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International Research Journal of Arts & Humanities
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1016-9342
Published by U of Sindh Homepage  [8 journals]
  • Foreign speech accent and comprehensibility: Technology integration to
           bolster EFL learners’ pronunciation for effective communication

    • Authors: Pir Suhail Sarhandi, Rafique A. Memon, Imran Farooque Khan
      Abstract: This quasi-experimental research study examines in depth the issues of accent and comprehensibility but also the effects of technology on the accent reduction of Saudi EFL (English as Foreign Language) students at an English Language Institute in a Saudi university. In this study, recorded speeches of students of two classes were first rated for foreign speech accent and comprehensibility by two native, two non-native English listeners and an IELTS speaking examiner at pre- and post-accent reduction program stages. While one class (controlled group) was treated through conventional instruction, the second class (experimental group) got treatment through technology- based accent reduction instruction. It was found that the foreign speech accent interfered with comprehensibility and the phonological factors which accounted for foreign speech accent were both segmental and supra-segmental features. Most, importantly, the study discovered that ubiquitous nature of mobile applications served the EFL students with pronunciation training in the target language anywhere anytime. Lastly, this study recommends a Lingua Franca Core standard of comprehensibility while designing technology-based accent reduction programs specifically for EFL settings.
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 48 (2020)
       
  • Sufism: A Path to Human Security

    • Authors: Imran Ali Sandano, Syed Faisal Hyder Shah, Irfan Ahmed Shaikh
      Abstract: The „human security‟ scholarship has attracted much attention since the 1994 UN human development report and then, its slogan “freedom from fear and freedom from wants” became famous worldwide. Human security refer to a kind of security that does not focus on either the traditional security nor even on the expanded nontraditional security, both of which are concerned first with the entity of the state. It focuses instead on the importance of protecting the well-being of the human race—not just the security of one‟s own people, but of all cutting-across distinctions and boundaries of nationality and ethnicity, class and culture, gender and religion. Currently religious extremism, terrorism, racialism, communal violence and sectarian clashes have threatened peace and prosperity. On the other hand environmental degradation, infectious diseases, illegal drugs‟ trafficking, economic crises, irregular migration and poverty have become common phenomenon which need to be tackled on priority basis. This study argues that Sufism is a source for human security. The Sufi ideology is combination of spiritual material and philosophical world views which is capable of sharing the torch of the way of peace, good character, and the balance for everyone. Sufism is an alternative source of human security and it has capability to provide constructive pathways for safeguarding humanity.
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 48 (2020)
       
  • Locating Muslim Female’s Agency in Post-9/11 Fiction: A Reading of Once
           in a Promised Land and Saffron Dreams

    • Authors: Muhammad Tufail Chandio, Muhammad Khan Sangi
      Abstract: This paper critically analyses the female agency of Muslim protagonists living in the USA as immigrants or diasporans depicted in “Once in a Promised Land” (OIAPL) and “Saffron Dreams” (SD) authored by Muslim female post-9/11 fiction writers. The Orientalist, neo-Orientalist and postcolonial writers portrayed Muslim women as veiled, segregated, oppressed, devoid of power and rights, subjugated by men, subservient to patriarchal norms and religious injunctions. The colonizers employed the notion of rescuing the Muslim woman and civilizing the uncouth Orient to justify their colonial rule. After the 9/11 attacks, the War on Terrorism also re-attempted the salvation of the burqa-clad Muslim female in the midst of post-9/11 power discourse and Islamophobic social rhetoric. This study critically analyses how Muslim female protagonists negotiate their female agency in the third space of hostland in the wake of the 9/11 attacks. The qualitative data reviewed from the text of selected novels is textually analysed with the help of close reading technique from the vantage point of Bhabha’s (1994) postcolonial third space and post-9/11 power discourse. Contrary to the reductive tropes, it has been found that the Muslim females actively execute their agency to emerge as independent, self-reliant, motivated, decisive, confident and responsible individuals in the third space of the US.
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 48 (2020)
       
