixed models, and we pooled results using inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. In multivariate analyses, higher fish intake was associated with slower decline in both global cognition and memory (P for trend ≤ 0.031). Consuming ≥4 servings/week versus <1 serving/week of fish was associated with a lower rate of memory decline: 0.018 (95% confidence interval: 0.004, 0.032) standard units, an effect estimate equivalent to that found for 4 years of age. For global cognition, no comparisons of higher versus low fish intake reached statistical significance. In this meta-analysis, higher fish intake was associated with a lower rate of memory decline. We found no evidence of effect modification by genes associated with Alzheimer disease.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx330
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Coffee Intake and Incidence of Erectile Dysfunction
    • Authors: Lopez D; Liu L, Rimm E, et al.
      Pages: 951 - 959
      Abstract: Coffee intake is suggested to have a positive impact on chronic diseases, yet its role in urological diseases such as erectile dysfunction (ED) remains unclear. We investigated the association of coffee intake with incidence of ED by conducting the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, a prospective analysis of 21,403 men aged 40–75 years old. Total, regular, and decaffeinated coffee intakes were self-reported on food frequency questionnaires. ED was assessed by mean values of questionnaires in 2000, 2004 and 2008. Multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute hazard ratios for patients with incident ED (n = 7,298). No significant differences were identified for patients with incident ED after comparing highest (≥4 cups/day) with lowest (0 cups/day) categories of total (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90, 1.11) and regular coffee intakes (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.13). When comparing the highest category with lowest category of decaffeinated coffee intake, we found a 37% increased risk of ED (HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.73), with a significant trend (P trend = 0.02). Stratified analyses also showed an association among current smokers (P trend = 0.005). Overall, long-term coffee intake was not associated with risk of ED in a prospective cohort study.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx304
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Breast Cancer Estrogen Receptor Status According to Biological Generation:
           US Black and White Women Born 1915–1979
    • Authors: Krieger N; Jahn J, Waterman P, et al.
      Pages: 960 - 970
      Abstract: Evidence suggests that contemporary population distributions of estrogen-receptor (ER) status among breast cancer patients may be shaped by earlier major societal events, such as the 1965 abolition of legal racial discrimination in the United States (state and local “Jim Crow” laws) and the Great Famine in China (1959–1961). We analyzed changes in ER status in relation to Jim Crow birthplace among the 46,417 black and 339,830 white US-born, non-Hispanic women in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 13 Registry Group who were born between 1915 and 1979 and diagnosed (ages 25–84 years, inclusive) during 1992–2012. We grouped the cases according to birth cohort and quantified the rate of change using the haldane (which scales change in relation to biological generation). The percentage of ER-positive cases rose according to birth cohort (1915–1919 to 1975–1979) only among women diagnosed before age 55. Changes according to biological generation were greater among black women than among white women, and among black women, they were greatest among those born in Jim Crow (versus non–Jim Crow) states, with this group being the only group to exhibit high haldane values (> 0.3 , indicating high rate of change). Our study’s analytical approach and findings underscore the need to consider history and societal context when analyzing ER status among breast cancer patients and racial/ethnic inequities in its distribution.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx312
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Sex Differences in Risk of Smoking-Associated Lung Cancer: Results From a
           Cohort of 600,000 Norwegians
    • Authors: Hansen M; Licaj I, Braaten T, et al.
      Pages: 971 - 981
      Abstract: Whether women are more susceptible than men to smoking-related lung cancer has been a topic of controversy. To address this question, we compared risks of lung cancer associated with smoking by sex. Altogether, 585,583 participants from 3 Norwegian cohorts (Norwegian Counties Study, 40 Years Study, and Cohort of Norway (CONOR) Study) were followed until December 31, 2013, through linkage of data to national registries. We used Cox proportional hazards models and 95% confidence intervals to estimate risks. During nearly 12 million person-years of follow-up, 6,534 participants (43% women) were diagnosed with lung cancer. More men than women were heavier smokers. Compared with never smokers, male and female current smokers with ≥16 pack-years of smoking had hazard ratios for lung cancer of 27.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 22.42, 33.09) and 23.90 (95% CI: 20.57, 27.76), respectively (P for heterogeneity = 0.30). In contrast, for current smokers, in a model with pack-years measured continuously, men had a hazard ratio of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.39, 1.48) and women a hazard ratio of 1.64 (95% CI: 1.57, 1.71) for each 10–pack-year increment of smoking (P for heterogeneity < 0.01). Our results suggest that women have an increased susceptibility to lung cancer compared with men, given the same lifetime smoking exposure.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx339
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Socioeconomic Status and Childhood Cancer Incidence: A Population-Based
           Multilevel Analysis
    • Authors: Kehm R; Spector L, Poynter J, et al.
