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The Women : Annual Research Journal of Gender Studies
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1997-2032
Published by U of Sindh Homepage  [8 journals]
  • Women’s Empowerment: A Two-Tier Approach Analysis of Pakistani Youth

    • Authors: Dr. Fauzia Saleem Alvi, Dr. Ra’ana Malik, Dr. Misbah Bibi Qureshi
      Abstract: The Fourth World Conference on Women proposed a conceptual shift from the ‘Women in Development’ (WID) paradigm to the ‘Gender and Development’ (GAD) approach, a key strategy to reduce inequalities between men and women and bringing into mainstream economy of a country. The present study used a two-tier approach of ‘public-private’ sphere to investigate gender equity through greater decision making autonomy and economic independence of females. The sample consisted of Master degree (post-graduate) students between 20-24 years, enrolled in University of the Punjab, Lahore. Mixed- methodology approach was deployed and self-constructed questionnaires were used to collect data. In-depth interviews were also conducted with parents. The study concludes that young females in higher education in Pakistan are gradually getting the power of making decisions regarding their own matters as well as their family at both public and private spheres. The young females are operating their personal bank accounts independently, taking decisions in choice of institute for their higher studies, spending a day/night at a friend’s place, buying things like car, furniture, other items for family etc. Moreover, on the pretext of financial security and economic independence, parents as well as young males were found in favor of young females to pursue professional careers.
      PubDate: 2020-03-05
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2020)
  • The Impact of Faculty Empowerment on Organizational Learning Effectiveness

    • Authors: Jamshid Ali Turi, Dr. Farhan Zeb KhasKhelly, Dr. Sakina Riaz, Sadia Shaikh
      Abstract: The study focuses on the employee empowerment and job satisfaction in the Universities of Pakistan. The methodology involved the data collection through survey questionnaires using random sampling technique from the faculty members in the Universities in Pakistan. SPSS was used for analyzing data and concluding results. Instrument reliability was pre-tested and reliability analysis were also conducted through Cronbach Aloha. Moreover, Independent T-test, ANOVA, regression and correlation analysis of the data was tested. The results show significant impact of the gender of the person on overall performance, empowerment upon the overall performance of the faculty in the learning organization like university in Pakistan.
      PubDate: 2020-03-05
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2020)
  • Factors Affecting Work-Life Balance of Women Working in NGOs of Pakistan

    • Authors: Dr. Sanober Salman Shaikh, Dr. Syed Abdul Sattar Shah, Dr. Naveeda K Katpar, Dr. Syed Karim Bux Shah
      Abstract: The objective of the current study was to examine the factors that affect the work and personal life balance of women working in various NGOs working in the Sindh province of Pakistan. The sample consisting of 125 female staff was chosen and the survey instrument was used for the collection of data. The designed conceptual model of this study was tested with path modeling software of smart PLS. In this study, three key hypotheses relating to organizational support, employee engagement and personality were developed and tested. Various collinearity tests were applied to assess the normality of data. Then, the reliability, validity, measurement and structural model was examined. Using Smart PLS software, the results show that 73% of the total variance was explained by organizational support, employee engagement and personality. Furthermore, it was also found that the highest contribution to the variance came from organizational support.
      PubDate: 2020-03-05
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2020)
  • Rethinking Subalternity of the Rural Women of Sindh: A Historical Approach

    • Authors: Sabah Zeb, Dr. Komal Ansari, Dr. Sumera Umrani, Dr. Zareen Khan Rind
      Abstract: To re-conceptualize the process of construction of subordination in the lives of the women of rural Sindh, this paper analyses two contemporary stories (both fictional and real stories) of the women with reference to the history of Sindh. These stories represent the women as second sex who willingly or unwillingly subordinate to the male dominated society. To reconsider the power-politics working behind the women subordination, this study takes support from Guha and Spivakian subaltern-based theoretical argumentations as a framework. Following textual analysis, this study applies close reading method to analyse the issue of subalternity. Finally, the paper finds gender, age, class, culture, and law as some eminent factors cause subalternity in the lives of the selected rural women of Sindh. This study further argues that the issue of subalternity is constructed/developed due to assimilation, domestic colonialism, and baseless power-structure in rural areas of Sindh.
      PubDate: 2020-03-05
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2020)
  • The Looming Extinction of Sindhi Language in the Urban Context and Role of
           A Sindhi Mother