  • Social Aspect of Thar Coal Field Area of Tharparkar District in Sindh
           Province of Pakistan

    • Authors: Zahid H. Channa, Erum Khushnood Zahid Shaikh, Mehwish Bhutto
      Abstract: The research paper significantly highlights the social perspective of Thar Desert of Pakistan. The study conducted in Tharparkar district of Sindh province of Pakistan which accounted more than 99% of area in Thar Desert of Pakistan. However, the richest social aspect of this area is exemplary peace religious harmony and patriotism. On the contrary, the uncertain conditions in the area of Thar Desert caused a substantial number (11%) of local people seasonally get migration to barrage areas every year. Study reveals, the life of Thar Desert depends on monsoon rain. Hence, more than 73 percent of the people’s livelihood dependent upon the rain fed agriculture and livestock rearing.
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 48 (2020)
       
  • Magazine Readership Patterns among University Students in Sindh, Pakistan

    • Authors: Muhammad Ibrahim, Bashir Memon
      Abstract: Magazines play a key role in creating and enhancing university students' awareness and reading habits. The purpose of this study is to determine the magazine readership patterns among university students in Sindh Province, Pakistan. In this context, a cross-sectional survey was conducted using multi-step sampling techniques from students of Sindh's 3 largest public sector universities, namely, University of Karachi, Karachi. University of Sindh, Jamshoro. And Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur, which has a Faculty of Social Sciences. The results show that a typical university student is a magazine reader, especially a weekly magazine. While female students read more to the magazine than male pupils. However, women prefer to read monthly magazines instead of weekly magazines. Whereas, in the context to ethnicity the statistsics revealed that the Urdu speaking students on average are higher magazine readers than Sindhi students and other ethnicities. Further was observed that those who studied media or mass communication on average were more magazine readers than those who studied international relations, political science, and sociology. Finally, subject to university in which the sampled students were studying it surfaced that on average the students of Sindh University on average were more magazine readers than those students who study at Shah Abdul Latif University and Karachi University. This type of study should be conducted in other provinces of the country to know magazine reading patterns among students there.
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 48 (2020)
       
  • Sociological analysis of issues faced by domestic working women: A case
           study of Hyderabad, Sindh

    • Authors: Shabana Tunio, Ghazala Shoukat, Shakeela Shah
      Abstract: This research paper explores the social and economic problems of domestic workers in Sindh. Study intends to achieve the following objectives to find out the social problems of domestic working women’s life and to know the economic problems faced by domestic working women. Qualitative research approach is adopted. Data is collected through focus group discussion. Thematic Data analysis technique is applied to draw the Result of FGD. Social problems that are faced by domestic working women are harassment in the houses where they work, in streets and by the owners of houses that they have rented. Domestic working women do extra work which is not paid, blamed of stealing things, insulted if they go on leave. Even at their homes not respected. Under economic problems theme women are faced with issues like all salaries are taken by husbands or fathers, for their expenses they have to do extra work, borrow money, are ask for money in charity. In spite of, doing work day and night women feel dependent on men. At the end recommendations are forwarded as (i) domestic work is also employment not slavery so they must be given right to work as defined by UDHR. Right to periodic leaves, fixed working hours for each activity (ii) people who keep domestic workers to serve them have to ensure them favorable working conditions. (iii) Harassment is issue of all working women so the domestic workers, should be treated strictly. (iv) adult education programs, programs on awareness on women rights can help to solve socio-economic problems of domestic working women. (v) Government, especially ministry of women affairs should formulate such a legislation that protects domestic worker women.
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 48 (2020)
       
