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Grassroots
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2521-456X
Published by U of Sindh Homepage  [8 journals]
  • The Role of the British VIS-À-VIS the Kalat Confederacy and the Pakistani
           Federation: an Overview of Historical Events

    • Authors: Dr Gulawar Khan, Dr Ghulam Ali Buriro
      Abstract: This paper aims to critically investigate the role of the British in the state of Kalat (Kalat Confederacy) and the merger of the later into the Pakistani federation. The paper has three sections. Firstly, it examines the establishment of Kalat Confederacy. Secondly, it investigates the arrival of the British to Kalat and its relationship with it (Kalat) until 1947. Thirdly, it critically discusses the fall of Kalat and its integration into the Pakistani federation. The merger of Kalat to Pakistan is interpreted differently by several historians and researchers. However, none of them examine the role of the British and the Baloch tribal chiefs vis-à-vis the merger of Kalat into the state of Pakistan. Therefore, this research is an attempt to investigate the role of the British in Kalat’s affairs and its final merger into the Pakistani federation. The paper argues that the clandestine role played by the Baloch sardars and the members of the ruling family is responsible for giving space to the British and its eventual fall and amalgamation into the Pakistani federation.
      PubDate: 2020-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Social Consequences of Corona Virus (Covid-19) Outbreak in Pakistan:
           Public Opinion Evidence from Karachi

    • Authors: Dr Sadia Shaikh, Muhammad Faisal Sultan, Dr Muhammad Asim
      Abstract: Corona Virus (COVID-19) is one of the most furious viruses and belongs to the family of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome). After producing a drastic effect on China the disease has been spread all over the globe and killed around 87,000 people still than the disease is a bit different from other zoonoses and recently there is a debate regarding its acceptance is a global pandemic. Although its breakout is the point of severe tension for economies like Pakistan as it is producing drastic impacts on the economy as well as on social life. Therefore, provincial governments have taken several measures to control the virus, but residents are not paying due attention to the disease and its potential outcomes. Therefore, a study is required to understand the perception that way people are reluctant in taking required preventive measures and thus a public opinion based research is conducted from Karachi city to understand the viewpoint of the local public regarding the factors which resulted in the outbreak of COVID-19. Thus this study has been done specifically to understand the concept through public opinion and the sample size for the study was taken from Karachi city and the result indicated that COVID-19 is affecting social life although it is not perceived as pandemic which might affect people from different ages.
      PubDate: 2020-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Cold War 2.0: A Case of Continued Rivalry

    • Authors: Shahzad Nawaz Chand
      Abstract: The history of the recent world has been dominated by a difficult and a volatile relationship between the U.S and Russia. With the end of Cold War and the age of the Global War on Terror, both U.S and Russia have started to build a relationship with each other. In an up-down trajectory, the relationship has gone through hurdles and has seen events such as the ‘Reset’ while the Obama Administration was in office and now is believed to be heading towards a ‘Cold War 2.0’ scenario. The U.S-Russia relationship does not solely rest on the U.S and Russia, but have moved over to NATO and SCO respectively. Both countries have forgone conventional means of struggle to adopt a great game scenario where two blocs are emerging again to roll back the years and perhaps put the world into another era of ‘Cold War’.
      PubDate: 2020-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Contain or Cooperate: Understanding the EU’S China Dilemma

    • Authors: Dr Pervaiz Ali Mahesar, Abdul Hameed Mahesar, Dr Imdad Hussain Sahito
      Abstract: Despite the divergence in global governance, human rights, and rulesbased international order, the Brussels-Beijing ties have switched from the natural, strategic partnership to strategic rivalry. In 2003, the EU initiated a Comprehensive Strategic Partnership with an effort to bring their bilateral relations from the mutual enmity to mutual empathy. In connection to this, the CNBC reported a survey of the European Council of Foreign Relations, on September 20, 2019, in which it referred to China’s trade practices as aggressive and a threat to the EU’s economy. The report also showed that in Asia, China is among the EU’s competitive and cooperative partners. The EU and China are dubbed as second and third-largest economies at the global level in nominal terms. The former considers the latter as its second-biggest trading partner, whereas China puts the EU as its biggest trading partner. This article draws on the qualitative research in which the secondary sources of data are applied. It aims to explore a growing concern in the EU, about whether to contain or cooperate with China in the current geopolitical environment. This paper suggests that cooperation, not containment could be the wise strategy of the EU towards China.
      PubDate: 2020-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Pakistan-Turkey Relations: Political and Economic Dimensions