    • Authors: Dr. Farida Panhwar, Samia Tufail Lone, Dr. Aazadi Fateh Muhammad
      Abstract: The study focuses on Sindhi speaking mothers’ attitudes towards their mother tongue (Sindhi) and the target languages Urdu and English in an urban multilingual setting in Karachi. Applying the qualitative methodology and using interpretive approach the open-ended questions are asked and interviews are recorded from the five educated mothers living in Karachi. The help is taken from different existing social and psychological theories to investigate some of the relevant important issues that need to be considered in such a context. The study focuses on critical evaluation of prestige and ideology connotations associated with Sindhi, Urdu and English in Karachi. The findings show that urban setting creates cognitive slaveries in the minds of the Sindhi mothers and in turn affects their language choices for their children.
      PubDate: 2020-03-05
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2020)
  • Language and Gender Construction: Stereotypes and Identity Reconstruction
           in A Doll’s House: A Sociolinguistic Perspective

    • Authors: Mahin Wahla, Mamona, Dr. Ameer Ali Buriro
      Abstract: The inter-reliant relationship of language and gender has remained quite a debatable topic in sociolinguistics because of its controversial nature. The present paper aimed at exposing constructive and deconstructive roles language can play in the process of gender construction against and in favour, respectively, of societal and cultural norms. While drawing insights from Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis (1997, 1998) and Spender’s Dominance Model (1990, 1997), the study shows how certain stereotypes about men and women are perpetuated through language of literary text in the play, A Doll’s House (1879) by the father of modern theatre, namely Ibsen (1828-1906). Followed by explanation of these issues, the study has determined whether the text of the respective only tends to create stereotypes or it can be a powerful tool for breaking those stereotypes and reconstructing identity.
      PubDate: 2020-03-05
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2020)
  • Exploring the Representation of Feminist Reinventions, Cultural Alienation
           and Western Ideological Pressures on Muslim Women in Fadia Faqir’s my
           name is Salma

    • Authors: Hassan Bin Zubair, Dr. Panhwar Farida, Abdul Jaleel Mirjat
      Abstract: This research explores the socio-cultural issues, identity formation and ideological pressures presented in the writings of exiled writer Fadia Faqir’s My Name is Salma. There is a vibrant evidence of cultural diasporic predicament and alienation with the postcolonial perspective. Protagonist of this novel tries to know her identity at a new place and struggles to gain a new multicultural identity. This research sets out to examine how identity is formed by a Muslim subject in a postcolonial Western context. Edward Said’s Orientalism, provides a solid stage to know about the west’s patronizing and fictional depictions of the East. Theories of hybridity, liminal space, mimicry and ambivalence presented by Homi K. Bhabha also provide a major ground to analyze the selected text. Issues related to Islamic ideology, new culture and the attitude of the new society in the modern era have also been brought under discussion and analysis. This research not only provides a basic knowledge about the culture and norms of Middle East but also about Islamic ideology and Islamic practices; it also provides an account off information about the pressures and ideology clashes on the basic of East and West. The research concludes that a Muslim character living in the West will form for themselves a hybrid identity that encompasses both their Muslim heritage and that of the modern, secular culture of the West.
      PubDate: 2020-03-05
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2020)
  • Gender Roles and Representations in Bollywood Item Songs: A Critical
           Discourse Analysis of Emerging Terms