  • Assessing the Role of Motivation in Enhancing Teachers’ Performance

    • Authors: Mansoor Ahmed Soomro, Ghulam Ali Buriro, Aftab Ahmed Charan
      Abstract: It is pertinent to accept the responsibility that teacher motivation can play a constructive role in imparting knowledge and cultivating communication skills among pupils in education setup. A well-motivated teacher can shoulder his responsibilities in an efficient manner and achieves his goals within the given time frame. This study has been conducted to investigate the role of motivation in enhancing teachers’ performance in private schools of Khairpur city. Particularly the research is intended to identify motivation indicators; investigate factors that influence teachers’ performance and evaluate the impact of motivation on teachers’ performance as well. A quantitative approach was used to conduct the study, data was collected through a survey questionnaire consisted of four variables three were independent namely Remuneration, Working Behavior, Advancement, and one dependent variable was Teachers Performance. The findings reveal that teachers are performing their duties with high morale, apart from their duties, other activities are also being performed by them like different weekly and monthly tests, participation in other school activities. The research recommended increments in teachers’ salaries to enhance their performance, to appreciate and recognize good work, to match higher living standards. Furthermore, research also recommends providing modern facilities and utilization of available facilities to teachers for accomplishing defined goals.
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 48 (2020)
       
  • Divorce Trends in Women: A Study of Sukkur City

    • Authors: Hamida Narijo, Muhammad Abdullah Avais, Hajra Naz
      Abstract: Islam is the religion of nature. It supports married life. It is tough to dissolve the marriage from the Islamic point of view. In eastern society, especially in Pakistan, the majority of women depend on male members of families i: e father, brother, or husband. The family system in our traditional society is powerful, and people are bound by some hidden or unwritten customs, traditions, and culture. If in said culture, a woman seeks a divorce, it is very alarming and a sign of societal deviation; this could be due to early age marriages, mismatch marriages, age and education differences and non-availability of marriage counselors, unawareness towards marital duties. The present research examines how marriage dissolutions are occurring in Sukkur city, Sindh, Pakistan. For the current study, 50 women were selected through purposive sampling from Sukkur, who had dissolved their marriage through family court. According to data, 52%, respondents belonged to a nuclear family system, and 78% from the urban region. The result shows that 58% marriages were dissolved within 3 to 5 years. A large proportionate of respondents, 54%, were employed at the time of separation, and 54% of respondents initiated separation decisions their selves. Moreover, 34% of respondents initiated separation decisions due to financial issues. As the divorce rate is rising in our traditional society, therefore this problem needs to be researched and highlighted. So this vital institution may be saved. The dissolution of marriage not only affects spouses, couples but also on children and their respective families.
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 48 (2020)
       
  • Inducing Factors of Brand Loyalty for Samsung Mobile Users of Pakistan

    • Authors: Sadia Anwar, Bahadur Ali Soomro
      Abstract: In the field of marketing, a brand loyalty is recognized as a protagonist and success factor for the development of a business organization. Due to increasing competition between brands offered by the companies of smartphone. In this way, to develop a customer trust in building a brand loyalty is a dire need of the day. Keeping in a view, the purpose of the present paper is to examine the factors that may be influencing brand loyalty for Samsung mobile users of Pakistan. Data was randomly collected under the process of cross-sectional study throughout Pakistan from Samsung mobile users. For this process a survey questionnaire is considered as the main tool for collection of data. Analysis of data is accomplished through SPSS version 25.0 for windows. The overall reliability of internal items used in instrument is identified as 0.883 while, a reliability of the individual’s factors’ were observed in satisfaction scores. Main findings of the study suggested that customer satisfaction, services provided by Samsung mobile, and trust have a positive and significant impact on brand loyalty among the Samsung mobile users of Pakistan. This study may be beneficial to develop trust, customer satisfaction for the brand loyalty of Samsung mobile phones.
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 48 (2020)
       
  • Indo-Pak Freedom Movement and Women’s Agency in Mumtaz Shah
           Nawaz’s The Heart Divided