    • Authors: Dr Ishrat Afshan Abbasi, Dr Mukesh Kumar Khatwani, Dr Muhammad Ramzan Kolachi
      Abstract: Ties between Turkey and Pakistan are believed to be long before the establishment of Pakistan. Historically, in the sub-continent Muslims had shown a softness and sympathy towards the Sultanat-e-Usmania (Ottoman Empire). Since the independence of Pakistan both Turkey and Pakistan have been enjoying cordial relations politically and economically. This paper focuses on the historically deep rooted legacy of Pak-Turkish relationship and the strengthened diplomatic and economic linkages between the two. It also covers current development in the relations of the two countries, such as the role of both states on combating terrorism across globe in general and in the Muslim world in particular. This paper is a qualitative based approach and descriptive methods have been used to develop understanding about the given topic. The facts and figures of bilateral relations between Pakistan and Turkey are concrete and accurate for the readers’ information.
      PubDate: 2020-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Terrorism at Sea: Maritime Security Challenges in South Asia

    • Authors: Dr Hussan Ara Magsi, Dr Bilquess Ara Magsi, Pirah Zulfiqar Hakro
      Abstract: Indian Ocean is an important trade route and a key international sea –lanes of communication in the present century. The major objectives of this research paper are to analyze the security and other challenges in Indian Ocean. In this research paper the qualitative and descriptive research methodology will be applied. The geo-economic and political approach will be applied to gauge the challenges of Indian Ocean and their counter remedies. Indian Ocean is also important due to geo-strategic location. There is always issue of maritime security is always there due to the presence of various checkpoints of straits of Hormuz, the Bab-el-Mandeb and Indonesian straits etc. There are many challenges confronted in Indian Ocean such as piracy, environmental hazards and arms, human and drugs smuggling. There is a need to chalk out the joint strategy to provide security and counter terrorism and other maritime crimes in Indian Ocean.
      PubDate: 2020-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Non-Violence, Theory and Practice: The Impacts of Principled Non-Violence
           on Karachi Movement (1947-1948)

    • Authors: Muhammad Aslam, Muhammad Hassan; PhD
      Abstract: The resistance to save Sindh from division had begun in 1947, when the newly founded federal government of Pakistan had declared to include Karachi, the mega city of the province into federal territory. It was also announced that Karachi would be given the status of capital of the country. Moreover, the capital of Sindh province would be shifted to Hyderabad, the second largest city of the province. On this decision, the people of Sindh outraged and considered it injustice and reacted non-violently against the decision. Gandhi called this public reaction on perceived un-justice as principled non-violence (Satyagraha). In this research paper, it is to see how principled non-violence influenced the movement leaders. Apart from this, the people of the province stood against the division of Sindh. They also declared to launch a peaceful resistance for the annulment of the government’s decision which was perceived as a Sindhi ethnic struggle in Pakistan. There is dearth of academic research on this subject as no scholar has connected theory and practice of non-violence with peaceful resistance to save the status of Karachi. This paper attempts to analyze Karachi Movement as non-violent action in the light of principled non-violence. The paper contributes a different approach to the knowledge regarding association of Satyagraha and Karachi Movement. As, the peace and non-violence theories are gaining much attention in the world. Thus, it is significant to investigate the first non-violent struggle of Pakistan.
      PubDate: 2020-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Zia-Ul-Haq and the Rise of Religious Extremism in Pakistan

    • Authors: Hashmat Ullah Khan, Dr Jamal Shah, Fida-Ur-Rahman
      Abstract: Pakistani society faces the scourge of religious extremism. It has turned into the most challenging issue. Though Islam is deeply rooted in Pakistani society, but power politics, militarization of extremist elements and the instrumental use of Islam led to its aggressive expression. It was Zia-ul-Haq who greatly radicalized the Pakistani society with the obvious aims to legitimatize his dictatorial rule. His rigid and dogmatic interpretation of Islam led to the birth of extremism, intellectual obscurantism and fundamentalism in Pakistani society. His religious policies have changed Pakistani society from a moderate into a society hijacked by the religious fanatics. Pakistan experiences the worst law and order situation, incongruity, instability and insecurity mainly, as a result of extremism initiated by Zia-ul-Haq’s regime. It gave birth to both violent and non-violent religious organizations in Pakistan. The main objective of this paper is to highlight the genesis of extremism in Pakistani Society; explore the role of Zia-ul-Haq’s policy of Islamization of state and society in the proliferation of religious extremism in Pakistan; and its implication for the Pakistani state and society.
      PubDate: 2020-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Exploring the Causes, of Suicide Incidents with Gunshot in Sindh