    • Authors: Atia Anwar Zoon, Dr. Ghulam Ali Buriro, Muhammad Abdullah, Dr. Aazadi Fateh Muhammad
      Abstract: Gender based polarization among the people of different societies exists since the time immemorial. It is reflected through attitude, behavior and discourse of the humanity as a whole. Findings of various gender based studies reveal that males were assigned with the tags of bravery and roles of active performance whereas females were known by the name of frailty and assigned passive roles in the walk of life. This study has focused on gender roles and representations reflected in discourse of music. Items songs of the Bollywood movies have been targeted on the basis of their popularity and Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) model of Fairclough has been applied for the analysis of emerging terms in these songs. The study reveals that under the significant influence of Bollywood social inequalities are reproduced, represented and reinforced through popular music especially Item Songs. The audience capture innate message in the musical discourse, which implicitly suggests the acceptance of female roles in terms of social performance at lower level under the influence of males. It is quite significant to explore the patriarchal ideology in terms of its influence which causes subordinations and creates a sense of inferiority among the females, and also portrays them as inferiors and usable commodities.
      PubDate: 2020-03-05
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2020)
  • A Comparative Analysis of Maternal Involvement in Education between
           Mothers of Government and Private School Children of Hyderabad District

    • Authors: Lubna Ahmed Soomro, Dr. Nagina Parveen Soomro, Dr. Muniza Malik, Dr. Shakeela Shah
      Abstract: The present study was carried out to analyze the differences in maternal involvement in education of children between mothers of government and private school children. The study also aimed to examine the differences in the educational background of mothers of public and private school children. Sample of the study was collected through stratified random sampling from mothers of (n=1200) middle school children of government (n=600) and private schools (n=600) of Hyderabad city. The data were collected from the mothers of 6th, 7th and 8th grade students. Mother referent Parental involvement scale was administered with personal information form. The purpose of conducting the study was to investigate the differences in the involvement of mothers in education of their children at government and private schools. It was also aimed to inquire about the differences in the maternal involvement in studies of children at home and at school. Finding indicated significant differences in maternal involvement of government and private school children's mothers. Mothers of private school children found more involved in the studies of their children as compared to the mothers of government school children. Furthermore, significant relationship was found between level of maternal education and their involvement with the studies of their children. The implications of the study have been discussed in terms of the importance of the role of mother participation in the academics of children at school level and their academic success.
      PubDate: 2020-03-05
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2020)
  • Facebook use for Political Information and Political Participation among
           Pakistani Youth

    • Authors: Dr. Qaiser Khalid Mahmood, Dr. Niaz Ahmed Bhutto, Junaid R Soomro, Dr. Hakim Ali Mahesar
      Abstract: Facebook is a leading social networking site across the world. Facebook has allowed its users to access political information and can freely express their views to others. Presently, there are almost 32 million Facebook users in Pakistan. Majority of them are young people and they use this platform form retrieving political information and expressing their views about Pakistani politics. This study was designed to see the effect of students’ age and academic performance (GPA) on their political participation; to investigate a relationship between general Facebook use and political participation of the students; to examine specific use of Facebook for seeking and sharing political information and its relationship with political participation of the students. The research was conducted with social sciences students studying at International Islamic University Islamabad. 158 undergraduate students were randomly selected from sociology, education, political science and mass communication. The results showed that Facebook use for retrieving political information determined political participation of young Pakistani Facebook users. Nonetheless, Facebook use for general purposes, age and academic performance of young adults did not predict their political participation. The possible implications of these findings are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2020-03-05
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2020)
  • Challenges for Women Entrepreneurs in Pakistan: An Empirical Approach

    • Authors: Dr. Bahadur Ali Soomro, Dr. Sadia Anwar, Aftab Hussain Rajar
      Abstract: In the present era, entrepreneurship is regarded as a significant driver of economic development by enhancing the core economic dynamics such as innovation, productivity as well as employment creation. In such a phenomenon, women are recognized as successful entrepreneurs through their strong desire, qualities and capabilities for the robust development of entrepreneurship. Due to such an important contribution of women in entrepreneurship, we propose to investigate the major challenges that faced by women entrepreneurs in Pakistan. On the basis of such purpose, we developed a conceptual framework in which such challenges are connected through various independent variables. A survey questionnaire is a design to get such the objective. We distributed 500 surveys among women entrepreneurs who have owned a small business or her own venture. A sample random technique and stratified sampling are allied for getting the responses. In the initial stage, we collected 246 samples as rough data with a response rate of 49.2%. After data cleaning and screening, 236 valid cases have been applied for final analysis. By applying SPSS and AMOS version 25.0, we found that the factors such as lack of management experience, lack of access to technology and finance, lack of government support, lack of access to networking opportunities, lack of gaining acceptance, un-access to land and inadequate access to training are the major challenges for women entrepreneurs in order to run their micro business easy and smoothly. The outcomes of the present study may be supportive for policymakers, planners and economic agents to handle the major challenges of women entrepreneurs in Pakistan. Furthermore, by pursuing the outcomes of the study, the government of Pakistan may strengthen the women entrepreneurs by providing suitable training programs about entrepreneurship, micro-credits in easy terms and conditions/ instalment, and a pro-business and entrepreneurial environment where women can earn for breaking the trap of poverty, unemployment as well prosperity in future.
      PubDate: 2020-03-05
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2020)
  • Factors Affecting Female Career Advancement: Comparative Study of Higher
           Education Sector, Banking Production and Construction Sectors of Karachi