    • Authors: Ayesha Perveen, Rafique Ahmed Memon
      Abstract: The paper celebrates Muslim and Hindu women’s agency by highlighting their radical struggle for the freedom movement of the Indo-Pak Subcontinent as presented in Mumtaz Shah Nawaz’s (1912-1948) novel The Heart Divided (1957). For this study, agency has been studied as a non-sovereign, intersubjective but potent concept as delineated by Sharon Krause’s in her book Freedom Beyond Sovereignty: Reconstructing Liberal Individualism (2015). Therefore, the activism of Indo-Pak women in the freedom movement has been discussed as non-sovereign agency. The self-determination of progressive Muslim women remains non-sovereign as they do not forsake their religious, gender and national identities in the struggle for independence or a separate homeland in the colonial Subcontinent of 1930s and 40s. Both Sughra and Zohra discard purdah to achieve political radicalization but do not relinquish female dignity. Sughra conforms for getting married to her cousin Mansur as decided by her parents and Zohra wins their approval to marry her socialist love Ahmed, who does not belong to her class. The agency to challenge the dominant structures by actively participating in the politics of the times and rejecting the binaries like rich and poor, is achieved through the support of the family. Mohini, who is a Hindu, is a step ahead of Zohra and Sughra as she is a radical political activist who participates in demonstrations for Congress and gets imprisoned but does not get subdued. Mohini’s failure in getting married to Habib and Sughra’s return to her husband after the 1947 Partition indicate their non-sovereign agency. The study concludes that the choice of maintaining a balance between the religious, personal and professional life by these women is also the type of agency which Krause calls non-sovereign because their intentions and actions are in direct correlation with the circumstances and this intersubjectivity undermines the impact of their agency.
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 48 (2020)
       
  • Measuring female contribution in urban poverty reduction: A perspective
           from informal sector

    • Authors: Abida Hafeez, Shazia Shahab Shaikh, Zulfiqar Ali Qureshi
      Abstract: The study focuses on the female contribution in urban poverty reduction through informal activities. The objective of the study is to measure female contribution in household budget through informal employment opportunities. The universe of the study is the slum areas of Hyderabad District. The data is analyzed through ordinary least square method and descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics shows that young women contribute more in income earning activities and their contribution in the household budget rises gradually as their income rises. Burden of poverty, one of the most important variables has a significant effect on contribution of women. It is suggested that government should formulate policies relevant to informal employment opportunities of women and minimum wage legislation. Program should be initiated in order to enhance the skills of women and provide opportunities and credit facilities as well. Comprehensive labor legislation is required to ensure female workers’ economic rights.
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 48 (2020)
       
  • Material adaptation in London Road from English for Undergraduates by
           Howe, Kirkpatrik

    • Authors: Faiza Khaskheli, Qurratulain Sardar, Shabana Muhammad Anwar
      Abstract: This study aims at examining the material and use of material adaptation techniques in unit # 09 “London Road” from English for Undergraduates by D.H. Howe, T.A. Kirkpatrick and D.L. Kirkpatrick. This book is taught in Government or private non-elite universities of Pakistan. The contents of the study are patterned by using Critical Discourse Analysis as a tool. The study inquires whether the content of Oxford University Press fulfills the requirements of students or not. If it really fulfills then why the students are not capable of using English in real life. The study unit is modified and analyzed by using Adaptation techniques according to Communicative Language Teaching approach.
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 48 (2020)
       
  • Determining the Factors that Intensify Oral Communicative Anxiety: A Case
           Study of Students of IELL, University of Sindh, Jamshoro

    • Authors: Shabana Sartaj, Syed Razaq Amin Shah
      Abstract: Besides the low English language proficiency, lack of confidence, hesitation, English spoken anxiety plays vital role in the upsurge of oral communication. The state of anxiety is related with notion of uneasiness that emerges as a variable of hindrance in oral communication in English language. The current study was carried out to identify the factors that cause apprehension in oral communicative competence. For that purpose, the data was gathered from 123 participants of IELL (Institute of English Language and Literature). A close-ended questionnaire with five point Likert scale comprised of 21 items was used as an instrument for this research. The data was analyzed through SPSS, applying descriptive statistics. The findings revealed that teachers’ behavior, teaching methods, peer discouragement, fear of assessment or correction are the main factors of oral communicative anxiety.
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 48 (2020)
       
  • Impact of Motivation on Employee Performance: A Case Study of Liaquat
           University of Medical & Health Sciences Hospital