      Pages: 982 - 991
      Abstract: The etiology of childhood cancers remains largely unknown, especially regarding environmental and behavioral risk factors. Unpacking the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and incidence may offer insight into such etiology. We tested associations between SES and childhood cancer incidence in a population-based case-cohort study (source cohort: Minnesota birth registry, 1989–2014). Cases, ages 0–14 years, were linked from the Minnesota Cancer Surveillance System to birth records through probabilistic record linkage. Controls were 4:1 frequency matched on birth year (2,947 cases and 11,907 controls). We tested associations of individual-level (maternal education) and neighborhood-level (census tract composite index) SES using logistic mixed models. In crude models, maternal education was positively associated with incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.19), central nervous system tumors (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.21), and neuroblastoma (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.30). Adjustment for established risk factors—including race/ethnicity, maternal age, and birth weight—substantially attenuated these positive associations. Similar patterns were observed for neighborhood-level SES. Conversely, higher maternal education was inversely associated with hepatoblastoma incidence (adjusted OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.51, 0.98). Overall, beyond the social patterning of established demographic and pregnancy-related exposures, SES is not strongly associated with childhood cancer incidence.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx322
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Investigating the Impact of Maternal Residential Mobility on Identifying
           Critical Windows of Susceptibility to Ambient Air Pollution During
           Pregnancy
    • Authors: Warren J; Son J, Pereira G, et al.
      Pages: 992 - 1000
      Abstract: Identifying periods of increased vulnerability to air pollution during pregnancy with respect to the development of adverse birth outcomes can improve understanding of possible mechanisms of disease development and provide guidelines for protection of the child. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy is typically based on the mother’s residence at delivery, potentially resulting in exposure misclassification and biasing the estimation of critical windows of pregnancy. In this study, we determined the impact of maternal residential mobility during pregnancy on defining weekly exposure to particulate matter less than or equal to 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) and estimating windows of susceptibility to term low birth weight. We utilized data sets from 4 Connecticut birth cohorts (1988–2008) that included information on all residential addresses between conception and delivery for each woman. We designed a simulation study to investigate the impact of increasing levels of mobility on identification of critical windows. Increased PM10 exposure during pregnancy weeks 16–18 was associated with an increased probability of term low birth weight. Ignoring residential mobility when defining weekly exposure had only a minor impact on the identification of critical windows for PM10 and term low birth weight in the data application and simulation study. Identification of critical pregnancy windows was robust to exposure misclassification caused by ignoring residential mobility in these Connecticut birth cohorts.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx335
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Associations Between Divorce and Onset of Drug Abuse in a Swedish National
           Sample
    • Authors: Edwards A; Larsson Lönn S, Sundquist J, et al.
      Pages: 1010 - 1018
      Abstract: Rates of drug abuse are higher among divorced individuals than among those who are married, but it is not clear whether divorce itself is a risk factor for drug abuse or whether the observed association is confounded by other factors. We examined the association between divorce and onset of drug abuse in a population-based Swedish cohort born during 1965–1975 (n = 651,092) using Cox proportional hazards methods, with marital status as a time-varying covariate. Potential confounders (e.g., demographics, adolescent deviance, and family history of drug abuse) were included as covariates. Parallel analyses were conducted for widowhood and drug-abuse onset. In models with adjustments, divorce was associated with a substantial increase in risk of drug-abuse onset in both sexes (hazard ratios > 5). Co-relative analyses (among biological relatives) were consistent with a partially causal role of divorce on drug-abuse onset. Widowhood also increased risk of drug-abuse onset, although to a lesser extent. Divorce is a potent risk factor for onset of drug abuse, even after adjusting for deviant behavior in adolescence and family history of drug abuse. The somewhat less-pronounced association with widowhood, particularly among men, suggests that the magnitude of association between divorce and drug abuse may not be generalizable to the end of a relationship.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx321
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Mood Disorders and Risk of Herpes Zoster in 2 Population-Based
           Case-Control Studies in Denmark and the United Kingdom
    • Authors: Schmidt S; Langan S, Pedersen H, et al.