    • Authors: Muhammad Afzal
      Abstract: It can be argued that no country is free from the menace of suicide incidents, committed with gunshot. The number of suicide incidents is increasing in day by day in our country. This paper investigates the major causes of such incidents. This paper is specifically focused only on the study of suicide incidents committed with gunshot in Sindh province of Pakistan. In fact the incidents of the suicide are more common among youth. Growing rate of suicide incidents indicate that it has become a serious social problem which is affecting wider communities. The paper also explains the issue of suicide in legal perspective. The Pakistan Penal Code, (1860) does not recognize or defines the term of suicide, as an offense punishable under the law. Thus, this study will also suggest measures to reduce the incidents of suicide. Communities in general and Government in particular will benefit from the ideas generated by this research stud.
      PubDate: 2020-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Causes of the Decline of Public Sector College Education in Karachi
           (Pakistan)

    • Authors: Professor Dr Fateh Muhammad Burfat, Mehmood Ahmed Usmani, Dr Tansifur Rehman
      Abstract: The study is aimed at investigating the variables which might be related to the poor standard of education in public colleges of Karachi (Pakistan). The respondents of the study included students, teachers, and principals of the respective colleges. The data was collected through a closed-ended questionnaire. In order to test the validity of the hypotheses, the study adopted chi-square method of statistical analysis. The study revealed that, coaching centers have a negative effect on students’ attendance in public colleges; the system of examination was found to promote rote learning; no relationship was found between lack of teachers’ accountability by the principal and teachers not taking their classes regularly; and students’ low attendance in colleges was found to cause negative effects on the result of colleges. Some recommendations are: promotion of conceptual learning through modifications in the system of examination and teaching methodology; 75% attendance should be compulsory otherwise the examination admit card should not be issued; constructive role of non-governmental organizations, and replication of similar studies.
      PubDate: 2020-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Problems Faced By Graduate Females in Continuing Their Jobs in Rural
           Areas: A Case Study of Hyderabad District

    • Authors: Nazia Memon, Dr Shakeela Shah, Dr Shuja Ahmed Mahesar
      Abstract: In Pakistan, rural areas of the Sindh province are the most distressed areas regarding the graduate females who are working in all the public and private sectors. Females don't have their spoken sound or free opinion; even they are not given the right to choose and select anything regarding their profession. This research paper examines the difficulties of working graduate females in rural areas of the Hyderabad district. The quantitative research method was applied, and the survey was conducted through the research questionnaire depended upon the Likert scale 5.0. A sample of 100 working graduate females was selected from three public and private sectors as 50 school and college teachers, 10 Doctors, 15 health workers, and nurses, and 25 working graduate females from the banking sector using stratified random sampling. Given outcomes of the research; The working females faced social, cultural, and domestic problems in the public and private sectors. Problems associated with nurses and banker graduates are facing long and unpredictable working hours, low social status, and no job recognition. Most respondents have no job security, receiving insufficient salaries, and facing gender discrimination. So, there is a need for a policy regarding working hours and there is a need to change the negative approaches of society through providing awareness programs on media.
      PubDate: 2020-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Comparative Analysis of Public and Private Technical Education Institutes
           of Sindh As Applied to Diploma of Associate Engineer (Dae) (2010-2018)

    • Authors: Qazi Arif Ali, Dr Muhammad Akhtar Kang, Dr Ahmed Saeed
      Abstract: In this era of technology and industrialization Technical Education acquires great importance, particularly for developing countries like Pakistan. The first Polytechnic in Pakistan was established in Karachi in 1955, and a Diploma of Associate Engineer Programme was introduced. Initially technical education institutes were established in the Public sector, but with time the Private sector also came forward and established well-equipped technical institutes that started to produce skilled workforce. From 2011 onwards, a large number of private technical institutes were established in Sindh. The purpose of this comparative study was to investigate the difference of Public and Private sector institutes of Sindh in certain key areas. Public sector institutes face the problem of shortage of qualified staff, fewer financial resources and a poor infrastructure. Some private institutes have well-qualified staff and a solid infrastructure, including labs and workshops, but most private institutes do not have sufficient faculty or adequate lab, workshop and library resources. The student pass rate is increasing, reaching 88%, which creates doubts about the quality of examination system. It is recommended that the Government should take measures to check the assessment system and acts to stop the growth of mushroom institutes. It should also take steps towards recruitment of qualified staff and provision of financial resources.
      PubDate: 2020-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • An Analysis of English Reading Skills of Class Five Students at Government
           Primary Schools in District Kech