    • Authors: Uzma Murad Pahnwar, Abida Siddiqui, Muhammad Farshad
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of encouragement on medical personnel efficiency at the Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS) University. In specific, the research is aimed at (i) examining the motivating actions taken by hospital management (LUMHS) to maintain the efficacy of clinical staff (ii) Observation of the current level of medical nursing services (LUMHS) during their daily operational duties (iii) Determining how motivating products affect the performance of healthcare workers in their day-to-day organizational reactions. Using a questionnaire, a retrospective survey of 200 health workers is carried out. Numbers started to be evaluated using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) model 21.0. The study showed that although there are certain compensation programs for hospital medical staff (LUMHS), such as pay, job security, advancement, training and development, assistance / work tools / good physical work environment, appreciation, benefits and pension, the scheme is not well thought out and enforced. This relies only on the hospital's top management, and is withheld from the employees. Therefore, hospital staff (LUMHS) are not completely satisfied with the incentive program and therefore did not affect their efficacy, since the study showed that their effectiveness is low compared to the encouragement packages. Some of the main problems encountered by administrators in implementing employee benefits and compensation packages are lack of funds and difficulty with adequately including a sufficient number of employees benefit program. Health facilities administration are encouraged to take effective reward measures to improve the productivity of the staff.
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 48 (2020)
       
  • The Beauty of Literature lies in Figures of Speech: A Case Study of Samuel
           Taylor Coleridge’s The Rime of Ancient Mariner

    • Authors: Faiz Muhammad Brohi, Ahmed Ali Brohi, Komal Ansari
      Abstract: The aim and objective of this research paper is to analyze the role and function of figures of speech in Coleridge’s Rime of Ancient Mariner. The art of a writer makes his/her work sublime. Coleridge’s art of narration and themes seem to be elevated and universal due to using figures of speech. The writer makes events or coincidences magical and systematic, because he has mastery over figures of speech. In this paper, the psychology of a reader brought close to the event where the reader becomes the follower of a writer due to his art of using figures of speech. Besides, figures of speech, Coleridge uses Willing Suspension of disbelief where the writer puts a layer on the eyes of readers or audience to believe in writer’s art of depicting scenes with suspense that becomes possible for the writer because of mastery over figures of speech. This study is purely qualitative; the tool in analyzing the text is close reading figures of speech and text itself. The existing literature helps readers to know the role and function of figures to read and analyze the figures in texts on the one hand, on the other, the researcher analyses figures with the help of cited writers concerning Coleridge’s Rime of Ancient Mariner. The purpose of this paper is to show interest in figures of speech through which literature becomes sublime and universal as Coleridge does.
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 48 (2020)
       
  • Study of the Internet Centers at the Central Libraries of Public Sector
           Universities of Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan

    • Authors: Bushra Memon, Imran Anwar Ujan, Arifa Bhutto
      Abstract: The main objective of this research study is to analyze the Academic Activities of the Students of the three Public Sector Universities at Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan with respect to the use of the three internet centers located in the central libraries. For the purpose of this study, factors to investigate the acceptance of internet centers in three universities have been undertaken i.e. Mehran university of Engineering and Technology (MUET), University of Sindh (UOS) and Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences (LUMHS). This research study the constructs Behavioral Intention (BI), Attitude (ATT), Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU), Perceived Usefulness (PU), Technology Self Efficacy (TSE) Performance Expectancy (PE) and Facilitating Condition (FC) used to investigate for empirical findings. This study ascertained the internet centers/cafes available in the central/main libraries of the Universities of Jamshoro and their use and impact on the academic activities of the students. This study is based on positivism philosophy, in which deductive approach and quantitative methods have been applied. This is a cross-sectional study, followed by survey-based strategy. In this research, Five-point Likert scale is used throughout the questionnaire where Technology Self-Efficacy (TSE) has positive and significant effect on Perceived Usefulness (PU) and Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU). PEOU has both positive and significant effects on Perceived Usefulness (PU) and Attitude. PU has positive and significant effect on Attitude and Behavioral Intention. Attitude had positive and significant effect on behavioral intention.
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 48 (2020)
       