      Pages: 1019 - 1028
      Abstract: We examined the association between mood disorders and risk of herpes zoster in two case-control studies using data from nationwide Danish registries and practices in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We included incident zoster cases diagnosed in general practice (using systemic antivirals as a proxy in Denmark) or hospital during 1997–2013 in Denmark (n = 190,671) and during 2000–2013 in the United Kingdom (n = 177,361). We risk-set sampled 4 matched population controls per case. Conditional logistic regression analyses adjusting for zoster risk factors showed that the odds ratios for previous mood disorder among cases versus controls were 1.15 (99% confidence interval (CI): 1.12, 1.19; prevalence 7.1% vs. 6.0%) in Denmark and 1.12 (99% CI: 1.11, 1.14; prevalence 31.6% vs. 29.2%) in the United Kingdom. In Denmark, odds ratios were higher for anxiety (1.23; 99% CI: 1.17, 1.30) and severe stress and adjustment disorder (1.24; 99% CI: 1.18, 1.30) than for depression (1.11; 99% CI: 1.07, 1.14). In the United Kingdom, odds ratios for these conditions were similar: 1.12 (99% CI: 1.10, 1.13), 1.12 (99% CI: 1.10, 1.14), and 1.14 (99% CI: 1.10, 1.19) for depression, anxiety, and severe stress and adjustment disorder, respectively. In conclusion, mood disorders were associated with an increased risk of zoster.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx338
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Characterizing and Comparing the Seasonality of Influenza-Like Illnesses
           and Invasive Pneumococcal Diseases Using Seasonal Waveforms
    • Authors: Domenech de Cellès M; Arduin H, Varon E, et al.
      Pages: 1029 - 1039
      Abstract: The seasonalities of influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) and invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) remain incompletely understood. Experimental evidence indicates that influenza-virus infection predisposes to pneumococcal disease, so that a correspondence in the seasonal patterns of ILIs and IPDs might exist at the population level. We developed a method to characterize seasonality by means of easily interpretable summary statistics of seasonal shape—or seasonal waveforms. Nonlinear mixed-effects models were used to estimate those waveforms based on weekly case reports of ILIs and IPDs in 5 regions spanning continental France from July 2000 to June 2014. We found high variability of ILI seasonality, with marked fluctuations of peak amplitudes and peak times, but a more conserved epidemic duration. In contrast, IPD seasonality was best modeled by a markedly regular seasonal baseline, punctuated by 2 winter peaks in late December to early January and January to February. Comparing ILI and IPD seasonal waveforms, we found indication of a small, positive correlation. Direct models regressing IPDs on ILIs provided comparable results, even though they estimated moderately larger associations. The method proposed is broadly applicable to diseases with unambiguous seasonality and is well-suited to analyze spatially or temporally grouped data, which are common in epidemiology.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx336
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Systematic Assessment of Multiple Routine and Near Real-Time Indicators to
           Classify the Severity of Influenza Seasons and Pandemics in the United
           States, 2003–2004 Through 2015–2016
    • Authors: Biggerstaff M; Kniss K, Jernigan D, et al.
      Pages: 1040 - 1050
      Abstract: Assessments of influenza season severity can guide public health action. We used the moving epidemic method to develop intensity thresholds (ITs) for 3 US surveillance indicators from the 2003–2004 through 2014–2015 influenza seasons (excluding the 2009 pandemic). The indicators were: 1) outpatient visits for influenza-like illness; 2) influenza-related hospitalizations; and 3) influenza- and pneumonia-related deaths. ITs were developed for the population overall and separately for children, adults, and older adults, and they were set at the upper limit of the 50% (IT50), 90% (IT90), and 98% (IT98) 1-sided confidence intervals of the geometric mean of each season’s 3 highest values. Severity was classified as low if ≥2 systems peaked below IT50, moderate if ≥2 peaked between IT50 and IT90, high if ≥2 peaked between IT90 and IT98, and very high if ≥2 peaked above IT98. We pilot-tested this method with the 2015–2016 season and the 2009 pandemic. Overall, 4 seasons were classified as low severity, 7 as moderate, 2 as high, and none as very high. Among the age groups, older adults had the most seasons (n = 3) classified as high, and children were the only group to have seasons (n = 2) classified as very high. We will apply this method to classify the severity of future seasons and inform pandemic response.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx334
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Relative Validity of Nutrient Intakes Assessed by Questionnaire, 24-Hour
           Recalls, and Diet Records as Compared With Urinary Recovery and Plasma
           Concentration Biomarkers: Findings for Women
    • Authors: Yuan C; Spiegelman D, Rimm E, et al.