    • Authors: Muhammad Faisal Sultan, Sadia Shaikh, Dr. Farhan Zeb Khaskelly, Seema Khalid
      Abstract: Gender Biasness is one of the most important topics in the field of human resource management especially in the categories of under developed countries and least developed countries of South East Asia like Pakistan where most of the professions are dominated by males. In these countries females are treated as home manager and their role is to support their spouse through taking responsibilities home and child care etc. On the other hand females are constantly ignoring these myths as they are found to be keenly interested in interest is having profound professional careers. In fact research also highlighted that there is a considerable increase in the number of female workforce during last decade but it has been also highlighted that most of the times females are opting those professions which are coherent with their attitudes and personalities like education and they have least acceptance in male dominated professions. Moreover their representation on top level positions is also in far and few between as there are several factors which are hindering in their way of career excellence. Thus there is a systematic need of investigation regarding those factors which are creating hindrance in the female career paths. Hence the aim of this research is to figure out those factors which are creating hindrance for female careers in the context of Pakistan and through combining literature and different research constructs a comprehensive research model has been develop to compare barriers associated with female careers with respect to different industries do to determine the impact of these barriers for each industry. Hence it is legitimate to believe that this research is pervasive in nature and will help managers in devising organizational policies more effectively. Therefore for the statistical part second order CFA and Path Analysis has been indulged for validating the research model and through the of structural equation modeling so to predict the impact of different constructs e.g. familial, cultural and organizational on female careers operating in higher education, banking, construction and production sector of Karachi. Thus through this research theory building might be enhanced in the context of Asian and under developed countries and researchers might able to perform optimized level of research in the betterment of society.
      PubDate: 2020-03-05
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2020)
  • Public and Institutional Earthquake Disaster Preparedness in District
           Mansehra, Pakistan

    • Authors: Mahtab Nadir, Dr. Syed Ain Uddin, Dr. Ghulam Murtaza
      Abstract: The destruction caused by the earthquake can be widespread causing damage to telecommunication & power infrastructure, bridges & roads, water & sanitation facilities, and other services. Similarly, local administration during earthquake becomes mostly impaired especially after the destruction of majority of government buildings. The major earthquakes of Pakistan include Quetta Earthquake 1935, Kashmir - Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Earthquake 2005, Ziarat Earthquake 2008 and Awaran – Balochistan Earthquake 2013 which emphasized for the need of public and institutional preparedness at large scale. The objective of this paper is to assess the people and government earthquake preparedness in district Mansehra and recommend measures for its improvement. Historically, two high risks tehsils of district Mansehra (Balakot and Mansehra) were selected for this paper. A survey questionnaire was conducted using random sampling technique. The data was collected from six government departments and 498 local respondents. The results of the study reveal that government organizations have learnt lessons from the experience of past earthquake and thus increased their level of preparedness including emergency response system, early warning system, protection of assets and property, care for the human resources, addressing health issues, provision of shelter and logistics etc. Similarly, people are now well aware about the affects of earthquake disaster. The public preparedness level includes adequate knowledge about earthquake disaster, mitigation measures, alternative shelter arrangements and protection of resources. Based on the results of collected data and findings, the research study has proposed certain measures for further improving the public and institutional earthquake preparedness.
      PubDate: 2020-03-05
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2020)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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