    • Authors: Mohammad Moosa, Dr Uzma Murad Panhwar, Dr Abdul Sattar Almani
      Abstract: Language is human speech, either spoken or written and is the most common system of communication. The purpose of the study was to identify the ability of English reading skill of class five students at Government primary schools in District Kech. It also intended to identify the common errors committed by the students and the English teachers’ thinking about teaching their students’ reading skills. To achieve these purposes 125 students and 20 teachers were chosen from 5 Government primary schools at District Kech. A test containing a single subject paragraph was taken from the English course of Balochistan Textbook Board Quetta and a questionnaire was developed to find out the teachers’ thinking about teaching reading skills. While reading comprehension a key score list containing reading errors was applied to check students reading ability. The test score of student and item-wise score, as well as responses to the questionnaire, were analyzed using statistical devices like percentage and frequency. The students’ average score of marks is 8.95%. In the reading test, only 1 student got the full marks, 1 student made a single error and 1 student made two errors. The situation of independent reading is satisfactory, but the overall amount of errors indicates the students’ inefficiency of reading skills in English. Not known word errors occupied the highest position which is 73.88%. In this circumstance, the teachers are putting their effort into improving students’ reading skills, but they have barriers in most of the cases. Though the teachers are trying to develop their students’ reading skills but they are developing very slowly.
      PubDate: 2020-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Spiritual Healing Through Holy Quran in Pakistan

    • Authors: Hafeez Ullah Baloch
      Abstract: Although there are certainly many issues regarding the practices of spiritual healing in Islamic literature, very few studies concerning this topic have been carried out. Hence, the primary matter investigated in this article is the main relationship between spiritual healing and the primary source of Islam, the Qur’an. This research attempts to look at this topic from a sociological perspective and from an all-inclusive perspective. It attempts to shed light on the reality of this spiritual healing. The study demonstrates the social reality of belief in the spiritual ailments including magic and djinns and the religious sources that deals with the healings of such ailments. Moreover, this research paper also establishes an alignment between many world religions and their spiritual healing of such ailments.
      PubDate: 2020-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Dividend Policy and Its Impact on Market Price: an Empirical Study of Fuel
           and Energy Sector

    • Authors: Azeem Akhtar Bhatti, Dr Ashiq Ali Jhatial, Dr Hakim Ali Mahessor
      Abstract: This research endeavored to expose dividend policy and its impact on market price in perspective of fuel and energy sectors of Pakistan and Dividend policy is a very strong concern for all nature of corporation for getting accomplishment the goals of an enterprise. Dividends (cost of equity) are allocated from profit after tax and retained earnings that facilitates a chance to the pecuniary administrator for raising the price of shares, so it replicates the importance of meaningful effect of bonus policy on the company and its earnings as well. The conclusions of this guiding principle have been analyzed from all possible way of approaches by scholars. Literature characterizes differing observations of all type of probable investigating work and various assumptions that explain how proxies of dividend policy momentously effect with stock prices such as dividend irrelevance, bird in hand, signaling, tax preference, transaction cost, and agency cost. Data of seventeen firms out of twenty seven firms of fuel and energy sectors of Pakistan from time period of 10 years have been gathered through organized sample. Fixed effect model (types of panel model) has been analyzed in panel data. All selected tools have been run through Eviews and SPSS software in this research work. Many techniques have been used such as Levin li chu , Hauseman ,Wald, VIF, Tolerance, Durbon Watson. All explanatory variables are found significant except PAT. It signifies that proxies of dividend policy have significance in all types of decisions in area of finance because it affects on market price of shares. The decisive justification in support of suggestion to the shareholders of fuel and energy sectors is that the operating firms need to work out a dividend policy on the basis of market price. This study signifies stock buyers’ pre nature towards price or price consciousness. It is clearly shows that the theory of dividend relevance is fully accepted an empirical study of these sectors in Pakistan.
      PubDate: 2020-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Assessing the Role of Time Management Behaviors in Managing Work-Life
           Conflict

    • Authors: Saba Shaikh, Dr Imamuddin Khoso, Dr Nizamuddin Channa
      Abstract: Difficulties in the reconciliation of professional and personal lives are common. In parallel with the advancement of general work practices, the phenomenon of work-life conflict has been widely taken into account around the world. The conflict of work and life entails different individual, organizational and social issues. Finding the right solution to avoid and cope with conflict in two different aspects of working life and personal affairs, time management is one of the methods to balance these two distinct domains. The purpose of this research study is to ascertain the role of Time management behaviors in balancing the work and life demands among female employees in the Hyderabad banking sector. To reach the set objective, standardized questionnaires were distributed to 127 participants to assess independent and dependent variables. After data collection, the developed model was analyzed using Smart PLS 3.2.8. The findings of the study revealed a significant inverse relationship between time management behaviors and the size of the conflict in working life, i.e. the interference of work in personal life and that of personal life in the workplace. This means that by using time management techniques, conflict in working and personal life can be reduced. Therefore, it is suggested that organizations must recognize the significance of time management and develop policies and procedures to lessen work-life conflict.
      PubDate: 2020-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 1 (2020)
       
 
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