      Pages: 1051 - 1063
      Abstract: We evaluated the performance of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ), the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall (ASA24), and 7-day dietary records (7DDRs), in comparison with biomarkers, in the estimation of nutrient intakes among 627 women in the Women’s Lifestyle Validation Study (United States, 2010–2012). Two paper SFFQs, 1 Web-based SFFQ, 4 ASA24s (beta version), 2 7DDRs, 4 24-hour urine samples, 1 doubly labeled water measurement (repeated among 76 participants), and 2 fasting blood samples were collected over a 15-month period. The dietary variables evaluated were energy, energy-adjusted intakes of protein, sodium, potassium, and specific fatty acids, carotenoids, α-tocopherol, retinol, and folate. In general, relative to biomarkers, averaged ASA24s had lower validity than the SFFQ completed at the end of the data-collection year (SFFQ2); SFFQ2 had slightly lower validity than 1 7DDR; the averaged SFFQs had validity similar to that of 1 7DDR; and the averaged 7DDRs had the highest validity. The deattenuated correlation of energy-adjusted protein intake assessed by SFFQ2 with its biomarker was 0.46, similar to its correlation with 7DDRs (deattenuated r = 0.54). These data indicate that the SFFQ2 provides reasonably valid measurements of energy-adjusted intake for most of the nutrients assessed in our study, consistent with earlier conclusions derived using 7DDRs as the comparison method. The ASA24 needs further evaluation for use in large population studies, but an average of 3 days of measurement will not be sufficient for some important nutrients.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx328
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Propensity Score–Based Methods in Comparative Effectiveness Research on
           Coronary Artery Disease
    • Authors: Ellis A; Trikalinos T, Wessler B, et al.
      Pages: 1064 - 1078
      Abstract: This review examines the conduct and reporting of observational studies using propensity score–based methods to compare coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), or medical therapy for patients with coronary artery disease. A systematic selection process identified 48 studies: 20 addressing CABG versus PCI; 21 addressing bare-metal stents versus drug-eluting stents; 5 addressing CABG versus medical therapy; 1 addressing PCI versus medical therapy; and 1 addressing drug-eluting stents versus balloon angioplasty. Of 32 studies reporting information on variable selection, 7 relied exclusively on statistical criteria for the association of covariates with treatment, and 5 used such criteria to determine whether product or nonlinear terms should be included in the propensity score model. Twenty-five (52%) studies reported assessing covariate balance using the estimated propensity score, but only 1 described modifications to the propensity score model based on this assessment. The over 400 variables used in the 48 propensity score models were classified into 12 categories and 60 subcategories; only 17 subcategories were represented in at least half of the propensity score models. Overall, reporting of propensity score–based methods in observational studies comparing CABG, PCI, and medical therapy was incomplete; when adequately described, the methods used were often inconsistent with current methodological standards.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx214
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Analysis of Longitudinal Studies With Repeated Outcome Measures: Adjusting
           for Time-Dependent Confounding Using Conventional Methods
    • Authors: Keogh R; Daniel R, VanderWeele T, et al.
      Pages: 1085 - 1092
      Abstract: Estimation of causal effects of time-varying exposures using longitudinal data is a common problem in epidemiology. When there are time-varying confounders, which may include past outcomes, affected by prior exposure, standard regression methods can lead to bias. Methods such as inverse probability weighted estimation of marginal structural models have been developed to address this problem. However, in this paper we show how standard regression methods can be used, even in the presence of time-dependent confounding, to estimate the total effect of an exposure on a subsequent outcome by controlling appropriately for prior exposures, outcomes, and time-varying covariates. We refer to the resulting estimation approach as sequential conditional mean models (SCMMs), which can be fitted using generalized estimating equations. We outline this approach and describe how including propensity score adjustment is advantageous. We compare the causal effects being estimated using SCMMs and marginal structural models, and we compare the two approaches using simulations. SCMMs enable more precise inferences, with greater robustness against model misspecification via propensity score adjustment, and easily accommodate continuous exposures and interactions. A new test for direct effects of past exposures on a subsequent outcome is described.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx311
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Exercise for the Prevention of Low Back Pain: Systematic Review and
           Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials
    • Authors: Shiri R; Coggon D, Falah-Hassani K.