  • Investigating the Impacts of Digital Humanities on the Academic
           Performance of Second Language Teachers and Learners in Institute of
           English Language and Literature, University of Sindh, Jamshoro

    • Authors: Rehana Ali Jokhio, Ali Siddiqui
      Abstract: The present study seeks to find impacts of digital humanities on academic performances of students and teachers. The students and teachers, selected as participants of this study represent the second language learners of Institute of English Language and Literature (IELL), University of Sindh, Jamshoro. The study tries to investigate about the significance of digital humanities for second language learners in field of an academic research. The study explores an idea for the future research designs about new technical methods that can be introduced into field of academic research. Therefore, the objectives designed to find the impacts of digital humanities on second language learners are the investigation of role played by digital humanities in classroom and perceptions of students for it. The study follows qualitative method with content analysis of students and teachers’ perceptions for digital humanities in classroom learning. The findings of this study have shown that there is a need to digitalize classroom learning. The teachers and students wanted to learn and teach with novice teaching methods with introduction of technological gadgets. According to them, this can facilitate learning environment more compared to traditional learning.
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 48 (2020)
       
  • Perceptions on Status of ‘Urdu’ - the Pakistani National Language, in
           the UAE: Reflections on the Pakistani Diaspora

    • Authors: Shumaila Omar, Sayyed Rashid Ali Shah, Habibullah Pathan
      Abstract: The study aims to consider the case of „Urdu‟, the national language of Pakistan which is part of the largest diasporas in the Gulf region; additionally, finding the perceptions of Pakistani diasporas in the UAE and the role use and status of „Urdu‟ in the social, professional, economic and cultural contexts of their adopted countries of residence. The data were collected using documentary evidence and reflective insights from long-time residents; collated and analyzed to consider how the use and status of „Urdu‟ impacts on the role they may play on current and future societal interactions and governmental language policy and planning. Findings opened avenues for emerging themes, answered a variety of critical questions, gave valuable insights in understanding the status of language preservation, development or endangerment. Moreover, findings provide a platform for determining what would need to occur to further preserve and develop Urdu in the given context. If the language appears to be endangered, whether this can be reversed and if it can be, then how this should happen. From a broader perspective, findings, implications, and recommendations can be extended to indigenous languages of other diasporas in the same context.
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 48 (2020)
       
  • An Overview of Theories and Approaches to Code-Switching

    • Authors: Farida Panhwar, Ghulam Ali Buriro
      Abstract: The study of code-switching refers to the shift in a spoken language both across as well as within sentence boundaries. There are numerous linguistic, sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic theories and approaches to elucidate the socio-cultural, cognitive and structural aspects to understanding the code-switching phenomenon. However, these theories and approaches are overlapping and create perplexity for researchers to distinguish them independently. The contribution of this paper is to explain and analyze various theories as well as re-locate them into the various schools of thought and put them under their respective umbrellas according to their approaches.
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 48 (2020)
       
  • Implications of the triumph of market- based model for democracy in mass
           media: An Analytical Study

    • Authors: Hassan Latif, Sohail Ahmed Ansari, Waheed Ahmed Abbasi
      Abstract: The aim of the paper was to highlight the distinction between the public sphere models and market based model of mass media in order to understand the behavior of the media working either on profit directed or nonprofit directed perspective. Market based model was discovered to have trumped the public sphere model in recent times. This paper examined the implications, in the light of various studies, of the triumph of the market based model. Media, working according to market-based model, were found to be promoting trivial news items, disregarding the importance of news, and considering the brutality and violation of benchmark importantance for determining the worth of news items. The market-based model was found to be entrenched more firmly in entertainment- driven media, allowing commercial concern to shape the script of dramas and movies. The market-based model was found to be responsible for creating the wave of a crime and moral panic and developing fear for crimes. This paper examined the implications of the triumph of media that ‘sell’ to underscore that rather than having media that ‘sell’, media that are orientated to the public welfare.
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 48 (2020)
       
 
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