      Pages: 1093 - 1101
      Abstract: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effect of exercise in population-based interventions to prevent low back pain (LBP) and associated disability. Comprehensive literature searches were conducted in multiple databases, including PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library, from their inception through June 2017. Thirteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 3 nonrandomized controlled trials (NRCTs) qualified for the meta-analysis. Exercise alone reduced the risk of LBP by 33% (risk ratio = 0.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.53, 0.85; I2 = 23%, 8 RCTs, n = 1,634), and exercise combined with education reduced it by 27% (risk ratio = 0.73, 95% confidence interval: 0.59, 0.91; I2 = 6%, 6 trials, n = 1,381). The severity of LBP and disability from LBP were also lower in exercise groups than in control groups. Moreover, results were not changed by excluding the NRCTs or adjusting for publication bias. Few trials assessed health-care consultation or sick leave for LBP, and meta-analyses did not show statistically significant protective effects of exercise on those outcomes. Exercise reduces the risk of LBP and associated disability, and a combination of strengthening with either stretching or aerobic exercises performed 2–3 times per week can reasonably be recommended for prevention of LBP in the general population.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx337
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Does Strength-Promoting Exercise Confer Unique Health Benefits' A
           Pooled Analysis of Data on 11 Population Cohorts With All-Cause, Cancer,
           and Cardiovascular Mortality Endpoints
    • Authors: Stamatakis E; Lee I, Bennie J, et al.
      Pages: 1102 - 1112
      Abstract: Public health guidance includes recommendations to engage in strength-promoting exercise (SPE), but there is little evidence on its links with mortality. Using data from the Health Survey for England and the Scottish Health Survey from 1994–2008, we examined the associations between SPE (gym-based and own-body-weight strength activities) and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression was used to examine the associations between SPE (any, low-/high-volume, and adherence to the SPE guideline (≥2 sessions/week)) and mortality. The core sample comprised 80,306 adults aged ≥30 years, corresponding to 5,763 any-cause deaths (736,463 person-years). Following exclusions for prevalent disease/events occurring in the first 24 months, participation in any SPE was favorably associated with all-cause (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69, 0.87) and cancer (HR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.86) mortality. Adhering only to the SPE guideline was associated with all-cause (HR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.94) and cancer (HR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.92) mortality; adhering only to the aerobic activity guideline (equivalent to 150 minutes/week of moderate-intensity activity) was associated with all-cause (HR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.78, 0.90) and cardiovascular disease (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.90) mortality. Adherence to both guidelines was associated with all-cause (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.57, 0.87) and cancer (HR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.98) mortality. Our results support promoting adherence to the strength exercise guidelines over and above the generic physical activity targets.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx345
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Association Between Risk-of-Bias Assessments and Results of Randomized
           Trials in Cochrane Reviews: The ROBES Meta-Epidemiologic Study
    • Authors: Savović J; Turner R, Mawdsley D, et al.
      Pages: 1113 - 1122
      Abstract: Flaws in the design of randomized trials may bias intervention effect estimates and increase between-trial heterogeneity. Empirical evidence suggests that these problems are greatest for subjectively assessed outcomes. For the Risk of Bias in Evidence Synthesis (ROBES) Study, we extracted risk-of-bias judgements (for sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, and incomplete data) from a large collection of meta-analyses published in the Cochrane Library (issue 4; April 2011). We categorized outcome measures as mortality, other objective outcome, or subjective outcome, and we estimated associations of bias judgements with intervention effect estimates using Bayesian hierarchical models. Among 2,443 randomized trials in 228 meta-analyses, intervention effect estimates were, on average, exaggerated in trials with high or unclear (versus low) risk-of-bias judgements for sequence generation (ratio of odds ratios (ROR) = 0.91, 95% credible interval (CrI): 0.86, 0.98), allocation concealment (ROR = 0.92, 95% CrI: 0.86, 0.98), and blinding (ROR = 0.87, 95% CrI: 0.80, 0.93). In contrast to previous work, we did not observe consistently different bias for subjective outcomes compared with mortality. However, we found an increase in between-trial heterogeneity associated with lack of blinding in meta-analyses with subjective outcomes. Inconsistency in criteria for risk-of-bias judgements applied by individual reviewers is a likely limitation of routinely collected bias assessments. Inadequate randomization and lack of blinding may lead to exaggeration of intervention effect estimates in randomized trials.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx344
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 5 (2017)
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 54.224.151.24
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-